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§908 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (1966-1976): I-62.

I-62 (§908):

Alas ! A great damage which the letters shall cause:
Before the cycle of Latona completed.
Fire, moreover great flood by ignorant scepters
So that for a long time it shall not be seen recovered.

(La grande perte las que feront les letres:
Avant le cicle de Latona parfaict,
Feu, grand deluge plus par ignares sceptres
Que de long siecle ne se verra refaict.)

NOTES: Las: = Alas ! « las [la], Archaism. Alas ! » (Dubois).

Les letres: = Les lettres (the letters) = The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China, the letters, with a meaning of culture in general, indicating by metonymy and by synecdoche the Cultural Revolution. The word “the letters” also refers to Mao’s Little Red Book which inspired the Red Guards to rush to the Revolution. Cf. §899 (V-5) and §900 (VIII-77).

Deluge: = Mass mobilization, Revolution. Cf. Eau, eaux, eaue, eaulx: « The waters are peoples, the crowd, races and languages (Apoc., XVII, 15), namely the masses of ancient Rome blaspheming and persecuting the Christians. Thence the inundation, invasion, overflowing of the peoples).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.204; p.111. Cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.38-39), or « drowning by the revolutionaries » (id. 1861, p.94). Equally, i
n fact, 9 out of 10 examples of the word deluge in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are not proper but figurative, signifying “disasters of war, revolution, civil war, devastating blast(I-62, V-88, VIII-16, VIII-29, VIII-91, IX-3, IX-4, IX-82 and X-50).

Sceptre: = A Supreme power; « sceptre. Sceptre; F
IG. Power, sway, dominion.» (Dubois).

Siecle: « siecle, secle, seule (lat. saeculum). 1. Une longue période de temps (A long period of time). 2. Le temps présent, la génération présente (The present time, the present generation). 3. La vie terrestre (The terrestrial life). 4. L’ensembre des hommes, le monde en général (The total of men, the world in general).»
(Dubois).

Alas ! A great damage which the letters shall cause: Fire, moreover great flood by ignorant scepters So that for a long time it shall not be seen recovered: « 16 May The Cultural Revolution begins in China 1966 On 16 May 1966, China’s Mao Zedong [one of the ignorant scepters] launched a programme that was to prove one of the most shocking and profound social upheavals of the 20th century: the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [The letters] Mao’s avowed aim in the Cultural Revolution was to rid the country of bourgeois ideas and recapture the early zeal of communism by mobilizing the country’s youth [great flood]. Yet it was clear he also wanted to get rid of his opponents in the ruling party. Eight years earlier, Mao had launched his Great Leap Forward, the economic programme meant to turn China into an industrial powerhouse. The Leap was a disaster, completely wrecking China’s rural economy and starting a famine that claimed the lives of more than 30 million inhabitants. Mao accepted the blame for this catastrophe and resigned as chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, but the Cultural Revolution was his comeback, designed to wipe out his opponents, including Deng Xiaoping and Mao’s successor as chairman, Liu Shaoqi. Urged on by Mao, students at Beijing University began to agitate against ‘bourgeois’ university and government officials. When Liu Shaoqi tried to damp down the agitation, Mao immediately launched a stinging public attack on him and guided the students to form their own political militia, the Red Guard [great flood]. At the same time, Mao’s supporters encouraged the growth of a personality cult around Mao by distributing copies of his sayings in his Little Red Book [The letters]. The Red Guard swelled dramatically and schools and universities across China closed down as young Red Guards took to the streets to target the Four Olds – old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits. Academics were assaulted, books were burned [Fire], temples and monuments were attacked, shops selling anything remotely Western were burned to the ground and the gardens of the bourgeoisie were ripped to shreds [Fire, moreover great flood]. Government officials right up to the top, including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, were driven from office. Tens of thousands of people were beaten up, abused, killed or driven to suicide as the campaign rolled on [Fire, moreover great flood]. As fighting broke out among Red Guard factions and the country was beginning to descend into lawlessness, Mao finally yielded to pressure. He sent in the military who took control, rounding up millions of young Red Guards and sending them off to the country to preach the communist message to the rural community. Today, many millions of these exiles are now in middle age and bitterly rue the way they were separated from their families and deprived of their chance of education when, as teenagers, they were sent away from the cities. Many never went home [So that for a long time it shall not be seen recovered]. In 1969, Mao was re-elected as chairman of the Republic amid great fanfare, and the Cultural Revolution rolled on until his death in 1976. Estimates of the Revolution’s death toll are varied, but it could easily have been at least 750,000. Ten of millions more were persecuted and had their lives ruined. The effect was particularly devastating for minorities, such as the Tibetans. And besides the terrible human suffering, much of China’s rich and ancient historical heritage was utterly destroyed in just a few years by the zealous modernisers. Even the Chinese Communist Party now admits that the Cultural Revolution was a disaster for China [Alas ! The letters shall cause a great damage]. But there is some disagreement about just what went wrong and who was to blame. The official line is that there is a problem when a personality cult develops, although interestingly, it is the Gang of Four – Mao’s four principal allies (including his wife) [ignorant scepters] – who are criticised more heavily than Mao himself.» (
Cheshire and Farndon, 2009, p.186-188).

« Despite China’s new openness to the outside world, reliable statistics remain problematic. Nevertheless, it seems likely China achieved a growth rate of about 7 percent in the decade 1978-1987, which was comparable to that of Japan and South Korea in the fastest phases of their postwar boom. In this decade, per capita income doubled – a gain matched in so short a time only by South Korea between 1966 and 1976. During this period the PRC also rose in the world ranking of exporters from thirty-second place to sixteenth. And between 1978 and 1988, the proportion of work force in agriculture fell from 71 percent to 59 percent. Much of the growth in this decade can be ascribed to catch-up after the distortions and backwardness created in the previous twenty years. Econometricians reckon, for instance, that China’s per capita output and consumption in 1992 would have been nearly three times as large as the actual figures but for the devastating impacts of the Great Leap Forward in the early 1960s and the Cultural Revolution decade [So that for a long time it shall not be seen recovered]. Moreover, communist China had been largely cut off from Western technology, products, and ideas. One economic analysis concluded that there was no positive technological change in China in the period 1950-1980.» (Reynolds, 2000, p.435); « During the Cultural Revolution about seventeen million young people were sent into rural exile, in an attempt to tame their Red Guard passions, which Mao had unleashed. About 7.6 million were still there at the end of 1977, but 6.5 million returned to the cities in 1978-1979 as restrictions were lifted. Angry at their treatment and at the loss of their university education, most were profoundly disenchanted with the system. During 1977, another one million “rightists” were also relegitimized, including most of the non-communist intelligentsia. They, too, had many grievances to articulate. And in 1977 the government ended the Cultural Revolution policy of concentrating on mass education at the primary and secondary levels. National college entrance exams were reinstituted. Ten million applied in 1978, of whom five hundred thousand were successful. But it was impossible to make up years of neglect overnight [So that for a long time it shall not be seen recovered]. At the college and university level, China was way behind other developing countries, with only 0.1 percent of the age range enrollee (compared with nearly 0.6 percent in India and 35 percent in the United States). A whole generation had lost out on higher education. Their frustrated radicalism, and the questioning that the Cultural Revolution disaster encouraged among their successors, made China’s cities and universities seedbeds of discontent in the 1980s.» (Reynolds, id., p.576-577).

Ignorant scepters: = Mao Zedong and his allies The Gang of Four: Jiang Qing (wife of Mao), Wang Honguen, Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wen-yuan. 

Latona
: = Goddess of the Moon by metonymy, for Latona is daughter of Phoebe (Goddess of the Moon) and mother of Diana (Goddess of the Moon). Cf. « Lātōna, daughter of the Titan Coeus and Phoebe, and mother of Apollo and Diana, to whom she gave birth on the island of Delos.» (Smith-Lockwood). Cf. « Lātōnia, Diana.» (id.).

Before the cycle of Latona completed: = « Before Phebe (Goddess of the Moon) shall have finished its age » (§860, III-97) = Before “Twenty years of the reign of the Moon past” (§941, I-48) = Before the year 2000
A.D.
In fact, the period of the Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) is before the year 2000
A.D. as in the quatrain III-97 the independence of the countries of the Middle East after the WWII was before the year 2000 A.D.: for example that of Syria and Lebanon in 1946 and of Israel in 1948.

Discussions:
(A) Most of the interpreters of Nostradamus since Garancieres have translated the first line as follows, contrary to us: e.g., « Alas what a great loss shall learning suffer.» (Garancieres, 1672, I-62); « Alas! what a great loss there will be to learning.» (Cheetham, 1973, p.52); « Alas! What a great loss will letters suffer.» (Leoni, 1982, p.149); « A great loss, alas! there will be of learning.» (Hogue, 1997, p.117); « Alas, what a great loss shall learning suffer.» (Roberts, 1999, p.21); « What a great loss shall letters suffer, alas.» (Lemesurier, 2010, p.103); « What great loss alas shall letters suffer.» (Siaburth, 2012, I.62), whose fundamental understanding of the phrase is that the letters (the literature, learning) suffer(s) a loss. But this interpretation is grammatically not pertinent because the French idiom ‘FAIRE LA PERTE (to make the loss)’ with the meaning of ‘SUBIR LA PERTE (to suffer the loss)’ cannot be said of the objects (the letters, the literature, learning) but only of the persons (You, he, she, they, we or I).
Now, let’s consult the dictionaries to see the truth:

(1) « PERTE, Privation de quelque chose d’avantageux, d’agréable. Nous sommes très sensibles à la perte que vous allez faire de votre aimable Comtat (Privation of something advantageous, agreeable.
We are very sensible to the loss that you are going to make of your lovely County), SÉV. 584.» (Littré); « PERTE. Le fait d’être privé d’une chose dont on avait la propriété ou la jouissance; le fait de subir un dommage. Faire subir une perte à quelqu’un (The fact of being deprived of a thing whose property or enjoyment a person has; the fact of suffering a damage. To make someone suffer a loss).» (Petit Robert).
(2) « PERTE, Particulièrement, se dit des personnes dont on est privé par la mort. Je ne pouvais faire dans l’amitié une plus grande perte [que celle de Mme de Lavardin]; je la sens très-vivement, SÉV. 10 avr. 1691. Ma perte, la perte que j’ai faite. Je prends part à la perte que vous avez faite, VOY. PART 2. (Particularly, said of the persons of whom one is deprived by death. I could not make in my friendship a more grave loss [than that of Mme. de Lavardin]; I feel it very vividly, SÉV. 10 avr. 1691. My loss, the loss which I have made. I participate in the loss that you have made, VOY. PART 2.)» (Littré); « PERTE. Le fait de perdre une personne, d’en être séparé par l’éloignement ou par la mort; la privation; le vide qui en résulte (The fact of losing a person, being separated from a person by distance or by death; the privation; the void that results from it).» (Petit Robert).

Therefore, the grammatical subject of the verb ‘FAIRE LA PERTE (to make the loss)’ with the meaning of ‘SUBIR LA PERTE (to suffer the loss)’ must be personal, only a person being able to have the property or the enjoyment of a thing, and suffer the privation due to the loss of another personality, except for the things personified. But, as to the quatrain in question, the subject of the verb ‘FAIRE LA PERTE (feront la grande perte)’ is ‘les lettres (the letters)’ which are not personal, then it cannot be said to ‘suffer the loss’. On the contrary, it is ‘the letters’ that shall actively cause a great loss.

(B) The one who interpreted the verb ‘feront la grande perte’ in the active is said to be grammatically correct: e.g., « La littérature fera de grands ravages (The literature shall make great ravages).», namely, « La littérature du XVIIIe siècle (les livres et brochures anonymes des philosophes et économistes, et surtout l’Encyclopédie achevée en 1772) prépare la révolution [de France] (The literature of the 18th century (the anonymous books and pamphlets of the philosophers and economists, and above all the Encyclopedia completed in 1772) prepares the revolution [of France], which is cause of the great wars of the XIXth and XXth centuries » (Fontbrune, 1980, p.102-103). However, this theme of his is not pertinent because the quatrain I-47 (§392) clearly predicts that the sermons of the Lake of Leman (those by Rousseau and Voltaire) lead to the French Revolution, and his interpretation of the lines 3-4 (great wars that will perpetuate themselves during long centuries) is not congruent with the text: Feu grand deluge plus Que de long siècle ne se verra refait, for the French expression « ne se verra refait (will not see itself repeated) » cannot signify PERPETUATION.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.
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§907 Pétain and De Gaulle (1940-1969): III-72.

20th century:
§907 Pétain and De Gaulle (1940-1969): III-72.

III-72 (§907):
The good old man buried right alive,
Near the grand river for a false suspicion:
The new old man of wealth and dignity
Deprived halfway of all his gold for ransom.


(Le bon viellard tout vif enseveli,
Pres du grand fleuve par fauce souspeçon:
Le nouveau vieux de richesse ennobli
Prins au chemin tout l’or de la rançon.)

NOTES: The good old man buried right alive, Near the grand river for a false suspicion: Marshal Pétain aged 89 in 1945 sentenced wrong to death, then commuted to life imprisonment in the island of Yeu in the Atlantic near the Loire for high treason:

France (1944-6) Following the liberation of Paris (25 Aug. 1944), the Resistance and General Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) formed a ‘government of concord’ (Aug. 1944). France received a seat in the U. N. Security Counsil and a German and Austrian zone of occupation. 1944-5 Persecution and (sometimes arbitrary) conviction of ‘collaborators’ and ‘followers of Vichy’: Pétain (1856-1951) and Laval (1883-1945(executed)) among others were condemned to death; Pétain’s sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. 1946 de Gaulle resigned (Jan.) A popular referendum decided against the 1st draft of the constitution.” (PenguinAtlas 2, p.246)

The trial and sentence of Pétain: July 23 – August 15. The trial of Marshal Pétain begins on July 23, 1945. In the first session, the defendant pronounces an opening statement in which he justifies his past deeds and leaves them to the verdict of the history: “ [...] I spent my life serving France [...] I conducted her armies to the victory in 1918 [...] On the most tragic day of her history, it is still to me that she turned [...] Thus I became the heir of a catastrophe of which I had not been the author and the actually responsible persons hid behind me to shelter from the anger of the people. When I demanded an armistice in accord with our military leaders, I practiced an act of necessity and saviour. Yes, the armistice has saved France and contributed to the victory of the Allies, in assuring the free Mediterranean Sea and the integrity of the Empire. The power was then confided to me legitimately and recognized by all the peoples of the world, from the Holy See to U.S.S.R. Of this power I have made use as a buckler to protect the French people. For the sake of the French people I dared to sacrifice my prestige. I remained at the top of a country under occupation. Will you understand the difficulty to govern under such conditions ? Every day I fought, a dagger upon my gorge, against the requirements of the enemy. The hitory will say what I have deviated for you, when my adversaries would not reproach me but for the unavoidable. The occupation forced me to indulge somehow the enemy, but it was only for the sake of my true indulging yourselves untill our territory should have been liberated [...]” Pétain then observes a complete silence and leaves his advocates the care of defending him. On August 15, the High Court condemns the Marshal to death, but asks General De Gaulle, according to the vow of the juries, to sign his pardon. Pétain is then interned in the fort of Portalet, then in the fort of Pierre Levée, in the island of Yeu, where he shall die on July 23, 1951, aged 95.” (Kaspi, 1995, p.525)

The new old man of wealth and dignity:
What were de Gaulle’s achievements?
(i) The new constitution was a marked improvement on the previous one since it allowed strong and decisive government for the first time since 1871. It tranferred the power to make law from parliament to the President who could choose his own Prime Minister and other misisters. The Assembly and the Senate had to agree to laws before they could be carried out, but the President, elected by a national referendum for seven years, could dissolve the Assembly. He controlled foreign policy and defence and could hold referendums on important questions, thus reducing the influence of parliament.

(ii) He settled the Algerian problem. Troubles in Algeria reached a climax in 1958 and the crisis brought de Gaulle back to power. Vicious fighting continued with the FLN (National Liberation Front) and the army both committing atrocities; de Gaulle soon realised that militray victory was out of the question and opened negotiations with the FLN, offering them independence. When some French generals defied him and seized power in Algeria, de Gaulle, appearing on television in his general’s uniform, denounced them, and the rebellion collapsed. Public opinion in France was now sick of the war and when it was agreed (March 1962) that Algeria should become independent, the decision was approved by a 90 per cent vote in a referendum. The Algerian settlement was probably de Gaulle’s greatest achievement after 1945.

(iii) The economy continued to expand steadily between 1958 and 1963 with many new industries established and moves made to modernise agriculture.” (Lowe, 1988, p.399-400).

Deprived halfway of all his gold for ransom: “ De Gaulle was at the height of his popularity in 1962 at the end of the Algerian war. By 1965 his prestige was already waning and in that year, although he defeated the socialist François Mitterrand in the presidential election, the margin was much smaller than in 1958 – 54 per cent to 46 per cent. This trend continued until in 1969 he failed to win a referendum and retired into private life.
Why did de Gaulle lose power?
(i) His foreign policy aroused criticism. In his quest to make France a great power again, he pursued an anti-American, anti-NATO and anti-British line, twice vetoing British entry into the EEC. In 1966, he withdrew France from NATO and insisted on having his own nuclear deterrent. Many people were horrified at the vast expense of this policy and realised that it was absurd of France to be developping her defences in isolation instead of co-operating with other states in western Europe, especially as France’s real weakness had been shown up in Indo-China and Algeria.

(ii) By 1968, all was not well with the economy: coal, steel and railways seemed to have expanded too far and were showing deficits.

(iii) Pressing social problems had been ignored by de Gaulle; there was a serious housing shortage making it almost impossible for young married couples to find homes.

(iv) In February 1968 there was a wave of student strikes and demonstrations; students were objecting to poor accomodation, irrelevancy of courses and the authoritarian and undemocratic nature of the regime. In May, ten million workers joined the students and there seemed a real danger of revolution developping. However, de Gaulle was able to weather the storm by promises of wage increases and shorter hours and by playing on the danger of a communist takeover if he fell.

(v) The economic problems and inflation still remained and de Gaulle tried to revive his prestige by creating regional assemblies and abolishing the sanate. In April 1969 he held a referendum seeking approval of the changes and indicated that he would treat the result as a vote of confidence. Nearly 11 million voted in favour but 12.5 million voted against; consequently the general resigned.”
He died in 1970, a controversial figure who, as Walter Lacqueur says, ‘outlasted his usefulness. By clinging to power too long, he put in question the achievements of the earlier years of his rule.’ (Lowe, 1988, p.400-401).

- This article first published on this Blog: 2014-1-5 12:34 -
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§906 Pétain, De Gaulle and Churchill (1940-1959): III-14.

20th century:

§906 Pétain, De Gaulle and Churchill (1940-1959): III-14.

III-14 (§906):
By the branch of the valiant personnel
Of the lowest France: by the unfavored father
Honours, riches work in his old ages
Because of his having believed the counsel of a victorious man.


(Par le rameau du vaillant personnage
De France infime, par le pere infelice
Honneurs, richesses travail en son viel aage
Pour avoir creu le conseil d’homme nice.)

NOTES: S. Hutin (1972, p.164) offers a good diagnosis of this quatrain: “The important political role of the general De Gaulle notwithstanding his advanced age (Vth Republic).” And M. Dufresne (1992, p.82-83) fails to develop the theme of Hutin in deviating from it away into focussing his analyses on the career of Philippe Pétain, whose real role in this quatrain seems to be limited to what the line 2 explained: “The lowest France (under the German controle) because of (by) the unfavored father (Philippe Pétain)”, all the other verses are considered to be pertinent to De Gaulle.

This quatrain with few punctuations requires our sensitivities in interpreting it grammatically and historically. For example, Dufresne took no notice of the grammatical role of the first preposition “Par (By)”, which ought to be reffered to “Honneurs, richesses travail en son viel aage”. So, the grammatical construction is as follows: {Honneurs, richesses [&] travail en son viel aage par le rameau du vaillant personnage de France (infime par le pere infelice), pour avoir creu le conseil d’homme nice.}

In this perspective, the first preposition “Par (By)” refers to the politics of the Fifth Republic of De Gaulle aged 67 in 1958 (work in his old ages) that made the post-war France honorable and rich (Honours, riches).

The valiant personnel: This expression does not necessarily and directly indicate Marshal Pétain in particular, but the French military class in general, where Marshal Pétain is like a father and De Gaulle like a branch in their wartime relation: “In better times the British would have retreated to their Isles, much as they suspected the Americans of wanting to retreat to their continent, and left the security of Western Europe to its traditional guardians, the French. As recently as 1938, this had been the basis of British strategic calculation: that France, the strongest military power on the continent, could be relied on as a counterweight not just to German ambitions in cetral Europe but even against future Soviet threats further east. This image of France as a–the–European Great Power was shaken at Munich, but outside the chancelleries of Eastern Europe it was not yet broken. The seismic shock that ran through Europe in May and June 1940, when the great French army collapsed and fell apart before the Panzer onslaught across the Meuse and through Picardy, was thus all the greater for being so unexpected.” (Judt, 2005, p.112-113).

The lowest France: by the unfavored father: “The shattering defeat of June 1940 was followed by four years of humiliating, demeaning, subservient occupation, with Marshal Pétain’s Vichy regime.” (Judt, id., p.113).

Because of his having believed the counsel of a victorious man: This is a very important comment as to De Gaulle in wartime, who was cooperating in exile in London with the English Prime Minister W. Churchill who recognized the personality and opinions of De Gaulle and recommended him as chief of Free France among the Allies: “ The new French government (established at Vichy) broke off relations with Great Britain after the British had seized or destroyed French warships they feared might fall into German hands. With only a handful of neutral states left in Europe, the USSR supplying Germany with the war materials it asked for, no ally left on the continent, half of France, the whole of Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway occupied by the Germans, so that the European coast from the Pyrenees to the North Cape was in German hands, Great Britain faced a strategic situation worse by far than that even of her struggle against Napoleon. She was not quite alone, it is true; all the Dominions except the Irish Free State had entered the war on her side, and a number of governments in exile from the overrun continent had still some small forces under their command. Frenchmen, Norwegians, Danes, Dutch, Belgians, Czechs and Poles were to fight gallantly, and often to outstanding effect, in the years ahead. The allegiance of some Frenchmen was especially important because of the potential for exploitation of the French overseas Empire, whose fate was in many places uncertain, but their leader, a junior general who had left France before the armistice (and had been condemned to death in absentia), Charles de Gaulle, represented only a faction within France, not its legal government, and was distrusted by many Frenchmen. He saw himself nevertheless as constitutional legatee of the Third Republic and the custodian of France’s interests and honor and began almost at once to show an independence which was in the end to make him the greatest servant of France since Clemançeau. He was soon recognized by the British as ‘leader of the Free French'.” (Roberts, J. M., 1999, p.414-415).

A victorious man: English Prime Minister W. Churchill that gained through the most challenged situation of the United Kingdom the victory of the Allied Powers against the Axis in cooperation with the leaders of the same camp in WWII.

Homme nice: Although the French word ‘nice’ has ordinarily a meaning of “foolish, silly, without experience” (Godefroy), it is not congruent with the context that is insisting upon the favourable advice of the man to intensify Free France of De Gaulle.

Now, Nice as the name of a city has a meaning of Victory in Greek: νἰκη (nikē) (cf. Pillon, p.106; Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.58), and this option is not exceptional in Nostradamus, for the Prophet often affords such kind of expressions in employing Proper Names as descriptive terms: e.g. of the other 6 uses of the term ‘Nice’, ‘nice’ or ‘Nisse’, 4 times (III-82, VII-30, X-60, X-87) for the proper name and twice (V-64, IX-26) for victory; Monech (Monaco) for moine (monk) (VI-62 - Tornné-Chavigny, 1862, p.56); Gennes (Gênes, Genoa) for gêne (consraint, torture) (IV-66, V-64 - Tornné-Chavigny, 1862, p.33), etc.

Moreover, W. Churchill is somehow identified distinctively as “a silly” (only in appearane, of course) by Nostradamus in the quatrains dealing with him properly (cf.§804, §809, §818, §821).

Then, “homme nice” is for W. Churchill as a man of victory and at the same time a seeming silly.

Honours, riches work in his old ages by the branch of the valiant personnel: “ In any case the Fourth Republic itself could not deliver France; it was too weak to deliver anything permanently. For France to embrace Germany, it required the self-confidence born of renewed strength; and a man and a regime which embodied that confidence. It was Adenauer’s great fortune that he survived long enough to capitalize on de Gaulle’s triumphant return to power [1958.6.1] and the birth of the Fifth Republic [1958.10.5]. The recovery of France in the 1960s and the 1970s is one of the most striking phenomena of modern times.” (Johnson, 1991, p.587).

- This article first published on this Blog: 2014-1-5 12:33 -
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§905 Trilogy of the case of JFK (3) (1963.11.22): VIII-74.

20th century:

§905 Trilogy of the case of JFK (3) (1963.11.22): VIII-74.

VIII-74 (§905):
A King entered the new territory deep within
When his subjects shall come to welcome him:
He shall encounter a serious perfidy against him
Even amongst the citizens; a place of rejoicing and miscellany.


(En terre neufve bien avant Roy entré
Pendant subgés luy viendront faire acueil,
Sa perfidie aura tel rencontré
Qu’aux citadins lieu de feste & recueil.)

NOTES:
A King
: The President John F. Kennedy = The great one (§903,VI-37) = The great King (§904, VIII-73).

The new territory (terre neufve): = §813,II-89: la terre neufve = America (Ionescu, 1987,p.342, p.436).

Deep within: The President, leaving the Capital, travelled far into the interior of his country (Dallas, Texas) (Ionescu, 1987,p.436).

When his subjects shall come to welcome him: The people crowded along the streets in Dallas to see and acclaim the President in the motorcade.

He shall encounter a serious perfidy against him: This is the grammatical construction of the line 3; the French grammatical subject [Il = le Roy = the King] for the English [He] of the definite verb aura rencontré ( [He] shall have encountered) is understood in a Latin fashion and sa perfidie (his perfidy) in the sense of a perfidy against him is grammatically the direct object of the definite verb.

V. Ionescu’s proud expanded ‘anagram’: FIDEL CASTRO EN AURA ENTREPRI(S) (1987, p.437) has scarcely any meaning convincing his theory, itself based upon his misunderstanding of ‘mere’ as ‘meretrix’, because of the large number of the permutation (650) of the 26 character text: Sa perfidie aura tel rencontré. When he believes he found an ‘anagram’ congruent to his scheme in the optional long sequence of characters of a text, he himself was diminishing his argument itself, for a longer sequence of a text produces a larger number of permutations (20 cases as to 5 characters, whereas 600 cases as to 25 characters), which may involve a negation or contradiction of the anagram he selected arbitrarily. In fact, he left all the other possible anagrams (648 cases in principle, the case of the text itself excluded) of the text concerned intact.

Tel (for telle)... que... (so...that...): This is meant to express the astonishing contrast between the gravest crime of regicide and the utmost public openness of the criminal place full of citizens and journalists, some of them filming the scene to deliver the most exciting records of witnesses to their contemporaries and posterity all over the world. My translation “a serious perfidy” would represent this emphasis by the Author.

The citizens (les citadins): The comment of Ionescu that « The word citoyen (citizen) and citadin (townsman) almost always mean American people in Nostradamus » (Ionescu, 1987, p.184-186) is not true, for the usages of citoyen (citizen) mean ‘French soldiers’ in the quatrain VII-22, and ‘the German, the Savoyard, the Italian’ in X-59, and ‘the American’ only in X-68. And the usages of citadin (townsman) mean ‘the American’ in the quatrains VII-19 (§915) and VIII-74 (§905), ‘the French’ in III-6 and X-81, and ‘the Italian’ in IV-69.

Feste (Fête): Festivity, rejoicing (Dubois).

Recueil: Collection, anthology, miscellany (Dubois).

A place of rejoicing and miscellany: The criminal theatre was Dealey Plaza in Dallas, a symmetrically constructed public urban park in the form of a spade with a horizontal top bordered by Houston Street; Main Street in the center, and each side (north & south) of it an infield grass, a reflecting pool, a pylon, a peristyle, a street (Elm & Commerce) and a sidewalk with lampposts and road signs, a grassy knoll along the Street, in the middle of it a white concrete tall-shelter-winged crescent pergola linked to the Street through steps, shrubs, a waist wall, a picket fence and a coppice. The three streets slope down in gathering closer and closer into the triple underpass supporting several railways at the bottom of the spade. Thus, Dealey Plaza is not only a place of rejoicing for the public, but also a place of exhibiting various kinds of things in couples (miscellany), including moreover a statue by the south reflecting pool commemorating a Dallas civic leader and newspaper publisher George B. Dealey (1859-1946), after whom the park was named (cf. Trask, 1994, p.622-623: Dealey Plaza illustration).

As to the interpretation by Ionescu of the line 4: Qu’aux citadins lieu de feste & recueil, he postulates such a transposition with no effective grammatical excuse as: “Et aux citadins (au) lieu de feste (ne sera) que recueil” (And for the American people, in place of the traditional feast of Thanksgiving, shall be nothing other than their spiritual concentration to bury their President, on November 25, 1963) (id. p.439-440).

This is no grammatical treatment but a kind of acrobatic manipulation according to his own scheme that exploits the text of Nostradamus, which wishes to say that “A treason against the President shall occur so extraordinarily as even amidst the citizens themselves, in their immediate presence, directly in front of them (aux citadins) ”, and the criminal theatre (lieu in the sense of place, location) shall be “a place of festivity and collection”, i.e. Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, where there is no ellipsis of any preposition such as in, at; for the tight expression “lieu de feste & recueil (a place of feast & anthology)” is meant to stress in its nominative form the place itself that should be memorial and historic ever since. In fact, Dealey Plaza is now renamed as “ The Dealey Plaza Historic District ” and “ a National Historic Landmark ” for the American people. 

 - This article first published on this Blog: 2014-1-5 12:33 -
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§904 Trilogy of the case of JFK (2) (1963.11.22): VIII-73.

20th century:

§904 Trilogy of the case of JFK (2) (1963.11.22): VIII-73.

VIII-73 (§904):
A barbarous soldier shall strike the great King,
Being not distant from his unjust death,
The avaricious mother shall be the cause and conspirator of the deed
And the government in a great wrench.


(Soldat Barbare le grand Roy frappera,
Injustement non eslongné de mort,
L’avare mere du fait cause sera
Conjurateur & regne en grand remort.)

NOTES:
A barbarous soldier
: The only formally accused Lee Harvey Oswald, once a marine of US Army, “barbarous” meaning in Nostradamus in this usage “cruel, uncivilized”. This person cannot be, in this context, a true culprit, but an innocent, for the second verse will say: Being not distant from his unjust death, which refers to the death of Oswald two days after the assassination of Kennedy caused through a shot by Jack Ruby, a member of a syndicate in Chicago.

The great King: The President John F. Kennedy = The great one (§903,VI-37) = A King (§905;VIII-74).

A barbarous soldier shall strike the great King: This is a kind of formal mention of Nostradamus arranged for the Warren Commission report.

The avaricious mother: The most important and enlightening of the key words in our trilogy, this expression, being far from Ionescu’s ‘avara meretrix (avaricious prostitute)’ (cf. §903, VI-37), is to be interpreted according to the general use of the word ‘mother’ in the Prophecies of Nostradamus. In fact, the word ‘mother (mere = mère)’ is used four times (III-16, IV-7, VII-11, X-55) in the proper sense and twice (V-73, VIII-75) in the figurative, excepting the use here (VIII-73), the latter being also immediately based upon the former: thus, all these usages have a referential term to be compared with the term ‘mother’: for example,

III-16 (§298): ‘sa mere (his mother)’, i.e. the mother of Charles II.
IV-7 (§621): ‘sa mere (his mother)’, i.e. the mother of Napoleon II.
VII-11 (§154): ‘la mere (the mother)’, i.e. the mother of ‘l’enfant Royal (the Royal child = Duke of Anjou).
X-55 (§72) : ‘mary & mere (a husband & a mother)’, i.e. the husband of Mary Stuart (François II) and his mother (Catherine de Médicis).
V-73 (§201) : ‘l’enfant la mere mettra nud en chemise’ (the mother shall make the naked child put on shirts).
VIII-75 (§953) : ‘la mere à Tours du filz ventre...’ (the mother in Tours of the son belly...).

But, the quatrain under analysis has no such explicit referential term, which should be interpolated, and probably the term ‘regne (government = the central Government)’ is to be considered as a counterpart of ‘the mother’. In such a context, the Government is ‘the father of the nation’, the nation being the children. So, ‘the mother of the nation as compared with the Government as its father is naturally represented by a sector of the nation that affords ‘goods, conveniences, protection and security’ for the nation, i.e. the sector of Military-Industrial Complex. And, in fact, the Military-Industrial Complex in USA was fiercely contrary to the pacifist New Frontier Policy of the Kennedy administration (cf. Ochiai, 1979, p.224; 2013, p.301).

This is the key argument that supports the hypothesis of an intestine confrontation as to the case and at the same time destroys the theory of the Russian communist complot by V. Ionescu (1987, p.430-440).

Remort: “s.m. Déchirement (Tearing, rending), blessure (hurt)” (Godefroy). This word is different from ‘remors, remords’, and Ionescu’s reading as ‘timor in Latin (peur, effroi, panique)’ is completely irrelevant.

The avaricious mother shall be the cause and conspirator of the deed And the government in a great wrench: The eventual reading of the lines 3-4: “The avaricious mother shall be the cause of the deed And the conspirator and the government in a great wrench” is to be rejected, because ‘the conspirator’ is considered to have succeeded in lacerating (déchirer) the government in power.

And the government in a great wrench: The Kennedy administration in its essential constitution was utterly destroyed by the assassination of the President, for the Vice-president Johnson, in taking over the presidency, made a new government of the belligerent caracter, who did not hesitate to precipitate itself into the Vietnam War.

- This article first published on this Blog: 2014-1-5 12:32 -
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§903 Trilogy of the case of JFK (1) (1963.11.22): VI-37.

20th century:
 
    
   
    ・                                                               ・        

(The reverse of the Stemmons Freeway sign
 in Zapruder x4-x5) 
                      


§903 Trilogy of the case of JFK (1) (1963.11.22): VI-37.

VI-37 (§903): 
The old work shall be accomplished,
From the roof shall fall upon the great one an evil-ruin:
They shall accuse the innocent of having caused the death:
The culprit hidden. A copse in the mizzle.

(L’œuvre ancienne se parachevera,
Du toict cherra sur le grand mal ruyne:
Innocent faict mort on accusera:
Nocent caiché. taillis à la bruyne.)

NOTES: The trilogy, as to its general theme, was revealed for the first time by V. Ionescu (1987, p.429-440), his interpretations concerning the details of the verses staying largely insufficient and his “Latinism” in interpretation being too extravagant to follow the natural nuances of French itself of Nostradamus. For example, an expression ‘l’avare mere (the avaricious mother)’ (§904, VIII-73), the most important of the key words in our trilogy, is for him ‘avara meretrix (avaricious prostitute)’ in Latin, indicating the Russian communism according to him, but the Latin etymology of ‘mere (= mère)’ is ‘māter’, on the other hand that of ‘meretrix’ is ‘mereō (to receive as a pay for a service)’. Then, “meretrīx: originally ‘a woman who gains a salary, is payed. This word is specialized in an erotic use.’” (Ernout & Meillet), his linguistic speculation being of little use. Cf. §904, VIII-73.

The old work shall be accomplished: The fundamental error of Ionescu consists in his frame of analysis that granted a Russian communist complot underlying the murder of the President of the United States John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. This case was most probably of the caracter of American intestine confrontation caused by the New Frontier Policy of the Kennedy administration starting in 1961. Therefore, the anti-New-Frontier parties in USA are to be supposed to be those who accomplished the old work of this quatrain.

The old work: This is supposedly the project of eliminating Fidel Castro of Cuba designed by CIA under A. Dulles and promoted by the Vice-president R. Nixon of the preceding administration (1953-1961) of D. Eisenhower. And the project mutatis mutandis was employed and executed in their own country to eliminate their own President Kennedy (cf. Ochiai, 1979, p. 224-237, p.250-252; 2013, p.301-317, p.337-339).

From the roof shall fall upon the great one an evil-ruin: They shall accuse the innocent of having caused the death: The culprit hidden. A copse in the mizzle: " The assassination of President John F Kennedy on 22 November, 1963. Some of the gunshots undoubtedly came from roof level, and the accused assassin did not live [sic] long enough to stand trial. Even today, the true identity of the killer is as hidden in the mist as ever it was." (Halley, 1999, p.182).

They: The Warren Commission of the Johnson government.

The innocent: Lee Harvey Oswald (1939-1963), accused wrong of the murder of JFK by the Warren Commission. It is remarquable that the French Perfect Seer of the 16th century declares him NON-GUILTY, which is approved according to the accumulated results of many of the penetrating researchers on the case against the formal report of the government. Oswald himself declared, having been arrested, that he did not shoot anyone and he was a patsy (cf. Ochiai, 1979, p.57-101; 2013,p.87-144).

Nocent: s.m. Coupable (Culprit) (Godefroy).

The culprit hidden: The culprits were designed to flee safe after their work done under the protection prepared by FBI under J. Hoover, another authority coupled with CIA (cf. Ochiai, 1979, p.236-237; 2013,p.316-317). Every passion for finding out an image of an assassin there (in the copse) in the relevant photographs was in vain (cf. Trask, 1994, p.257).

A copse: A small group of relatively small trees of the north grassy knoll of Dealey Plaza(cf. Trask, 1994, p.208: Bond’s first post-assassination photo; p.235: Moorman’s Photo #5; p.350: Dealey Plaza the afternoon of November 22, 1963).

In the mizzle: Nostradamus’ figure of expressing the unsolvable or undetectable situation of a matter (cf. V-35: Soubz la bruine, under the mizzle: VI-27: par les bruynes, amidst the drizzles).

The culprit hidden. A copse in the mizzle: The two shots to the President came from the small forest of the grassy knoll (copse), the snipers left unknown to us (hidden in the mizzle):

The throat shot: According to the frame 193 of the Zapruder film, the most famous and most valuable home movie filmed on the scene, President Kennedy was, just before riding into behind the Stemmons Freeway sign on the north side of Elm Street, waving his right hand up beside his face, the elbow on the top of the edge of the right side frame of the Presidential limousine, his left hand bent horizontally upon the belly about the diaphragm, towards the people standing near the sign on the north side of Elm Street, facing them in smiling. So his throat and chest were open to the public on his right.

According to the still photographs of the frames 194-204 of the Zapruder film (Wrone, 2013, p.120-121), this posture of the President can be seen till the frame 204 when his body beneath his upper throat was hidden by the road sign, his right hand up and waving yet.

Next moment his body beneath his chin was totally hidden behind the sign board, when should have come a sudden shot into his throat. Therefore, it seems to have come from the direction of the sign board, for the President was facing the people in front of the sign on his right.

Now, it is formally said that the “ frames 208 through 211 were destroyed and frame 212 badly damaged during Life’s processing.” (Wrone, 2013, p.182)

But it cannot be the case, for the authority (CIA through the Dallas office of the Secret Service) had already on the morning of November 23 kept in hand the Zapruder copy film from Mr. Zapruder himself before Life Magazine obtained four complete Zapruder films, the one original and its three copies made by Mr. Zapruder, who had all of them transferred to Life for $150,000.00 on 25 of November; Mr. Zapruder had initiatively offered the two copy films to the Secret Service office in Dallas for only the investigative use by the Government (cf. Wrone, id., p.26-31; p.279-286).

Now, the several frames were being cut off from the available copies of the Zapruder film for a long time as if the formal comment about them were true, and these 6 missing frames (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 and x6) have been restored through Robert Groden’s cooperation by TV ASAHI, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, in one of its programs titled “ The greatest enigma of the 20th century: the assassination of President Kennedy/ the truth of its fortieth anniversary ” aired on October 11, 2003. (TV ASAHI says that its staffs became aware of the discrepancy between the sequence of the frames of the movie and the corresponding stream of the recorded sound of the Dallas Police Departement radio communication showing some lack of frames, and Mr. Groden says that he was permitted to copy the original film when he was working for the governmental needs in seventies and that his is the only perfect copy in the world, and one can see now on YOUTUBE some articles on the Zapruder film containing these original frames; e.g. The Undamaged Zapruder Film by Robert Harris (2008): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kq1PbgeBoQ4&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PLD927FE61A099C96A).

The apparent reason why the authority (CIA & FBI), having checked thouroughly the Zapruder film (“The agents were especially interested in prints that showed the limousine just before it reached the sign, when it passed behind the sign, and immediately after it emerged from behind the sign. Each of the mounted prints had attached beneath it the time down to the split second” – Wrone, id., p.29), cut off those frames from it for the public use is that a few of them (x2, x3, x4, x5) have one or three small round spots like bullet holes [like the figure atop ] on the upper half of the sign board somehow incriminating another than the innocent patsy at the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository.

Some people say that those three spots are the bullet holes, but they aren’t, because the shot to the throat of JFK seems to be only one according to the sound record of the radio communication of Dallas Police Department. But, the three spots on the sign board are considered to be the three holes pierced by the three debris of the bullet shot to the President, it being quite natural that the bullet from a rifle could produce some debris in traveling through its rifled barrel. In a closer view, one can say that the smallest round hole was pierced first in the frame x2 followed by the same figure of x3, then in the frame x4 other two holes were made at the same time, the one larger than the first on its left side, and the other largest on the right side, the frame x5 imitating x4. They are most vaguely seen in the frame x6 because of the blur caused by the quick panning of the camera.

The sign board seems to be wooden, but an author notes “a metal two-legged Stemmons Freeway sign” (Trask, id., p.399). His “metal” may qualify only “two legs”. Anyhow, the board had a certain thickness and one can see the holes in relief in the daylight, like a cross section of an obliquely cut pipe (e.g. Figure 2 [this is not the real image from any of the frames x2 – x5]), which seemingly shows that the holes were made by the debris coming from the right from the viewpoint of Mr. Zapruder. (The frames 208 & 209 of the Zapruder film frame by frame by John Costella [Costella Combined Edit Frames (updated 2006) http://www.assassinationresearch.com/zfilm/ ] do not offer distinctively such images in relief.)


Figure 2:
パイプ断面 

One can say that it is just approximately at the moment of the first hole pierced on the sign board that the first shot to the President caught him on the throat and the shot came from the right of Mr. Zapruder filming the scene of assassination.

 

And the supposed sniper seems to have been located behind the picket fence in its eastern part under the foliage of the trees on the north grassy knoll just a little far behind and a little on the right of Mr. Zapruder filming on the pedestal of the west end of the north pergola (cf. Wrone, id., p.84-85: Map of Dealey Plaza by Katherine Guth). The ground level of the fence was a few feet higher than that of the pergola, but, Mr. Zapruder, suffering from vertigo, was standing on the four-foot-high pedestal with his office receptionist Marilyn Sitzman who had offered him to hold onto his coat to steady him, and his camera level seems to have been higher than that of the sight of the supposed sniper, which is somehow on the top line of the five-foot-high fence (Wrone, id., p.11); cf. Trask, id.,p.59; p.161: Betzner’s photo #3; p.333: Harry Cabluck’s second photo (The culprit hidden. A copse in the mizzle).

 

Then, the sniper could catch through his sight a direct vision of the head, throat and chest of the President just to the right of the road sign. And three of the debris of the first shot to the President casually hit the road sign at the same time.

In fact, in the Willis seventh slide taken moments before the President is hit (Trask, id., p.171) can bee seen the western half of the eastern part of the stockade fence commanding the President in the car just to the right of the road sign from the supposed sniper’s view, which is said to be corresponding to the frame 202 of the Zapruder film, where the Pesident is going to be hidden behind the sign (cf. Wrone, id., p.120-121).



N.B. The throat wound of the President was in reality an entry one nothwithstanding the pretended exit one of the Warren report: “The doctors at Parkland Hospital still insist that the throat wound was an entry wound; they did not see the back wound.” (Orchard, 2010-2011: Second Shot). And the Stemmons Freeway sign was removed immediately after the tragedy: “ The City of Dallas removed the Stemmons Freeway sign shortly after the assassination.” (Orchard, 2010-2011: The Shots in Dealey Plaza).


N.B. 2:
The debris of a bullet can be illustrated in the wound of the Governor of Texas Connally apart from the question of a bullet to the Governor:  “ But a close examination of Connally’s thigh wound – by Dr. Malcolm Perry on November 22 – revealed something less dramatic than an actual bullet wound. Although the Commission attorneys ignored his analysis and did not take his testimony on the thigh wound, but only on his treatment of JFK’s wounds, Perry would later tell Harold Weisberg that only a tiny flat lead flake had entered Connally’s thigh, penetrating the flesh about one-half inch and then traveling at the same level for three to three and one-half inches. The wound, he said, was so small it could not have been caused by any bullet, let alone the one the Commission said fell out of Connally’s thigh.” (Wrone, id., p.xi)


N.B. 3: If the throat shot (at Z207 of Roberdeau map [our frame x2 would be Z207+2=209]) came from the TSBD (6th floor eastern window), and its debris hit the Stemmons Freeway sign, the angle of the two lines of fire (that of the bullet and that of the debris) projected upon the horizontal plane is about 11.8 degrees (perhaps more than 15.0 degrees without projection), on the contrary the maximum angle of the two lines of fire with the grassy knoll hypothesis (the supposed sniper at the corner of the stockade fence) is about 4.6 degrees, which will be rather admittable to a value of elongation with the bullet and its own debris (I examined these data upon the basis of the detailed map of Dealey Plaza by Don Roberdeau (Copyright © 2010 by Don Roberdeau) cited in Orchard, 2010-2011).

But, Connally’s thigh wound may have been by a debris of an impacted bullet, and here is a ballistico-technical proof that a bullet leaving a rifle is able to have some debris of itself before reaching a target, probably produced by the propulsive detonation in the barrel, and make a smaller hole in the target beside a larger hole by the bullet itself. For example, Luke Haag and Mike Haag, firearms experts, conducted an experiment, to value the single bullet theory using a Carcano rifle in their own scheme, of testifying the stability and penetrating power of a Carcano bullet into one of the oldest ballistic test materials: pine boards. And the pine board first impacted by the bullet had two small holes like Figure 3 below, the larger one they declared to be the entry hole of the bullet, another smaller one they ignored utterly, but it seems to be pierced evidently by a debris of the bullet reaching the pine board at the same time as the bullet itself. Cf. PBS NOVA – Cold Case JFK (S41E07, Nov. 13 2013) by Randy Wen (2013/11/25): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4VLmPxFyk8, especially at the moments 25:47-28:20.


Figure 3:
                    
   
 ・ 
 


1° (b): That the throat shot to the President came from his right hand is supported by the eyewitnesses as follows:
Roy Kellerman (Secret Service agent, in the front passenger seat of the Presidential limousine), March 9, 1964: “... and there is a report like a firecracker, pop. And I turned my head to the right because whatever this noise was I was sure that it came from the right and perhaps to the rear, and as I turned my head to the right to view whatever it was or to see whatever it was, I heard a voice from the back seat and I firmly beleave it was the President’s, ‘My God, I am hit’, and I turned around....” [Later:] (Mr. Specter: “You say that you turned to your right immediately after you heard a shot ?”) Mr. Kellerman: “Yes, sir.” (Mr. Specter: “What was the reason for your reacting to your right ?”) Mr. Kellerman: “That was the direction that I heard this noise, pop.” [Warren Commission testimony: 2H73, 74, 75, 94-95, 101] ” (Costella, 2007, p.43).

Dave Powers (Presidential aid; in the follow-up car), May 18, 1964: “Shortly thereafter the first shot went off and it sounded to me as if it were a firecracker, I noticed then that the President moved quite far to his left after the shot from the extreme right side where he had been sitting.” [Warren Commission affivadit: 7H473] ” (Costella, id., p.28).

In fact, the strong impact of the rifle bullet from his right hand into his throat made him dislocate himself from right to left in his seat in the car. This dynamics is true again as to the movement of the head of the President when he received the head shot, for it moved back leftward as it was leaning a little foreward leftward after the throat shot when the strong impact of the bullet from his front right took place in the upper right corner of his forehead.

Jean Newman (on the north side of Elm Street, near the Stemmons Freeway sign), November 22, 1963: “The motorcade had just passed me when I heard something that I thought was a firecracker at first, and the President had just passed me, because after he had just passed, there was a loud report, it just scared me, and I noticed that the President jumped, he sort of ducked his head down and I tought at the time that it probably scared him, too, just like it did me, because he flinched, like he jumped.” [Sheriff’s Department affivadit: 19H489] ” (Costella, id., p.45).

Jean Newman (on the north side of Elm Street, near the Stemmons Freeway sign), November 24, 1963: “A car carrying the President and other persons had just passed her when she heard a report and saw the President jump. She stated she assumed the report to be a firecracker and thought how ‘human’ the President was that he too would react by jumping at a sudden noise.” [FBI report: CE1433: 22H843] ” (Costella, id., p.46).

Charles Brehm (on south side of Elm Street, close to the President at the start of shooting), November 24, 1963: “When the President’s automobile was very close to him and he could see the President’s face very well, the President was seated, but was leaning forward when he stiffened perceptively at the same instant what appeared to be a rifle shot sounded.” [FBI report: CE1425: 22H837] ” (Costella, id., p.45-46).

Jack Franzen (on south side of Elm Street, near the Presidential limousine at the time of shots), November 22, 1963: “He noticed the men, who were presumed to be Secret Sevice Agents, riding in the car directly behind the President’s car, unloading from the car, some with firearms in their hands, and noticed police officers and those plain clothes men running up the grassy slope across Elm Street from his location and toward a wooded and bushy area located across Elm Street from him.” [FBI report: CE1428: 22H840] ” (Costella, id., p.94).

The head shot: According to the frames 315-335 of the Zapruder film, the glaring round mass of white light like a flexible baseball on the upper right corner of the forehead of the President lasting a few seconds after the explosion evidently shows the first impact point of the bullet there, the glaring light being a signal of the highest temperature around the head caused by the first strongest bullet impact upon a hard tissue of the skull, which proves that the shot came from his front right, probably from behind the picket fence in its western part under the dense foliage of the trees on the north grassy knoll, approximately 40 meters distant from the Presidential limousine and at the height of about 7 meters (The culprit hidden. A copse in the mizzle).

In addition to this, the frames 337-338 clearly shows the entirely intact back of the President’s head after the shot (Wrone, id., p.182).

The glaring light lasting a few seconds is also a signal of the large friction heat produced there, which is proved by the fully scientific explanation of the head shot given in Head shot / The science behind the JFK assassination by Chambers (2012, p.202-210).

“ Because Kennedy’s head recoils backward at the moment of impact, it is reasonable to conclude, based on the law of conservation of momentum, that the bullet that struck him arrived from the front side of his head, remained trapped inside, and never exited... Large-caliber bullets, like those of the .26 Mannlicher-Carcano, have considerable mass and penetrating force while small-caliber rounds, like the .223, are substantially less massive and lack the punching power of their larger-caliber cousins. Small rounds, however, tend to remain inside the body, doing extensive internal damage. This is the principle behind the .22caliber M-16. Smaller objects have a larger surface area to volume ratio for a given shape. Since a bullet slows in proportion to its surface area through friction, small rounds come to rest inside the body much more readily than large-caliber bullets.” (Chambers, id., p.205).

In fact, the glaring light lasting a few seconds is as if the round were making a fire through much friction in boring the skull.

2°(b): The eyewitnesses:
Clint Hill (Secret Service agent, on the follow-up car), November 30, 1963: “I saw the President slump more toward his left. I jumped onto the left rear step of the Presidential automobile. Mrs. Kennedy shouted, ‘They’ve shot his head off;’ then turned and raised out of her seat as if she were reaching to her right rear toward the back of the car for something that had blown out.” [Statement: CE1024: 18H742] ” (Costella, 2007, p.102).

Governor John Connally (seated in front of the President), April 21, 1964: “(Mr. Specter: “Did Mrs. Kennedy state anything at that time ?”) Governor Connally; “Yes; I have to – I would say it was after the third shot when she said, ‘They have killed my husband.’” (Mr. Specter: “Did she say anything more ?”) Governor Connally: “Yes, she said, I heard her say one time, ‘I have got his brains in my hand.’” (Mr. Specter: “Did that constitute everything that she said at that time ?”) Governor Connally: “That is all I heard her say.” [Warren Commission testimony: 4H134] ” (Costella, 2007, p.104).

“College professor and well respected assassination researcher Josiah Thompson in his 1967 book Six Seconds in Dallas, systematically examined much of the photographic evidence, including the Moorman photograph. Emmett Hudson, one of the three men who had been standing on the knoll steps, had told the FBI that the shots sounded as if they had been fired to his left, behind and above him, which Thompson saw to be the corner of the stockade fence.” (Trask, id., p.253) “According to later studies, Moorman made this picture [#5] at about 1/5 of a second after the fatal head wound had occurred... Park employee Emmett Hudson (second from left) and two unidentified men also stand on the steps. Abraham Zapruder and Mary Sitzman are on top of a pedestal at the upper right corner of the print, while the five-foot-high grassy knoll stockade fence and a concrete retaining wall are in view across the street from Moorman’s position.” (Trask, id., p.246)

1°, 2°: The eyewitnesses: A puff of smoke emerged from the trees on the grassy knoll:
Some people say that they saw the smokes from the trees on the north grassy knoll when they were viewing the Presidential motorcade, standing on top of the triple overpass commanding Dealey Plaza very well [FBI report, etc.] (Costella, id., p.31-32).

- This article first published on this Blog: 2014-1-5 12:31 -  


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§902 The Six Day War and Thereafter (1967-): III-22.

III-22 (§902):

Six days the assault given in front of a city,
A strong and harsh battle shall be done:
Three countries shall offer it, and they shall be pardoned.
It remains sanguinary fights, ridges of earth and ferryboats.

(Six jours l'assaut devant cité donné:
Livrée sera forte & aspre bataille:
Trois la rendront & à eux pardonné:
Le reste à feu & sang tranche traille.)

NOTES: Tranche: « AGRIC. Ridge (of field); slice of earth.» (Dubois).

Traille: « Câble tendu d’une rive à l’autre le long duquel se déplace une embarcation servant de bac; ce bac lui-même (A cable stretched from one bank to the other, along which moves a boat serving as a ferry; this ferryboat itself).» (Petit Robert).

Six days the assault given in front of a city, A strong and harsh battle shall be done: Three countries shall offer it, and they shall be pardoned. It remains sanguinary fights: « Here is told certainly an assault on a particular city concluded by the victory of the attackers, after the desperate battle of six days [Six days the assault given]. I admit that it is enticing to see in theses verses an allusion to the war of the Sinai, called the Six Day War, taking place between 5 and 10 June, 1967. It is to be admitted that it was hardly frequent in history that a war could last only six days. Moreover, could one see in the last line a supplementary argument for the validity of the proposed hypothesis because there is a question of a continuity to this first conflict by the atrocities not knowing thereafter any more cease [It remains sanguinary fights]? » (Dufresne, 1992, p.98-99); « In 1967 Israel forestalled a planned invasion by Egypt, Syria, and Jordan [Trois = Three countries] by launching a lightning attack known as the Six Day War. Fierce fighting took place around the Old City of Jerusalem [in front of a city]. Finally the Israelis retook the ancient platform where the Temple of Solomon once stood and where one of Islam’s holiest shrines, the Dome of the Rock, stands today.» (Hogue, 1997, p.245).

« 10 June The Six-Day War comes to an end 1967 Israel, having by then been established for almost two decades, found itself in conflict with a collective Arab force, comprising Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The war only lasted from 5-10 June, but the outcome was a reshuffling of territory in the Middle East, with Israel having gained the Gaza Strip, eastern Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula and the West Bank. The end finally came on this day in 1967 when the Arab nations realized that they could not contain Israel’s tactic of precise strategic strikes. After Israel had seized the Golan Heights from Syria earlier in this day, a ceasefire was signed [and they shall be pardoned] in which the combined forces ceded all the newly occupied territories to Israel.» (Cheshire and Farndon, 2009, p.221); « Although the Israeli government had no intention of being squeezed out of its gains as in 1956-1957, it did not initially intend to hang on to everything. But hopes that Israel could now negotiate from a position of strength were quickly dashed From the Arab summit in Khartoum at the end of August 1967 came the resounding “three no’s” – no negotiations, no peace, and no recognition of Israel’s right to exist. So the struggle went on, by other means. In 1967-1970, the Arab states waged their “war of attrition” by guerrilla raids and artillery attacks along Israel’s borders. On their side, the Israelis settled down to administer the land they had acquired and, on it, more than one million Arabs. Roughly one-third were impoverished refugees from the war of 1948, who had spent twenty years in squalid camps. Across the Israeli political spectrum support grew for permanent annexation of the occupied territories. Although this was not an official policy of the Labor-led coalition, Jewish settlement of the occupied areas was quietly encouraged [ridges of earth and ferryboats]. As after 1948, so after 1967: for a state that was fighting to exist, greater security seemed synonymous with more territory.» (Reynolds, 2000, p.238).

Tranche traille (ridges of earth and ferryboats): This two-word phrase signifies the Israeli settlement in the territories newly occupied by them, tranche (ridges of earth) alluding to the cultivation of new lands and traille (ferryboats) to the plantation there of the Jews, who are analogized to those moving by ferry because the image of boat suggests the River of Jordan, its West Bank having been seized by the Israeli; « Expanding Settlement Har Homa, one of the Israeli expanding settlements was allowed to construct houses there in 1997. During about twelve years since then, the growth of population there attained to about ten thousands. This land had been occupied and annexed to Israel through the Third Middle East War in 1967. A New Peace-Road-Map for the Middle East as a basis of peace negotiation, which was proposed by USA, Russia, EU and UN in 2003, demanded as the principal term of her obligations that Israel should freeze all her activities of plantation in the occupied territories. But this obligation was gutted in reality due to the ‘understanding’ by the pro-Israeli US administration of the former President Bush. According to the statistics by Peace Now, a Israeli peace association surveying the situation of Israeli settlement, the number of settlement increased from 231,800 in 2003 to 285,800 by 2008.» (The Mainichi Shimbun Newspaper, April 2, 2009, unified 12 version, p.6: International affairs).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§901 The Prague Spring failed (1968) after the Hungarian Uprising had failed (1956): VIII-15.

VIII-15 (§901):

Toward the North the great efforts by the villain
Shall vex almost all Europe and the world,
He shall chase so hard the two eclipses,
And strengthen again the whole life with the Pannonians.

(Vers Aquilon grands efforts par hommasse
Presque l'Europe & l'univers vexer,
Les deux eclypses mettra en telle chasse,
Et aux Pannons vie & mort renforcer.)

NOTES: Vers Aquilon (Toward the North): « The words “Vers Aquilon” show that it matters a country neighboring Russia. The anagram of these two words teaches us sufficiently clearly what country is in question:
     VERS AQUILON = N. R. SLOVAQUIE
“N. R.” are the habitual initials of “People’s Republic” in Slavonian (Norodnaia Republika).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.651).

Les deux eclypses mettra en telle chasse, Et aux Pannons vie & mort renforcer (They shall chase so hard the two eclipses, And strengthen again the whole life with the Pannonians): « This quatrain alludes, however, not only to the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia, but also to that in Hungary. The third line mentions the “two eclipses.” The quatrain mentions in conclusion the efforts made by the Kremlin to maintain its domination in this area indicated in the last line by “aux Pannons (with the Pannonians)” (Pannonia extended between the Oriental Alps and the Carpathians), the region which comprehended Hungary and Czechoslovakia and where, after the death of Stalin, the authority of Moscow had begun to “be in eclipse (s’éclipser)”.» (Ionescu, id.).

Hommasse: = A vile man, a villain = General Secretary of the CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev; « hommasse „männisch (like a man)‟ 15th century, is derived, together with the pejorative -asse- borrowed from the Italian suffix -accio-, from homme (a man).»
(Gamillscheg); « -ASSE. An element of a word, serving to form nouns and adjectives with a pejorative meaning.» (Petit Robert). Although the word hommasse may have a meaning of « Femme tirée de l’homme; Femme virile (a woman taken out of a man; a manly woman) » (Huguet), which Ionescu follows according to his biased hectic conception of the Communism as a prostituting woman (this uniquely moral identification of his is not literally founded upon the genuinely analyzed texts of Nostradamus nor congruent with the true negative character of the Communism as a proletarian dictatorial power) originating from his personal experience of a satanic communism in his youth in Rumania (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.651; 1993, p.18-24), it will be well understood here as a man to be despised (a villain) from the viewpoint of the Western Democracy in front of the Inhuman Communism.

Les deux eclypses mettra en telle chasse: = [L’hommasse] mettra les deux eclypses en telle chasse (The villain shall chase so hard the two eclipses), the two eclipses being the Hungarian reformist Imre Nagy and the Czech Dubček.

Vie & mort (Life and death): = the whole life, death delimiting the life in its entirety, and the whole life of the people in the Communist countries are under surveillance and restriction by the government under the Party.

Vie & mort renforcer (strengthen again the whole life): The hard line regime replacing the moderate one shall come back in Hungary and in Czechoslovakia.

« Czechoslovakia Communist rule (1945-90) The first break with the country’s prewar tradition of liberalism and toleration came in June 1945, when it became the first Eastern European country outside Nazi Germany and the USSR to carry out ‘ethnic cleansing’, expelling the German and Hungarian minorities from the country. In the elections of May 1946, the Communist Party under Gottwald became the largest party, with 38 per cent of the vote. Amidst signs of Communist decline afterwards, Gottwald staged a coup in February 1948, and established a Communist one-party state. This was accelerated through a series of Stalinist purges, culminating in the Slánski trial [in 1952]. The country had thus come into the fold of Moscow, and adhered to the extremes of Stalinism even after Stalin’s death. Human rights violation by the state and a dependent judiciary continued, while the economy, which had suffered comparatively little damage during the war, was disastrously mismanaged, leading to an economic crisis in the early 1960s. Growing unrest and protests led to the appointment of the reform-minded Dubček [one of the eclipses] as First Party Secretary in January 1968. However, his attempts to strengthen Communism through political and economic liberalization went further than other Communist leaders such as Ulbricht and Brezhnev [the villain] were willing to allow, thus threatening the status quo in Eastern Europe. The period of reform called Prague Spring was violently ended on 20 August 1968, when the Warsaw Pact troops arrived in Czechoslovakia and entered Prague.» (Palmowski, p.175).

« Prague Spring (Jan.-Aug. 1968) Dubček proposed to end unfair trials, and released or pardoned all those unfairly convicted in political trials. Press censorship ceased in March, travel restrictions eased, and elections to posts within the Communist Party were to become secret… Most crucially, despite his care to cultivate good relations with Moscow, he completely underestimated the challenge his reforms presented to his neighbours. The Communist Parties of East Germany and Poland had their own problems of legitimacy. Their leadership understood clearly that reforms inspired by the Czech model could well result in the collapse of their Communist systems. Brezhnev [the villain] refused to contemplate the danger of a collapse within the Warsaw Pact. On 20 August 1968 Soviet troops, aided by other Warsaw Pact members entered the country without resistance from the Czechoslovak army or the population. The Prague Spring was over, and Husák headed a new hardline regime which was to rule the country for another two decades.» (Palmowski, p.555).

« Limits would always be imposed by the Soviet Union to any qualification of the old monolithic front of communism. Such limits were brutally evident in 1968, when the communist government of Czechoslovakia set about liberalizing its internal structures and developing trade relations with West Germany. Tis was very striking: the impetus for change was coming not from outside the Party but from its members themselves (as in Hungary, twelve years earlier) [the two eclipses]. After a series of threats and attempts to persuade the Czechs to come to heel, Prague was occupied in August by Warsaw Pact forces. To avoid a repetition of the 1956 bloodshed, the Czech government did not resist. A brief attempt to provide an example of a socialism that had not lost its human face, as the secretary of the Czech communist party put it, was obliterated. There followed, in a speech to a Polish audience in November 1968 by the general secretary of the CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev [the villain], a warning of the danger of ‘imperialist’ efforts to undermine socialist solidarity and the blunt assertion that any threat to the cause of socialism in one country was the concern of them all and might probably give rise to military ‘assistance’ from other communist countries to meet it. This was the formulation of what came to be called the ‘Brezhnev’ doctrine, henceforth a datum of international affairs, and something of an indicator of the degree to which Moscow no longer felt sure of its satellites. Even those who governed them on the most Stalinist lines (for example, Ceausescu, the dictator of Romania) were capable of showing a measure of independence in defence of their countries’ national interests. By 1968, the rulers of the USSR must long since have given up any hope of revolution in Europe west of the Iron Curtain. They had been obliged to face the virtual eclipse of communism as a revolutionary force within the western democracies in the 1960s as the power of communist parties to win votes declined, above all in France and Italy.» (Roberts, 1999, p.651-652).

« Warsaw Pact troops enter Czechoslovakia to end the Prague Spring 1968 On the night of 20 August 1968, somewhere between 200,000 and 600,000 Warsaw Pact troops marched into Czechoslovakia [Toward the North the great efforts by the villain]. The next morning, tanks were rolling through the streets of Prague. They met with little violent opposition, but over 70 people were killed and hundreds injured as troops sought out ‘antisocialist’ elements with batons and guns. At first many Czech people tried to talk to the troops to persuade them to leave, but then they realized that the Soviet media was using the images of the conversations as evidence that the people welcomed the troops. A few riots broke out and walls were daubed with anti-Soviet graffiti. Dissidents and artists were arrested, and protests went underground. As censorship of the press returned with a vengeance, it became clear that the country’s brief flirtation with reform was over… Thirty years on, Czech President Vaclav Havel, who in 1968 was a young playwright and in 1989 led the Velvet Revolution that finally ousted the communists, said the Prague Spring was ‘a beautiful time because after twenty years it was possible to breathe and speak freely’. Yet he also said it was not a libertarian revolution but simply a conflict between two groups of communists that ‘revealed the totalitarian nature of that system’. In the 1990s, the Russians revealed a letter of invitation from members of the Czech Communist Party who were planning a coup, inviting them to intervene against the ‘antisocialist’ elements threatening Czechoslovakia’s stability. Later that year, Russian politician Leonid Brezhnev claimed for Russia in the Brezhnev Doctrine the right to violate the sovereignty of any country [the villain shall vex almost all Europe and the world] trying to replace communism with capitalism.» (Cheshire and Farndon, 2009, p.324-325).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§900 Mao Zedong, the 3rd Antichrist (1949-1976): VIII-77.

VIII-77 (§900):

The 3rd Antichrist shall be annihilated soon,
Twenty and seven years shall last the blood, his war,
The heretics murdered, captured, exiled,
Human blood, corpse, water reddened, it shall hail on earth.

(L’antechrist trois bien tost annichilez,
Vingt & sept ans sang durera sa guerre,
Les heretiques mortz, captif, exilez,
Sang corps humain eau rogie gresler terre.)
(№ 10).

NOTES: Antechrist (Antichrist): « ANTÉCHRIST or rather ANTICHRIST. According to the Epistles of John, the Christians of the end of the 1st century did not wait for the return of the Christ before the arrival of an Anti-Christ [ἀντίχριστος], namely, following the Greek etymology, of a false replacement of the Christ. On the other hand, the second Epistle to the Thessalonians precedes Advent of the Christ by that of a “Man of lawlessness, Son of destruction” who shall be the instrument of Satan to provoke a general apostasy, ruin the religions and proclaim himself God (2Th 2, 3-9)... The Antichrist and the Man of lawlessness are not but a single figure upon which the posterior centuries have projected their successive fears.» (Monloubou, p.39-40); Un si faulx antechrist (§796, X-66): = « An Antichrist so deceitful and so unfaithful – Hitler.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.545); « Concerning our times, the Prophet considers three Antichrists: Stalin (quatrains VI-49, X-1 and X-65), Hitler (X-66) and Mao Zedong (VIII-77). These dictators have in common some distinctive traits: 1. They imposed a totalitarian regime with a great cruelty. 2. The number of their victims amounts to tens of millions (by wars, executions and prisons). 3. They made “cultural revolutions” in opposing the religion and the tradition of their country. 4. They provoked the hatred and the conflict among races and social classes. 5. They erected themselves as superhuman entities and encouraged the cult of their personality.» (Ionescu, 1987, p.451-452). There appears in the Dedication to Henry II (№3, pp.3-23; №10, pp.153-173) five examples of the word Antechrist/antechrist, whose two of the paragraphs 44-46 (following Le Pelletier’s paragraphing) refer to Stalin because the passage includes the name ‘Atila [Attila]’ and the event of ‘October Revolution’, another two of the paragraphs 93-95 to Hitler because the region of Europe and the supposed years 37-45 [WWII] are told there, and the remaining one of the paragraph 107-109 also to Hitler, there being exposed the Roman occupation by ‘the antichrist, the infernal prince’ in the hottest battle in the Christian countries probably after Mussolini’s fall.

Trois: = the 3rd: « TROIS. adj. numér.Adj. numér. cardinal. (3, III). Deux plus un. 2° Adj. numér. ordinal. Troisième. Henri trois (Henri III) [THREE. 1° Cardinal numeral. (3, III). Two plus one. 2° Ordinal numeral. The third. Henry three (Henry III)].» (Petit Robert).

Annichiler: = annihiler; « Annichiler. See Anichiler.» (Huguet); « Anichiler. Annihiler, réduire à néant, faire cesser; Rendre inutile (To annihilate, to reduce to nothing, to make cease).» (Huguet).

Annichilez
: = annichilé (the past participle in the singular), the ending character Z (or S) is an alternative of E with a sharp accent (é).
For example: Le dez geté (III-40, §547) = le dé (pion de jeu) jeté; Au puy brises (I-65, §556) = au puits brisé (cf. Beaulieux, 1927, I, p.49, 149, 201 and 204; II, p.11-12 and 21-23). The word annichilez
also rhymes to exilez of the third line, which is in fact plural in agreement to Les heretiques in plural.

Bient tost: The start of this temporal phrase is when the second Antichrist, Stalin died, 1953. The first, Hitler died in 1945.

L’antechrist trois bien tost annichilez: The 3rd Antichrist shall be annihilated soon: It is in 1976 that the 3rd Antichrist Mao Zedong died. The span of 23 years (1953-1976) is said here to be “soon” reasonably in the context of several centuries of scope of the Prophet.

Vingt & sept ans sang durera sa guerre (Twenty and seven years blood shall last his war): = Vingt & sept ans durera [le] sang, sa guerre (Twenty and seven years shall last the blood, his war = The blood, his war shall last twenty-seven years), the word sang (the blood) considered to be in apposition to sa guerre (his war), both being almost synonymous here.

His war: This sort of saying alludes to the personally characterized war of Mao Zedong in the People’s Republic of China, namely, an intestine power struggle of the revolutionary Maoists against the moderate progressionists.

The heretics murdered, captured, exiled: « He [Mao Zedong] commences the purges against the “Deviationists” and the “Bourgeois” (les heretiques) by executions (morts), concentration camps (captifs) and by deportations (exilez).» (Ionescu, 1987, p.453).

Rogir: = Rougir (To redden). Cf. « roge. adj. Rouge. rogeier. v. Rougir.» (Greimas).

Sang corps humain eau rogie gresler terre: « The earth and the waters shall be reddened by the shed blood.» (Ionescu, id.).

It shall hail on earth
: “Hail” here symbolizes bullets falling on earth.

Twenty and seven years shall last the blood, his war, The heretics murdered, captured, exiled, Human blood, corpse, water reddened, it shall hail on earth: « The Chinese Revolution... that revolution’s final victory in October 1949… the main preoccupation of China’s new rulers as they took up their task had to be the country’s internal state. It was relatively easy, and popular, to launch a process of squeezing western-owned businesses which virtually eliminated them in the next few years, and to harass western missionaries. Real problems were more intimidating. Disease and malnutrition were widespread. Material and physical construction and reconstruction were overdue, population pressure on land was as serious as ever, and the moral and ideological void presented by the collapse of the ancien régime over the preceding century waited to be filled. The ascendancy of Mao, the victorious leader in the civil war, within the CCP and government makes it hardly surprising that the peasants were the starting-point. Since the 1920s land reform (usually meaning the expropriation of landlords) had been carried out largely by the peasants themselves in areas the communists dominated. Now China’s farms were collectivized in a way that apparently gave control of the new units to their inhabitants, but actually placed them under the control of the party. There was, nevertheless, a real overthrow of local village élites, an operation often violent and brutal. Landlords and moneylenders must have made up a large number of the 800,000 Chinese later acknowledged by Mao to have been ‘liquidated’ in the first few years of the People’s Republic.» (Roberts, 1999, p.505-506);

« Mao was particularly concerned to enlist intellectuals (most of whom were at best lukewarm about the CCP) in the educational and technological development of the country. During the summer and autumn of 1956, he encouraged them to speak out about the needs of China in the so-called Hundred Flowers Campaign. This took its name from Mao’s slogans encouraging cultural and intellectual debate: “Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools [of thought] contend.” The Hundred Flowers bore bitter fruit, however. It produced intense criticism of the party and its bureaucracy, seen most strikingly in the posters along “Democracy Wall” near Beijing University. Party functionaries hit back to save their jobs, and an angry Mao authorized the June 1957 Anti-Rightist campaign to restore political control. Between four hundred thousand and seven hundred thousand intellectuals branded “rightists” lost their positions and were sent to farm or factory for “labor reform.” The campaign marked the end of Mao’s belief that intellectuals might be the key to economic development and revived his conviction, forged in the long civil war, that mobilizing the masses was the essence of effective revolution.» (Reynolds, 2000, p.250-251);

« What fused Mao’s rekindled enthusiasm for mass mobilization with the planners’ new development strategy was the concept of the “people’s communes.” This became, for Mao, the key to China’s future. Following Politburo approval in August 1958, almost all China’s cooperative farms were subsumed into units maybe fifty or one hundred times larger, comprising five thousand to ten thousand households. Astonishingly, this was accomplished in two or three months. This economic gain, supposedly, was that rural labor could thereby be deployed for large capital projects, for example, mines, steelworks, dams, or irrigation. But the communes were also a huge social leap into communism, with communal eating halls and nurseries, “happiness homes” for the aged, and abolition of private plots. Traditional notions of family responsibility were under attack: women in particular were to be liberated for outside work instead of preparing food and caring for the old and young. At the same time, huge numbers of peasants were being pulled into the urban industrial work force. Between 1957 and 1960, China’s urban population grew by one-third from 100 million to 130 million, mostly in 1957. In both country and town, the national obsession became iron and steel production, geared to increasingly fantastic targets. In November 1957, Mao had announced that China would overtake Britain in steel production within fifteen years; in September 1958 he predicted that this would happen the following year. On the communes, cooking utensils were commandeered: who needed their own pots and pans in the new communist utopia? By the end of 1958 hundreds of thousands of small, ramshackled blast furnaces dotted the countryside as nearly one-tenth of the population was frantically smelting iron or mining and transporting ore. But much of the steel was poor quality, the communes proved too large for administrative efficiency, and the damage to food production was severe.» (Reynolds, id., p.251-252);

« When, in 1958, the ‘Great Leap Forward’ was proclaimed and an intensification of pressure on the communes followed, matters worsened again. Within the CCP, a hunt for ‘Right opportunist’ scapegoats began. By 1960, large areas of China were undergoing famine or near-famine conditions. The facts were suppressed; many even of the ruling clique appear to have remained ignorant of them. Some later estimates say that as many as 40 million Chinese may have died in a few years, though Mao stubbornly refused to acknowledge the failure of the Great Leap Forward, a policy with which he was closely and personally identified. In 1961, senior officials began, nonetheless, to gather irrefutable evidence of what had occurred. A hidden power struggle began within the party and government, and Mao’s standing suffered. His rivals slowly put back the economy on the road to modernization without letting the true facts emerge.» (Roberts, 1999, p.506-507);

« On 16 May 1966, China’s Mao Zedong launched a programme: the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Eight years earlier, Mao had launched his Great Leap Forward, the economic programme meant to turn China into an industrial powerhouse. The Leap was a disaster, completely wrecking China’s rural economy and starting a famine that claimed the lives of more than 30 million inhabitants. Mao accepted the blame for this catastrophe and resigned as chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, but the Cultural Revolution was his comeback, designed to wipe out his opponents. Urged on by Mao, students at Beijing University began to agitate against ‘bourgeois’ university and government officials. Mao guided the students to form their own political militia, the Red Guard. The Red Guard swelled dramatically and schools and universities across China closed down as young Red Guards took to the streets to target the Four Olds – old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits. Academics were assaulted, books were burned, temples and monuments were attacked, shops selling anything remotely Western were burned to the ground and the gardens of the bourgeoisie were ripped to shreds. Government officials right up to the top were driven from office. Tens of thousands of people were beaten up, abused, killed or driven to suicide as the campaign rolled on. As fighting broke out among Red Guard factions and the country was beginning to descend into lawlessness, Mao finally yielded to pressure. He sent in the military who took control, rounding up millions of young Red Guards and sending them off to the country to preach the communist message to the rural community. Today, many millions of these exiles are now in middle age and bitterly rue the way they were separated from their families and deprived of their chance of education when, as teenagers, they were sent away from the cities. Many never went home. In 1969, Mao was re-elected as chairman of the Republic amid great fanfare, and the Cultural Revolution rolled on until his death in 1976. Estimates of the Revolution’s death toll are varied, but it could easily have been at least 750,000. Tens of millions more were persecuted and had their lives ruined. The effect was particularly devastating for minorities, such as the Tibetans. And besides the terrible human suffering, much of China’s rich and ancient historical heritage was utterly destroyed in just a few years by the zealous modernisers. Even the Chinese Communist Party now admits that the Cultural Revolution was a disaster for China.» (
Cheshire and Farndon, 2009, p.186-187).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§899 Mao Zedong’s Revolution by means of the Red Guards (1966-1976): V-5.

V-5 (§899):

Under the feigned pretext of delivering the people and cities
From the servitude he shall himself usurp them:
He shall make of young boys and girls worse persons by fraud,
Dispatched to the countryside in reading the false preface.

(Soubz ombre faincte d'oster de servitude,
Peuple & cité, l'usurpera luy mesme:
Pire fera par fraulx de jeune pute,
Livré au champ lisant le faulx proësme.) (№ 9).


NOTES: Here is a summary description of the history almost fully fitting the quatrain: « 16 May The Cultural Revolution begins in China 1966 On 16 May 1966, China’s
Mao Zedong launched a programme that was to prove one of the most shocking and profound social upheavals of the 20th century: the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Mao’s avowed aim in the Cultural Revolution was to rid the country of bourgeois ideas [Under the feigned pretext of delivering the people and cities From the servitude] and recapture the early zeal of communism by mobilizing the country’s youth. Yet it was clear he also wanted to get rid of his opponents in the ruling party [he shall himself usurp them]. Eight years earlier, Mao had launched his Great Leap Forward, the economic programme meant to turn China into an industrial powerhouse. The Leap was a disaster, completely wrecking China’s rural economy and starting a famine that claimed the lives of more than 30 million inhabitants. Mao accepted the blame for this catastrophe and resigned as chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, but the Cultural Revolution was his comeback, designed to wipe out his opponents, including Deng Xiaoping and Mao’s successor as chairman, Liu Shaoqi. Urged on by Mao, students at Beijing University began to agitate against ‘bourgeois’ university and government officials. When Liu Shaoqi tried to damp down the agitation, Mao immediately launched a stinging public attack on him and guided the students to form their own political militia, the Red Guard [He shall make young boys and girls worse persons]. At the same time, Mao’s supporters encouraged the growth of a personality cult around Mao [by fraud] by distributing copies of his sayings in his Little Red Book. The Red Guard swelled dramatically and schools and universities across China closed down as young Red Guards took to the streets to target the Four Olds – old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits. Academics were assaulted, books were burned, temples and monuments were attacked, shops selling anything remotely Western were burned to the ground and the gardens of the bourgeoisie were ripped to shreds. Government officials right up to the top, including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, were driven from office. Tens of thousands of people were beaten up, abused, killed or driven to suicide as the campaign rolled on. As fighting broke out among Red Guard factions and the country was beginning to descend into lawlessness, Mao finally yielded to pressure. He sent in the military who took control, rounding up millions of young Red Guards and sending them off to the country to preach the communist message to the rural community [Dispatched to the countryside]. Today, many millions of these exiles are now in middle age and bitterly rue the way they were separated from their families and deprived of their chance of education when, as teenagers, they were sent away from the cities. Many never went home. In 1969, Mao was re-elected as chairman of the Republic amid great fanfare, and the Cultural Revolution rolled on until his death in 1976. Estimates of the Revolution’s death toll are varied, but it could easily have been at least 750,000. Ten of millions more were persecuted and had their lives ruined. The effect was particularly devastating for minorities, such as the Tibetans. And besides the terrible human suffering, much of China’s rich and ancient historical heritage was utterly destroyed in just a few years by the zealous modernisers. Even the Chinese Communist Party now admits that the Cultural Revolution was a disaster for China. But there is some disagreement about just what went wrong and who was to blame. The official line is that there is a problem when a personality cult develops, although interestingly, it is the Gang of Four – Mao’s four principal allies (including his wife) – who are criticised more heavily than Mao himself.» (Cheshire and Farndon, 2009, p.186-188).

Fainct (e): = faint (e); Cf. « Faintement, (sur fainte pour feinte [pretence], de feindre [to feign]), adv.: en dissimulant, en feignant (in dissimulation, feignedly).» (Daele).

The servitude: = the capitalist servitude (the servitude by the capitalism).

L'usurpera: = Il usurpera peuple & cité. « The neutral pronoun le in the accusative sometimes refers to the preceding phrase in part or in entirety.» (Shimaoka S, p.399).

Fraux: = « fraude (fraud).» (Godefroy).

Pute: = The young = young boys and girls; « Pute, s.f. Femme de mauvaise vie. - ÉTYM. Provenç. et espagn. puta; ital. putta; du lat. puta, jeune fille, putus, jeune garçon. En italien, putta, en Portugais puta ont été pris souvent en bonne acception; dans le plus ancien exemple de l’historique à putain, ce mot ne signifie que jeune fille de service. Par son étymologie, pute n’implique aucun mauvais sens, pas plus que garce; et il n’a aucun rapport avec l’ancien adjectif put, qui vient de putidus, et qui signifie laid, mauvais, déshonnête (Pute, feminine substantive. Whore. - ETYM. Provenç. and Spanish puta; Ital. putta; from the Latin puta, young girl, putus, young boy. In Italian, putta, in Portugese puta have been taken often in good acceptation; in the oldest example of the historic account of putain, this word does not signify but a young girl in service. By its etymology, pute does not imply any bad sense, nor does girl; and it has any relation to the ancient adjective put, which comes from putidus, and signifies ugly, bad, dishonest).» (Littré).

Pire fera de jeune pute: = [Il] fera de jeune pute pire (He shall make of young boys and girls worse persons), the word pire is considered to be a substantive according to the syntactical construction of the verb FAIRE with the preposition DE in French (the verb MAKE with the preposition OF in English): faire B de A (to make B of A) .

Young boys and girls: « The Red Guards… The tenderness of their years – they have included not only youths in their early twenties or late teens but children of thirteen and fourteen – has been striking to everyone,…» (Lifton, 1970, p.38).

Proësme: = « Proesme 2, See Proeme 1.»; « Proeme 1, (prooemium). Préface, exorde, début (Preface, exordium, beginning).» (Huguet): « At the end of May [1966], Nie Yuanzi, a philosophy professor at the prestigious Beijing University (Beida) put up a wall poster criticizing the university administration’s lack of support for cultural revolution. This was part of a long running campaign by Nie for greater practical and ideological education [Proësme (a preface, a biggining)]. But this time she had the support of Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing’s aide; at Mao’s behest, Nie’s poster was read over the radio [In reading the false preface] on June 2. In response to this clear signal, wall posters spread across China’s universities and into the middle schools. Educational administrators were defenseless; many were displaced. In July regular classes were suspended and the annual exams postponed. It was announced that new enrollments would be delayed for one semester to allow schools to implement cultural revolution. Students started traveling from campus to campus to promote their campaigns. Cultural revolutionaries at the national level mobilized them as a political force.» (Reynolds, 2000, p.258).

Ionescu’s interpretation of the quatrain (Ionescu, 1976, p.668-670) attains in gross to its general theme of the Mao’s Cultural Revolution, but it is largely off the exact explication of the delicate terms such as jeune pute (which refers to the Red Guards) and proesme (which alludes not to the Little Red Book of Mao but to the first wall poster by Nie Yuanzi of Beida).
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§898 The Cuban Missile Crisis (1959-1962): V-26.

V-26 (§898):

The Slav people by a martial luck,
Shall come at a high degree, such an elevation:
They shall change their head, a provincial shall come up,
The troops shall pass the sea to the mountains in raising.

(La gent esclave par un heur martial,
Viendra en hault degré tant eslevee:
Changeront prince, naistra un provincial,
Passer la mer copie aux montz levee.)


NOTES: La gent esclave: « The Russian people, or the Slav people preeminently, is named here the “slave” people. Profiting by the phonetic resemblance between slavus [ML] and sclavus [ML], Nostradamus alludes to the destiny of this people, who had escaped the slavery of the czarist times, to fall in a much more overwhelming slavery. The expression “la gent esclave (the slave people = the Slav people)” designates therefore Russia during the Communism.» (Ionescu,19762, p.649).

Heur: « Archaism: Luck, chance; good luck.» (Dubois).

Martial: =
« the ascendant Mars » = Nikita S. Khrushchev (§894, VI-50) = Polemars: = The great Mars ((§896, II-48).

Un heur martial
: = The good luck of Nikita Khrushchev as the top leader of the USSR, when his country seemed to be highly prosperous in economy, industry, science and technology, even having a lead over the US (The Slav people by a martial luck, Shall come at a high degree).

Eslevee: = élevée ; « Eslevee. Levée.» (Huguet); « Levée. Raising; Pick up, collection (of letters).» (Gutman).

Tant eslevee: Such an elevation. The word eslevee (= élevée), not in agreement as a feminine adjective with the preceding masculine noun degré, seems to be a substantive in imitation of another substantive levée (Raising, lifting [Dubois]). And this phrase refers to the space development of the USSR under Khrushchev: « Industrially the Soviet Union gave a misleading impression of strength when in 1957 Sputnik was launched, a satellite which orbited the earth. In 1959 a Soviet rocket reached the moon and took photographs of its dark side and in 1961Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit the earth in space. These achievements appeared to show that the USSR had a lead over the US in science and technology but they used up vast resources: from 1958 the industrial growth rate declined. Khrushchev tried to promote initiative in an over-centralized system by replacing the central economic ministries by regional councils but this simply increased the provincial bureaucracy without leading to greater efficiency – the regional councils were disbanded after his fall.» (Townson,
1999, p.229).

Changeront prince: = [La gent esclave] changeront prince, prince (the first in rank) signifying the principal (chief, head) of a country: « Prince. Premier; Chef (The first; A head).» (Huguet).

Naître: « To come up, to rise, to spring up (a flower).» (Dubois).

A provincial: « The word provincia (a province), before designating an administrative unity, was with the Romans the government of a territory outside Italy, where a commander ruled in the name of Rome. It is known that Khrushchev was native of Ukraine, therefore one can say that he was a “provincial” in the proper sense of the word. But he was from the start of 1938 the First Secretary of the Party of Ukraine, and in this position he was a dictator or a “satrape (a satrap)” of this country, dependent on Moscow.» (Ionescu, id., p.649).

They shall change their head, a provincial shall come up: « By the change of government – after the death of Stalin – he who shall appear in power shall be the one who was the satrap of Ukraine.» (Ionescu, id., p.650).

Copie
: « T. de guerre, troupes, forces militaires (Term of war, troops, military forces).» (Godefroy).

Passer la mer copie aux montz: = [La] copie passer la mer aux montz (The troops shall pass the sea to the mountains): « The Soviets wanted to have an atomic base in America. They have therefore traversed the Ocean and brought in Cuba certain arms that were not of the nature of making the Americans much pleased. So there was born the conflict of the times of President Kennedy, conflict that was settled by the retreat of the Russian armed forces.» (Ionescu, id., p.650).

Levee
: = « levée. Raising, lifting.» (Dubois). This word levee is a noun, being not in agreement as a feminine adjective in the singular with the preceding masculine noun in the plural montz (mountains).

Les montz levee
: The mountains in raising, in revolt, the word les montz and the word levee are in apposition = the island of Cuba socialized by Castro’s Revolution in 1959 like the French Revolution ruled by the Montagnards (Mountaineers). The word les montz also has a reference to the real mountains in Cuba: « Cuban Revolution installs a socialist government In 1953 a little-known revolutionary and former lawyer named Fidel Castro led an assault on a government army barracks at Moncada, Cuba. The attack was a disaster and sixty of the one hundred and thirty-five men under his command were killed. Castro and many of those who survived, including his brother Raúl, were captured and tried. Almost all of those captured were later executed by the Batista regime, though in a stroke of good fortune a former university classmate who was an officer in the Cuban army had recognised Castro. Instead of being shot, Castro and his brother were given lenient sentences of fifteen years – and released after serving just two. The attack, in hindsight, marked the beginning of the Cuban Revolution and the eventual overthrow of the regime of the strongman Fulgencio Batista. In a speech on 6 October 1960, US President John F. Kennedy accused Batista of murdering twenty thousand Cubans over a seven-year period. Cuba, it seemed, was ripe for revolution. Upon his release Castro fled to Mexico where he met avowed Marxist Argentinian revolutionary Ernest ‘Che’ Guevara, and other Cuban exiles. As a response to the oppressive Batista regime they formed the 26th of July Movement and over the next seven days sailed back to Cuba on the diesel-powered yacht Granma, arriving there on 2 December 1956. Named after the date of the failed assault on the Moncada Barracks, the 26th of July Movement grew to include some three hundred fighters who repeatedly were able to withstand the largely ineffective offensives of the numerically superior Cuban army. Che Guevara rose to become the organisation’s second-in-command, assisted in training the insurgents and played a key role in the two-year campaign that would eventually see the end of the Batista regime. A series of victories over Batista’s forces through 1958 saw Castro’s revolutionaries grow in number and emerge from
their stronghold in the Sierra Maestra Mountains [Les montz levee] to march towards the capital, Havana. Castro’s forces took Havana and overthrew Batista on 1 January 1959.» (Inglis and Stone, 2010, p.263-264); « The Bay of Pigs Invasion In the end the Bay of Pigs invasion was a disaster for the new Kennedy administration and a triumph for Castro. Kennedy was humiliated whereas Castro’s oft-foretold invasion of Cuba by the United States had not come to pass - and his popularity with the Cuban people reached new heights. Castro also used the invasion as a pretext for eliminating any remaining vestiges of political opposition and arrested an estimated three hundred thousand suspected political opponents. With Castro’s position strengthened, the increased likelihood that his revolution would now succeed also convinced the Soviet Union that they could exploit the perceived weakness of the new American president and form an alliance with Cuba that would ultimately lead, in October 1962, to the Cuban Missile Crisis, described by some as the closest the world ever came to nuclear war.» (Inglis and Stone, id., p.269).

« Cuban missile crisis (October 1962) Took place when the Soviet Union began to set up nuclear missile sites in Cuba. After the
BAY OF PIGS fiasco in 1961 Fidel CASTRO asked the USSR for military protection, as he expected a US invasion. KHRUSHCHEV responded in the spring of 1962 by deciding to build missile sites in Cuba, to deter a US invasion but also to counterbalance the US’s massive superiority in long-range nuclear weapons. The preparation of sites began in early September but was unknown to the US until a U-2 flight on 15 October. The next fortnight was the most dangerous period of the COLD WAR, when nuclear war seemed likely. Kennedy discussed the possible options with only a close circle of advisers. Bombing the sites or invading Cuba was rejected, as this would provoke Soviet reprisals which might lead to a full-scale nuclear war which neither side wanted. He therefore opted for a blockade, which would allow the USSR a way out, and on 22 October broadcast to the nation on television. The President demanded that the missiles be withdrawn and announced a ‘quarantine’ on the shipment of offensive weapons to Cuba. The ‘quarantine’ was supported unanimously by the OAS (Organization of American States) and by the US’s NATO allies and began on 24 October, when eight aircraft carriers and 170 other vessels formed an arc 500 miles (800 km) from the eastern tip of Cuba. Khrushchev ordered the Soviet ships sailing to Cuba to return home, so confrontation was avoided but the crisis continued, as there was pressure on both sides to take decisive action. On 26 October Khrushchev offered to withdraw the missiles if the US promised not to invade Cuba, but a day later he delivered a stronger message on Moscow radio by demanding that the US should withdraw its missiles from Turkey. Kennedy decided against openly agreeing to this, as it would be seen as weakness and a betrayal of Turkey, so he accepted Khrushchev’s first offer, giving a private undertaking to withdraw the missiles in Turkey, which was done in 1963. On 28 October Khrushchev agreed and the crisis was over, though Castro was furious as he had not been consulted. On 21 November the quarantine ended.» (Townson, 1999, p.93-94).

Ionescu’s interpretation identifying metaphorically the phrase “Passer la mer copie aux montz levee” with the historical event of Hannibal « who had traversed the Alps » (Ionescu, 1976, p.650) cannot be pertinent because Hannibal’s destination was Rome via the Alps, whereas the Russian destination was just the island of Cuba via the Sea. In fact, grammatically the French preposition à (aux montz = à + les montz) (to in English) marks among others “Lieu de destination (the place of destination)” (Petit Robert).

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§897 Meteorological mechanism of snowing and raining (1945-1960): X-70.

X-70 (§897):

The eye by an object shall make such an excrescence,
And so ardent that snow shall fall,
The watered field shall be decreasing,
So that the prime shall fall down to Reggio.

(L'œil par object fera telle excroissance,
Tant & ardante que tumbera la neige,
Champ arrousé viendra en decroissance,
Que le primat succumbera à Rege.)


NOTES: This seemingly awkward quatrain explains from the modern scientific point of view the meteorological mechanism of snowing and raining.

Here is a meteorological explanation in brief of snowing and raining: « 
Water in the atmosphere. WATER-VAPOUR is an ever-present, though minor constituent of the atmosphere. Unlike the major components oxygen and nitrogen, its concentration varies greatly in space and time; it is added to the lowest layers by evaporation from the oceans and land surfaces, and removed from the mid-troposhere by the formation of rain and snow which falls to the surface. [by P. Squires].» (Fletcher, 1962, p.1).

This most compact explanation provides us with sufficient interpretation of the greater part of the verses concerned as follows: « WATER-VAPOUR is an ever-present, though minor constituent of the atmosphere. Unlike the major components oxygen and nitrogen, its concentration varies greatly in space and time; it is added to the lowest layers by
evaporation from the oceans and land surfaces [The watered field shall be decreasing], and removed from the mid-troposhere by the formation of rain and snow [ ... shall make such an excrescence ] which falls to the surface [that snow shall fall, that the prime shall fall down to Reggio ].»

Now, it remains to make explicit the phrases: The eye by an object ... and And so ardent ..., where the eye refers to the Sun, so ardent to the heat from the Sun, and an object to foreign particles in suspension in the air as indispensable substrata for the condensation of water-vapour to form snow and rain. In fact, the evaporation in question is to be caused principally by the heat from the Sun upon the Earth and there is no homogeneous condensation, i.e. the condensation without foreign particles in the concrete event of snowing and raining.

The eye (l'œil): = « Das Auge des Himmels (the eye of the heaven).» (Centurio, 1953, p.226); « The eye is here the Sun, commonly considered as “the eye of God” in the Hermetic books.» (Clébert, 2003, p.1136). Of 16 usages of the words œil/yeux in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 8 are in the proper sense (I-23, I-35, II-12, II-14, III-55, IV-25, IV-31 and XII-36), 6 are metaphors (I-6, III-92, IV-15, VII-11, IX-95 and X-70) and 2 are synecdoche (I-27 and III-41).

By an object: « Condensation. The existence of clouds in the atmosphere is due to the fact that when moist air is expanded adiabatically its relative humidity is increased. The relative humidity may be expected to exceed saturation. And once saturation is exceeded by an almost negligible amount condensation begins. Condensation is a process which does not occur easily in a pure environment. For pure water-vapour at room temperature the vapour-pressure must be about four times its saturation value before appreciable condensation occurs. However, the atmosphere is not a pure environment but contains numerous small dust-paticles which may be neutral or electrically charged, droplets of various solutions and soluble crystals. Upon this suspended material condensation occurs easily at supersaturations ranging from a few hundreds of one per cent up to some tens of per cent.» (Fletcher, id., p.32).

« 
Sublimation and Freezing. As a cloud rises through the atmosphere it is cooled by its nearly adiabatic expansion and its summit temperature may often fall below the freezing-point. Just as a pure vapour when made supersaturated does not condense spontaneously until a very large supersaturation is reached, so a pure liquid will not freeze spontaneously until supercooled well below its equilibrium freezing temperature. In the case of water the supercooling required for such homogeneous freezing is in the neighbourhood of 40° C. Again, as in the case of condensation, suspended particles may act as nuclei for the freezing process and if such nuclei are present freezing may occur with only a few degrees of supercooling. Ice-forming nuclei (leaving aside the question of whether they act by sublimation or freezing) occur naturally in the atmosphere, but in comparison with condensation nuclei which exist in hundreds per cubic centimetre they are rare, and nuclei producing ice-crystals at temperatures warmer than – 20° C typically occur only in concentrations of the order of one per litre. For this reason ice-crystals do not usually occur in appreciable numbers in cloud-tops until their temperature has fallen to about – 20° C.» (Fletcher, id., p.33-34).

An excrescence: « Stability of clouds. A cloud, as formed, is an assembly of tiny droplets numbering perhaps one hundred or so per cubic centimetre and having radii of about 10 μ. This structure is remarkably stable as a rule, the droplets showing little tendency to come together or to change their sizes except by a general growth of the whole population. There are two different mechanisms by which the microstructure of a cloud may become unstable. The first mechanism involves the direct collision and coalescence of water droplets and may be important in any cloud. The second involves the interaction between water droplets and ice-crystals and is confined to those clouds whose tops penetrate above the freezing-level. Very small droplets are unable to collide with each other, no matter what their original trajectories. However, when the radius of one droplet exceeds about 18 μ, collisions with a limited range of smaller droplets become possible; for larger drops the collision efficiency increases sharply. It is thus to be expected that clouds containing negligible numbers of droplets larger than 18 μ will prove stable as far as coalescence is concerned, whilst clouds containing appreciable numbers of large droplets may develop precipitation. This critical radius lies within the range of normal large cloud drop sizes and clouds belonging to both categories exist.» (Fletcher, id., p.34-35).

Precipitaion: « When an ice-crystal exists in the presence of a large number of supercooled water droplets the situation is immediately unstable. The vapour-pressure over ice is less than that over water (by about one per cent for every degree below freezing) and as a consequence the water droplets tend to evaporate whilst the ice-crystal grows. This direct vapour transfer is most efficient at temperatures near – 15° C, where the absolute vapour-pressure difference is greatest. Growth is most rapid when the ice-crystal is small because the diffusion gradient is then very sharp; as growth continues the growth-rate decreases. Once the ice-crystal has grown appreciably larger than the water droplets, however, it begins to fall relative to them and collisions become possible. If these collisions are primarily with other ice-crystals then snowflakes form, whilst if water droplets are collected graupel (sleet) or hail may result. Once the ice-structure falls below the freezing-level melting may occur, and upon emerging from the cloud base the raindrop may be indistinguishable from one formed by coalescence. In cold weather on the other hand, or when large hailstones are involved, the precipitation may reach the ground unmelted.» (Fletcher, id., p.35).

Ardante: = Ardent (ardent) in the feminine in agreement with the precedent «excroissance», it being in reality an attribute to the eye. Here is an extravagant wordplay by Nostradamus, for « ardant » as a noun in ancient French has a meaning of « the fire of hell (feu d’enfer)» (Godefroy).

Tumber: = Tomber (to fall). « TOMBER. Often tumber in the Middle Ages and still in many speeches
, following tumer: “gambader (to leap, to gambol), danser (to dance)”.» (Bloch & Wartburg).

The watered field: A field as any extensive surface in general. « Thus, tropical regions are on the whole a source-region for water-vapour, and polar regions a sink; the oceans as a whole are a source-region, and obviously the continents, or at least those part of them which drain to the oceans, must be sinks.» (Fletcher, id., p.1).

The prime: = The first precipitation; « primat [prima] m. Primate; Primacy.» (Dubois).

Succumber: = Succomber. « SUCCOMBER, from the Latin succumbere (to lay onself or fall or sink under).» (Bloch & Wartburg; Smith-Lockwood).

Rege: = Reggio as an arbitrarily mentioned place: « The identification of Rege with Reggio nell’Emilia seems to be confirmed by the two citations of Montaigne who, in speaking about this city, writes in succession Rege and Regge.» (Clébert, id., p.1137).

« The study of cloud physics has been a comparatively neglected branch of meteorology, and an understanding of the relatively simple physics of the precipitation process has come very late in that particular science. The main reason for this seems to have been the difficulty of measuring, in cloud, many of the quantities involved. However, in the past ten or fifteen years [i.e., since 1945 or 1950], some of these difficulties have been overcome and a vast extension has taken place in our knowledge of the subject. [Foreword by E.G.Bowen, January 1961]» (Fletcher, id., p.v).
- This article first published on this Blog: 2015-02-21(19:20) -
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§896 Anti-Communist Revolution in Hungary (1956-1959): II-48.

II-48 (§896):

The great army that shall pass the mountains.
Saturn in the Bow turning Mars of the Fishes:
The poisons hidden under the heads of salmons,
Their chiefs hanged by a thread of polemars.

(La grand copie que passera les monts.
Saturne en l'Arq tournant du poisson Mars:
Venins cachés sous testes de saulmons,
Leurs chief pendu à fil de polemars.)

NOTES: Que: = Qui, according to the old usage. The nominative relative pronoun “ qui ” is replaced frequently by “ que ” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus according to the exceptional usages of the XVIth century): « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70). Cf. ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4), Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96), Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98), L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché (§603, III-91) and also I-99, II-10, III-54, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VI-19, VIII-28, VIII-88, IX-29, X-10 and X-22.

The mountains: = The Carpathian Mountains, whose part in Ruthenia (Carpatho-Ukraine), then USSR, has a main road connecting Hungary and USSR via Chop (Ukraine) and Debrecen (Hungary).

The great army that shall pass the mountains: « What happened in Hungary in October 1956 was not a revolution but an insurrection. It was an uprising. When it began it was spontaneous and leaderless, and it was truly a movement of the masses bound by one common hatred of the old regime. Yet it was an anti-Communist uprising like no other.» (Irving, 2001, p.7); « The most immediate threat to the regime’s prestige is posed by the rebel strongholds still holding out in Budapest itself. Reinforcements are pouring in for them from the countryside: on October 26th, 290 young men aged from about sixteen to twenty-one, mostly the sons of miners, arrive from Dorog. The scenes in the capital are extraordinary: there are bread queues, and patient shoppers waiting to obtain food; there are insurgents hurrying past them, gripping rifles; there are crowds of curious onlookers, rushing from battle to battle. But it is the tanks that dominate the street scene, whether poised motionless at intersections like panthers listening for the rustle of their prey, or swivelling, or firing - or rattling past, crowded with fifteen or twenty insurgents brandishing flags and rifles and flanked by excited long-haired youths on bicycles. A tank’s main gun coughs not far away. A split second later the air waves pluck at the eardrums, and a distant building’s facade crumples on to the pavement. People scatter, then re-form and continue their walking. Since the early morning of October 26th Russian tanks have bombarded the Kilián Barracks, now under Colonel Maléter’s command, and shelled the buildings opposite and along Üllői Road. Faćades collapse in showers of mortar dust with a rumble that mingles with the splintering crump of petrol bombs, the crackle of machine-gun fire and the screams of the injured.» (Irving, id., p.376); « In 1955 General Batov became commander of the Carpathian Military District with headquarters at Łvov; his District encompassed eleven sub-districts in the Ukraine with the Kiev Military District to the north and the Odessa District to the south… Batov crossed the frontier himself, going as far forward as Szolnok, a city in eastern Hungary. “I personally did not witness the fighting. I was at Szolnok when I got the order from the defence minister that I was to return to Lvov and that my troops would come under the command of Marshal Koniev.” The River Tisza had swathed the airfield in fog, and Batov and his staff flew back at low altitude looking for landmarks. “But, orders were orders! . . . The army corps stationed in Hungary was commanded by General Larshenko. When the counter-revolution blazed up, Larshenko issued orders to his troops to keep well out of things. Even the troops that were sent into Hungary from my District and from the Odessa Military District had express orders not to open fire. They were forbidden to open fire. For the first five days we did not even return the fire!”» (Irving, id., p.379-380); « In Moscow the order of priorities is reversed. Hungary is very much on the agenda of the Soviet presidium as it meets. Barely has Moscow radio broadcast late on October 30th the Kremlin declaration of policy towards the satellite nations, when the news arrives of the British and French ultimatum to Egypt. The news ripples round the presidium. Three days later Nikita S. Khrushchev will tell a diplomat - who notes it in his diary - that this has created what he calls a “favourable moment” for the Soviet intervention in Hungary.» (Irving, id., p.495); « More Soviet armoured troops were leaguered along the main road coming from Chop, on the Ukraine frontier, to Budapest through Szolnok, Debrecen, and Nyíregyháza, and that Russian anti-aircraft units were guarding the bridges over the Tisza at Szolok and the Danube at Dunaföldvár.» (Irving, id., p.508); « There were odd occurrences at other cities, like Pécs. At about seven p.m. an accountant at the local railway station came and tipped off the biochemist who was chief of staff of the city’s rebel leader, Professor Csikor: “There is a radio system linking the railway centres. And Chop has just informed us that Russians are pouring into Hungary by rail. They’ve counted fourteen trainloads of tanks.”» (Irving, id., p.562).

Arq
: = Arc (a bow). Cf. « arcus (earlier arquus). A bow; the rainbow.» (Smith-Lockwood).

Tournant: From « Tourner. Changer; Traduire; Recommencer, revenir; Recommencer à, revenir à; Devenir (To turn: To change; To translate; To recommence, to come back; To recommence to do, to come back to; To become).» (Huguet).

Saturn in the Bow turning Mars of the Fishes: « These indications are verily remarkable, for they give us not only the positions of the two planets, but also “tourner (to turn; a change of direction)” of the march of Mars. And let’s consult now the tables of planetary positions and we shall have a surprise of confirming the three facts: 1° During the revolution (23 October-4 November 1956) Saturn was in the Archer; 2° For the same span of time Mars was found in the Fishes; 3° Just on the eve of this interval of time Mars turned from its retrogression to its progression.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.645).

Astrological verification of the three facts
[by means of StellaNavigator
by AstroArts Inc., 2010; at Budapest 47°30′N, 19°01′E, LST = GMT + 1 H]:
1° During the revolution (23 October-4 November 1956) Saturn was in the Archer (240°-270° of longitude):
23 October 1956 00:00:00 241°15′38″
in progression
5 November 1956 00:00:00 242°41′53″

2° For the same span of time Mars was found in the Fishes (330°-360° of longitude):
23 October 1956 00:00:00 344°09′45″
in progression
27 October 1956 00:00:00 344°53′21″
1 November 1956 00:00:00 346°02′27″
5 November 1956 00:00:00 347°08′37″

3° Just on the eve of this interval of time Mars turned from its retrogression to its progression.
11 August 1956 00:00:00 353°38′48″
in retrogression
11 September 1956 00:00:00 348°07′15″
11 October 1956 00:00:00 343°08′27″
11 October 1956 01:00:00 343°08′26″
11 October 1956 02:00:00 343°08′26″
in progression
11 October 1956 03:00:00 343°08′27″
11 October 1956 04:00:00 343°08′29″
11 October 1956 05:00:00 343°08′31″
12 October 1956 00:00:00 343°09′18″
13 October 1956 00:00:00 343°10′56″
14 October 1956 00:00:00 343°13′23″
19 October 1956 00:00:00 343°37′15″
23 October 1956 00:00:00 344°09′45″

N.B. If the word “tourner” or “tournant” means specifically “rétrograder (to retrograde)” (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.262) or “rückläufig (in regression)” (Wöllner, 1926, p.61), the cases of the year fitting the second verse are only three during the period 1555-2000:
1751
A.D.: Saturn in the Bow (17 October 1750-11 January, 1753 and 11 August, 1753-26 September 1753), and Mars in regression in the Fishes (14 August 1751-14 October 1751);
1956
A.D.: Saturn in the Bow (12 January 1956-14 May 1956 and 10 October 1956-5 January 1959), and Mars in regression in the Fishes (10 August 1956-10 October 1956);
1988
A.D.: Saturn in the Bow (10 June 1988-12 November 1988), and Mars in regression in the Fishes (23 October 1988-27 October 1988). [At Budapest 47°30′N, 19°01′E, LMT = GMT + 1:16:20; calculation by means of a free soft: StarFisher by Kubec, T., 2006-2011, and StellaNavigator by AstroArts Inc., 2010].
Of these, the case 1956 A.D. is congruent with the other verses of the quatrain as Ionescu argued so .

The heads of salmons
: In the context of the regime in question, “the heads” probably refer to the chief members of the government or the Party, and, therefore, “salmons”, put in cognate relation with the word “poisson (fish)”, to the peoples of the nation: « The capital’s radio started its day’s broadcasting. It was now Sunday, October 28th. The news bulletins stated that the city had been quiet during the night: “There were no armed clashes.” At six
A.M. the news was that talks had taken place between the army and various rebel leaders. A truce had been reached with the rebels in Széna and Moscow Squares. Colonel Maléter was still fighting at the Kilián Barracks. There had been heavy casualties on both sides. Captain Illes, father of four and a Party member since 1945, had been shot dead by a wounded Soviet tank officer: the Russian was captured, and said his unit had been sent into Budapest from Romania. Two Russian 122-millimetre self-propelled guns positioned near the Café Valeria in Üllői Road had begun systematically blasting the corner of the barracks. They were finished off by petrol bombs from the Corvin Passage fighters. Maléter later told reporter Sefton Delmer that a Hungarian officer arrived under a flag of truce and left with him a copy of the Free People listing Imre Nagy’s new Cabinet [The heads of salmons]... At one twenty p.m. Imre Nagy caved in, and ordered the ceasefire. The official communique unexpectedly broadcast by Budapest radio was signed by Nagy himself: The government of the Hungarian People’s Republic orders an immediate ceasefire to stop further bloodshed and ensure peaceful development. It instructs the armed forces that they should fire only if attacked... At five twenty-three p.m., he himself delivered a broadcast that was startling as much for its language as for its content. In words that echoed the morning’s Free People editorial, he declared that the uprising was not a “counter-revolution” as some people were claiming. “The government disapproves of views which contend that the present powerful stirring of the people is a counter-revolution . . . There can be no doubt whatever that this was a national democratic movement, which has inspired and united our whole nation [salmons]... In the midst of the fighting was born a government of democratic national unity, independence and socialism which has become the genuine means for expressing the people’s will.” Right at the end, after all this meaningless hogwash, came the words that mattered: “The Hungarian government has come to an agreement with the Soviet government whereby Soviet troops shall immediately begin their withdrawal from Budapest,” this to be “simultaneous with the establishment of the new security forces.” And more than that: the broadcast revealed that talks had begun on “the question of the withdrawal of Soviet troops stationed in Hungary”; and to cap that the ÁVH, the despised security police force, would be abolished “after the restoration of order”... At five thirty-five p.m. the radio announced that the Central Committee approved of Nagy’s declaration. It was its dying act: it now abdicated Party leadership in favour of a six-man emergency committee, or presidium [The heads of salmons], evenly divided between Nagy’s men (Kádár, Nagy and Szántó) and the old Stalinists (Apró, Kiss and Münnich). These names from the past showed that the Party was even further out of touch with the workers.» (Irving, id., p.414-417);

« The mobs began systematically demolishing Soviet monuments, including the immense victory memorial on Gellért Hill. Irregular fusillades continued all day as rebel posses ran their victims to earth. An orgy of assassination and destruction was beginning. At three p .m. Spencer Barnes suggested to Washington that the Western press would do well to “omit atrocity stories” of any kind. He had an inkling, evidently, that a deeper strategy lay behind these ugly scenes. Party leader János Kádár could see the Nagy regime slithering to the right. A few weeks later he commented, “ By his impotence and passivity under the onslaught of the counter-revolution, he actually camouflaged and protected the murderous counter-revolutionary White Terror . . . If he was powerless, he should have resigned and told the country and the world that counter-revolutionaries were massacring the Communists and other progressive patriots, workers and members of the intelligentsia in the streets of Budapest.” After talks in Academy Street with Mikoyan and Georg Lukács, the respected Party philosopher, about resuscitating the Communist Party under yet another name, he began canvassing for support. That evening Lukács telephoned playwright Julius Háy: “Regards from Kádár,” he said. “He’s inviting you, Tibor Déry and me and one or two other writers to join a preparatory committee for the new Party.” Háy brooded about it, then turned him down. None of the writers who were invited joined, which was as well, because of the seven-man preparatory committee announced by Kádár next day only he survived unscathed. One was hanged, one was killed in jail, the other four were imprisoned by Kádár’s judges.» (Irving, id., p.497-498);

« What happened to change his mind? It can only have been a tip-off about the change in the Kremlin’s mood. That day the Yugoslav ambassador Dalibor Soldatić called on Nagy for half an hour. They spoke German with each other. Soldatić was a typical Dalmatian, pleasant, handsome and over-dressed, with a handkerchief in his top pocket. It is likely that he again urged Nagy to make a tougher stand against both the Russians and the insurgents. After he left, Imre Nagy went with Kádár for a final conference with Mikoyan and Suslov at Academy Street before they returned to Moscow. The Central Committee building was already under National Guard control. In the lobby, a number of expressionless men in sombre topcoats and Russian caps waited beneath the tall marble pillars for Mikoyan and Suslov to reappear. Nagy tackled them about the controversial troop movements; afterwards he re- 499 assured his Cabinet that the Russians described them as routine and confirmed their readiness to begin talks on the revision of the Warsaw Pact. Nagy invited them to nominate representatives and to fix a time and place for talks to begin on the Soviet withdrawal. After a while Nagy came out of Kádár’s room; Münnich, the sinister minister of the interior, was with them, beaming a fat smile. Suslov emerged with Mikoyan shortly after; both men were wearing dark blue topcoats. There was a broad smile on Suslov’s face too. A journalist from Julius Obersovszky’s rebel newspaper Truth had gatecrashed the building and stationed himself near the door. The Kremlin men shook hands with him, too, as they hurried out to their waiting armoured vehicle. (“We were equal partners” - the reporter would triumph in his report - “the Hungarian press and representatives of the Soviet government.”) The tank convoy moved off and conveyed the Russians to the airfield, taking the same route that Rákosi had taken in July, and Gerő, Hegedüs and Piros only three days before.» (Irving, id., p.498-499);

« Shortly afterwards, Imre Nagy again spoke to the people; this time he did so from the street’s own level. And this time he had a sensational new Cabinet decision to impart. He walked down into Parliament Square, mounted the steps of the pink granite memorial to Louis Kossuth, shuffled his notes, struck a pose, choked back the word “Comrades” that sprang so naturally to his lips, and began: “Hungarian brethren!” He continued, “I speak to you again with warm and affectionate greetings!” He described the dramatic week’s events, he talked of the country’s new sovereignty and independence, and of how they had expelled the Rákosi/Gerö gang. Then he complained, “They tried to smear me too, they spread the lie that I called in the Soviet troops . . . Imre Nagy, the champion of Hungarian sovereignty, Hungarian freedom and Hungarian independence, did not call in those troops. On the contrary, it was he who fought for their withdrawal.” Then he delivered the sensational news to his audience. “This day,” he announced, “we have started negotiations for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from our country and for the abrogation of the obligations imposed on us by the Warsaw Pact.” Be patient! Have confidence in Imre Nagy! Negotiations have started! This was his message as he stepped down and vanished back inside the Parliament building...» (Irving, id., p.499-500);

The poisons hidden under the heads: Some of the leaders in the Party or in the government are going to be noxious to the government (Kádár, Münnich, Marosán, Horváth, Kossa, Apró, Dögei and Rónai).

The poisons hidden under the heads of salmons: « As the last insurgent strongholds crumbled, two things became clear: the invaders enjoyed no support from Hungarian forces; and they had set up a complaisant new “government”, albeit one that did not yet dare show itself inside Hungary. At its head was János Kádár, with Münnich as his deputy premier and minister of the armed forces and public security; Marosán, Horváth, Kossa, Apró, Dögei and Rónai completed this willing tool of Soviet foreign policy. Nagy probably heard of this only in the Yugoslav embassy. It was a cruel blow. Thus the disappearance of Münnich and Kádár on November 1st was explained: according to Kádár’s chauffeur it was Münnich who had talked him into meeting the Russians. They made the car halt in Gorky Avenue outside the Soviet embassy, and here they alighted and talked for some time before transferring to an embassy car parked nearby. From Tököl air base they were flown to Uzhgorod, in the Carpatho-Ukraine. That night they flew on to Moscow, and Bulganin could telephone the triumphant news to Khrushchev in Yugoslavia. In June 1957 Kádár would admit that they had begun talks on November 2nd “with the Soviet comrades” and with other Soviet bloc leaders about the need to smash the uprising and, as he put it, about “the assistance which would be granted to the Hungarian People’s Republic to that end”. “Those negotiations,” said Kádár, “began on November 2nd; by November 3rd we were all set, and on November 4th the offensive began.” Was this Kádár’s valiant attempt to salvage at least some of the doomed uprising’s achievements, regardless of the odium? One thing was plain to him: he had embarked on a course that would brand him for all time as the Judas Iscariot [The poisons hidden under] of his nation. He would say a few weeks later to applauding trades unionists, “When we considered the formation of this government on November 3rd we knew full well that we would not be received with garlands of flowers. But I was convinced that we were right and that the people would understand our deeds and that they would approve of and respect the fact that we opposed the counter-revolutionary torrent and saved the Hungarian proletarian dictatorship.”
This morning, November 4th, as the Soviet hordes they have invoked are killing Hungarians and pulverising Budapest, Kádár and Münnich are still on Russian soil. But both have recorded speeches and these are broadcast from the radio transmitter at Szolnok, a large Soviet garrison town sixty-five miles southeast of Budapest. The first goes out at five past five A.M. It is Münnich's broadcast of an open letter dated “Budapest, November 4th”. This declared that he and his colleagues broke with Nagy on November 1st and have set up a Revolutionary Worker-Peasant government because “respected sons of the working class have been exterminated” - Münnich mentions his own friend Sziklai, as well as Mező and Kalamár, the Party boss in Csepel. It is this “government” that has asked for Soviet help against “fascism and reaction and its murderous bands”. An hour later Kádár’s voice is heard broadcasting a verbose statement that begins: “The Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government has been formed . . .”» (Irving, id., p.585-586).

« Where was Imre Nagy? Some rumoured that he was dead, others that he was already flying to New York. In fact Nagy and his group were still in the Yugoslav embassy, and they were not comfortable. They behaved as if they were still the legal government - as indeed they were. There were endless discussions about organising a new movement. Nagy wavered… Nagy’s presence in the Yugoslav embassy was most unwelcome to Kádár. He wanted Nagy well out of the way, somewhere where his name could no longer exert its disruptive magnetic pull through the embassy walls. But if Nagy had flirted with the idea of extending his asylum in Yugoslavia itself, this idea was rudely dispelled by Tito in a speech on November 11th. Speaking at Rula on the Dalmatian coast, Tito poured vitriol on the uprising and justified the Soviet intervention. “I can assure you, comrades, I know the men who have formed this new government. And in my view they incorporate all that is honourable in Hungary.” Kádár was gaining time while he recreated his police arm, a successor to the ÁVH called the “ karhatalmi század”. By November 10th, the first regiment of this militia had been recruited, “primarily from former ÁVH men and other officials of the ministry of the interior”, as an official publication admitted some weeks later. By the week after that two more regiments had been raised and uniformed in the kapok jackets that were to become their trademark. Several hundred army officers were given the choice of resigning their commissions or joining this militia, in which case they had to sign a declaration approving the “help” that the Soviet army was rendering.» (Irving, id., p.600-601).

« The Hungarian uprising of 1956 was crushed by a man who became instantly one of the most reviled men in his country. That same man is today one of Hungary’s most genuinely popular citizens, János Kádár. His life has sprung many contradictions, which cannot only be explained by his subservience to Moscow’s fickle whim. Initially, he identified himself with the uprising, served in its government, and referred to its origins even one month later, in a broadcast on November 26th, as a “mass movement”; but by February 2nd he had shifted to harder ground, and declaimed to Party activists at Salgótarján, “A counter-revolution began in Hungary on October 23rd, 1956, in exactly the same way as it did on August 2nd, 1919.” He put the country through a period of savage repression, which culminated in the execution of the (other) “accomplices of Imre Nagy” in 1959. By that time, in fact, such a barbarity was quite superfluous, because the storm’s force was long spent: his subjects had finally accepted that there was to be no escape from the Soviet empire, that the Western powers had written them off and that they must make the best life they could for themselves under Marxist bureaucratic rule.» (Irving, id., p.7-8); « Kádár would not even let the United Nations send in observers. The Indian prime minister, Pandit Nehru, gave his special ambassador, Krishna Menon, the job of changing Kádár’s mind. He flew to Moscow, then on to Budapest, arriving there on December 1st. Not until December 5th could he see the prime minister in Parliament. “Kádár,” he related later to another ambassador in Moscow, “is virtually a prisoner, surrounded by Soviet tanks and with Soviet sentries inside the building.” For Menon the interview was most depressing. Kádár had no authority whatsoever and was afraid to leave the building. He was implacably against any UN visit. “It is quite impossible at the present time,” he kept repeating.» (Irving, id., p.606).

Polemars: = The great Mars = « the ascendant Mars » = Nikita S. Khrushchev (§894, VI-50) because « “Pol” (from the Greek πολύς, πολλὴ = grand [great]) is after all the Greek correspondent to the Hungarian word “nagy”, namely “grand [great]”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.643; p.648). And in addition, “Polemars” can signify “the policy of Khrushchev, “pole” being used in the Prophecies of Nostradamus for “the Greek
πόλις [polis]” (une ville, a city: VIII-81), whence originates the word “policy”.

Leurs chief: = Leurs chefs (their chiefs).

Their chiefs hanged: « It is exactly what happened to the two leaders of the revolution: Imre Nagy and General Pál Maléter were hanged by the government of Kadar, reinstalled by the Soviets.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.645).

By a thread of polemars: By the strategical decision of Khrushchev, the head of the USSR, suzerain of the Communist Hungary, the word “fil (a thread)” can be granted a nuance of “tele-operation”.

Their chiefs hanged by a thread of polemars: « In Moscow the order of priorities is reversed. Hungary is very much on the agenda of the Soviet presidium as it meets. Barely has Moscow radio broadcast late on October 30th the Kremlin declaration of policy towards the satellite nations, when the news arrives of the British and French ultimatum to Egypt. The news ripples round the presidium. Three days later Nikita S. Khrushchev will tell a diplomat - who notes it in his diary - that this has created what he calls a “favourable moment” for the Soviet intervention in Hungary.» (Irving, id., p.495); « Khrushchev has changed his mind. The change can be followed from the echoes it provokes. In Poland, there is a change in Gomulka’s posture. Only two days earlier he has supported the rebel demand for Soviet withdrawal from Hungary, but by October 31st he has come to his senses: suppose ordinary Poles choose to emulate their Hungarian neighbours? A few days later he will explain to 2,000 party activists: “One cannot doubt that restoration of the capitalist system in Hungary would have greatly weakened the socialist camp. Nobody wants such a weakening . . . Each and every one of us must be a political realist.” So, he sends deputy defence minister Marian Naszkowski and Central Committee member Artur Starewic secretly to Budapest to confer with the Soviet minister, Mikoyan. Hearing of this visit, the American ambassador in Warsaw will later conjecture: “It is conceivable that at this meeting, which may have also been attended by representatives of Communist parties of other countries, a recommendation was made or decisions were taken which ultimately resulted in the bringing of Soviet or satellite armed forces into Hungary.” On October 31st the Polish newspapers begin blasting the “counter-revolutionary forces” in Budapest. That evening, Pravda presses roll off the last indulgent account of events in Budapest. By late evening, Mikoyan and Suslov are back in Moscow, reporting on the ugly trends: the new parties springing up in Hungary, the danger of free elections, the collapse of the Communist apparatus, the pogrom of Republic Square. Khrushchev sets out on a whistle stop tour of satellite capitals. No need to visit East Berlin; Walter Ulbricht is the most Stalinist of his viceroys. First he flies to Poland and then to Romania. The Bulgarian and Czechoslovakian leaders have sent their representatives to Bucharest. A rescue operation is beginning.» (Irving, id., p.501-502);

« It was some time after mid-May 1958 - because on May 15th Kádár was still assuring the visiting Polish leader, Gomulka, that the Nagy affair would be “settled bloodlessly” - Moscow’s order went out to Budapest: the man was to be tried and hanged [Their chiefs hanged by a thread of polemars]. The second trial took place from June 9th to 15th, 1958, in the military courtroom at Fő utca prison. Former ÁVH officers, rewarded thus for their role during the uprising, sat as guards during the trial. The witness box was bathed in spotlights, and witnesses could not see into the gloomy courtroom. The defendants - Nagy, Tildy, Kopácsi, Gimes, Vásárhelyi and the others - sat in semi-darkness. The judge was Francis Vida; one of his lay assessors was the widow of Mező, martyred on Republic Square. Once Kopácsi managed to ask Maléter what sentence he expected. Maléter drew a hand across his neck. He added, “Alex, you’ll probably survive. Don’t forget: Tőkől, Sashalom, Gorky Avenue, Fő utca prison!” On June 14th, 1958, he, Nagy, and Gimes were sentenced to death, and hanged next day [Their chiefs hanged by a thread of polemars]. Kopácsi was jailed for life, Donáth for twelve years, Tildy for six, Jánosi for eight and Vásárhelyi for five. Afterwards rumours circulated that Imre Nagy had been seen in the Crimea - that his old comrade Kádár had not hanged him at all, but had spared his life in the way he was rumoured to have promised a new life to Rajk in 1949 if only he would confess his crimes; the death sentence would just be for the sake of appearances. Nagy had refused to toe that line. He had not confessed, and that was his most unpardonable sin. It was August 1958 before his wife and daughter, still imprisoned in Romania, learned that he had been put on trial and sentenced to death. When they returned from Romania in December 1958 Mrs. Nagy found she had been dispossessed of everything: that was part of the People’s Court sentence on her husband.» (Irving, id., p.614-615).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§895 Hungarian Communist regime; Anti-Communist Revolution (1949-1956): II-90.

II-90 (§895):

By life and death being changed the reign of Hungary:
The law shall be more harsh than useful,
Their great city of screams, complaints and a proclamation:
Castor and Pollux enemies in the lists.

(Par vie & mort changé regne d'Ongrie:
La loy sera plus aspre que service,
Leur grand cité d'hurlemens plaincts & crie:
Castor & Pollux ennemis dans la lyce.)

NOTES: Service: The word service is considered to be an elliptic form of the idiom « De service, Capable de servir, d’être utile (Capable of serving, being useful).» (Huguet, s.v. Service).

By life and death being changed the reign of Hungary: The law shall be more harsh than useful: « On 19 March 1944, German troops occupied Hungary to force the creation of a more German-friendly government. The Red Army advanced into the country from December, and on 22 December 1944 the USSR created an alternative provisional Hungarian government. By 4 April 1945 the country was under Soviet control. In the following three years the country was transformed into a Communist state, through the harassment of non-Communist opposition, and the forced merger of the Communist Party and the Social Democrats to form the Hungarian Worker’s Party on 12 June 1948. This prepared the ground for the declaration of a Communist ‘People’s Republic’ on 20 August 1949 [being changed the reign of Hungary]. Soviet control over the party was intensified by a series of purges under the hardline Rákosi [The law shall be more harsh than useful], which began in 1948-9 with the imprisonment of Rajk.» (Palmowski, p.304) « Rajk, Laszlo (1909-1949). Hungarian Communist leader… Released form a German concentration camp only in May 1945, he soon became Minister of the Interior, in which capacity he organized a terror campaign to facilitate the Communist takeover of the state in 1948. Shortly afterwards, he became one of the first victims of Stalin’s purges, despite his previous unstinting loyalty to the despot. Rajk was replaced by Kádár, and on 19 May 1949 the show trials had been prepared sufficiently for him to be arrested. He was persuaded to admit to false charges, ostensibly for the good of Communism. He was duly sentenced to capital punishment, and executed [By life and death, this phrase focusing ordinarily on death]. The lavish funeral after his posthumous rehabilitation on 6 October 1956 was attended by over 200,000 people, and marked one of the triggers of the Hungarian Revolution.» (Palmowski, p.568); « Over-investment in heavy industry at the expense of consumption, in a country devoid of the necessary raw materials, further heightened dissatisfaction, not only in the cities. Incomes in agriculture dropped, so that in 1953 incomes were at 30 per cent of their levels in 1949. With the death of Stalin the repressive system [The law shall be more harsh than useful] became untenable, and Rákosi was replaced by the moderate Nagy in 1953. Rákosi’s return to power in 1955 defied completely the popular mood in the country, and ultimately led to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The Revolution’s defeat led to the exodus of around 200,000 Hungarians, who feared the creation of a repressive neo-Stalinist regime under Kádár.» (Palmowski, p.304).

Castor & Pollux: « The last verse gives us a fascinating mythologic metaphor. According to the mythology, Leda, pregnant at once by her husband Tyndareus and by Jupiter (transformed into a swan), was going to bear two sons. The first, originating from the seed of her husband, was mortal; another, springing from the junction with Jupiter, was immortal. The battle in the arena of the twins is a clear image of the civil war. Castor (the mortal) can represent the materialist doctrine, and implicitly, the communist faction. Pollux (the son of Jupiter) can symbolize the national and Christian forces that wanted to liberate the country. The names of the mythologic twins seem to allude to the names of the leaders of the two factions of the Hungarian conflict. The communist representative, installed in power by the Soviet armies, was Janos Kadar. On another side was Imre Nagy, elected President by the revolutionaries, and General Pál Maléter. Now, let’s consider the first syllables of the names Castor and Pollux: CA and POL. The former indicates the name Kadar (Ka = Ca) by apocope. And “Pol” (from the Greek πολύς, πολλὴ = grand [great]) is after all the Greek correspondent to the Hungarian word “nagy”, namely “grand [great]”. We have therefore the first correspondence: POL = NAGY. But “Pol” is also equivalent to “Pál” (a name pronounced “Pol” in Hungarian), the name of another leader of the revolution. We see therefore that the name of Kadar – the communist leader – corresponds to Castor, the mortal brother, a symbol of a materialist doctrine; and that I. Nagy and Pál Maléter correspond to Pollux, the son of Jupiter, a symbol of an idealist law.»
(Ionescu, 1976, p.642-643).

Crie: = A proclamation. « Crie 1. Proclamation faite par un crieur public, un hérault (A proclamation made by a public crier, a herald); Crie 2. mot d’argot, Chair, viande (a jargon, Flesh, meat).»
(Huguet); « In profiting by the recovered liberty, from the start of 19 October [1956], the students of Szeged, Debrecen, and above all those of Budapest formed the independent associations different from the official associations controlled by the Party. The students of Budapest worded immediately a manifesto with 14 points [a proclamation], where they claimed above all Imre Nagy’s return to the head of the government, but also the departure of the Soviet troops, free and secret elections with plural lists, as well as the total liberty of the press and the artistic creation.» (Bogdan, 1982, p.464).

Their great city of screams, complaints and a proclamation: Castor and Pollux enemies in the lists: « Hungarian Revolution (23 Oct.-4 Nov. 1956) The process of de-Stalinization which was begun in February 1956 at the XXth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party created an atmosphere of hope and patriotism in Hungary, a country that had been plagued by violent repression and arbitrary purges since the trial of Rajk in 1949. Khrushchev forced the hated Stalinist party leader Rákosi to resign in July. The appointment of the almost as repressive Ernó Geró proved to be an own goal, and fueled popular protest against the leadership. On 23 October 1956, the confused secret police answered a demonstration by university students for democratization [a proclamation] and the return of Nagy as Communist Party leader by opening fire on the crowd. The incident became a victory for the students, as the panicking guards then surrendered their arms. Geró declared marshal law, and requested the installation of Soviet tanks in the streets of Budapest [Their great city]. On 25 October, Hungarian policemen fired on a crowd of demonstrators and killed 300 people [Their great city of screams, complaints and a proclamation]. An enraged population stampeded into the Communist headquarters. On 28 October, a cease-fire was established, Soviet tanks were withdrawn, and a new government under Nagy was formed. Political prisoners were released, and political parties were legalized. Nagy announced his country’s withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. He was betrayed, however, by his Minister of State, Kádár, who fled towards the advancing Soviet troops and officially requested their intervention on 3 November 1956. The next day, Nagy was overthrown by an invading army of over 150,000 Warsaw Pact troops and 2,000 tanks. He was imprisoned and executed in secret, while Kádár created a regime that lasted for more than thirty years.» (Palmowski, p.303).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§894 Khrushchev: De-Stalinization and new policies (1953-1964): VI-50.

VI-50 (§894):

Within the well shall be discovered the bones,
Shall the incest be committed by the unnatural mother:
The state being changed they shall seek for rumors and reputations,
And shall have the ascendant Mars as their star.

(Dedans le puys seront trouvés les oz,
Sera l'incest commis par la maratre:
L'estat changé on querra bruict & loz,
Et aura Mars ascendant pour son astre.)

NOTES: Le puys: = Le puits (The well, pit), the orthography PUYS only following the pronunciation of PUITS. Although PUYS can replace the preposition PUIS grammatically (cf. Huguet, s.v. Puys), the context of the first line demands here a masculine substantive LE PUITS. Of 9 usages of the substantive words puy, puys, puis, puits in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 7 [including puy, puys, puits and puis] are for “puits (a well = the Latin puteus)” and 2 [including puys (VIII-30) and puits (IV-53)] for “pui (a mountain = the Latin podium)”; « pui. Motagne, colline, hauteur (A mountain, hill, height).» (Godefroy).

Oz: = Os (Bone), Z for S being formally agreed with Z of loz of the third line.

Within the well shall be discovered the bones: = « The removal of the bones of Stalin from the Mausoleum of the Soviet Heroes of the Kremlin.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.681); « The expression “to discover the bones within the well” has its origin probably in the medieval folklore. It seems to come from the actions of some bandits and criminals who hid the bodies of their victims by casting them into the wells. To discover the bones of these victims, it was to discover a crime. Here it alludes to the revelations of Khrushchev about the crimes of Stalin and of Beria.» (Ionescu, id.); « Twentieth Congress of the CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] (1956). The occasion on which
KHRUSHCHEV attacked STALIN. Khrushchev had been involved in Stalin’s reign of terror but apparently was not aware of the full extent of this until 1954-5, when he was deeply shocked. The Presidium (Politburo) agreed that the report of an investigating commission could be given in a closed session of the CPSU, which should not be made public. Khrushchev saw that he could discredit his rivals, more deeply involved in the terror than he had been. He quoted from Lenin’s ‘Last Testament’, in which Lenin had criticized Stalin and recommended that he should be removed from his post as General Secretary of the CPSU. He went on to imply that the murder of Kirov in 1934 was on Stalin’s orders and that ‘cruel and inhuman tortures’ had been used to obtain confessions during the purges. Of 139 members of the Central Committee 98 had been arrested and shot in 1937-8. Khrushchev condemned Stalin for his refusal to heed early warnings of an impending German attack in 1941 and blamed him for the USSR’s defeats in that campaign. Khrushchev rejected the idea that there was bound to be war between capitalist and communist countries (‘War is not fatalistically inevitable’) and said that there were different ways of moving from capitalism to communism, including free elections. The text of the speech was not published in Russia until 1988 but an abridged version was issued in Belgrade in 1956 and a full version in Washington.» (Townson, 1999, p.411).

L’incest: = L’inceste by apocope.

Maratre: = « Marâtre. Stepmother; Harsh stepmother; unnatural mother.» (Dubois).

Shall the incest be committed by the unnatural mother: « This “marâtre” symbolizes here the Central Committee of the Party that have been like an unnatural mother for her own children. Imprisonment of most of the old combatants of the Revolution, “great purges”, show-trials, deportations in a mass, are the crimes committed by the leaders of the party against their people. The extermination of their own adherents and partisans was an act so abject and so against the nature that the prophet cannot compare it but with an incest.» (Ionescu, id.); « The decision to collectivize by force was taken suddenly, without any kind of public debate, in the last weeks of 1929. It was typical of the way in which the pursuit of Utopia leads the tiny handful of men in power abruptly to assault a society many centuries in the making, to treat men like ants and stamp on their nest. Without warning, Stalin called for an ‘all-out offensive against the kulak… We must smash the kulaks, eliminate them as a class… We must strike at the kulaks so hard as to prevent them from rising to their feet again… We must break down the resistance of that class in open battle.’ On 27 December 1929, the Feast of St John the Apostle, he declared war with the slogan ‘Liquidate the kulaks as a class!’. It was the green light for a policy of extermination, more than three years before Hitler came to power, twelve years before the ordering of the ‘Final Solution’... The result was what the great Marxist scholar Leszek Kolakowski has called ‘probably the most massive warlike operation ever conducted by a state against its own citizens.’ The number of peasants actually shot by the regime is not yet known and may not be discoverable even when, and if, scholars ever get at the Soviet archives. Churchill said that, in Moscow in August 1942, Stalin told him coolly that ‘ten millions’ of peasants had been ‘dealt with’. According to one scholarly estimate, in addition to those peasants executed by the
OGPU or killed in battle, between 10 and 11 million were transported to north European Russia, to Siberia and Central Asia; of these one-third went into concentration camps, a third into internal exile and a third were executed or died in transit. The peasants who remained were stripped of their property, however small, and herded into the ‘grain factories’. To prevent them from fleeing to the towns, a system of internal passports was introduced, and any change of domicile without official permission was punished by imprisonment. Peasants were not allowed passports at all. So they were tied to the soil, glebae adscripti, as in the final phases of the Roman Empire or during the age of feudal serfdom. The system was more stringent than in the blackest periods of the Tsarist autocracy, and was not relaxed until the 1970s. The result was predictable: what has been termed ‘perhaps the only case in history of a purely man-made famine’. Rather than surrender their grain, the peasants burnt it. They smashed their implements. They slaughtered 18 million horses, 30 million cattle (45 per cent of the total), 100 million sheep and goats (two-thirds of the total). Even according to the figures in the official Soviet history, livestock production was only 65 per cent of the 1913 level in 1933, draught animals fell by more than 50 per cent, and total draught power, including tractors, did not surpass the 1928 level until 1935. Despite the famine of 1932-3, Stalin managed to keep up some grain exports to pay for imported machinery, including the tooling of his new war-factories. The cost in Russian lives was staggering. Iosif Dyadkin’s demographic study, ‘Evaluation of Unnatural Deaths in the Population of the USSR 1927-58’, which circulated in samizdat (underground newspaper) form in the late 1970s, calculates that during the collectivization and ‘elimination of the classes’ period, 1929-36, 10 million men, women and children met unnatural deaths.» (Johnson, 1991, p.270-272).

Querra: He (She, It) shall seek for; Future of « querre, querir; chercher, aller chercher (to seek for, to go to seek); Conjug.
Fut. Sing. I person querrai, etc.» (Daele).

Loz: = los; « Loz.
See Los.» (Huguet); « Los. Louange, éloge (Praise, eulogy); Gloire, honneur, réputation (Glory, honnor, reputation).» (Huguet).

The state being changed they shall seek for rumors and reputations: « After the changes accomplished during the period of so-called “De-Stalinization” they began a policy of showy propaganda by disinformation (rumors) and of imposing at all costs the prestige and the merits of the regime (reputations) especially in front of and upon the peoples who should be saved from the capitalist influence and captured within the block of communist countries. The success of the launching of the first space ship before America could do the same, was a part of this program to convince the “ third world” of the importance of the Soviet Power and ipso facto of the advantages of the alliances with the latter. The voyages Khrushchev made in this period with so much fervor, as well as the actions of disinformation of the KGB also wanted to feature it on the international stage. And it is to these actions that Nostradamus alludes by the word “ rumors ”.» (Ionescu, id., p.681-682); « Khrushchev’s joviality and peasant earthiness misled many into thinking that he was a buffoon. He genuinely wanted to improve the lot of the ordinary Soviet citizens and carried out a series of measures for their benefit: pensions and the minimum wage were increased, the housing stock was doubled, there were more medical facilities and further education and fees were no longer charged for secondary and higher education. Millions were released from the prison camps after Khrushchev’s ‘secret’ speech to the
TWENTIETH CONGRESS OF THE CPSU, which shocked so many by its denunciation of Stalin’s reign of terror. Khrushchev brought this to an end and put the KGB (security police) under party control. He wanted to increase agricultural production by investing more in machinery and fertilizers, by providing incentives (the prices paid by the state for agricultural produce trebled from 1952-9), by decentralizing decision-making and by expanding the sown area. Khrushchev provided a dynamism that had been missing before but he was capricious and often made decisions on impulse, ignoring expert advice…» (Townson, 1999, p.229).

Ascendant: « 1° Term of astronomy. The point of the ecliptic which rises. Such a sign was at the ascendant when the thunderstorm burst forth; 2° In the terms of astrology, the ascendant is a sign of the zodiac that rises on the horizon at the first moment of the birth of a man or of a woman; 3° By extension, propensity, inclination; 4° Authority, influence.»
(Littré).

L'estat changé on querra bruict & loz, Et aura Mars ascendant pour son astre: = L'estat changé on querra bruict & loz, Et [on] aura Mars ascendant pour son astre.

And shall have the ascendant Mars as their star: Nikita Khrushchev, with the help of the KGB and the Army [Mars = the two powerful organizations], will rise [ascendant] to the top leader [their star] of the USSR in prejudice of his rivals after the death of Stalin in 1953. In this conception Mars expresses Khrushchev aided by the two powerful organizations: « Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich (b. 5 Apr. 1894, d. 11 Sept. 1971). Succession to Stalin (1953-7) After the time of Stalin’s death, he was the most junior member of the ruling group, which included Malenkov, Molotov, Beria, and Kaganovich. By October 1953, however, he had advanced to second-in-command behind Molotov, as first secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. He then managed to remove Beria and Malenkov from office, and strengthen his position through his shrewd and famous denunciation of excesses of Stalinism at the XXth Party Congress on 25 February 1956.» (Palmowski, p.365); « A group in the Presidium (the Politburo was known as the Presidium from 1952-65) led by Malenkov and Molotov tried to overthrow him in 1957 and had seven supporters in the Presidium to Khrushchev’s four. He was saved as the KGB and army [Mars] supported him and insisted that the matter should be discussed in a full meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU, thus obtaining majority support for Khrushchev. Molotov and Malenkov lost their places in the Presidium but did not lose their lives, as they would have done under Stalin. In 1958 Khrushchev replaced Bulganin as Prime Minister and so held the leading posts in both party and state.» (Townson, 1999, p.228-229).

Discussions:
V. Ionescu interpreted the last line as showing the natal chart of N. S. Khrushchev, but for this purport there are wanting the certified data of his birth date and, above all, the grammatical structure of the verse does not fit in with expressing such a chart of a personal life, it indicating in reality only the political promotion of Khrushchev in the rageful society of the USSR.

The data of the birth date of Nikita Khrushchev are yet conflicting and unverified: « Data source Conflicting/unverified Source Notes: Original entry listed date of March 17, 1894 at 12:30 PM in Kursk from the "Bolshaya Sovyetskaya Entsiklopediya," (Great Russian Encyclopedia), Moscow, Soviet Encyclopedia Publication Organization, 1974, third edition. (April 5 OS [Old Style]).

The original source notes went on to say: "Das Neue Zeitalter of 12/26/1959 gave April 29, 1894 NS [New Style]”.

AQR Spring/1961 gave April 17 NS, 12:30 PM LMT and added that when Khruschev visited the U.S. he said he did not know the year. Eshelman quotes Garth Allen, "A 1959 series of articles by journalists John Lewis and Eckert Goodman which ran in the New York Daily News stated that Khruschev was born March 17, 1893 or April 17, 1894 in the village of Kalinovka, the northeast border of Ukrania, Kursk. The records disappeared when the village was destroyed during the war and Khrushchev settled on the latter date as "It made me feel younger."

Douglas Coe in a letter dated 4/93, states, "Several sources clearly note that he was born April 5 OS. Encyclopedia Americana now has April 17, where it formerly had April 16. Fowler's gives 1:00 AM, no source. The village of his birth was destroyed in the war and has since rebuilt and is on current maps." During his life, Khrushchev celebrated his birthday as April 17, 1894 [i.e. April 5 OS].

But the birth register of the Archangel Church in his village records the actual date as two days earlier [i.e. April 3 OS = April 15, 1894 NS]. According to Russia's old-style pre-Revolutionary calendar, the dates were April 3 and 5 [Taubman, 2003, p.661: “See the account by a Kursk Province archivist in NK5, vol.1, p.722.”]. In our calendar the date is April 15 1894." Tompson's "Khruschev: A Political Life" gives the same information.

In December 2009, PT changed the birth date in this entry to be consistent with these books. In the absence of original documents and in light of the many variations, the DD rating is retained. Sraekman rectified it to 15 April 1894 04.06.33 LMT Asc 17Pis32'.» (The Astro-Databank, Khruschev, Nikita [
https://www.astro.com/astro-databank/Khruschev,_Nikita]).

According to the natal chart of Khrushchev drafted by Ionescu (Ionescu, 1976, p.647, Fig. 36), « according to the known day and by joining the Ascendant and Mars in conjunction » (id. p. 648, note1), the supposed date is 
April 29, 1894 01:07:30 (LMT, Kalinovka, Khomutovsky District: 51°53′ N, 34°30′ E) (calculation by means of a free soft: StarFisher by Kubec, T., 2006-2011).

Therefore, his chart is considered to be nearly suitable to the existing data of Das Neue Zeitalter of 12/26/1959: April 29, 1894 NS and Fowler's: 1:00 AM, no source.

But these data are not yet verified and his saying “by joining the Ascendant and Mars in conjunction” seems to mean his alternative operation.

And as for the birth date of a person in Russian Empire, the birth register of the Archangel Church (Orthodox) in his village records can be most reliable: i.e. April 3 OS = April 15, 1894 NS. The precise time of birth, however, remains unknown, although it is 15 April 1894 04.06.33 LMT Asc 17Pis32' according to the updated consideration by the Astro-Databank above quoted.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§893 The two devoted Interpreters of Nostradamus of the 19th and the 20th century (1858; 1958): IX-1.

IX-1 (§893):

In the house of the interpreter of La Clotte,
Shall be found the writings on the table,
[God] shall firmly take hold of a blind, ruddy-faced, royalist and sage person and not let him free,
Who shall change at the time of the new constable.

(DANS la maison du traducteur de Bourc,
Seront les lettres trouvees sus la table,
Bourgne, roux, blanc, chanu tiendra de court,
Qui changera au nouveau connestable.)
(№ 3).

(α): Henri-Antoine Torné = Torné-Chavigny (1826-1880).

NOTES
:
Bourc: « We read in the Glossary of the Romance language (Roquefort)**: “ C
LOT, CLOTES: Fosse, tombeau, creux, cavité, enfoncement (a pit, grave, hollow, cavity, driving in). - BOUR, BORE: Profondeur, trou, creux (a depth, hole, hollow).” The word BOUR is therefore the synonym of the word CLOTTE. And the c that terminates the word Bourc finds its explication in the c that terminates the word “ Borc: bor, borg, bors, bos, bours, burs: Ville, cité, ville entourée et fermée de murs; urbs (a town, city, town surrounded and closed by walls; a city); thereafter, this word signified bourg, bourgade, village (a market town, small town, village).” The town of la Clotte is at the foot of a valley, closed in all directions.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p. XIV, note 2).

**Jean-Baptiste-Bonaventure de Roquefort, Glossaire de la Langue Romane, Rédigé d’après les Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Impériale, et d’après ce qui a été imprimé de plus complet en ce genre; Contenant l’étymologie et la signification des mots usités dans les XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV et XVIe siècles, avec nombreux exemples puisés dans les mêmes sources; et précédé d’un Discours sur l’origine, les progrès et les variations de la Langue françoise. Ouvrage utile à ceux qui voudront consulter ou connoître les Écrits des premiers Auteurs françois. Dédié à Sa Majesté Joseph Napoléon, Roi de Naples et de Sicile. Tome Premier. Á Paris, Chez B. Warée oncle, Libraire, quai des Augustins, n°15. De L’imprimerie de Crapelet. M DCCC VIII [1808].     

« Henri-Antoine Torné was born in La Rochelle on the 20th of June, 1826. His maternal grandfather, in the same city, was called Noël-Jacques Chavigni. This name should someday put on a particular importance for Henri Torné, who brought it together with that under which his “homonym” of the 16th century [namely, Aymé Chavigny] was illustrious: he saw there the sign of a predestination, and, by taking it up again, became Torné-Chavigny. For 13 years he was a student, then a professor at a small seminary of Montlieu. Ordained priest at La Rochelle on the 25 of December 1852, he was named successively for parish priest of Saint-Léger-en-Pons (1853), of La Clotte (1855) and of Pin-Saint-Denis (June 1865). His life seesawed suddenly in 1858: he stayed in Paris at the moment of the  attempt of the 14th of January in the course of which Napoleon III escaped hardly “the bombs of Orsini”.» (Chevignard, 1999, p.46-47); « … I knew that it was precisely the signification of my parish according to the inhabitants, because they said they made the creux (clottes) in order to excavate quarry-stones.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1875, p.9).

« Like everyone who has some self-respect, in the century we are living, I did not want to hear modern prophecies told, and before the month of June 1858, I had known little about Nostradamus except his name, which did not hinder me from considering him as a hypocrite than an illuminated. I was, as you see, in the very bad conditions to ever become the Interpreter of the Centuries. However, I was so insisted, one day, by the presenting of the works of Mr. Eugène Bareste about the prophecies (la fin des Temps, 1840), that I could not prevent me from throwing a glance to the quatrains of the celebrated astrologer. There were about twenty quatrains, accompanied, says Mr. Eugène Bareste, by the ingenious interpretations of MM. Théodore Bouys, Girault, Eugène Bareste, Telmunder. – I first made a following remark with surprise: After the three centuries, the four ingenious interpreters could explain only twenty quatrains among a thousand! But everywhere it is said that the prophetic quatrains are a shoe matching any foot; that they can be interpreted concerning the most different events and always in a way equally speciously. The reading of some of the ingenious interpretations confirmed my previsions. The ingenious interprets must have drawn from their brains many of things the books did not contain. I closed, with anger, a book whose authors had dared to mock at the peoples; then, as I possessed, without being able to say how and since, a copy of the Centuries, I took the old frayed book without cover, and when I was thinking to destroy it, the date of its impression (1566) called me the respect because of oldness… I therefore held this book, but it remained closed and despised.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.
V);
 
« Twelve years later (January 14th 1858), I was in Paris for the first time; the bombs of Orsini did not explode in front of me, but this happening stroke me strangely. Next day, I remained for long hours in the street of Lepelletier, considering the traces of the projectiles, measuring with my finger the hole made upon the posters of the theatre, contemplating many times the vast embankment pierced through, interrogating several ocular witnesses, studying upon the faces the impressions yet so vivid; in short, I examined all, I heard all the conversations, and a little later I read all the records of the case. No, never an event did preoccupy me more than this. – Four months later, I was riveted to the bed and didn’t know how to pass the time; my sickness interdicted me, above all, from reading; then all of a sudden came to me the strange idea of making fetch the old Nostradamus; I wish to see there old words whose meaning I will seek; this work will not make me tired, for I am familiar with the language of Joinville.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.
V-VI);

« I open the book by hazard, nearly in the middle, and read:

Sera laissé le feu vif, mort caché, Dedans les globes, horrible espouventable (Shall be released the live, mortal fire hidden, Inside the globes horrible dread)... [§644. The attempt on the Emperor by Orsini (1858.1.14): V-8].

  What a person, in the conditions where the happening of the January 14th had placed me, will not have cried out: This resembles very much the conspiration of Orsini! The infernal machines were the
GLOBES concealing a FEU VIF, MORT CACHÉ. I read the next… Each verse recalls anew to me the details of this event. I thought I was dreaming… - A person highly ranked by his dignity and his science said to me, several days later, that any Frenchman would not be able to condense this conspiration into twelve verses of ten feet, in a so complete manner as Nostradamus, who, in telling all the details without exception, mingles nothing foreign there.
  I brought my eyes to the preceding verses, and I saw there the following words:

De Roy viendra Empereur pacifique (One shall become a pacific Emperor out of the king) [§631. The President became a pacific Emperor (1848-1852): V-6].

  The man whom Orsini wanted to kill has said: l’Empire, c’est la paix (the Empire, it is the peace) and he is Emperor. – I remounted more upwards, and the quatrains told me the reign of L.-Philippe and the coming of the pacific Emperor. – Forgetting my sickness, I retook the reading of the Centuries at the first quatrain, and I pursued it till the last, in marking with a cross those that seemed to me in agreement with the history, and I made, at this first reading, 127crosses !» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.
VI). The number of the quatrains whose interpretations were reasonably exploited by Torné-Chavigny is finally 262 (27.3 % of 958 quatrains in all of the Prophecies of Nostradamus) according to my assessment, whereas that of Vlaicu Ionescu (see below (β)) is 96 (10.0 % of 958). In fact, these two were the most fruitful frontiersmen in the cryptology of Nostradamus !

Les lettres (the writings): « The “Interpreter” now as parish priest of Saint-Denis-du-Pin [Charente-Maritime], was parish priest of la Clotte [Charente-Maritime] when he found on his desk of study the interpretation of the “letters”.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.170-171). In this context, therefore, the term “letters” has a double meaning of the text itself of the Prophecies of Nostradamus and its written interpretations by Torné-Chavigny himself.

Bourgne: = « Borgne. Aveugle, celui qui ne veut pas voir (Blind, one who will not see).» (Huguet). Before the month of June 1858 Henri-Antoine Torné was one of those who would not seek and see the true meanings of the Prophecies of Nostradamus.

Roux, blanc (russet, white): « The Interpreter is ruddy-faced and royalist (white) in opinion.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.171).

Chanu: « Canu, chanu, chenu: Qui a les cheveux blanc (One who has white hairs).» (Roquefort); = « Chenu (hoary), blanc (white). Vieux (old). Sage (sage).» (Huguet); « Publicity of the prophetic interpretation. On January 1st, 1861, a journal of Bordeaux Guienne published a long article of Mr. Ant. Saint-Marc, old and learned advocate, concerning the first volume of L’Hitoire prédite et jugée par Nostradamus (The History predicted and judged by Nostradamus by Torné-Chavigny, 1860, Bordeaux). Here are the extracts: “If there is any name which the jealousy or the bad conscience has arrived to pervert in its natural and equitable expression” in order to throw it as pasture for the ignorance of the public as synonym of folly, of rubbish or of superstition, it is surely that of Nostradamus, which even a small child knows and whose works none has understood till now. Certainly, I cannot be angry with those who, like me, rebuffed by the obscurity of the text darkened by barbarous neologisms, not seeing but the night in these elliptic verses full of words sometimes in proper sense, another times in figurative sense, replaced, to touch it no more, the inexplicable book upon the highest shelf of their library. But the time of its rehabilitation and of its glory has come. It was to have been so until the interpreter and the commentator predicted and designated by Nostradamus himself should appear, who should make us understand him in vulgar language, and conduct us by daylight into all the arcana of a history, written in the 16th century, of the great events that, till our times, have glorified or afflicted France. It is the mission which Mr. Torné-Chavigny has received, and which he begins to fill up in all conscience with a knowledge which he has not sought and which will startle nevertheless the most learned and the most expert [sage]. From Nostradamus to Mr. Chavigny, the transition is not forced: it is almost the same person with the duration of three centuries. The principal author knew the commentator who should agitate his works, in repose for a very long time, and make issue from them the light. He has designated him in his person, and by means of the place where he would write when the inspiration would have been given to him… » (Torné-Chavigny, 1871b, p.17-18).

Tenir qn de court: = « To keep a tight hold on someone.» (Dubois); « To take hold of someone firmly (not to let him free).» (Suzuki).

Bourgne, roux, blanc, chanu tiendra de court: = [Dieu] tiendra bourgne, roux, blanc, chanu de court (God shall firmly take hold of a blind, ruddy-faced, royalist and sage person and not let him free), God not showing Himself explicitly: « God is not sitting by me and He has dictated nothing of my interpretation; however, His action, though indirect, seems little hidden to me. The peoples much more learned than me have wished, in various times, to interpret the Centuries, to have to renounce it in the end, and myself who has not any idea of searching a sense in the phrases of this author, it is I that become all of a sudden the Interpreter of the largest part of his works… Here is what I will always regard as truly extraordinary, and all the people will share my way of seeing in this point; Indulging in myself, without any other impulsion than that of the text, I have been induced to discover, penetrate, catch, the verily marvelous sense hidden in this work, which the three centuries persist in marking with a supernatural seal. Indulging in myself, I have found an answer to all the difficulties, and this answer, I owe it almost always to a book opened by hazard, to a memory abruptly evoked, suddenly rejuvenated that sent me back to a book closed more than fifteen years ago! My humble library has furnished to me all the books most precious for this work. This work, which absorbs all my moments since I have undertaken it, causes me no fatigue, and I writes often for more than ten hours a day. My temperament, however, did not permit me before to write for more than one hour without great fatigue. A fixed idea pursues me night and day, and binds me to the terrible headwork, and my health, so severely compromised when I had opened Nostradamus for the first time, is not altered by it... God has found me proper to His purpose, He has placed me in the middle of the most favourable circumstances to lead to a fine goal, and in the way seemingly natural, this interpretation of a work ignored and despised for so long a time; I do accept my mission: it will give me the force of meeting with its consequences.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.
VI-VII).

Connestable (constable): « A great dignitary of the Crown who commanded in chief all the armies and had under his orders the royal Princes and the marshals of France.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.171).

Le nouveau connestable (the new constable): = Emperor Napoleon III who had the eventual supreme commandment of his army in Italy, the qualification “new” expressing the rarity or unusualness of such a case in his times: « In 1859 war was brought close in sight by Victor Emmanuel’s announcement at the opening of the chamber of deputies in Turin that Sardinia could no longer remain insensible to the cries for help that were arising on all sides. Austria proceeded at once to strengthen her army, to place the whole of Lombardy under martial law, and by every means possible sought to secure her power and possessions in Italy. Austria was severely blamed by the neutral powers for beginning hostilities, and it seemed as though with the death of Field Marshal Radetzky Austria's military star had set forever. To Franz Gyulay, a member of the Hungarian nobility who had filled many offices but had in none of them given proofs of marked ability, fell the command. By shameful inactivity the Austrians allowed the Sardinians time to concentrate their 80,000 men around the fortress of Alessandria, where they were joined in May by several divisions of French troops, Garibaldi, meanwhile, with his “ Alpine hunters ” guarding the foot of the mountain whence he could harass the right wing of the Austrians and support the operations of the main army. The popularity of his name drew volunteers in flocks, and his appearance in the northern lake-region aroused the wildest enthusiasm among the people. About the middle of May Napoleon himself arrived in Italy; although he left the actual lead to experienced generals [whose some one, above all General MacMahon, being able to be called a regular constable], he took his place at the head of the troops [the new constable].» (HH, IX, p.603-604); « When Austria became convinced that from neither Prussia nor Germany was help to be expected, it determined to try again single-handed the fortunes of war. Following the example of Napoleon the emperor Francis Joseph led his troops in person, and the incapable Gyulay was allowed to sink into oblivion. But even under the new leaders Austria’s operations were not crowned with success; the second encounter with the allied troops which took place beyond the Mincio resulted in a defeat for the Austrians – once more on account of serious strategical errors. Napoleon, informed of the weak points of this position, sent his main column against the defective centre which occupied the hill near Solferino. After a murderous battle, June 24th, 1859, the height was captured by the French, despite the heroic resistance of the Austrians. A second blow struck by Napoleon near Cavriani met with a like success, the Austrian leaders having issued conflicting orders that brought the troops into much confusion… » (HH, IX, p.605).

« As Russia was pressing on Turkey, so Austria was pressing on Italy. She had played an equivocal part during the Crimean War [1853-1856], whilst the kingdom of Sardinia, the only independent and constitutional state in Italy, had not feared to join her young army to the Anglo-French troops. This circumstance had made France the natural protectress of Piedmont, and by consequence of Italy, of which this little kingdom was the last citadel. Thus when the emperor of Austria, Francis Joseph, in defiance of European diplomacy, passed the Ticino as the emperor Nicholas had passed the Pruth, France once more found herself face to face with this new aggressor and on the side of the oppressed. In this war the emperor Napoleon resumed the secular policy of France, which consists in not suffering the preponderance of Austria or Germany in Italy - that is to say, on the French southeastern frontier. A French army reappeared on that soil where three centuries before the arms of France had left so many glorious traces. Europe looked on with keen attention; England as a well-wisher, Russia and Prussia amazed. Austria and France were left alone facing each other. The war lasted scarcely two months [« 1859 Apr: 19th, Austrian ultimatum to Sardinia to disarm (rejected by Count Cavour, 26th); 29th, Austrian forces cross Sardinian frontier; May: 3rd, France declares war on Austria…; Jul: 8th, Franco-Austrian armistice.» (Williams, 1968, p.238)]. After the brilliant affair of Montebello, which defeated an attempted surprise on the part of the Austrians, the Franco-Piedmontese army concentrated round Alessandria; then by a bold and skilful movement turned the right of the Austrians, who had already passed the Ticino, and compelled them to recross that river. Caught between the army corps of General MacMahon and the guard at Magenta, the Austrians lost 7,000 killed or wounded and 8,000 prisoners (June 4th [1859]). Two days later the French regiments entered Milan. The enemy, astounded at so rude a shock, abandoned his first line of defence, where, however, he had long been accumulating powerful means of action and resistance. He retired on the Adda, after vainly making a momentary stand at the already famous town of Marignano and on the Mincio, behind the illustrious plains of Castiglione and between the two fortresses of Peschiera and Mantua; then he took up his position, backed by the great city of Verona as an impregnable base. The emperor of Austria, with a new general and considerable reinforcements, had arrived there to await the French army. The Austrians had long studied this battlefield; there were 160,000 of them ranged on the heights with their centre at the village and tower of Solferino, and ready to descend on the French in the plain. Napoleon III had scarcely 140,000 men available, and was obliged to fight on a line extending over five leagues. Whilst the right wing was struggling against the enemy in the plain in order to prevent itself from being turned, and King Victor Emmanuel with his Piedmontese was bravely resisting on the left, the centre delivered a vigorous attack, and after a heroic struggle successively carried Mount Fenile, the mount of the cypresses, and finally the village of Solferino. The enemy's line was broken; his reserves, before they could come into action, were attained by the balls from the new rifled cannon of the French. All fled in frightful confusion; but a fearful storm, accompanied by hail and torrents of rain, stopped the victors and permitted the Austrians to recross the Mincio; they left twenty-five thousand men put out of action. In the evening the emperor Napoleon took up his headquarters in the very room which Francis Joseph had occupied in the morning (June 24th). Twice a conqueror, the emperor suddenly offered peace to his enemy. Italy was freed, although a portion of Italian territory, namely Venetia, still remained in the hands of Austria. Europe, bewildered by these rapid victories, allowed her awakening jealousy to appear. The emperor thought he had done enough for Italy by pushing Austria, so recently established on the banks of the Ticino, back behind the Mincio, and at Villafranca he signed with Francis Joseph a peace, the principal conditions of which were confirmed at the end of the year by the Treaty of Zurich. By this peace Austria resigned Lombardy, which France added to Piedmont that she might make for herself a faithful ally beyond the Alps. The Mincio became the boundary of Austria in the peninsula, where the various states were to form a great confederation under the presidency of the pope. But all those concerned rejected this plan, and the revolutionary movement continued. The emperor confined himself to preventing Austria from intervening. Then those governments of Parma, Modena, the Roman legations, Tuscany and Naples, which ever since 1814 had been merely lieutenants of Austria, were seen to fall to pieces successively, and Italy, minus Venice and Rome, was about to form a single kingdom, when the emperor thought himself called upon to take a precaution necessary to the security of France; he claimed the price of the assistance he had given and by the Treaty of Turin, March 24th, 1860, obtained the cession to himself of Savoy and the county of Nice, which added three departments to France and carried her southern frontier to the summit of the Alps.» (HH, XIII, p.135-137).

Qui changera au nouveau connestable (Who shall change at the time of the new constable): A blind, ruddy-faced, royalist and sage person (Henri-Antoine Torné) shall change to a devoted interpreter of Nostradamus at the time of Napoleon III in 1858, the French preposition “à” expressing a position in time or space.

(β): Vlaicu Ionescu (1922-2002).

IX-1 (§893): The interpreter of Bucharest; Portrait of Ceaucescu, Decline of Rumania:

In the house of the interpreter of Bucharest
Shall be found the writings on the table,
Ceaucescu, with his only left eye, conducting a Pro-Soviet and Pro-American policy, will maintain his country upon the slope of decline,
Who will change
[something] of the new constable.

(DANS la maison du traducteur de Bourc
Seront les lettres trouvees sus la table,
Bourgne roux, blanc, chanu tiendra de cours,
Qui changera au nouveau Connestable.)
(№ 10).

NOTES:
Bourc: = « an anagram for “Boucour”, the legendary founder of “Boucouresti” (Rumanian pronunciation of Bucuresti, Bucarest in French).» (Ionescu, 1993, p.52).

In the house of the interpreter of Bucharest Shall be found the writings on the table: « The first hemistich alludes to the perquisition executed at my house of Bucharest on November 18th 1958 by the agents of the General Direction of the Militia, and in the course of this operation was discovered my manuscript which I has succeeded - almost miraculously – in stealing. My wife has destroyed it on the day of my arrest. It is for the second time that Nostradamus mentions the dramatic circumstances concerning the writings on his Prophecies. For the first time, he does so in the quatrain II-36 [§812: where the German interpreter Karl Krafft is mentioned].» (Ionescu, id., p.50); « Owing to my family, I had access to theological and philosophic readings that oriented my youth, it is certain. But after the death of my father, I had a chance of finding an extraordinary esoteric library in Bucharest (1,200 books) and being able to buy the most important volumes. I sold the books of “bluestockingism” of Rumanian bibliophily of my father to obtain the rare editions of the ancient alchemists and cabalists as well as French esoterics of the 19th century. There, I found me in my way; this kind of researches suited me perfectly. I have always considered that the reality of the world cannot be reduced to the only physical appearance, to the only sensory reality. Since the beginning of my studies, I have fought against the reductionism which is the fault of contemporary scientism (I say not the “science” but “scientism”, namely an ideology based upon a science full of prejudices). Having always believed in the existence of a transcendent world, I was naturally disposed to study the ancient esoterism, the alchemy and … Nostradamus! » (Ionescu, id., p.54-55).

Chanu: = An anagram for a Rumanian dictator Nicolae Ceaucescu, CHANU expressing N. CHAU = N(icolae) CHAU(cescu) by anagram and by apocope because of the lack of the word endings (cf. Ionescu, id., p.53).

Bourgne: = Borgne: « Ceaucescu was blind (borgne) because he did not saw the economic disaster where his policy drew the country. He saw the affairs with his only one eye (borgne), the left... » (Ionescu, id., p.52).

Roux, blanc: « Nostradamus also says that he was red and white (roux et blanc): an allusion to his duplicity, to his political play. On one hand he was the most obedient vassal of the Soviets (the Reds) but at the same time, he posted himself as independent in the eyes of America and of the Western countries (the Whites), whence he succeeded in obtaining the particular financial advantages (truly in duping and filtrating them through his services of espionage).» (Ionescu, id., p.52-53).

De cours: « Read: “décours”, the old French for “decline”.»
(Ionescu, id., p.50); « Decours. Écoulement (flowing). Mouvement de descente (movement of descent). Cours (avec l’idée de temps) (Course with the idea of time). Décroissance (Decrease). Décadence (Decadence), déclin (decline). Durée (Duration). Déclin de la vie (Decline of life). Decours de mort. Déclin vers la mort (Decline toward the death). Mettre en decours. Abaisser (To lower), faire déclin (to decline).» (Huguet).

Tiendra: = Maintiendra by apheresis (cf. Ionescu, id., p.50).

Bourgne roux, blanc, chanu tiendra de cours: Ceaucescu, with his only left eye, conducting a Pro-Soviet and Pro-American policy, will maintain his country upon the slope of decline.       

Changer [qc] à ... : « modifier un élément de .... (to modify an element of... ).» (Petit Robert).

Who will change
[something] of the new constable: Ceaucescu will change the policy of fidelity to the Kremlin of the first dictator he will succeed.; « The last line specifies that Ceaucescu will be the second communist dictator serving the Soviets. He succeeded Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, that dictator loyal to the Soviets who had placed him in power.» (Ionescu, id., p.53); « G. Gheorghiu-Dej was a “ new ” constable, not only as the first dictator loyal to the Kremlin, but also in the sense that before him, there had been a dictator (Antonescu) of opposite vassalage because of his being subject to Hitler.» (Ionescu, id., p.56).

My critical comments on Mr. Ionescu’s way of investigation:
1° I deplore his neglect for our greatest predecessor Mr. Torné-Chavigny. Instead, he praises unduly Mr. Le Pelletier, contemporary of Mr. Torné, saying that “ After the death of the Prophet, during the three centuries of the French monarchy, the interpretations were published almost continually in this country. The commentators are improved and arrives at their apogee with the monumental work of Le Pelletier, under the reign of Napoleon III. The tricentennial of the death of Nostradamus (1566) is marked by this remarkable book, completed in 1866.” (Ionescu, 1993, p.57); “ His solutions remain even now the models of scientific interpretation. The authors of the 20th century, when they give the correct solutions concerning the epoch studied by Le Pelletier, they reproduce, in general, his solutions, but they forget almost all of them to indicate the source.” (Ionescu, id., p.819-820); “ TORNÉ-CHAVIGNY, H.: ... The author displays a great erudition, which he applies, often with justice, but sometimes too phantastically.” (Ionescu, id., p.820). This comment of Ionescu about Torné-Chavigny follows almost literally, without any further reconsideration, that of Le Pelletier about the same: « The author displays there a profound erudition, and applies the critical method, often with justice, sometimes with an unheard temerity, to the history of the modern times… » (Le Pelletier, I, p.59). By the way, Mr. Le Pelletier mentioned his citation from Mr. Torné-Chavigny, individually only once, about the quatrains V-8, V-9 and V-10 (Le Pelletier, I, p.288, note 1), except for his preliminary comment in general on Torné-Chavigny (see below 2°).

2° According to my scrupulous assessment, the work of Le Pelletier is not so original nor so monumental nor so scientific as said by Mr. Ionescu, except for his beautiful style of clear and brief explications (he was a publisher by profession!), for his work: Les Oracles de Michel de Nostredame dit Nostradamus, vols. I and II, 1867 (réimpr. de Jean de Bonnot, Paris, 1976) is mainly the style-conscious republication of the already existent interpretations of his preceding or contemporary researchers and the number of the quatrains he succeeded in explaining originally with reason is only 13 (I-14, I-60, I-85, II-30, II-67, III-91, III-96, IV-73, V-4, V-20, VI-23, VI-70 and X-18: 1.4 % of 958) among the published total of 193 in his volume I (presages and sixains excluded). 65 of 193 were substantially derived from the works of Mr. Torné-Chavigny, 41 were already duly explained by his predecessors (Jean Aimés de Chavigny, Jaubert, H.D., Bellaud, Bouys, Motret, Le Roux and Torné-Chavigny) and 74 were to be solved by the authors of the 20th century (each component number in my view of authentic solution: 13+65+41+74=193). This situation is not far from his own preliminary announcement: “It remains for me to mention the old or modern principal commentators, authors of the treatises where I have recognized either an ingenious method of general interpretation or plausible explications about particular points…
Jean de Roux: La Clef de Nostradamus (Paris, 1710), Motret: Essai d’explication de deux quatrains de Nostradamus (Nevers, 1806), Bellaud: Napoléon, premier Empereur des Français, prédit par Nostradamus (Paris, 1806),... The years 1860 to 1862 have seen succeed one another a series of large volumes due to the indefatigable quill of Mr. Torné-Chavigny. They are entitled: L’histoire prédite et jugée par Nostradamus (3 vol., Bordeaux, 1860, 61, 62). The author displays there a profound erudition. I abstain from saying about the merit of these publications, whence I have borrowed too much, myself, to have the right to show myself serious; but they seem to me to be tainted by great disparities and unspeakable enormities.… I will cite more in brief chronologically: Jean Aimé de Chavigny: La première face du Janus François (Lyon, 1594), Etienne Joubert: Éclaircissement des veritable Quatrains de Maistre Michel Nostradamus (1656), Le Chevalier de Jant, Prédictions tirées des Centuries de Nostradamus (1673), Guynaud, La Concordance des Prophéties de Nostradamus avec l’histoire (Paris, 1709), An anonym: La Vie et le Testament de Michel Nostradamus (Paris, 1789), Théodore Bouys: Nouvelles considérations sur les Oracles, les Sibylles, etc... et principalement sur Nostradamus (Paris, 1806), Eugène Bareste: Nostradamus (Paris, 1840), F. Buget: Etude sur Nostradamus in Bulletin du Bibliophile (Paris, 1860-1863).” (Le Pelletier, I, p.57-61)

3° His most important method of investigation: the comparison of the texts (la comparaison des textes) seems to be modelled, implicitely, upon the essential method of adaptation of the quatrains (L’adaptation des quatrains) of Torné-Chavigny: « The moment of the revelation of the Prophecy has come; this secret cannot any more remain hidden, and in fact it is here discovered. What an extraordinary thing it is and how it renders even more marvelous this marvel of the Centuries ! The same personages shall be always [this is by exaggeration] designated by the same names, by the same expressions. Louis-Phillipe shall be designated twice by P
HILIPP [in the quatrains VIII-81 and IX-89]. Napoleon I thrice by ROY GAULOIS [II-69, IV-54 and VIII-32], thrice [twice in true] by TESTE RAZE [I-88 and VII-13], twice by PETIT GRAND [II-58 and II-85]… The word ÆMATHIEN, used five times and always for Louis XIV [IX-38, IX-64, IX-93, X-7 and X-58], and this is true for the words BLOND [the family of the Bourbons: I-39, II-67 and IX-35], ŒNOBARBE [Philippe II: V-45 and V-59], MARS (name of a man) [Napoleon I: V-42, Napoleon III: IV-100 and VIII-85], CHYREN [Henri II: II-79, IV-34,VI-27 and VIII-54, Henri IV: VI-70 and IX-41], HADRIE [Henri IV: I-8, I-9, II-55, III-11 and X-38], NEVEU [Napoleon III: III-29, IV-73, VI-22, VII-43, VIII-32, VIII-43bis and X-30], etc., etc. – The interpretation of one quatrain makes many others interpreted thereby, and I affirm by my honor that it is due to this secret that I have interpreted more than two hundred quatrains all of a sudden. Never I have found this secret at fault.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.4); « The number SEPT (SEVEN), which is only 10 times found in Nostradamus as a number of persons [presage 40, I-10, II-18, III-39, IV-50, IV-60, V-67, VI-11, VIII-64 and X-44], is 10 times for THE SEVEN CHILDREN of Henri II.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.1); « SEVEN is therefore the MARK (la MARQUE) which adapts ten quatrains to each other.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.26); « The secret of interpretation adapts the quatrains to each other by the same expressions and by the same facts these expressions recall.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.13); « The quatrain concerning Montgommeri [III-30], which adapts itself to this one [I-35: EN CHAMP BELLIQUE PAR SINGULIER DUELLE] by its first verse: CELUY QU’EN LUITTE ET FER AU FAIT BELLIQUE.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.12); « The Prophet has dispersed here and there in his book his quatrains, whose several are however connected about the same events; he has dispersed his quatrains, but he has said: I COULD HAVE CALCULATED MORE PROFOUNDLY AND ADAPTED TO EACH OTHER (the quatrains), BUT SEEING, Ô SERENIST KING, THAT SOME OF THE CENSORS WOULD FIND DIFFICULTIES... (Letter to Henri II), and his Interpreter has been able to adapt the quatrains to each other, for all the quatrains have the points of bench mark (points de repère) that connect them with each other.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.4).

4° Ionescu’s method of comparison of the texts: « [The expression] “la grand ligue” [II-100] is to be compared with the expression “la ligue neufve d’Ausonne” of the quatrain III-70. The old commentators have seen till now in the name Ausonia – which was in the antiquity a province of southern Italy – a name for Italy. My researches have led me to the conclusion that they had been in the error. And it is interesting to see how such an error has been perpetuated by the other authors who took, without critical spirit, the ideas of their predecessors. The Nostradamic literature is full of this kind of errors, which, once in circulation, are produced infinitely. This is the reason that makes me insist so often upon the consequent application of the method of comparison of the texts, without which there is little chance of deciphering the Nostradamic enigmas. The name “Ausonne” is classified among the Nostradamic enigmas that have almost always succeeded in confusing the superficial researchers. Seeming at first sight to be put by synecdoche for Italy, this name is in reality chosen by Nostradamus only because its first three letters AUS or USA are the initials having become the current abbreviation for the “United States of America.” As for the term “la grand ligue” of the quatrain II-100, its comparison with “la ligue neufve d’Ausonne” leads us to the conclusion that it is made to designate the same country, namely the United States.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.548-549); « There are some words like Ausonne (III-70), Arethusa (I-87), Lausanne (VIII-10), which are all introduced to designate America. Its reason is that each of them contains the letters USA (AUSonne, ArethUSA, l’AUSanne).» (Ionescu, id., p.594); Other examples in Ionescu: “la grand cité neufve” (VI-97) and “cité neufve” (X-49) (Ionescu, id., p.565-567); “par fraude” (V-83) and “par fraude” (VII-33) (Ionescu, id., p.619-620); « The error of the authors comes from the fact that they had not applied the method of comparison of the texts. The Nostradamic text is like an organism with a great complexity, but each of its organs and even each of its cells must be judged in functional relation with all the other organs or cells.» (Ionescu, id., p.567-568).

5° A seemingly biased attitude of Mr. Ionescu toward Mr. Torné-Chavigny may have been derived from his serious misunderstanding that this interpreter of the 19th century in La Clotte had usurped the QUATRAIN IX-1, which he assumes relating personally and properly to himself as the interpreter of the 20th century in Bucharest. This problem concerns the authenticity of the verse “tiendra de court” [№ 3] or the verse “tiendra de cours” [№ 10] of the third line of the quatrain IX-1. Grammatically seen, the expression “tenir de court (to take hold of something tightly)” is an ordinary idiom in French, whereas the expression “tenir de cours” cannot be approved valid without repairing it by transforming it into “tenir décours (to hold a decline)” as Ionescu did so, but this operation is not but arbitrary with no reasonable foundation. According to the great bibliographical works of Mr. Patrice Guinard, the edition of the Prophecies of Nostradamus №3 (l'exemplaire à la Bibliothèque Grasse) is nearer to the supposed original than №10 (l’exemplaire à la Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon) (See Guinard, P., Chronologie des éditions Benoist Rigaud de 1568, Corpus Nostradamus 40, CURA, 2006-2011, last updated: 13-03-2018). The unique variant of the last letter S (cours) (№10) in place of T (court) (№3) is itself indicative of the later edition of №10 than №3 because with the same preposition ‘DE’ the word COURT can compose a grammatically meaningful phrase, whereas the word COURS cannot do ‘tout court (simply and nothing else)’. Moreover, among the numerous posterior editions ungrammatically following №10, there are rare ones that have the grammatically truer word COURT, for example those of Lyons, 1698 (Benazra, 96°), Gregorio 1568-003 (Benazra, 10°) and Gregorio 1665-001 (Benazra, 73°). In addition to this syntactical fault, the variant COURS has a semantic one because if the government will hold a decline (tiendra décours) of its country, as Ionescu interpreted about the Rumanian regime of Ceaucescu [Ceaucescu… will maintain his country upon the slope of decline], it cannot be its positive will, for any government will not want to decline its country in its positive policies, only the disastrous results it will suffer but never want as the word TENIR (to hold) has such a positive meaning in general. 

6° Now, if we should take the word COURT for granted, what shall be the case of Ionescu in relation to the quatrain in question ? Straightway speaking, the same thing will occur just as the case of Torné-Chavigny, for the quatrain IX-1 by itself seems to predict extraordinarily at once these two devoted interpreters of Nostradamus of the different times notwithstanding the Nostradamic general rule of prophecy: ONE QUATRAIN IN ONE SENSE for ONE EVENT: « But the unrighteous times, Oh serenest King, necessitate that such secret events should not be manifested but by enigmatic sentences, having only one sense, and only one understanding, without anything there included of ambiguous and amphibolic calculation.» (№3, p.8 [p.158]). Another of the only two exceptions to this rule is the quatrain IX-72 (§791) predicting the enormous religious persecution in the French Revolution and in the Nazi regime.

7° Vlaicu Ionescu is also predicted in the quatrain IX-1 (§893):
In the house of the interpreter of Bucharest,
Shall be found the writings on the table,
[God] shall keep a tight hold on a blind, russet, white and wise person and not let him free,
Who shall change at the time of the new constable.

(DANS la maison du traducteur de Bourc
Seront les lettres trouvees sus la table,
Bourgne roux, blanc, chanu tiendra de court,
Qui changera au nouveau Connestable.)
(№ 3).

In the house of the interpreter of Bucharest Shall be found the writings on the table: The first hemistich does not necessarily have such an dramatic nuance as only fitting the case of Ionescu in danger in the capital of Rumania of the 20th century, but also has a general meaning to fit the serene study of Torné-Chavigny in the countryside of France in the 19th century.

Bourgne: = « Borgne. Aveugle, celui qui ne veut pas voir (Blind, one who will not see).» (Huguet). Although Vlaicu Ionescu was a keen interpreter of Nostradamus, he could not fully and deservedly understand and appreciate the works of Torné-Chavigny, his greatest predecessor, toward whom he was, as it were, blind because of his misunderstanding of the details of the Nostradamic text. Ionescu’s interpretation that this word has a double function, which, in relation to the preceding lines apart from to the third line itself, expresses that « the agent who had found my manuscript was borgne (blind, one-eyed) because he did not recognize its importance and let it escaped.» (Ionescu, 1993, p.52). However, it is utterly ungrammatical because there is no syntactical particle, except his biased imagination to want to do so, that can connect it with the preceding verses.

Roux, blanc (russet, white): « The Interpreter of Nostradamus Vlaicu Ionescu, having dreamt of becoming a great painter in his early youth (Red and White being the symbol of painting in general), has come to specialize almost in the Russian issues (russet) concerning his efforts of deciphering the enigmatic texts and as a strong anti-communist, of course, remains to be a traditional ideologist (white).» (Ionescu, 1993, p.20-21).

Roux (russet): « In this respect, the term roux is very judiciously chosen. As well as “rouge (red)” (from the Latin “rubeus”) refers to the communism, roux by its Latin root “russus”, suggests “russe (Russian)”.» (Ionescu, id., p.53).

Chanu: « Canu, Chanu, chenu: Qui a les cheveux blanc (One who has white hairs). » (Roquefort) = « Chenu (hoary), blanc (white). Vieux (old). Sage (sage).» (Huguet); Vlaicu Ionescu was extraordinarily wise: « The communist regime persecuted me at first because my “files” were not very “pure”. I was a son of a priest (professor of Ecclesiastical History and theologian in addition) and to this dangerous filiation were added my suspect activities of painter; in refusing to yield to the directives of a socialist art which, for me, was not any art, I continued to create a personal painting… I have written a first manuscript of decryption of his Centuries, pivoted on the prophecies relating to the communism… Being perfectly conscious that if this manuscript (of which, by precaution, I had only one exemplar) was found in my house, I would be condemned to an imprisonment of at least twenty-five years, I lent it only to very good friends (for them also the detention of such a work offered serious risks !). Their reaction was always the same: a total surprise but above all a profound discouragement. At those times, the Rumanians lived in the hope of an American intervention that would deliver them from the communism and my friends refused to admit that, as Nostradamus foreboded it, this dreadful regime would last till 1991 [cf. Ionescu, id., p.27-36, p.188; Quatrain VI-74 (§924)]. By paraphrasing Dante, I repeated to them: Do abandon all the hope, and above all I exhorted them to prepare for such a duration.» (Ionescu, id., p.20-21).

Tenir qn de court: = « To keep a tight hold on someone.» (Dubois); « To take hold of someone firmly (not to let him free).» (Suzuki).

Bourgne, roux, blanc, chanu tiendra de court: = [Dieu] tiendra bourgne, roux, blanc, chanu de court (God shall keep a tight hold on a blind, red, white and wise person and not let him free), God not showing Himself explicitly: « To meet Vlaicu Ionescu is a veritable adventure… Having about himself a very high idea, he endures with indifference the sneers of the “pigheaded” an open interest in such a contestable subject does not fail to arouse. Numerous small happenings conforts him in his serenity and he sees himself gratified with a profusion of “signs” which he considers as the proofs that he has well chosen his way. As if by “hasard”, the most troublesome circumstances and “coincidences” accumulate around him. His material problems (financial and of housing) settle down as if by magic; the precious books and manuscripts concerning Nostradamus find quite naturally their way to his library (Marie-Thérèse de Brosses).» (Ionescu, id., p.18); « … It is not for the first time that this kind of extraordinay coincidences happened to me. Rare books come to me in good time, as if sent by the superior forces who seem to watch over me…. Sometimes, I have a temptation to believe that Nostradamus would have intervened in my life….» (Ionescu, id., p.19).

Who shall change at the time of the new constable: « During my studies, I was particularly interested in the traditional and esoteric aspect of philosophy. I read much (Guénon, Schuon, Evola, modern esoterism, anthroposophy...). At the age of twenty-one, when I was practicing the spiritual exercises of Rudolf Steiner (founder of the anthroposophy), I have had a mystic experience during which I have asked this “interior being” who communicated with me as my alter ego what I would make of my life. (Then I dreamed of becoming a great painter). To my profound astonishment, it answered me: “You shall be a kind of Nostradamus”. Never I will not forget these words. For me, Nostradamus, it was not but a name, but this day was born my interest in this personage out of the common – an interest which was going to be transformed into a passion [Who shall change]. Without waiting any more, I have began to study Nostradamus, and in the years 1950s [at the time of the new constable], I have written a first manuscript of decryption of his Centuries, pivoted on the prophecies relating to the communism. Very quickly, I had been struck by this promise made by Nostradamus, in his preface, of treating widely the phenomena of the common adventure (commun advénement). The meaning of this expression was clear to me, I have instantly recognized that it concerned just the communism.… » (Ionescu, id., p.20-21).

The new constable: « G. Gheorghiu-Dej [in power 1947-1965] was a “ new ” constable, not only as the first dictator loyal to the Kremlin, but also in the sense that before him, there had been a dictator (Antonescu) of opposite vassalage because of his being subject to Hitler.» (Ionescu, id., p.56).

8° There are three quatrains in the Prophecies of Nostradamus that seem to be attributed only and properly to Mr. Ionescu, who fervently studied
ALCHEMY among the other traditional thoughts: IX-12 (§951), III-21 (§952) and VIII-75 (§953), for whose interpretations we utterly rely upon him (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.209-222).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§892 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (7) Rumania under the communist regime (b) (1944-1989): X-20.

X-20 (§892) :

All the friends who shall have held the party,
By a rude in letters put to death and ransacked,
Properties published at a fixed price, great persons annihilated,
Never the Rumanian people shall have been so outraged.

(Tous les amys qu'auront tenu party,
Pour rude en lettres mys mort & saccagé,
Biens publiez par fixe grand neanty,
Onc Romain peuple ne feut tant outragé.)
(№10)

NOTES: Rude en lettres (a rude in letters): = Joseph Stalin; « The expression “rude en lettres” sends us to the quatrain X-65 (§884), where Stalin is named “l'aspre par letres (the harsh man by letters) and “fer pointu (sharp iron = the sharp knife)”. These two expressions refer to Stalin, whose name signifies steel (acier), therefore something rude or hard. “Acier” comes from the Latin “aciēs”, which means the sharpened or pointed part of a knife or of another arm, namely exactly what Nostradamus indicates by “sharp iron”. In the present quatrain we have a variant of the expression “aspre par letres”, for “rude en lettres” is also a person whose name has a sense of something “rude” (or, by anagram, “dure”), which is equivalent to “aspre”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.580).

All the friends who shall have held the party, By a rude in letters put to death and ransacked: « Those who had supported “the party” shall themselves be condemned by Stalin and exterminated. All of this had taken place exactly, by “the great purges” as well in the Soviet Union as in Rumania, where the majority of those who had done the coup d’état of August 23 were then exiled or implicated in the show-trials to be annihilated.» (Ionescu, id.).

Neanty: « neantir. See N
OIANTIR.» (Godefroy); « noiantir. Anéantir, rendre nul (To annihilate, to reduce to nothing).» (Godefroy).

Ne feut: = n’aura été (shall not have been) (cf. VIII-28, VIII-53 and X-57).

Properties published at a fixed price, great persons annihilated, Never the Rumanian people shall have been so outraged: « Romania: Communism (1944-89) The Soviets installed a Communist regime under Gheorghiu-Dej, which eliminated all opposition, forced King Michael to abdicate on 30 December 1947, and proclaimed a Communist People’s Republic. Private ownership was abolished, so that by 1960, 98 per cent of all firms and 80 per cent of farms had been nationalized. Gheorghiu-Dej established a ruthless regime with the help of Soviet NKVD-KGB and, increasingly, his own security forces. Opposition leaders were harassed, imprisoned, or killed, and press censorship was established. Since the country had a long border with the Soviet Union, Gheorghiu-Dej ensured Stalin’s satisfaction with the regime, especially since Romania was still full of Red Army troops. The Soviet armed forces were withdrawn in 1958, however, in response to Romanian support in the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution. This enabled the Communist leadership, headed by Ceausescu after 1965, to gain a certain degree of independence from the Soviet Union.» (Palmowski, p.582); « Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe (1901-1965) General Secretary of the Communist Party of Romania 1945-55, First Secretary 1955-65. After the Soviet takeover he was released and accepted as leader. With Soviet help, he worked until 1948 to establish Romania as a Communist state. Thereafter, in a second phase of his leadership he consolidated his own position and authority within the party. Carrying out Stalinist purges with gusto, he gradually dismantled all internal opposition within the party. This led to the creation of an unusually personalized regime, in which important posts were filled by loyal protégés. In a final phase of his leadership he successfully created greater distance from the Communist leadership in Moscow. This was done through skillful exploitations of the internal divisions that had opened up between Yugoslavia, Albania, and China, on the one hand, and the other Comecon states, on the other. He died in office.» (Palmowski, p.258).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§891 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (6) Rumania under the communist regime (a) (1947-1989): I-28.

I-28 (§891):

The tower of Bucharest shall whimper: the knout of the Barbarians,
For a while for a long time after the western vessel,
Cattle, peoples, properties, both of the two shall do great damage,
The Bull and the Balance what a mortal spike!

(La tour de Bouq gaindra fuste Barbare,
Un temps long temps apres barque hesperique,
Bestail, gens, meubles tousdeux feront grant tare
Taurus & Libra quelle mortelle picque!)

NOTES: La tour de Bouq (The tower of Bucharest): « Bucharest, the city of Boucour » (Ionescu, 1976, p.579); « This prince Dracula, who became a legendary figure since his times, and who continues even now to feed a certain literature of horror, was the first that began to prefer as his residence this “city of Boucour” as this city had been named at that time, after the legendary shepherd, or after a boyar [of the class of privileged landowners before the agrarian reforms of 1945 in Rumania] who had founded it.» (Ionescu, id., p.565); « Bucharest. The city is traditionally said to take its name from a shepherd called Bucur, who allegedly founded it in 1457. But there was almost certainly a settlement here earlier than this. Even so, the name may represent the personal name of an early landowner.» (Room).

Gaindre: = « geindre. To whine, to whimper.» (Dubois).

Fuste Barbare (The knout of the Barbarians): « In the traditional language of the Rumanians, “to be in the fetters of the Russians” was expressed by the phrase “to be under the Russian knout ”. The word “knout”, of Russian origin passed in all the civilized languages and signifies a flexible stick, made of interlaced veins of ox, with which was applied the “punishment of whip”.» (Ionescu, id., p.578).

Barque hesperique (the western vessel): « The point of reference [in time] in our quatrain is the American landings in Normandy. The term “Hespérie” or the country of the West, appears already in other quatrains as for America. “Après barque hespérique (after the western vessel)” is therefore translated as “après le débarquement américain (after the American landing)”.» (Ionescu, id.).

Un temps long temps apres barque hesperique (For a while for a long time after the western vessel): « Two months after the Allied landings in Normandy (the “D” day, June 6, 1944), Rumania permitted (following the coup d’état of August 23, 1944) the “passage” of the Soviets, who in their zeal of liberating the country, found that the better was to occupy it.» (Ionescu, id.). “For a while” (1944-1948) Rumania was under the Soviet occupation, and “for a long time” (1948-1989) under the dictatorial communist regime of herself.

« 1944 Apr: 2nd, Russians enter Roumania; Aug: 20th, Russian offensive in Bessarabia and Roumania; 30th, Russians enter Bucharest; Sep: 12th, Roumanian armistice signed; 1946 May: 17th, Mitri Antonescu, wartime premier of Roumania, sentenced to death; Jul: 29th (-Oct. 15th), Peace Conference of 21 nations that had opposed the Axis meets in Paris to draft peace treaties; 1947 Feb: 10th, by the peace treaties, signed in Paris, Roumania loses Bessarabia and North Bukovina to U.S.S.R., but regains Transylvania; Jul: 28th, National Peasant Party is dissolved in Roumania; Dec: 30th, King Michael of Roumania abdicates, under Communist pressure; 1948 Apr: 13th, Roumanian Constitution is remodelled on Soviet lines.» (Williams, 1968, p.590-610); “ The first act of the People’s Republic of Rumania was the signing in February 1948 of the Treaty of friendship and aid with the USSR, which symbolizes her economy’s tight dependence upon the USSR and the Soviet heavy pressure on her in politics. In February the Rumanian Workers Party (the Communist Party) was founded by union of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party, and a communist Gheorghiu-Dej, born in Moldavia, became General Secretary of the Party. The one-party regime by the Communist Party was established and the Socialist reconstruction on Soviet lines was forwarded.” (Shiba, 2019, p.144).

« Romania: Communism (1944-89) The Soviets installed a Communist regime under Gheorghiu-Dej, which eliminated all opposition, forced King Michael to abdicate on 30 December 1947, and proclaimed a Communist People’s Republic. Private ownership was abolished, so that by 1960, 98 per cent of all firms and 80 per cent of farms had been nationalized. Gheorghiu-Dej established a ruthless regime with the help of Soviet NKVD-KGB and, increasingly, his own security forces. Opposition leaders were harassed, imprisoned, or killed, and press censorship was established. Since the country had a long border with the Soviet Union, Gheorghiu-Dej ensured Stalin’s satisfaction with the regime, especially since Romania was still full of Red Army troops. The Soviet armed forces were withdrawn in 1958, however, in response to Romanian support in the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution. This enabled the Communist leadership, headed by Ceausescu after 1965, to gain a certain degree of independence from the Soviet Union.» (Palmowski, p.582).

« Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe (1901-1965) General Secretary of the Communist Party of Romania 1945-55, First Secretary 1955-65. Born in Bîrlad (Moldavia), the electrician took employment with the railways, where he became engaged in trade-union and political activity. He joined the Communist party in 1930. For his alleged part in a railway strike in 1932 he was sent to prison, where he created a close-knit group of Communist leaders, which included the young Ceausescu. After the Soviet takeover he was released and accepted as leader. With Soviet help, he worked until 1948 to establish Romania as a Communist state. Thereafter, in a second phase of his leadership he consolidated his own position and authority within the party. Carrying out Stalinist purges with gusto, he gradually dismantled all internal opposition within the party. This led to the creation of an unusually personalized regime, in which important posts were filled by loyal protégés. In a final phase of his leadership he successfully created greater distance from the Communist leadership in Moscow. This was done through skillful exploitations of the internal divisions that had opened up between Yugoslavia, Albania, and China, on the one hand, and the other Comecon states, on the other. He died in office.» (Palmowski, p.258).

Libra (The Balance): = USSR, indicated by the phrase of the first line: « the knout of the Barbarians » and found among « the regions subject to the Balance (Des regions subjectes à la Balance) (§741, V-70) = The north-eastern quarter of the inhabited world according to Ptolemy. He says that « Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing Hyrcania (around the south end of the Caspian to the west), Armenia ([which] lies south of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian), Matiana (around the south end of the Caspian to the east), Bactriana (around the upper courses of the Oxus), Casperia (probably the region around the northern part of the Caspian Sea), Serica (China or its western portion), Sauromatica (Asiatic part of Russia), Oxiana (around the upper courses of the Oxus), Sogdiana (around the upper courses of the Oxus), and the regions in the north-east of the inhabited world, are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter.» (Ptolemy,
Tetrabiblos, p.145) [Cf. §741, V-70].

Taurus (The Bull): = Rumania, indicated by the phrase of the first line: « the tower of Bucharest (La tour de Bouq) » and found among the south east parts of Europe familiar with Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn. According to Ptolemy (Tetrabiblos, p.83-87; 128-159), our inhabited world is divided roughly into four quarters by the two grand crossed lines: the north-west quarter, the south-east quarter, the north-east quarter and the south-west quarter, in other words, Europe, the South of Greater Asia, the North of Greater Asia and Libya (today Africa); the vertical line of demarcation passes the Red Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and the horizontal line of demarcation passes the Mediterranean and its eastern prolongation of mountainous terrain; the point of intersection is situated at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean in the south-eastern open sea off the island of Cyprus. « The first quarter lies in the north-west of the whole inhabited world; it embraces Celtic Gaul and we give it the general name Europe. Opposite this is the south-eastern quarter; this includes eastern Ethiopia, which would be called the southern part of Greater Asia. Again, the north-eastern quarter of the whole inhabited world is that which contains Scythia, which likewise is the northern part of Greater Asia; and the quarter opposite this and toward the south-west wind, the quarter of western Ethiopia, is that which we call by the general term Libya.» (
id., p.131). « Again, of each of the aforesaid quarters the parts which are placed closer to the centre of the inhabited world are placed in a contrary fashion with respect to the surrounding quarters, just as are the latter in comparison with the whole world; and since the European quarter lies in the north-west of the whole world, the parts about the centre, which are allied to the opposite angle, obviously are situated in the south-east part of the quarter. The same holds of the other quarters, so that each of them is related to two oppositely situated triangles; for while the other parts are in harmony with the general inclination of the quarter, the portions at the centre [of the world] share in familiarity with the opposite inclination.» (id., p.131-133). « Under this arrangement, the remainder of the first quarter, by which I mean the European quarter, situated in the north-west of the inhabited world, is in familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and is governed, as one would expect, by the lords of the triangle, Jupiter and Mars. In terms of whole nations these parts consist of Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, Bastarnia (The south-western part of Russia and southern Poland), Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, Sicily, Tyrrhenia [Corsica and Sardinia], Celtica [Portugal], and Spain. The parts of this quarter which are situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria, Hellas, Achaia, Crete, and likewise the Cyclades, and the coastal regions of Asia Minor and Cyprus, which are in the south-east portion of the whole quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south-east triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and its co‑rulers Venus, Saturn, and Mercury.» (id., p.133-137).

Picque: « Picque, .See Pique 1 et 2. » (Huguet); « pique.
Pike, spear, pointed staff.) (Dubois).

Discussions:
Ionescu’s interpretation of the second hemistich of the quatrain, itself erroneous because of the fallacy of equivocation or of amphiboly, is as follows: « Taurus and Libra, these two signs are the two “domiciles” of Venus. As the name Venus replaces sometimes the word “prostitute” in the texts [of Nostradamus] with the same sense of communism, the “domiciles” of this prostitute are the countries ruled by this doctrine. What mortal damages are imposed upon the countries occupied by the prostitution of the communism! » (Ionescu, id., p.579). Now, “Taurus and Libra”, namely USSR and Rumania enumerated by the first line, and both with the despotically communist regime, seems to be identical with “tousdeux” of the third line, which are considered to do great damage [to cattle, peoples and properties of Rumania], but Ionescu says that Taurus and Libra are the countries suffered of the communism. The agent and the patient are unconsciously confounded in his view according to his pedantic theory of astrology! This confusion is related to the fact that he absolutely neglects to analyze the term “tousdeux (both of the two)”. By the way, the term “Venus” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus does not have any meaning of prostitute. In fact, of 14 usages of the term Venus, 5 are in the proper sense of the planet (IV-33bis, IV-68, IV-97 and X-67), 5 for Ladies of a certain dignity (IV-28, IV-84, V-24, V-53 and V-72), 2 for the libido of a male (VIII-32 and X-28) and 2 for the city of Venice (V-11 and V-25).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§890 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (5) The last King of Rumania (1940-47): V-50.

V-50 (§890):

In the year when the brothers of the lily shall be aged,
One of them shall hold the grand Rumania:
The mountains to tremble, the Latin passage open
A pact shall march against the mighty man of Armenia.

(L'an que les freres du lys seront en aage,
L'un d'eulx tiendra la grande Romanie:
Trembler les monts, ouvert latin passaige
Pache marcher contre fort d'Armenie.)

NOTES: One of them shall hold the grand Rumania: « The second verse is among the most remarkable one can find. The name itself of Rumania (Roumanie, Romanie) did not exist in the 16th century because this country only began to exist through the union of Walachia and Moldavia in the 19th century. As to the name of “grand Rumania” of which Nostradamus talks it began to exist only when Transylvania and Bessarabia were also unified after the WWI. This name existed only under the kings of the Hohenzollern family, Ferdinand I, Charles II and Michael I [1940-1947].» (Ionescu, 1976, p.576).

In the year: = « In the years, a part for the entirety by synecdoche.» (Ionescu, id., p.577).

The brothers of the lily shall be aged
: « We know that among the dynasties of Europe the ties of parentage had been established through numerous marriages in the course of centuries [aged]. The family of Hohenzollern can be considered therefore as a sister of the Capetians, - having the lily as heraldic sign – so much as the Capetian family was of Germanic origin.» (Ionescu, id., p.576). The simplest evidence of this assertion is that Marie, the wife of Ferdinand I of Rumania descending from the family of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of UK and the wife of Charles I of England, Henrietta Maria was a daughter of Henri IV of France: then, the royal family of Rumania is said to be a relative of that of France, the word “brother” in its widest sense meaning any relation. 

The Latin passage open: = The passage of Rumania open to the Soviets coming from Ukraine, the country of Rumania among the Slav countries in the Balkans being able to be called ‘Latin’ because of her language supposed of Latin origin: « In addition to the Slav languages, other Indo-European languages are spoken in the Eastern Europe. The most important next to the Slav languages is the group of Illyro-Balkan languages, represented by the Albanian and the Rumanian. Traditionally the Rumanian is classed in the Romance languages because of the importance of the vocabulary of Latin origin it includes.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.17).

The mountains to tremble
: Terre trembler (The earth to tremble): This phrase, together with “Tremblement de terre (A tremble of the earth)”, is a manner of saying preferred by Nostradamus for expressing « A war/ a war to take place » (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.459). All of the 12 usages of this expression in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are in this sense without exception (I-20, I-46, I-93, II-52, III-3, VI-66, VI-88, VIII-29, IX-31, IX-83, X-60 and X-79). Moreover, of the other 24 phrases including the word “trembler (to tremble)”, 17 are yet in this sense (I-57, I-82bis, I-87, II-68, II-86, IV-54, IV-90, V-27, V-50, V-61, V-68, IX-33, IX-60bis, IX-94 and X-67) as well as the other 5 with an expression of ‘fear’ (III-88, IV-5, IV-36, V-23 and XII-65) and only the remaining 2 are allotted otherwise (II-64: enfeebling of laws; V-49: shake of the regime). In conclusion, 34 of 36 usages of the word “trembler (to tremble)” are designed to signify the war. And “The mountains” in question are not the Transylvanian Alps which Ionescu recommended (Ionescu, id., p.576), but the Carpathians which first saw the Soviet invasion into Rumania through Ukraine because its relevant phrase “the Latin passage open” alludes to the first Soviet invasion into Rumania: « The Soviet Armies have passed the Dniester at several points.» (Ionescu, id., p.575); « The entrance of the Soviet Armies into Moldavia, August 1944. We see that it is the Army of Malinowski that first penetrated Rumania and that it is at Hotin (= Hurin of the quatrain VIII-86) that it passed the Dniester.» (Ionescu, id., p.572, Chart 34 according to Prof. Dr. Alexander von Randa, Munich, 1970).

Pache
(A pact): « 1940 Nov: 20th, Hungary and, 23rd, Roumania, endorse German-Italian-Japanese treaty of Sept. 27th.»; « 1940 Sep: 27th, Germany, Italy and Japan sign ten-year economic and military pacts [Pache].» (Williams, 1968, p.574);

The mighty man of Armenia
: « Stalin is called by the expression “fort d’Arménie (the mighty man of Armenia)”, a variant of the form “le grand duc d’Arménie (the great duke of Armenia)” of the quatrain V-94 [§811].» (Ionescu, id., p.577); The great duke of Armenia: = The King of kings (§810, IX-90) = Joseph Stalin.

A pact shall march against the mighty man of Armenia
: The pacts of November 23rd, 1940 shall make the Rumanians fight the Soviets, the enemy of Germany: « In the name of the “crusade against Bolshevism” that he had proclaimed on June 22, 1941, and of what he called the defence of “Europe”, Hitler called upon all his allies and satellites to increase their contribution to the Russian campaign. As a result of losses during the winter of 1939-1940, Finland could keep its 18 divisions in action only between the Arctic circle and the Karelian isthmus. General Franco did not more than maintain the Azúl Division in the Novgorod sector; and the Slovak contingent which took part in the Caucasus invasion was reinforced by a motorised division. Rome, Budapest, and Bucharest made a more positive response to the German appeal, as shown by the numbers of their troops on the Eastern Front in 1941 and 1942:
                November 15, 1941     November 15, 1942
Italy              3 divisions                    10 divisions
Hungary       3 brigades                     10 divisions
Rumania   15 divisions                     25 divisions.
  Instead of the 52 satellite divisions and brigades fighting with the Germans from June 22, 1941, there were, just before Stalingrad, 65 allied divisions on the Eastern Front. Forty-six of these were wholly or partially involved in some way or another in the great catastrophe that began on November 19, 1942. OK.H. [the Army High Command] calculated that, given their differences in arms and equipment, three allied divisions were the equivalent of two German divisions. On this basis, the contribution of Hitler’s allies in this phase of the campaign was the equivalent of 44 German divisions. And on July 1 Field-Marshal von Bock commanded in the Crimea and the Ukraine 29 such divisions, of which 12 were Rumanian, ten Hungarian, six Italian, and one Slovak. These were Hitler’s forces at the opening of the German summer offensive. They amounted in all to some 215 divisions (184 German, plus 46 satellite divisions, i.e. 31 in German equivalents) – on paper 35 more than on June 22, 1941.» (Bauer, 1979, p.301).
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§889 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (4) Ploesti (c) (1943): X-49.

X-49 (§889):

The garden of the demon near a new city,
On the road of the caved mountains
Shall be taken and plunged into the Fermenting Tank,
Drinking by force envenomed sulfur waters.

(Jardin du monde aupres de cité neufve,
Dans le chemin des montaignes cavees
Sera saisi & plongé dans la Cuve,
Beuvant par force eaux soulphre envenimees.)

NOTES: A new city: = the new grand city (§886, VI-97) = the new city (§887, I-87) = Bucharest (Ionescu, 1976, p.567 and p.569).

The garden of the demon
(Jardin du monde): « In order to decipher our enigma, it is to be noted above all that the metaphor of this quatrain consists in a plastic description of the hell, where, according to the popular traditions, the sinners are sunk in large “fermenting tanks”, full of pitch, of bitumen, or of other substances envenomed and heated by the fire of sulfur by demons. In this context, it is not difficult to see that the word “monde (world)” is a simple anagram of “démon (demon)”. To name a field of oil wells by means of the expression “the garden of demon”, it is to allude to petrolic residuums (bitumen), which form according to the popular tradition one of the matters necessary for the installations of the hell.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.568).

The garden of the demon near a new city, On the road of the caved mountains: « The garden, or the petroliferous field of Ploesti is in fact very near Boucour (Bucharest). It is midway between the capital and the Carpathians in the region of the hills of Prahova, on the road that connects Bucharest to the beautiful mountainous towns of Sinaia or Predeal.» (Ionescu, id.).

The caved mountains
: = The region of the hills of Prahova (Braşov) where the Eastern Carpathians (the Carpathians) and the Southern Carpathians (the Transylvanian Alps) are both lowered in connecting themselves with each other.

Shall be taken and plunged into the Fermenting Tank, Drinking by force envenomed sulfur waters
: The oil fields of Ploesti were bombed and inflamed, blowing up black smokes as if fermenting under the Allied aerial attacks (cf. Sweetman, 1974, p.110-111: Picture of Oil installations ablaze at Steaua Romana, Colonel Jack Wood’s 389th Group’s Target Red); p.116-117: Picture of B 24s, aiming to ‘knock out Ploesti or die trying’). _______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§888 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (3) Soviet invasion (1944-1965): VIII-86.

VIII-86 (§888):

By Arnani to tyrannize a Franque city,
An infinite number of troops through the Adrian mountain,
Cross a river, Hotin by means of pontoons
Bayonets shall enter there, all crying Bihoro.

(Par Arnani tholoser ville franque,
Bande infinie par le mont Adrian,
Passe riviere, Hurin par pont la planque
Bayonne entrer tous Bihoro criant.)

NOTES: Arnani: Many interpreters of Nostradamus (e.g. Leoni, Cheetham, Hogue, Guinard, Clébert and Sieburth) take this unknown term as a variant of Hernani, a Spanish town in the neighbourhood of Tolosa, Villafranca and Sierra de Andia with the Ermita de San Adrian in the Basque Provinces, but it seems to be derived from the term Nanar through a kind of conversion because the word tholoser is not a name of a town (Tolosa) but a verb with a meaning of troubler, perturber (to trouble, to perturb) copying after the Greek verb θολόω (Ionescu, 1976, p.571): = « make turbid, properly of water.» (Liddell & Scott); = « render trouble, salir (l’eau); fig. troubler (to make muddy, to dirty (water); fig. to disturb).» (Bailly). In the concrete, the term can signify a tyrannical power of any political assembly like a senate or a party because the words Thoulousain (III-45), Tholossain (IX-72), Tholoze (VIII-39) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus express a kind of tyrannical or oligarchic power like that of Athens in the times of the Thirty Tyrants (404-403 B.C.) seated in the θόλος (Rotunda). In this case it is the Communist Party of Rumania headed by Gheorghiu-Dej.

The term Nanar is used by Nostradamus in the quatrain VIII-85 (§649) immediately preceding the quatrain under analysis and it means « Vieillerie sans valeur (Valueless old things, old rubbish or stuff).» (Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé); « Valueless things, damaged goods; A fool, idiot.» (Tanebe). The term also suggests in Latin « nōnāria, a public prostitute.» (Smith-Lockwood) (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.573). In the quatrain VIII-85 it indicates the old age of Napoleon III and at the same time his mistress: « Napoleon is rapidly aging [Nanar], his bladder disease has worsened and gives crises of suffering followed by reductions that weaken his will. His youthful love for the Empress has cooled, he returned to amorous adventures. The certified favorite is first an Italian lady of high society, the Countess Cassiglione, whose beauty is displayed at the receptions of the Tuileries; a most secret affair with a demimondaine [Nanar] will be made public after the fall of the Empire by the disclosure of the letters of the President of the Supreme Court in charge of negotiating the break.» (Seignobos, 1921, p.2-3).

Now, if Nanar is the old age and at the same time a prostitute, Arnan, namely the apocope of Arnani, may have its symmetrical meaning in conversion: the youth and an arbitrary man, which seems to be represented by a new communist dictator of Rumania Gheorghiu-Dej.

By Arnani to tyrannize a Franque city: = Arnani shall tyrannize a Franque city, the preposition PAR (BY) indicating an agent in Nostradamus often representing the true subject of the principal verb without corresponding grammatical subject: « Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe (1901-1965) General Secretary of the Communist Party of Romania 1945-55, First Secretary 1955-65. Born in Bîrlad (Moldavia), the electrician took employment with the railways, where he became engaged in trade-union and political activity. He joined the Communist party in 1930. For his alleged part in a railway strike in 1932 he was sent to prison, where he created a close-knit group of Communist leaders, which included the young Ceausescu. After the Soviet takeover he was released and accepted as leader. With Soviet help, he worked until 1948 to establish Romania as a Communist state. Thereafter, in a second phase of his leadership he consolidated his own position and authority within the party. Carrying out Stalinist purges with gusto, he gradually dismantled all internal opposition within the party. This led to the creation of an unusually personalized regime, in which important posts were filled by loyal protégés. In a final phase of his leadership he successfully created greater distance from the Communist leadership in Moscow. This was done through skillful exploitations of the internal divisions that had opened up between Yugoslavia, Albania, and China, on the one hand, and the other Comecon states, on the other. He died in office.» (Palmowski, p.258); « Romania: Communism (1944-89) The Soviets installed a Communist regime under Gheorghiu-Dej, which eliminated all opposition, forced King Michael to abdicate on 30 December 1947, and proclaimed a Communist People’s Republic. Private ownership was abolished, so that by 1960, 98 per cent of all firms and 80 per cent of farms had been nationalized. Gheorghiu-Dej established a ruthless regime with the help of Soviet NKVD-KGB and, increasingly, his own security forces. Opposition leaders were harassed, imprisoned, or killed, and press censorship was established. Since the country had a long border with the Soviet Union, Gheorghiu-Dej ensured Stalin’s satisfaction with the regime, especially since Romania was still full of Red Army troops. The Soviet armed forces were withdrawn in 1958, however, in response to Romanian support in the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution. This enabled the Communist leadership, headed by Ceausescu after 1965, to gain a certain degree of independence from the Soviet Union.» (Palmowski, p.582).

Ville franque (a Franque city): = Bucharest representing Rumania by metonymy. The word “ville (city)” corresponds to “la grand cité neufve (the new grand city)” (§886, VI-97) and to “cité neufve (the new city)” (§887, I-87) both indicating Bucharest, the capital of Rumania, and the word “franque (Franque)” may designate “utmost eastern Europe nearest to the Levant” because it is the adjective of “FRANC, - The name given in [Ottoman] Turkey to all the Europeans not subject to the capitation imposed on rayas (the Christian and Jewish subjects of Ottoman Turkey). They say its adjective in the same sense: les nations franques (the Franque nations), and do not say franches (the Frank nations). – It is called langue franque (a Franque language), a certain jargon, composed of not only French, Italian, Spanish but also several other idioms, used among the marine peoples of the Mediterranean and the merchants who come to commerce in the Levant.” (Landais); « 4. FRANC, FRANQUE,
ETYM. Franc is the name which the Orientals, since the crusades, give to the Occidentals, because of the great role the French played in these expeditions.» (Littré). The interpretation of the word “franque” by Ionescu, a Rumanian patriot, as idealistically “libre (free)” (Ionescu, 1976, p.573) is not pertinent because the feminine of the French adjective FRANC as libre is not FRANQUE but FRANCHE (Littré) (cf. quatrains IV-16, V-35 and X-41). The usage of the word FRANQUE with geographical nuance in the Prophecies of Nostradamus is unique in this quatrain under analysis.

By Arnani to tyrannize a Franque city
: The Communist Party headed by Gheorghiu-Dej shall tyrannize an European country near the Levant, Rumania: « 1944 Feb: 22nd, Russians take Krivoi Rog, Ukraine.»; « Mar: 4th, Russian offensive in Ukraine begins; 19th, Russians force the Dniester [An infinite number of troops Cross a river].»; « Apr: 2nd, Russians enter Roumania.»; « Aug: 20th, Russian offensive in Bessarabia and Roumania; 30th, Russians enter Bucharest.»; « Sep: 12th, Roumanian armistice signed; 29th, Russians invade Yugoslavia.»; « Oct: 23rd, The Red Army advances into Hungary.»; « 1946 May: 17th, Mitri Antonescu, wartime premier of Roumania, sentenced to death.»; « Jul: 29th (-Oct. 15th), Peace Conference of 21 nations that had opposed the Axis meets in Paris to draft peace treaties.»; « 1947 Feb: 10th, by the peace treaties, signed in Paris, (i)…; (ii) Roumania loses Bessarabia and North Bukovina to U.S.S.R., but regains Transylvania; (iii)...»; « Jul: 28th, National Peasant Party is dissolved in Roumania.»; « Dec: 30th, King Michael of Roumania abdicates, under Communist pressure.»; « 1948 Apr: 13th, Roumanian Constitution is remodelled on Soviet lines.» (Williams, 1968, p.590-610); “ The first act of the People’s Republic of Rumania was the signing in February 1948 of the Treaty of friendship and aid with the USSR, which symbolizes her economy’s tight dependence upon the USSR and the Soviet heavy pressure on her in politics. In February the Rumanian Workers Party (the Communist Party) was founded by union of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party, and a communist Gheorghiu-Dej, born in Moldavia, became General Secretary of the Party. The one-party regime by the Communist Party was established and the Socialist reconstruction on Soviet lines was forwarded.” (Shiba, 2019, p.144).

Adrian
: = The anagram of Trajan (Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Trajanus: 98-117), solved by Ionescu as follows: « In the context of this quatrain, the name of the Roman Emperor Hadrianus or Adrianus (Adrian), the nephew and successor of Trajan, is one of the most interesting enigmas. It is noted above all that the form employed in this quatrain (Adrian), which differs from the French habitual form “Adrien”, permits us to introduce the following anagram: ADRIAN = TRAIAN (by metaplasm of T into D). It will be an allusion to Transylvania, for the “mounts of Trajan” are the mountains that edge this region – ancient center of the Dacians, where they had their capital – the mountains that had been traversed by the Roman Emperor Trajan to conquer this fortress of the kingdom of the Dacians.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.574).

Hurin
: = The enigma alluding to Hotin: « The entrance of the Soviet Armies into Moldavia, August 1944. We see that it is the Army of Malinowski that first penetrated Rumania and that it is at Hotin that it passed the Dniester.» (Ionescu, id., p.572, Chart 34 according to Prof. Dr. Alexander von Randa, Munich, 1970).

Bayonne
: = « Apocope of baïonnette (bayonet). Derived from Bayonne (the Low Pyrenees), where this arm was first produced.» (Ionescu, id., p.571).

Bihoro: = The Massif of Bihor in Transylvania: « The word “Bihoro/Bichoro” evokes at first the cry of war of the soldiers of Henri IV, “Bigorre”, on the occasion of the conflicts to conquer Bigorre, a provinve near Navarre, a part of the ancient domain of the house of d’Albret, incorporated by Henri IV to France. This word establishes, consequently, a historical parallel between the French conquest we have mentioned and our contemporary similar event: the occupation of Rumania by the Red Army. The Massif of Bihor is in the west of Transylvania, toward the Hungarian border. This mountain was on the route of the Soviet troops that were going to Germany via Hungary.» (Ionescu, id., p.575).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§887 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (2) Ploesti (b) (1942-44): I-87.

I-87 (§887):

The Ennosigaeus shall make tremble the fire
Of the centre of the earth around the new city:
Two great rocks shall for a long time wage a war,
Then Arethuse shall redden a new stream.

(Ennosigée feu du centre de terre
Fera trembler autour de cité neufve:
Deux grands rochiers long temps feront la guerre
Puis Arethusa rougira nouveau fleuve.)

NOTES: Here are a first suggestive interpretation of the quatrain by Lamont and the developed one by Ionescu: « INTERPRETATION: In September, 1939, Great Britain officially declared war against Germany. By June, 1940, almost all Europe was at war. It was at that time, also, Italy decided to enter the great conflict, adding her blood to the already overflowing river of human blood.» (Lamont, 1944, p.153); « The Earthshaking Neptune – one who makes tremble the earth – shall tremble the region of Ploesti, not far from the capital, by the fire in the entrails of the earth. Between the two rocky coasts – the English coast and the Franco-Flemish coast – there shall be at this time a war that has been lasted these four years. A little later, the two great maritime powers – England and America – shall make redden the waters of the Channel with the blood of their soldiers who shall accomplish the landing in Normandy.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.570).

Ennosigée
(Lat. Ennosigaeus): = « ἐννοσί-γαιος, celui qui ébranle la terre, ép. de Poseidōn (one who shakes the earth, epithet of Poseidon [Neptune]) IL. 13, 43; abs. Le dieu qui ébranle la terre (Absolutely, the god who shakes the earth, Poseidon) OD, 9, 518.» (Bailly); « Der Erderschütterer ist Neptune (The earth-shaker is Neptune).» (Centurio, 1953, p.47).

The fire of the centre of the earth: The fire of the petrolic wells and oilfields of Ploesti and its neighbourhood caused by the Allied aerial bombing.

The new city: =
« the new grand city» = Bucharest (§886, VI-97).

Arethusa
: = In Greek
« Ἀρέθουσα, Aréthuse, nymphe, fille de Nérée; Fontaine près de Syracuse et autres en Eubée et Itaque (Arethusa, a nymph, daughter of Nereus; A fountain near Syracuse and others in Euboea and Ithaca).» (Pillon); « Arethusa ist ein Kryptogramm von Ares et USA (der Gott des Krieges Ares in Verbindung mit den USA) (Arethusa is a cryptogram of Ares and USA [the god of wars Ares tied with USA]).» (Centurio, id.); « We add that the name “Arethusa” can be also composed of Aries (the Ram) and USA. As “Aries” is the dominant sign of England, the solution of the cryptogram would be: the Allied forces of England and America. As far as the maritime powers, England as well as America come under the symbolism of Arethusa, the nymph of waters. Her legend, to which Nostradamus alludes – the fountain of Arethusa that confounds her waters with that of her ambivalent lover Alpheus, having become a stream – is a mythological metaphor expressing the alliance of the two great maritime powers during the war.» (Ionescu, id.).

A new stream: This expression with a qualification “new” cannot directly indicate the English Channel existing as ever. In addition, the term “stream” may suggest the unilateral course from England to Normandy across the Channel, following this line was sent the great mass of the Allied landing forces in the Operation Overlord.
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§886 Rumania in-and-after the WWII (1) Ploesti (a) (1942-44): VI-97.

VI-97 (§886):

At the forty-five degrees the sky shall burn,
The fire shall approach the new grand city,
An instant being, dispersed great flames shall leap,
When they shall want to try the Normans.

(Cinq & quarante degrés ciel bruslera,
Feu approucher de la grand cité neufve,
Instant grand flamme esparse saultera,
Quant on vouldra des Normans faire preuve.)

NOTES: Quant: = Quand (When).

Ionescu discovered 8 quatrains concerning his motherland Rumania in and after the WWII in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (§886-§893) (cf. Ionescu, 1976, Part VI, Chapter 8: Among the martyred Countries: Rumania, During and After the War). Here is the first of them: « Upon the city of Ploesti – situated at the 45th parallel – shall be made a grand aerial, incendiary attack. Then the fire of bombardments shall approach Bucharest – the most recent capital in Europe. Suddenly grand flames shall explode, the fire extending over a large surface. It shall take place when the Commandment of the Allies shall project an attempt of landing in Normandy.» (Ionescu, id., p.566). The epoch (the WWII) is evidently shown by the fourth line indicating the Operation Overlord of the Allies in June 1944 because the term “Normans” is to be interpreted as “the Germans occupying the Atlantic coast of France (Normandy) on guard against the Allied amphibious landing”.

Cinq & quarante degrés (Five and Forty degrees): A succinct expression of the idiomatic formula: Par cinq & quarante degrés de latitude nord (At the forty-five degrees of the north latitude).

At the forty-five degrees the sky shall burn, The fire shall approach the new grand city, An instant being, dispersed great flames shall leap: Ionescu’s identification of the first line with the Rumanian city of Ploesti (at latitude 44° 56′ 21″ N, longitude 23° 40′ 47″ E) is pertinent because the oil refineries there serving the Axis had been heavily attacked by the Allied aerial bombing several times: « Much of the oil needed to run the German war machines came from Rumania. Transported by rail tanker or pumped along pipelines, crude oil from the wells flowed into the refining centre of Ploesti, situated on a tributary of the Danube and well served by roads and railways. Here it was converted into petrol, lubricants and those other derivatives essential to a modern industrial state, here also it became more vulnerable to attack. The exploitation of Rumanian natural resources was largely financed by foreign capital and Germany had become a major investor in Rumania’s industrial growth and also her largest single customer for oil between the wars. The two countries drew closer together during the years preceding 1939, although as far as the Rumanians were concerned, the situation reflected economic necessity rather than sympathy for Germany’s political aims. September 1940 saw Rumania partially occupied by German troops, ostensibly to protect her oil-fields, and soon afterwards, perhaps to make more palatable the fact that she had been virtually invaded, she threw in her lot with the Axis powers.» (Sweetman, 1974, p.6); « Bombing of Ploesti 1 August 1943 On 1 August 1943 U.S. B-24 bombers based in Libya set out on a 2,400 mile (3,800 km) mission to bomb vital oil refineries around the Romanian city of Ploesti (Ploieşti). Although the attack failed, it is remembered as one of the U.S. Army Air Forces’ most daring sorties of the war. In November 1940, beleaguered by both the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, Romania joined the Axis Powers. Romanian oilfields became vital to the German war effort. During early 1942 the USAAF began to build their strength in North Africa, and in June 1942 mounted a small experimental raid against Ploesti – the first US bomber raid in Europe. The raid proved that such missions were possible, but also prompted the German air commander to implement powerful air defenses. In summer 1943 the strike against Ploesti was repeated [At the forty-five degrees the sky shall burn]. Hoping to achieve surprise, 178 B-24s attacked at low altitude and in daylight. Due to navigational errors, the bombers could not coordinate their attacks, and two bomb groups ran into alerted defenses around the Romanian capital of Bucharest [The fire shall approach the new grand city (the fire meaning the Allied bombers by metonymy)]** 35 miles (55 km) from Ploesti. As the low-level force reached its target, it was met by ferocious hail of antiaircraft fire. Flying through gunfire, smoke, and the explosions of time-delayed bombs [An instant being [for the redirection from Bucharest to the target Ploesti], dispersed great flames shall leap (dispersed great flames meaning the enemy’s anti-aircraft spaced with about 100 m apart on the ground of Rumania; the word leap expressing the flak’s firing upward], the attacking formations suffered severe losses. Five Medals of Honor were awarded, the most for any single air operation in U.S. history. The refineries were damaged, but excess capacity meant that the raid failed to reduce the output of oil. Ploesti was bombed until August 1944, when the Soviets occupied Romania.» (Grant, 2011, p.857).

The new grand city
: Bucharest, having newly replaced the traditional city Targoviste (Tergovist, Tirgovist) as the capital of Wallachia in the 15th century (cf. Ionescu, id., p.565; HH, XXIV, p.135).

** The turn to Bucharest was a deviation by mis-identification; therefore Ionescu’s interpretation of the line 3 as the Allied bombardment of Bucharest after that of Ploesti (Ionescu, id., p.565-566) is wrong because Bucharest was not a planned target nor an eventual one and the bombing of Ploesti began after having got back from Bucharest: « The seven refinery targets had been assigned code names: WHITE 1 (Romana Americana), WHITE 1 (Concordia Vega), WHITE 3 (Standard Petrol Block and Unirea Sperantza), WHITE 4 (Astra Romana and Unirea Orion) and WHITE 5 (Colombia Aquila), all at Ploesti; BLUE (Credituel Minier, [at] Brazi) and RED (Steaua Romana, [at] Campina). At Pitesti, the First Initial Point, all five groups would descend to minimum altitude (500 feet), further dropping to bombing level (100-300 feet) at the Second Initial Point – north of Campina and Floresti respectively. The four groups en route to Floresti would pass over wooded hills and ravines unlikely to conceal anti-aircraft guns and also Targoviste, an old town with several churches and ruins of the ancient palace of the Princes of Wallachia. Like Floresti it stood at the head of a valley with a railway running southeast along it. This similarity was to lead to a tragic mis-identification during the TIDALWAVE mission; for this railway line ran to Bucharest, not Ploesti. The bomb-load actually carried by the whole mission force was 623,000 lbs. In addition each aircraft carried two boxes of British incendiaries.» (Sweetman, id., p.107-113); « At 1330 the two leading groups reached Pitesti, where they dropped to minimum altitude, increased speed and turned for Floresti. As the planes flew over wooded slopes towards Floresti joking tailed off and tension began to mount. Still no enemy activity; and hope rose that the mission was indeed undetected. Over Targoviste, so similar in situation to Floresti but twenty miles short of it, the first important decision – perhaps the more crucial – was taken in Colonel Compton’s aircraft. Believing that the leading element had overshot the Second Initial Point and that this was actually Floresti, Teggie Ann [thus named this plane B-24 Liberator (cf. American Air Museum in Britain, 2020)] broke radio silence, ordering pilots to turn down the valley below and adopt attack formation on 127 degrees beside the railway. With visibility reduced to six miles through haze, once committed to the turn Ent was virtually obliged to fly on in search of a positive point of recognition. Nine days after the raid Lieutenant-Colonel Forster bitterly wrote that Ent ‘stupidly turned right at Targoviste, followed the railway to Bucharest, and ignoring all my written and verbal instructions to cross this railway and continue along the line of the oilfields to Floresti, observing several unmistakable landmarks en route’. When the spires of Bucharest appeared ahead, Ent ordered the aircraft to turn due north. Ent must have known long before this that he had made a wrong turn because the attack run from Floresti to Ploesti would only have taken four minutes. Targoviste to Bucharest took almost fifteen minutes. This new course would bring the aircraft to Ploesti from the south, not north-west as practiced (cf. Sweetman, id., p.114, Chart: The route taken); p.115, Chart: The plan of attack).» (Sweetman, id., p.119-121).

« The leading two groups were now approaching Ploesti from an entirely unfamiliar angle and in the fourteen minutes flight from Bucharest encountered all manner of anti-aircraft opposition. In the smoke and confusion [An instant being [for the redirection from Bucharest to the target Ploesti], dispersed great flames shall leap (dispersed great flames meaning the enemy’s anti-aircraft spaced with about 100 m apart on the ground of Rumania****; the word leap expressing the flak’s firing upward] three aircraft went down, as the mission leader tried desperately to identify landmarks. The 376th had in fact flown over the Credituel Minier refinery at Brazi on its way north from Bucharest and gone south of the southern Ploesti refineries after its eastwards turn. The twenty-six aircraft of the 376th which reached Ploesti hit no planned target: the group lost only one aircraft in action, was approached by 8-10 enemy fighters which made ‘uneager attacks’ and claimed one Me-109 destroyed. Dummy oil installations were reported by it south-east and north-west of Ploesti. Meanwhile Lieutenant-Colonel Baker’s 93rd group destined for WHITE 2 and 3 had followed the 376th after the erroneous turn at Targoviste and also altered course north short of Bucharest to approach Ploesti from an unrehearsed direction. During the northwards flight to Ploesti crew members reported numerous anti-aircraft positions, sightings of gunners desperately trying to reach safety or man their weapons as the B-24s approached and balloons, previously anchored, being belatedly put up. When the 376tth turned east to skirt south of Ploesti, Baker ‘chose’ to attack refineries immediately to his front, which had now come into view. These were WHITE 4 and WHITE 5 on the southern edge of Ploesti, which had been allocated to 98 and 44 Groups. At this time, about 1345, haze and intermittent showers reduced visibility (seven-tenths cumulus at 5,000 feet and thundery outbreaks of rain were reported), which a quarter of an hour later had improved considerably when the targets were eventually attacked by their despatched target forces. Although some crews claimed to have hit WHITE 2 and WHITE 3, no damage at all was sustained by the latter. After five abortives, thirty-two out of thirty-seven 93rd Group aircraft reached the target area, but one succumbed to anti-aircraft fire just short of Ploesti.» (Sweetman, id., p.122-124); « That the Fifteenth Air Force had to carry out twenty daylight raids and 205 Group (RAF) four night raids on Ploesti between 5th April and 19th August 1944 is no real indication of failure on 1st August 1943. The Combined Chiefs of Staff, however, were not enthusiastic given available resources and the results of 1st August. On their recommendation President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill agreed ‘later’ to approach Stalin about possibility of Russian action instead.» (Sweetman, id., p.155).

**** « Anti-aircraft guns were placed at approximately 100 metre intervals around the town and oilfields [of Ploesti].» (Sweetman, id., p.81; See p.80-81: pictures of anti-aircraft guns).

Possible alternatives of the city in latitude 45° N coupled with some new grand city: The principal cities at the 45th parallel N of the Western, Central and Eastern Europe including Russia related to the West and the East Front in the WWII are Bordeaux, Valence, Grenoble, Briançon, Turin, Milan, Venice, Rijeka, Beograd, Simferopol’, Krasnodar, Armavir and Stavropol’, none of which, except those in Italy, is not coupled with any new grand city bombarded; Turin, Milan and Venice may be pertinent because Naples (a new city in its name itself and with a considerably large size) can be coupled with them. Now, in the WWII, Naples was bombed by RAF or by USAAF on 14 December 1940, on 8 January 1941, on 4 December 1942 and on 3 August 1943, whereas on 21 December 1940 and on 12 January 1941 Venice was bombed, on 28-29 November 1942 and on 12 August 1943 Turin was bombed, and on 12 August 1943 Milan was bombed (cf. Argyle, 1980, the dates concerned), none of these cases to be coupled in theory are, however, not simultaneous, while the verses 1-3 of the quatrain seems necessitating the identity of the two dates concerned.                  
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§885 The great Neptune at its utmost height after the Korean war (1950-2000): III-1.

III-1 (§885):

After combats and naval battles,
The great Neptune at its highest belfry,
The red adversary shall be pale for horror,
Making the grand ocean fearful.

(Apres combat & bataille navale,
Le grand Neptune à son plus hault beffroy,
Rouge aversaire de fraieur viendra pasle,
Metant le grand ocean en effroy.)

NOTES: Here is an essentially reasonable interpretation of the quatrain by Centurio: « III-1 (currently) After the combat and sea battles The great Neptune has attained the highest peak of his power. The red adversary shall turn pale, When he spreads the terror over the Great Ocean. The Korean Conflict: After the victorious second World War the great Neptune, here the USA, as the possessor of the strongest fleet in the world, stands on the summit of his power. The Pacific shall be the limit of the advance of the revolutionary powers.» (Centurio, 1953, p.68).

The USA probably at her utmost height after the end of the WWII: « Stalin realized that once Germany and Japan were defeated, the world would be left with only three powers able to project their influence across the globe: the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States. And of these, the strongest would be the United States. With that in mind, Stalin’s intelligence agencies shifted their focus toward America. The Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States formed a military alliance in early 1942 to defeat Nazi Germany and its allies. The Soviet Union quickly became a major recipient of American military (Lend-Lease) aid, second only to Great Britain; it eventually received more than nine billion dollars... » (Haynes & Klehr, 2000, p.20).

The great Neptune at its highest belfry: « Truman, Harry S. (1884-1972) … As the
COLD WAR began, he followed the containment policy proposed by George Kennan to prevent further Soviet expansion and provided aid to Greece and Turkey in 1947 in what became known as TRUMAN DOCTRINE. There was a possibility of communist successes in Western Europe through the ballot box (the French and Italian communist parties were both strong) as European economy seemed about to collapse. To prevent this Truman offered aid in the MARSHALL PLAN, which marked the beginning of West European economic resurgence. When STALIN probed Western resolve in the BERLIN BLOCKADE Truman supplied Berlin with food and fuel by air until Stalin called off the blockade. In 1949 there were two major set-backs: communists won the CHINESE CIVIL WAR (1946-9), and the Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb earlier than expected. Truman’s response was to approve US membership of NATO and to order the development of the HYDROGEN BOMB and a review of defense policy. The report NSC68 (National Security Council paper 68) in 1950 was a key document of the Cold War and advocated that the US should unilaterally defend the noncommunist world and that this would involve, for the first time, a massive build up of US military strength in peace-time. Defence expenditure would have to rise from $13 billion a year to $50 billion (a figure reached in 1952). The KOREAN WAR (1950-3), during which US armed forces vastly increased [The great Neptune at its highest belfry], saw Truman move from containment to liberation, as he sought to conquer the communist North and so unite Korea. This was a disastrous move, as it brought in China which pushed back US and UN forces to the South and produced a stalemate.» (Townson, 1999, p.407-408).

« Truman Doctrine …A policy put forward by President
TRUMAN in 1947 to stop the spread of communism. On 21 February 1947 Britain informed the US that it could no longer help the Greek government fighting communists in the GREEK CIVIL WAR (1944-9) and that it would withdraw its 40,000 troops there. Britain also said that it would end its aid to Turkey, pressurized by the Soviet Union to share its control of the Dardanelles. Dean ACHESON, US Under Secretary of State, persuaded Truman that the US should act promptly to fill the vacuum and apply the containment policy. On 12 March Truman asked Congress for $400 million to help Greece and Turkey and spelled out the Truman Doctrine: ‘I believe that it must be the policy of the United states to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures’. There was the problem of persuading a Republican Congress to ratify the policy. Acheson did this by propounding a version of the DOMINO THEORY. Only the US could stop the Soviet Union. Congress gave Truman the money he wanted, so the US intervened in the internal affairs of other states outside North and South America for the first time in its history.» (Townson, id., p.409-410).

Aversaire: « Aversaire, See Adversaire (An adversary, an opponent).» (Huguet).

The great Neptune… Making the grand ocean fearful: The red adversary shall be pale for horror: « NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) …Founded in 1949 to defend Western Europe against a possible communist attack. In March 1948 Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Brussels Treaty to protect themselves against the Soviet Union and, if necessary, a resurgent Germany, but it was clear that the US was necessary for their security. The US, however, had never made a peacetime military alliance with European states. Two events in the
COLD WAR in 1948 persuaded President TRUMAN that a change in US foreign policy was needed: the CZECH COUP and the BERLIN BLOCKADE. In addition to the Brussels signatories, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal and the US signed the treaty establishing NATO in April 1949. The treaty promised mutual assistance if there was an attack on any member. Its strategic role was defensive. Greece and Turkey joined in 1952, the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955 and Spain in 1982. NATO was the high-point of Truman’s containment policy and established US military dominance in Western Europe. As the Soviet Union had a superiority of ten to one in ground forces in Europe, NATO depended on nuclear weapons for its defence and the US had no intention of sharing its control of them with its European partners. When the reduction of its military spending ended with the KOREAN WAR, NATO adopted an integrated military command under General EISENHOWER in December 1950 (all subsequent NATO commanders have been American).» (Townson, id., p.294-5); « The military rethinking began with the Czech coup. In its aftermath Europe entered a period of heightened insecurity, with much talk of war... It was the British who initiated a new approach to Washington. At [British Foreign Minister] Bevin’s urging, secret discussions took place in Washington between British, US and Canadian representatives to draft a treaty for Atlantic defense. On July 6th 1948, ten days after the start of the Berlin airlift and immediately following Yugoslavia’s expulsion from the Cominform, these talks were opened to other members of the Brussels Pact. By April of the following year the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) had been agreed and signed by the US, Canada, and ten European states… In the spring of 1950 Washington was still worrying about how to explain to the French and other Europeans that the only realistic hope for West European defense was to rearm Germany, a subject that made everyone uneasy and was thought likely to provoke an unpredictable response from Stalin. In any case, no-one wanted to spend precious resources on rearmament. The appeal of neutrality – as an alternative to defenseless confrontation – was growing, in Germany and France alike. If the Korean War had not broken out just at this moment (a reasonable counter-factual, since it nearly didn’t) the contours of recent European history might look very different indeed. Stalin’s support for Kim Il Sung’s invasion of South Korea on June 25th 1950 was his most serious miscalculation of all. The Americans and West Europeans immediately drew the (erroneous) conclusion that Korea was a diversion or prelude, and that Germany would be next – an inference encouraged by Walter Ulbricht’s imprudent boast that the Federal Republic would be next to fall. The Soviet Union had successfully tested an atomic bomb just eight months earlier, leading American military experts to exaggerate Soviet preparedness for war; but even so, the budget increases requested in National Security Council paper #68 (presented on April 7th 1950) would almost certainly not have been approved but for the Korean attack. The risk of a European war was greatly exaggerated, but not completely absent. Stalin was contemplating a possible assault – on Yugoslavia, not West Germany – but abandoned the idea in the face of Western rearmament [The red adversary shall be pale for horror]. And just as the West misread the Soviet purpose in Korea, so Stalin – accurately advised by his intelligence services of the rapid US military build-up that followed – mistakenly assumed that the Americans had aggressive designs of their own on his sphere of control in Eastern Europe. But none of these assumptions and miscalculations was clear at the time, and politicians and generals proceeded as best they could on the basis of limited information and past precedent. The scale of Western rearmament was dramatic indeed. In response to Washington’s request, America’s allies in NATO also increased their defense spending: after falling steadily since 1946, British defense costs rose to nearly 10 percent of GNP in 1951-52, growing even faster than in the hectic rearmament of the immediate pre-war years. France, too, increased defense spending to comparable levels. In every NATO member state, defense spending increased to a post-war peak in the years 1951-53. By the end of 1951 the US was transferring nearly $5 billion of military support to Western Europe. NATO thus became a major military commitment, drawing on the seemingly limitless resources of the US economy and committing the Americans and their allies to an unprecedented peacetime build up of men and matériel. General Eisenhower returned to Europe as Supreme Allied Commander and Allied military headquarters and administrative facilities were established in Belgium and France. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was now, unambiguously, an alliance. Its primary task was what military planners called the ‘forward defense’ of Europe: i.e. confrontation with the Red Army [The red adversary shall be pale for horror] in the middle of Germany. To perform this role, it was agreed at the NATO Council meeting in Lisbon in February 1952 that the alliance would need to raise at least ninety-six new divisions within two years [The great Neptune… Making the grand ocean fearful].» (Judt, 2005, p.149-152).

In this context, the quatrain X-96 (§926) predicts the Victory of the NATO over the USSR to collapse in 1991 (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.797-799).

Combats and naval battles: « KOREAN WAR (1950-3) One of the most destructive and important wars of the twentieth century. Towards the end of the Second World War the Soviet Union and the US agreed to liberate Korea jointly, dividing the areas under their control at the 38th Parallel. The division of Korea was intended to be temporary but the two sides could not agree on how a united Korea was to be organized, so separate governments were established in 1948: the Republic of Korea in the South under Syngman Rhee and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the North under the communist
KIM IL SUNG. Neither Kim nor Rhee expected the division to be permanent. Soviet troops were withdrawn from the North in December 1948 and US troops from the South in June 1949. Kim, whose army was provided with Soviet tanks, artillery and fighter aircraft, planned to unite Korea by force and was encouraged by the Joint Chiefs of Staff decision that Korea had ‘little strategic value’ for the US. In January 1950 Secretary of State Dean ACHESON gave a speech in which he said that the US defence perimeter in the Western Pacific ran through Japan and Okinawa to the Philippines, excluding Korea. Areas outside the perimeter, said Acheson, would have to rely on self-defence and the UNITED NATIONS. Kim, who expected a rising against Syngman Rhee’s autocratic rule in the South, made the decision to attack, though it is unlikely that he would have acted without Stalin’s approval. Stalin appeared to think that the fighting would be brief and that the US would not intervene but had no intention of becoming directly involved or of creating a diversion in Europe. Kim invaded the South on 25 June 1950 and caught the US and UN by surprise, but they reacted swiftly. President Truman, mindful he said of Manchuria (1931), Ethiopia (1935-6) and Austria (1938), when the inaction of the Western democracies encouraged aggression, applied the DOMINO THEORY to Korea and told General MACARTHUR, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan, to use American troops to prevent South Korea being overrun. He felt that if the communists were successful in Korea Stalin would seek to expand Soviet influence elsewhere. Having been accused of betraying Jiang [Chiang Kai-shek] and ‘losing’ China in the CHINESE CIVIL WAR (1946-49), Truman was determined to be tough on communism. The US provided nearly half of the UN forces (40 per cent were supplied by South Korea) and nearly all the naval and air forces [Combats and naval battles]. They were only just in time, as Kim’s forces captured Seoul, the South Korean capital, and most of the South except for an enclave round Pusan in the southeast. MacArthur then carried out a bold amphibious landing in September at Inchon on the west coast near Seoul, far behind North Korean lines. It was remarkably successful.» (Townson, id., p.235-236);

« On September 12th I [General MacArthur] boarded the Mount McKinley at Sasebo [
佐世保]. A typhoon was blowing and we were hit with its full force. The second day out, the seas smoothed, the weather became bright and clear, and we headed for our rendezvous with the rest of the assault fleet. That evening I stood at the rail of the Mount McKinley and watched the sun go down beyond China over the horizon. I had made many landings before, but this was the most intricately complicated amphibious operation I had ever attempted. Next morning we would have to thread our way over the shifting bars of “Flying Fish Channel,” under the guns of Wolmi-do, and skirt the edges of the deadly mud banks that stretched for 2 miles across the harbor. All over the ship the tension that had been slowly building up since our departure was now approaching its climax. Even the Yellow Sea rushing past the ship’s sides seemed to bespeak the urgency of our mission. That night, about half past two, I took a turn around the deck. The ship was blacked out from stem to stern. At their posts and battle stations the crew members were alert and silent, no longer exchanging the customary banter. At the bow I stood listening to the rush of the sea and watched the fiery sparkles of phosphorescence as the dark ship plowed toward the target, the armada of other craft converging on the same area, all now past the point of no return. Within five hours, 40,000 men would act boldly, in the hope that 100,000 others manning the thin defense lines in South Korea would not die. I alone was responsible for tomorrow, and if I failed, the dreadful results would rest on judgment day against my soul. Then I noticed a flash – a light that winked on and off across the water. The channel navigation lights were on. We were taking the enemy by surprise. The lights were not even turned off. I went to my cabin and turned in. I could not have been asleep more than a couple of hours when a sudden thunder woke me. Our guns had opened up on Wolmi-do. I went to the bridge. This harbor island was now rocking under the bombardment of naval guns and aerial bombs. As I watched, blue Corsairs swooped down from the clouds and added their strafing to the destruction. Wreaths of dirty gray smoke were rising. Against this falling curtain the arching, fiery trails of thousands of rockets could be seen as they streaked toward Inchon’s beaches. Immense explosions were erupting all along the shores. The endless circles of little landing craft churned around and around the mother assault ships. The guns on Wolmi-do were silenced, and the first assault waves were going in. If the Marines who were leading were beaten off or even pinned down for too long, it would mean the enemy was in force. It would take only a few defenders to slaughter that first wave of invaders while the rest were held back by the enormous mud banks. At 8 A.M. an orderly climbs up to the bridge and hands me a slip of paper. It says the first wave of Marines have landed and secured a beachhead without a single fatality. I turned to Admiral Doyle and said: “Please send this message to the fleet: ‘The Navy and the Marines have never shone more brightly than this morning.’ Lets go down and have breakfast.” By the time the tide had gone out of Inchon’s harbor, only an hour later, leaving some of the landing craft squatting on the mud banks, Wolmi-do had been fully secured. And late that afternoon, as soon as the tides rolled back in, I climbed into the gig of Admiral Struble and we went in to oversee the operation. At Wolmi-do I found that the enemy had started an intense fortification of the island. Had I listened to those who had wanted to delay the landing until the next high tides, nearly a month later, Wolmi-do would have been an impregnable fortress…...» (MacArthur, 1965, p.400-402);

« Seoul fell on 28 September, the US Eight Army broke out at Pusan and the North Korean forces, caught in a pincer movement, disintegrated as they retreated north, leaving behind much of their artillery. Truman now changed his objective. Instead of simply freeing the South, he decided to move north of the 38th Parallel and unite Korea, although
ZHOU ENLAI had told the Indian ambassador that a US advance would be resisted by China. This was dismissed as bluff. MacArthur captured Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, on 19 October and informed Truman that ‘the war is very definitely coming to an end shortly’. Even when he was aware of large-scale Chinese intervention in November he remained confident that the war would be over by Christmas, as the Chinese lacked air support and heavy artillery. His confidence was shattered by a massive Chinese offensive on 26 November, which halted the US advance towards the Yalu river, the border of China and Korea, and then pushed back American forces in headlong retreat. Pyongyang was recaptured on 5 December and ten days later Chinese forces were on the 38th Parallel. On 31 December the Chinese began an offensive to push the UN troops out of Korea. Seoul fell on 5 January 1951 and the Eighth Army withdrew to a line 70 miles south of the Parallel. MacArthur, his mood fluctuating between euphoria and deep depression, considered withdrawing UN forces from Korea. Truman even thought of using the atom bomb to halt the Chinese advance. This was unnecessary, as the Chinese did not have the logistical support for a prolonged offensive. The Eighth Army under General Ridgway recaptured Seoul, which changed hands for the fourth and last time in the war and advanced to the 38th Parallel. When MacArthur threatened China that it would be attacked if it did not negotiate with the UN, Truman decided that this challenge to his authority could not be ignored. With the support of Acheson, Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff he dismissed MacArthur in April from all his commands and appointed General Ridgway to succeed him. Half a million Chinese troops took part in an offensive on 22 April, came within five miles of Seoul and forced the Eighth Army to retreat 35 miles in good order. When they attacked again in May, in the last major offensive of the war, Ridgway rooted them and advanced to the Parallel. An armistice was not signed until 27 July 1953, after Stalin’s death. A peace settlement has not yet been signed.» (Townson, id., p.236-237).

« The Korean War had enormous repercussions throughout the world. South Korean independence had been preserved and the authority of the UN in resisting aggression upheld but the
COLD WAR had been intensified alarmingly. In 1954 the US signed a mutual aid treaty with Taiwan and a year later Congress voted to defend the island against communist attack. Stalin’s support for the North postponed DÉTENTE with the US for another 20 years and began an arms race which the Soviet Union could not afford. The US extended the TRUMAN DOCTRINE to the Pacific by pledging US intervention against the expansion of communist rule in Asia. The US began its policy of containment by establishing bases throughout the world, in Morocco, Libya and Saudi Arabia and by making alliances with Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines. One of the greatest beneficiaries of the war was Japan, whose economy began to take off with the ‘Special Procurements’ for US forces there. The US, anxious to make Japan a strong, democratic power, ended the OCCUPATION OF JAPAN and restored its sovereignty with the SAN FRANCISCO PEACE TREATY and integrated it into the anti-communist alliance with the JAPAN – US SECURITY TREATY. The war also saw defence spending increase from $13 billion in 1950 to $50 billion in 1954 and the rise in the US of a MILITARY – INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX, which made it the most formidable military machine in the world [The great Neptune at its highest belfry].» (Townson, id., p.237). In this context, the term Neptune is not necessarily of meaning of a maritime power.

Discussion:
Ionscu’s interpretation of the first hemistich of the quatrain that the USA reached her highest strength immediately after the end of the WWII, when the US became the dominant power in the Pacific area after the fall of the Japanese Empire (la période immédiatement postérieure à la fin de la Seconde Guerre, quand après la chute de l’Empire Japonais, les Etats-Unis deviennent la puissance dominante dans l’aire du Pacifique) (Ionescu, 1976, p.640), which followed that of Centurio, is not pertinent because her defence expenditure decreased at that period**, whereas the beginning of the Cold War (1947) and the crisis of the Korean War (1950-3) induced the USA to increase immensely her defence spending****. Moreover, his supposed theme of the quatrain following also that of Centurio: “1950 – the Conflict of Korea” is to be based upon the third line of the quatrain: “The red adversary shall be pale for horror”, which, however, cannot describe the real situation of the Korean War because neither of the belligerents was victorious: it started from the 38th Parallel and halted there again in the end !

** « The American defense budget was reduced by five-sixths between 1945 and 1947. At the end of the war in Europe the US had 97 combat-ready ground divisions in place; by mid-1947 there were just twelve divisions, most of them under strength and engaged in administrative tasks. The rest had gone home and been demobilized.» (Judt, id., p.109).

**** « The scale of Western rearmament was dramatic indeed. The US defense budget rose from $15.5 billion in August 1950 to $70 billion by December of the following year, following President Truman’s declaration of a National Emergency. By 1952-53 defense expenditure consumed 17.8 percent of the US GNP, compared with just 4.7 percent in 1949.» (Judt, id., p.151).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§884 Stalinism (5) (1927-1953): X-65.

X-65 (§884):

Oh! Vast Rome! Your ruin is approaching,
Not of your walls and of your blood and substance:
The harsh man by letters shall notch so horribly,
The sharp knife put to all even its handle.

(O vaste Romme ta ruyne s'approche,
Non de tes murs de ton sang & soubstance
L'aspre par letres fera si horrible coche,
Fer poinctu mis à tous jusqu’au manche.)

NOTES: Here is the sufficient interpretation of the quatrain by Ionescu: « Oh, the Christian world [vaster than Rome itself], I saw how your ruin is approaching! Not you shall complain of your destroyed edifices, but of your faith and your sacred cult (ton sang & soubstance) combatted and abolished. He who shall have a name whose literal sense will be “aspre [harsh]” and evoke “fer pointu (a pointed iron)”, shall be like a dagger that shall notch painfully even with its handle into the heart of the Christians.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.461).

Vast Rome: = The Christian world of the USSR and her satellite Eastern Europe.

Oh! Vast Rome! Your ruin is approaching, Not of your walls and of your blood and substance: = §883, VI-49: He shall chase the cross by swords, roundups and rifles.

L'aspre par letres
(The harsh man by letters): « “Aspre” (Latin: asper): The expression “ L'aspre par letres (The harsh man by letters)” expresses probably a name whose letters composing it will literally say something harsh, cruel, violent, dangerous or causing calamities and disasters.» (Ionescu, id., p.460-461); « The name of STALIN, which in Russian means “acier (steel)”, the metal of Mars, sign of violence, of cruelty and of combat.» (Ionescu, id., p.460-461); « asper, rough, uneven, bitter, severe, harsh, savage, hard.» (Smith-Lockwood).

The harsh man by letters shall notch so horribly, The sharp knife put to all even its handle: « STALIN (Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili) (1879-1953) Soviet dictator who became a vital figure-head and source of inspiration during W.W.II to his suffering people, despite his bloody record in the 1930s, his direct responsibility for Soviet unpreparedness for war and his often harmful interference in military matters. The Soviet Red Army somehow survived catastrophic losses to launch the great series of counteroffensives which eventually destroyed the Third Reich. Stalin also proved to be a surprisingly astute and successful diplomatist [harsh] at the wartime Allied conferences. Born in Georgia, the son of a shoemaker. Educated for the priesthood but expelled from seminary for carrying on Marxist propaganda. Joined Social Democratic Party, 1898. Exiled to Siberia five times, 1903-12, but escaped on each occasion and resumed revolutionary activities. Edited Pravda and directed Bolshevik group in the Duma (Tsarist parliament) during 1913. Exiled to Siberia, 1913-17. Adopted the name Stalin – ‘steel’. Member of Communist Party’s political bureau, March 1917; sat on committee which organized October 1917 Revolution…. Gen. Sec. of Communist Party, 1922. Ousted Trotsky and achieved supreme power, 1927. Directed first ‘Five-year Plan’ to accelerate modernization of industry and agriculture, 1928. Forced peasants onto collective farms; all who resisted being executed or exiled. Purged the Party and Armed Forces of ‘traitors’ and ‘spies’; officer corps decimated [The harsh man by letters shall notch so horribly, The sharp knife put to all even its handle] and entire Red Army severely weakened – a key factor in the massive Soviet defeats, 1941-41. Appealed for a ‘holy war’ to defend ‘Mother Russia’ against Nazi invaders. Met Churchill and Roosevelt at Teheran (1943), Yalta and Potsdam (1945).» (Argyle, 1980, p.71)
.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§883 Stalinism (4) (1945-1953): VI-49.

VI-49 (§883):

The great Pontiff of the region of Mammer,
Shall subjugate the confines of the Danube:
He shall chase the cross by swords, roundups and rifles,
Captives, gold, jewels more than a hundred thousand rubles.

(De la partie de Mammer grand Pontife,
Subjuguera les confins du Dannube:
Chasser la croix par fer raffe ne riffe,
Captifz, or, bagues plus de cent mille rubes.)

NOTES: Here is the first reasonable explanation of the quatrain by Centurio: « VI-49. (1944f) The great Priest over the Party of Mars (Armenia) Shall subdue the regions of the Danube: He shall chase the Christian countries with the ripping and biting sword, He takes prisoners and loot of gold and jewels worth more than a hundred thousand rubles. Stalin, who enjoyed almost godlike honour in his Party, shall subdue the regions of the Danube, his troops take prisoners and loot precious things of more than one hundred thousand rubles. (Ruble was first in the 17th century introduced as a means of counting in Russia! The word comes from rubatj – namely fragments cut from a bar of silver.) – The word Mammer in the first line is derived from Mamers (Mars), but it also contains a part of the word Armenia.» (Centurio, 1953, p.140).

Mammer: = « Mamers, the Sabine and Oscan name for Mars.» (Leoni, 1982[1961], p.294); « Mammer: Written with only one “m” (Mamer), it is the name given to Mars in the times of the Romans. The double “m” recalls us the word “Mammon”, which we find in the Bible as a demoniac personification of the seduction of worldly wealth: ‘You cannot serve God and mammon’ (Matt. VI-26, Luke XVI-13). The word “Mammer” seems to us composed of “Mamer” and “Mammon” by synthesis. The martial aggression suggested by Mamer and the materialist doctrine suggested by “Mammon”, here are the two notes very well found to define the Communist Russia.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.635-636).

The great Pontiff: The qualification for Stalin monopolizing the Party and the State, relating to his career in his youth: « STALIN (Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili) ... Born in Georgia, the son of a shoemaker. Educated for the priesthood but expelled from seminary for carrying on Marxist propaganda… Adopted the name Stalin – ‘steel’… » (Argyle, 1980, p.71); « The “confession” introduced by Stalin, as a condition of “show-trials” he directed. The Great Pontiff celebrates black Mass, based on bloody sacrifices. The “confession” is part of the ceremony and the “show-trials” are the rites that open, in fact, the gates of the beyond for those given this reversed “absolution”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.472). Cf. §857, VI-15: the great Wittenberg (le grand Witemberg)
= Martin Luther by metonymy, himself a historical metaphor for Stalin, « who was a theologian like Luther, and became the Pontiff of the grand antichristian schism of the Communism.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.604).

Raffe: = A roundup; « Raffe, See Rafle 1.» (Huguet); « Rafle 1, subst. fém. Ce qu’on a raflé.» (Huguet); « rafler, To carry off, to sweep off (something); to round up (someone).» (Dubois).

Riffe:
« An argot. – Riffe, it is fire.» (Huguet); “Riffe” is somehow suggesting “Rifle” in English.

Raffe ne riffe: This expletive ne is probably used as a coordinate conjunction (and) to express the three ways of chasing the cross (by swords, by roundups and by rifles) with the nuance of sympathy for the Christian victims.

Rube: « The term used by Nostradamus seems to come from this old Russian word [rubatj]
. The syncope of an “o” and an “l” [of rouble = ruble] can be explained also by the necessities of rhyme.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.635).

He shall chase the cross by swords, roundups and rifles, Captives, gold, jewels more than a hundred thousand rubles
: « In considering that Eastern Europe is indispensable for her security, the USSR decided to make it a true game-preserves (chasse-gardée) by isolating it from the external world.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.430); « The attitude of the Communist power in regard to the religion and the Church was different according to the countries. In Bulgaria and Rumania, where the population in large majority was orthodox, the new power immediately made rally to it the leaders of the Church in playing with their traditional hate against Rome and at the same time with the necessity of unity around the Patriarchate of Moscow, entirely devoted to the Soviet State. The Orthodox Church of Serbia adopted from the start the same attitude of submission in regard to Tito’s regime. Everywhere, the recalcitrant elements of the Orthodox clergy were removed from their parishes with the complicity of the hierarchy, relegated into monasteries, even imprisoned. In Rumania, the suppression of the Uniate Church in 1948 scarcely seemed appreciated by the faithful and the clergy who continued clandestinely their activity in suffering often persecutions.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.438-439).

« In the Catholic countries, the situation showed different. The Catholic Church, by virtue of its ties with Rome and its centralized structure, constituted a considerable force, which, if it was not neutralized or at least not controlled by the State, risked being the point of rallying of the opposers against the regime. As early as 1945-1946, a number of priests and monks as well as remarkable personalities of the Catholic world had been arrested and condemned for “collaboration” and “anti-Soviet activities”, as it was the case in Yugoslavia with Mgr. Stepinac. The repeated public protestations of the Catholic Church against the blows to the religious liberty, against the encroachments of the temporal upon the spiritual, against the abuses of the regime, triggered off from the end of 1948 physical persecutions of a certain number of prelates. Tens of thousands of Hungarians who hurried to hear the sermons of the cardinal Mindszenty and hundreds of thousands of Poles who gathered at the Marian sanctuary of Czestochowa could not but confirm the Communist leaders in their idea of striking hard and sharp. The arrest of the cardinal Mindszenty on December 26, 1948, under the inculpation of complot against the Republic, of espionage and trade of money, his trial, in the course of which he appeared physically broken and avowed his “crimes” not without reticences, his condemnation to a life imprisonment, aroused an intense emotion in the country. In order to avoid the worst, the Hungarian episcopate made a concession, and on April 30, 1950, the Archbishop Grösz resigned himself to signing with the government an accord which guaranteed officially the liberty of cult and the grant of financial aid to the Church in exchange of the recognition of the Socialist State by the Church secured by way of oath of fidelity. It was in fact a market of dupes. A week after the conclusion of this compromise, the Hungarian government pronounced the dissolution of almost all of the religious Orders; more than 10,000 monks and nuns were dispersed, a large number of them confined in the labour camps. At the beginning of the next year, the Archbishop Grösz was in his turn arrested and condemned to 15 year imprisonment. In the same year in Czechslovakia, those of bishops who had not been arrested in 1950 were arrested in their turn and especially the archbishop of Prague, Mgr. Beran was apprehended on March 10, 1951. In Poland, in the same year, the police arrested the bishop of Kiekce Mgr. Kaczmarek and the former archbishop of Lvov, Mgr. Baziak. Also in the same year, all the Catholic bishops of Rumania were imprisoned in their turn. The high clergy was not the only victim of these physical persecutions. The low clergy was submitted everywhere to these torments of every kind, the prelates were arrested, the seminaries were closed.» (Bogdan, id., p.439-441).
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§882 Stalinism (3) (1945-1953): X-1.

X-1 (§882):

The enemy having pledged his faith to the enemy:
It shall not be kept; the captives withheld.
Those taken reward death, the others in poverty,
The rest damned for being sustained.

(A Lennemy lennemy foy promise:
Ne se tiendra les captifz retenuz.
Prins preme mort & le reste en chemise
Damne le reste pour estre soustenus.)

NOTES: A Lennemy lennemy: = A l’ennemy l’ennemy, namely the conflict between the classes according to the Marxist theory.

A Lennemy lennemy foy promise: = A l’ennemy l’ennemy foy [ayant] promise (To the enemy the enemy having pledged his faith).

Preme: = Récompense (recompense, reward, prize, award) ; « Preme (?). Récompense? – Faire les bons, non seulement par crainte de pene, mais aussi par exhortation de preme (To do good, not only for fear of pain, but also for exhortation to premium). 1554. L
E CARON, Claire, 41b (Vaganay, Mots).» (Huguet). By the way, the ? marks in Huguet now should be eliminated in view of the convergence of the two usages of the term in question by LE CARON and NOSTRADAMUS ! Another usage in Nostradamus is found in the quatrain I-45 (§761): grand preme au delateur (great premium to the denouncer).

The rest damned for being sustained
: = The rest damned for being sustained (by the enemy).

The enemy having pledged his faith to the enemy: It shall not be kept: « From 1948, the people’s democracy is installed in the whole Eastern Europe. Everywhere, the Communist Party has gained the power and imposes its political objectives to the populations and its ideology inspires largely the new legislation in practice. The new Constitutions in force in Rumania in April 1948, in Czechoslovakia in May 1948, in Hungary in August 1949 and in East Germany in October, as well as those already in application since 1946 in Albania and Yugoslavia, and since 1947 in Bulgaria and Poland, are all inspired by the Soviet Constitution of 1936… All these Constitutions indicated under one form or other that the people’s democracy was “the State of the workers and of the working peasants” and most of them mentioned clearly the leading role of the Communist Party. These Constitutions guaranteed officially the principal liberties, liberty of press and assembly, liberty of religion. But from the theory to the practice, there was a wide gap. At least till the middle of the fifties, all these arrangements were not but theoretical formulas. In fact, the real power belonged to the Communist Party or more exactly to the directorate of the Soviet Communist Party. The true master of the power was the Secretary General of the Communist Party, who often cumulated this function with that of Head of State or Chief of the government.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.436-437).

The captives withheld. Those taken reward death, the others in poverty
: « The peoples shall be held captives. Some of those within the zones of Soviet domination shall be sequestered, oppressed and exterminated, and the others drawn into a state of misery.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.639).

The rest damned for being sustained
: The rest shall be damned for having been sustained by the enemy.

The captives withheld. Those taken reward death, the others in poverty, The rest damned for being sustained: « For the peoples of Eastern Europe, the five years that have passed between the winter 1947-1948 and the death of Stalin on March 5th, 1953, constituted the most somber and the most difficult period they had known since the end of the war till nowadays. These years were marked on the international plan by the Cold War and by the establishment of the very tight ties of dependence between the Eastern countries and Moscow; only Yugoslavia succeeded in loosening somehow these ties. In the interior, these years were the apogee of the dictatorial system set up on the next day of the war; the opposers to the new regimes were their victims, but many communist leaders themselves were also just the same.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.429).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§881 Stalinism (2) (1945-1953): IV-56.

IV-56 (§881):

After the victory of his rabid language,
The soul shall be tried in the tranquil rest:
The sanguinary victor, having made a harangue because of the conflict,
Shall roast the tongue, the flesh and the bones.

(Apres victoire de rabieuse langue,
L'esprit tempté en tranquil & repos:
Victeur sanguin par conflict faict harangue,
Roustir la langue & la chair & les os.)

NOTES: Rabieux: = « adj. plein de rage, enragé (full of anger, rabid).» (Godefroy).

The victory of his rabid language: « MAY 2 [1945] Russian Front/ Western FrontSTALIN ANNOUNCES FALL OF BERLIN in Order of the Day No. 359: ‘Troops of the 1st Byelorussian Front, commanded by Marshal Zhukov... have today May 2 completely captured Berlin... hotbed of German aggressions [his rabid language].’» (Argyle, 1980, p.185).

Tempter: = An orthographic variant of « tenter, tenter, essayer, sonder, explorer (to try, to essay, to sound, to explore).» (Daele).

Tranquil: = « Tranquille (tranquil).» (Huguet).

En tranquil & repos: An emphatic expression of the phrase: en tranquil repos through the seeming transformation of the adjective tranquil into a pseudo-noun tranquil with the coordinate conjunction and.

In the tranquil rest: In the peacetime after the end of the WWII.

The conflict: = « the cold war » (Ionescu
, 1976, p.637); « The wartime alliance soon broke down after the Second World War as the capitalist and communist worlds opposed each other. STALIN was determined to have a line of satellite buffer states in Eastern Europe as a first line of defence against any further attack from the West. With the Soviet economy in ruins and his country exhausted, he did not look for an expansion of Soviet borders beyond those occupied by the Red Army. He pulled his troops out of Iran in 1946, did not take part in the GREEK CIVIL WAR and demobilized almost as fast as the US (there were 11.3 million Soviet troops in 1946, 2.8 million in 1947), but he feared the US, which had not suffered any war damage and emerged from the war with a economy. The Cold War was fuelled by fear…» (Townson, 1999, p.81).

Faict
(made): = Ayant faict (Having made).

After the victory of his rabid language, The soul shall be tried in the tranquil rest: The sanguinary victor, having made a harangue because of the conflict, Shall roast the tongue, the flesh and the bones
: « Stalin – the sanguinary victor – will unleash injurious campaigns, and a venomous and demagogic propaganda, provoking the cold war. He will abolish all the liberty of speech and drag the population into a misery by a cruel oppression.» (Ionescu
, 1976, p.637); « Stalin’s foreign policy was dominated by the need for security. As the COLD WAR developed, particularly after the TRUMAN DOCTRINE (1947) promised aid to countries resisting communism, he set up the COMINFORM. The YUGOSLAV-SOVIET SPLIT of 1948, when he broke with TITO, led to the SHOW TRIALS [The soul shall be tried in the tranquil rest] in the communist states in Eastern Europe (which Stalin instigated)[having made a harangue (the word harangue is politically synonymous with the word instigate in their meaning of authoritative coercion)]). Stalin’s paranoia resulted in further purges. After the sudden death of Zhdanov in 1948 the leading officials of the Leningrad Party organization were executed but bloodletting was now sporadic. In 1953 a Doctors’ Plot was uncovered in Moscow, where nine doctors (most of them Jewish) were accused of murdering Zhdanov. Khrushchev was convinced that this was simply the first step to eliminate leading Bolsheviks such as Molotov and Malenkov. This was prevented when Stalin had a stroke in March and died four days later.» (Townson, 1999, p.383); « The absolute power performed by the communist State strengthened by the syndicates and the organizations of mass was supported everywhere by the existence of an exceedingly puissant Political Police, a true State in a State, in charge of detecting the opposers outside of the Party as well as in its own bosom. Its first victims were at first the members of the former leading class and all those whose fidelity to the new order of the things seemed doubtful, land proprietors, merchants, middle classes. It was often realized through the expulsion from the towns of the “undesirables”, and their transference to the countryside and even occasionally into the yards of forced labour. Numerous opposers to the Rumanian regime were allotted to the amendatory works of the Danubian delta. In Hungary, in May-June 1951, 65,000 of these undesirables were chased in deportation out of Budapest into the collective firms of the east. Similar proceedings were used also in Czechoslovakia in the same epoch. The almighty Political Police contributed to create in all these countries a climate of distrust and delation on all the levels of the society [Shall roast the tongue, the flesh and the bones].» (Bogdan, 1990, p.438).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§880 Stalinism (1) (1941-1949): VIII-92.

VIII-92 (§880):

An expedition far outside of the reign put in danger,
The king shall direct a great army for himself, he shall monopolize the reign,
He shall hold his people captive or hostage.
On its return all the countries the army shall pillage.

(Loin hors du regne mis en azard voiage
Grand ost duyra pour soy l'occupera,
Le roy tiendra les siens captif ostraige
A son retour tout pays pillera.)

NOTES: Azard: « Azard, See Hazard.» (Huguet); « Hazard, See Hasard(Huguet); « Hasard, Danger, risque (A danger, a risk).» (Huguet).

Voiage: = « Voyage. Route, chemin; Campagne de guerre, expédition militaire (A route, a road; A campaign of war, a military expedition).» (Huguet).
Almost all the interpreters of Nostradamus (e.g. Garencières, Centurio, Roberts, Leoni, Ionescu, Cheetham, Hogue, Clébert, et al.) take the expression “azard voiage” as an meaningful phrase of “a dangerous voyage”, but the word ‘azard’ is a noun and it constitutes with the preceding past participle and preposition ‘mis en’ a meaningful phrase “mis en azard (put in danger)” qualifying the word ‘le regne (the reign)’, while the word ‘voiage’ itself being the factual subject of the first line as follows: Voiage loin hors du regne mis en azard (An expedition far outside of the reign put in danger).

Ost: « Ost 1. Armée, corps d’armée, troupe (An army, a corps of army, a troop).» (Huguet).

Duyra: « duire, conduire, mener, diriger (To conduct, to lead, to direct).» (Godefroy).

Ostraige: A misprint of Ostaige = « Ostage. Condition d’otage, fait d’être otage (A condition of hostage, a fact of being hostage).» (Huguet). This noun is used as a complement (= attribut in French) of the verb tenir (to hold) as well as “captive”: « In many cases an adjective is used as a complement serving to show an attribution of the subject or of the object. When a noun, in particular those expressing an occupation, a position or a nationality ordinarily without an article, is used as a complement, it often has an adjective nuance.» (Shimaoka S, p.185).

The reign put in danger… monopolize the reign, He shall hold his people captive or hostage: The USSR in danger, surprised by the Nazis: « Just before dawn on 22 June 1941, German military radio intercepted an exchange between a Soviet forward unit and its army HQ. ‘We are being fired on. What shall we do?’ ‘You must be insane. Why is your message not in code?’ Half an hour later, at 3.40 am, the Soviet Chief of Staff , G.K. Zhukov, who had received reports of German air attacks, telephoned Stalin at his villa at Kuntsevo, seven miles out of Moscow, where the dictator [he shall monopolize the reign] lived, worked and ate in a single room, sleeping on a sofa. When Zhukov announced that Russia was being invaded, there was nothing at the end of the line but a long silence and heavy breathing. Stalin finally told the general to go to the Kremlin and get his secretary to summon the Politburo. They met at 4.30, Stalin sitting pale and silent, an unlit pipe in his hands. At the Foreign Ministry, Molotov received the declaration of war from the Nazi ambassador and asked piteously, ‘Have we really deserved this?’ By noon, 1,200 Soviet aircraft had been destroyed on the ground. According to Nikita Khrushchev’s account, Stalin gave way to hysteria and despair [The reign put in danger]. Not until 3 July, eleven days later, could he bring himself to address the nation. Then he used a tone that was new to him: ‘Brothers and sisters… my friends’. Everyone had warned Stalin of an impending Nazi attack. Churchill had sent him specific information, which had later been confirmed by the American embassy. On 15 May the Soviet spy in Tokyo, Richard Sorge, had produced details of the German invasion-plan and its correct date. Stalin also got circumstantial warnings from his own people, such as General Kirponos, commander in the Kiev strict. Stalin refused to listen. He became furious if such advice was pressed. Admiral Kuznetsov later said it was dangerous to take the view invasion was likely even in private conversation with subordinates. Anyone who said so to Stalin himself, Khrushchev recalled, did so ‘in fear and trepidation’. Stalin, who trusted nobody else, appears to have been the last human being on earth to trust Hitler’s word. It was a case of wishful thinking. The Nazi-Soviet pact was of enormous benefit to Stalin. Though he later defended it solely as a temporary, tactical arrangement (‘We secured our country peace for a year and a half and the opportunity of preparing our forces’) he clearly hoped at the time that it would last indefinitely, or alternatively until the Germans and the West had mutually exhausted themselves in a prolonged war when, in accordance with his 1925 declaration, Russia could move in for the pickings. In the meantime the pact was of immense benefit to him. By mid-1940 he had recovered much of the territory Russia had lost in 1918-19. He had destroyed the structure of eastern Poland. In spring 1940, he had 15,000 Polish officers murdered, a third at Katyn near Smolensk, the rest in or near the Soviet concentration camps of Starobelsk and Ostashkov. It is possible that these mass killings were carried out at the suggestion of the Gestapo. Nazi-Soviet security forces worked together very closely up to 22 June 1941.» (Johnson, 1991, p.372-373).

« All the same, the regime came close to destruction [The reign put in danger] in November 1941. Most government departments were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga. There was a general burning of archives which could not be carried away. Once the news spread there were riots. Mobs broke into the food shops. Party officials tore up their cards and prepared to go into hiding. Only the knowledge that Stalin himself was staying in Moscow prevented dissolution. Stalin stayed for exactly the same reason Hitler concentrated all power in his hands: he did not trust the generals, and he wished to maintain personal control of the terror [he shall monopolize the reign]. It was the only way he knew how to rule. Though he played the patriotic card for all it was worth, he never relaxed the dead weight of fear he imposed on everyone [He shall hold his people captive or hostage]. The army was held together by bonds of dread as well as loyalty. His right-hand man was his former secretary, Colonel-General L.Z. Mekhlis, now head of the Army Political Directorate, who had carried out thousands of executions during the purges. Under Stalin’s personal orders, Mekhlis and his assistant Army Commissar E.A. Shchadenko continued to arrest, imprison and shoot selected officers throughout 1940 and 1941. With the prospect of death on all sides of him, the ordinary Russian soldier had no real alternative but to fight to the last. Anyone whose loyalty was suspect in the slightest, even in theory, was treated like an animal. Political prisoners in areas open to the German advance were massacred. Stalin engaged in defensive social engineering on a scale only marginally less ambitious than Hitler’s wild plans. The Germans of the Volga German Autonomous Republic, numbering 1,650,000, were hustled into Siberia. They were followed by other entire nations: the Chechens, the Ingushes, the Karachays, the Balkars of the Northern Caucasus, the Kalmyks from the north-west Caspian, the Crimean Tatars, the Meskhetians of the Soviet-Turkish border. Some of these genocidal-type crimes were enacted long after the danger from the Germans was past. The Chechens were moved as late as 23 February 1944, being carried off in American trucks supplied under Lend-Lease.» (Johnson, 1991, p.383-384).

The king shall direct a great army for himself, he shall monopolize the reign
: « Stalin’s ruthlessness, combined with Hitler’s folly, ensured Soviet survival. Yet as generalissimos, the two men were strangely alike, in their total indifference to casualties, however calamitous, in their refusal to visit fronts (in both cases for security reasons) and in their personal direction of the campaigns. Stalin, like Hitler, sometimes deployed regiments himself. On 30 November 1941 Stalin received a report that the town of Dedovo-Dedovsk, twenty miles west of Moscow, had fallen. He ordered Zhukov, plus two army commanders, Rokossovsky and Govorov, to assemble a rifle company and two tanks, and retake it personally. But Stalin added an extra dimension of secrecy of which even the suspicious Hitler was incapable. From the point when he recovered his nerve, early in July 1941, Stalin began quickly to accumulate secret military reserves of his own, the Stavka, which he commanded personally [The king shall direct a great army for himself] and whose very existence was concealed from the army commanders, no matter how senior. The Leninist system of political control of the army, with its duplicated chains of command, made this possible. At any point in the war, therefore, Stalin had his own private army, which he directed personally, either to launch unexpected offensives, and thus retain control of the battle, or to overawe his generals, as Hitler did with the
SS. He remembers Lenin’s dictum: ‘The unstable rear of Denikin, Kolchak, Wrangel and the imperialist agents predetermined their defeat.’ Stalin ‘stabilized’ his rear with his Stavka, party and NKVD troops, and with an organization termed Tsentral’nyi Shtab controlling the guerrillas, which he himself commanded.» (Johnson, 1991, p.384).

An expedition far outside of the reign
:
« JUNE 22 [1941] Russian FrontGERMAN INVASION OF RUSSIA (‘Op. Barbarossa’) along 2,900 km front from Baltic to Black Sea. 3 Army Groups, comprising 120 divs. (inc. 17 Pz and 12 motorized) with 3,200 tanks; 1,945 aircraft; miscellaneous naval units (inc. minelayers and 5 U-boats). Diplomacy – Germany declares war on USSR. ITALY AND RUMANIA DECLARE WAR ON USSR.
JUNE 26 DiplomacyFINLAND DECLARES WAR ON USSR.
JUNE 27 DiplomacyHUNGARY DECLARES WAR ON USSR.
JULY 3 Home Front: USSR
STALIN’S ‘SCORCHED EARTH’ POLICY BROADCAST.We must not leave… a single kilogram of grain or a single litre of petrol to the enemy.’ Guerrilla tactics are to be employed: ‘It is necessary to create in invaded areas conditions unbearable to the enemy.’ All workers must defend Russia ‘in our patriotic war against German Fascism.’» (Argyle, 1980, p.66-67).

« Operation Barbarossa 22 June – 6 October 1941 Many observers assumed the Red Army would collapse within twelve weeks. The ability of the Soviet union to recover from its appalling early defeats would doom Nazi Germany. Losses: German, 250,000 dead, 500,000 wounded; Red Army, 1,000,000 dead, 3,000,000 wounded, 3,300,000 captured.» (Grant, 2011, p.820-821).

« Leningrad 4 September 1941 – 27 January 1944 After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, Leningrad was placed under siege. The loss of the city would have been a severe blow to Soviet morale, and the 872-day siege came to symbolize the determination of the Soviet people. Losses: German, unknown; Red Army, 1,000,000 dead, wounded, or captured, plus 1,000,000 civilians dead.» (Grant, id., p.822).

« Moscow 30 September 1941 – 7 January 1942 An Eastern Front battle, the fight for Moscow was the climax of Operation Barbarossa. The Germans intended to take the Soviet capital, assuming that this would break the Soviet Union’s will to fight on. The failure ultimately doomed the Third Reich. Losses: German, 250,000-400,000 dead or wounded; Red Army, 600,000-1,300,000 dead, wounded, or captured.» (Grant, id., p.823).

« Stalingrad 23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943 The decisive moment in World War II on the Eastern Front, the battle of Stalingrad was a catastrophe from which the German army never recovered. In 1942 the Germans might still have beaten the Soviet Union, despite their failure to take Moscow, but after Stalingrad they could only delay defeat. The German advance to Stalingrad had created a salient pushed deep into Soviet-held territory. With the best German soldiers fighting inside the city, the flanks of the salient were held by poorly motivated Romanian, Italian, and Hungarian troops. Zhukov massed a million men to the north and south of the salient and, on 19 November, unleashed them in Operation Uranus. In four days they smashed through the enemy defenses and closed around Stalingrad in a pincer movement; 250,000 German troops were trapped. Hitler refused to countenance a breakout from besieged Stalingrad. Paulus was ordered to hold on, receiving supplies by air, while German forces prepared a counterattack to relieve him. On 12 December the German Don Army Group attacked the Soviet ring around Stalingrad; by Christmas the counter-offensive had failed. Hundreds of German aircraft were lost trying to supply the army in the Stalingrad pocket through worsening winter weather and in the face of a strengthening Soviet air force. The Luftwaffe never came close to meeting the soldiers’ needs. By January 1943 the Germans inside the city were starving, freezing, and short of ammunition and fuel. Hitler refused to authorize a surrender, promoting Paulus to field marshal to stiffen his resolve. But soldiers began to surrender and on 31 January Paulus joined them. Hitler was furious that his field marshal did not commit suicide. Paulus survived the war; among the 91,000 prisoners in Soviet hands when fighting ended on 2 February, few others lived to see the spring. Losses: German, 150,000, 91,000 captured; Soviet, 480,000 dead.» (Grant, id., p.842-843).

« Kursk 5 July-23 August 1943 A key moment in the epic struggle between the Soviet Union and Germany, Kursk was the largest tank battle in history. The Germans were attempting to regain the strategic initiative after their catastrophic defeat at Stalingrad. Their failure to do so meant that henceforth they would be driven inexorably back to Germany. The Germans threw in huge forces, but even by the end of the first day it was clear that they were suffering great losses and making little progress. One German tank commander later noted that, as he repeatedly smashed through Soviet tank formations, only invariably to meet further formations behind them, he realized that the war was lost. After four days of furious attacks, and extremely heavy losses on both sides, the German assault ground to a halt. Then the Red Army counterattacked; the Germans were driven back but escaped encirclement. But if losses on both sides had been immense, Soviet losses were replaceable, German losses were not. Losses: German, 250,000 dead or wounded; Soviet, possibly more than 1,000,000 dead or wounded.» (Grant, id., p.855).

« Hitler’s intervention in Italy was astonishingly successful. Where Hitler didn’t do so well - not by a long chalk – was in Russia. He had every reason to hope that the German forces there, for all that they had lost the strategic initiative, would be able to wage a successful defensive war. In fact things started to go wrong as soon as the Kursk offensive was called off. The Russians attacked all along the southern half of the front, forcing the German commanders to commit the few reserves they had at their disposal; a second wave of attacks found more gaps and this time there was no covering them: the Germans were forced back step by step from the Donets to the Dnieper. But at least it was still a relatively orderly retreat and had the advantage of bringing the German forces back to a shorter line; indeed the winter position of Army Group South was much the same as the one the High Command had wanted it to take up in the first place. Unfortunately Army Group South proved no more capable of holding the Dnieper than the Donets. Stalin was determined to get the Germans out of the Ukraine and was prepared to commit every man and gun he could muster to achieve this object. Throughout the winter he launched one division after another across the Dnieper, hammering to pieces each successive German position; by the spring of 1944 the leading units of the Red Army were through the Ukraine and advancing into Poland and Romania. The Red Army had already defeated both Army Group South and Army Group North (driven back from Leningrad in January); now it was the turn of Army Group Centre. The battle began on 22 June [1944], the third anniversary of Hitler’s invasion of Russia. Initially the Soviet attacks focused on Vitebsk and Bobruisk, two towns 150 miles apart that Hitler had declared special strong points and, if anything, over-garrisoned. Within five days both had been cut out of the German line and Russian tank forces were streaming past them in a converging attack on Minsk.» (
McEvedy, 1982, p.84).

« JULY 3 [1944] Russian Front – 100,000-strong German 4th Army encircled at Minsk.
 JULY 11 Russian Front – Elimination of trapped German 4th army: 70,000 killed since late June; 35,000 captured.
 JULY 31 Russian Front – Red Army reaches outskirts of Warsaw.
 AUGUST 25 DiplomacyRUMANIA DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY. FINNS BEGIN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS WITH RUSSIANS.
AUGUST 30 Russian Front – Russians occupy Ploesti.
AUGUST 31 Russian FrontRUSSIANS OCCUPY BUCHAREST 56 km from Ploesti inside a day. Big crowds welcome the liberators.
SEPTEMBER 2 Russian Front – Russians reach Bulgarian border.
SEPTEMBER 8 Russian Front – Russians enter Bulgaria. Diplomacy – Bulgaria declares war on Germany.
SEPTEMBER 10 DiplomacyRUSSO-FINNISH ARMISTICE signed in Moscow.
SEPTEMBER 26 Russian Front – The Central Front stabilizes along line of Rs. Narew and Vistula: Russians have advanced 604 km since June 23 and virtually annihilated the 25divs. of German Army Group Centre.
OCTOBER 2 Occupied PolandEND OF WARSAW RISING. Decimated Polish Home Army of Gen. Bor forced to surrender to Germans. 200,000 Poles killed.
OCTOBER 10 Russian Front – Big tank battle at Debrecen, SE. Hungary.
OCTOBER 18 Russian Front – Russians now hold 5 Carpathian passes on E. borders of Czechoslovakia.
OCTOBER 20 Occupied Yugoslavia – Belgrad captured by Tito’s Partisans and Russian forces.
OCTOBER 23 Russian Front – Russians now hold 137-km. front in E. Prussia.
NOVEMBER 4 Russian Front – Russian long-range guns bombard Budapest.
NOVEMBER 29 Russian Front – Russian and Yugoslav forces capture Mohacs and Pecs, after crossing Danube S. of Budapest.
DECEMBER 24 Russian FrontRUSSIAN TANKS ENTER BUDAPEST.
DECEMBER 27 Russian FrontSIEGE OF BUDAPEST begins.
JANUARY 6 [1945] Diplomacy – Churchill informs Stalin that position on Western Front is very grave and asks: ‘Can we count on a major Russian offensive on the Vistula front…?
JANUARY 7 Diplomacy – Stalin informs Churchill that, although bad weather is forecast, which will deprive Red Army of air cover, preparations for a great offensive are to be completed ‘at a forced pace… disregarding the weather’ in the interests of ‘our allies on the Western Front.’
JANUARY 17 Russian FrontZHUKOV CAPTUREs WARSAW.
JANUARY 19 Russian Front – Konev takes Cracow.
JANUARY 23 Russian Front – Konev’s forces reach R. Oder on 64-km front. Zhukov captures Bromberg (Bydgoszcz).
JANUARY 25 Sea War: BalticGREATEST EVACUATION IN HISTORY 1,500,000-2,000,000 German troops and civilians rescued by May 8 from Prussia, Pomerania and Courland in operations involving surface warships and 36 merchantmen.
JANUARY 27 Russian Front – Zhukov’s forces now only 161 km from Berlin.
JANUARY 29 Russian Front – Zhukov encircles large German garrison in Poznan.
JANUARY 30 Home Front: Germany – Hitler’s last broadcast: ‘German workers, work! German soldiers, fight! German women, be as fanatical as ever! No nation can do more.’ Sea War: BalticWORST SEA DISASTER IN HISTORY. 7,000 refugees down when Russian submarine S-13 sinks liner Wilhelm Gustloff.
FEBRUARY 1 Russian Front – Rokossovsky captures Torun after 6-day siege.
FEBRUARY 4 Russian FrontKONEV’S TANKS BEGIN CROSSING R. ODER, near Breslau.
FEBRUARY 6 Russian Front – Konev crosses the Oder and lays siege to Breslau: hundreds of thousands of panic-stricken German civilians flee westwards, many into ‘safe’ city of Dresden.
FEBRUARY 13 Russian FrontSIEGE OF BUDAPEST ENDS after 6 weeks of savage house-tohouse fighting.
FEBRUARY 23 Russian Front – Siege of Poznan ends: Zhukov takes 23,000 prisoners.
FEBRUARY 27 Russian Front – Rokossovsky drives into Pomerania.
MARCH 19 Home Front: Germany – Hitler orders total scorched earth policy.
MARCH 30 Russian Front – Tolbukhin enters Austria.
APRIL 4 Russian Front – Bratislava captured by Malinovsky.
APRIL 6 Russian Front – Russians enter suburbs of Vienna.
APRIL 11 Russian Front – Russians cross Danube Canal in Vienna.
APRIL 13 Russian FrontVIENNA CAPTURED by Tolbukhin’s 3rd UF [Ukrainian Front] [An expedition far outside].
APRIL 16 Russian FrontZHUKOV OPENS OFFENSIVE ON BERLIN [An expedition far outside]. APRIL 19 Russian Front – Russians secure bridgehead across River Neisse and push towards Dresden.
APRIL 21 Russian FrontBATTLE OF BERLIN. ZHUKOV’S TROOPS ENTER SUBURBS. Konev attacks North of Dresden.
APRIL 22 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture Weissensee district. Hitler decides to remain in Berlin.
APRIL 23 Russian FrontFrankfurt-on-Oder captured by Zhukov.
APRIL 24 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Konev’s and Zhukov’s troops link up in South suburbs.
APRIL 25 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Zhukov and Konev forces near Potsdam to complete their ‘iron ring’ around the city.
APRIL 26 Russian/Western FrontRUSSIAN AND AMERICAN FORCES LINK UP at Torgau on the Elbe.
APRIL 27 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture suburbs of Potsdam, Spandau and Rathenow; central districts of Neukölln and Tempelhof.
APRIL 29 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Hitler marries Eva Braun and dictates ‘Political Testament’.
APRIL 30 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide in Führerbunker beneath Reichs Chancellery, Berlin, at 3.30 pm. Russian artillery bombards Chancellery.
MAY 1 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Goebbels and wife Magda poison their 6 children before committing suicide. Home Front: Germany DÖNITZ ANNOUNCES DEATH OF HITLER.
MAY 2 Russian Front/ Western FrontSTALIN ANNOUNCES FALL OF BERLIN in Order of the Day No. 359: ‘Troops of the 1st Byelorussian Front, commanded by Marshal Zhukov... have today May 2 completely captured Berlin... hotbed of German aggressions.’
MAY 7 DiplomacyUNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF GERMANY.  
MAY 8 Russian FrontDresden occupied by Russian forces [An expedition far outside].» (Argyle, 1980, p.162-185).

On its return all the countries the army shall pillage: « The presence of the victorious Red Army in eastern Europe ensured that by 1949 all these states [Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, East Prussia, Poland, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania] had Communist governments.» (
Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 19, 1. Divided Europe); « The USA and USSR, immensely stronger than any possible rival, had provided the means of victory. They alone, moreover, had made positive gains from the war. The other victorious states had, at best, won only survival or resurrection, while to the two greatest powers, the war brought new ascendancies. Though that of the USSR had been won at huge cost, it was stronger than the tsarist empire had ever been. Soviet armies dominated a vast European glacis beyond the USSR of 1939. Much of it was now sovereign Soviet territory; the rest was organized into states that were soon in every sense satellites. One of them, East Germany, contained major industrial resources. All of them were primarily related to Moscow, rather than to one another. Some of them, indeed, would continue to show suspicion of their communist neighbours, even well into the 1980s. Beyond this glacis lay Yugoslavia and Albania, the only communist states to emerge since the war without the help of Soviet occupation; in 1945 both seemed assured allies of Moscow, but were regarded by it as suspiciously and carefully as all the others. This advantageous Soviet position had been won by the fighting of the Red Army, but also reflected strategic decisions taken by western governments and their commander in Europe from 1943 to the closing stages of the war, when General Eisenhower had resisted political pressure to get to Prague and Berlin before the Soviet armies. The Soviet occupation forces (carefully segregated from the local populations) gave the USSR a strategic preponderance in central and eastern Europe which looked all the more menacing to those west of it because the barriers to Russian power which had existed in 1914 – the Habsburg empire and a united Germany – had both now gone. An overtaxed Great Britain and an only slowly reviving and divided France could not be expected to stand up to the Soviet armies, and no other conceivable counterweight on land existed if the Americans went home.» (Roberts, 1999, p.446-447).

The interpretation of the quatrain by Ionescu (Ionescu, 1976, p.638) is thematically correct, but not sufficient in details.

_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.

§879 Soviet Atomic Spies (2) (1939-1953): V-83.

V-83 (§879):

Those who shall have tried to subvert,
The powerful and invincible reign without equal:
Shall make conspiracies by fraud, three shall warn three,
When the greatest man at the table shall read a Bible.

(Ceulx qui auront entreprins subvertir,
Nompareil regne puissant & invincible:
Feront par fraulde, nuictz trois advertir,
Quant le plus grand à table lira Bible.)

NOTES: This quatrain is substantially connected with the preceding VII-33 (§878) through their common phrase “par fraulde (by fraud)” (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.619).

Ceulx qui auront entreprins subvertir: « Kellog, like Hughes, regarded the Soviets as anathema because they « continue to carry on, through the Communist International and other organizations with headquarters at Moscow, within other nations including the United States, extensive and carefully planned operations for the purpose of ultimately bringing about the overthrow of the existing order in such nations. Robert F. Kelley, a zealous foe of the Soviet Union. Fluent in Russian and well-versed in the techniques of communist subversion, Kelley served as chief of the Division of Eastern European Affairs from 1926 to 1937 and trained a generation of Soviet specialists, including George Kennan and Charles Bohlen. Kelley saw bolshevism as a military expansionist ideology and interpreted the Constitution of 1923, which formally established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as “the creation of a form of political organization best adapted in the eyes of the Bolshevik leaders to the realization of their aims in the future,” principally “the union of the toilers of all countries into one world Soviet Socialist Republic.” Generally acknowledged to be the State Department’s first bona fide Soviet expert, he monitored developments in Russia during the late 1920s through the “listening post” at the American legation in Riga, Latvia, and evaluated much information concerning subversive activities elsewhere in the world as well. Kelley’s steadfast opposition to recognizing Russia reinforced the animosity of his superiors toward the Soviets and promoted a fierce antibolshevism among his subordinates… Kelley and other Soviet specialists delivered numerous lectures at the Foreign Service School that gave the novices a common background in international politics, with particular emphasis on the relentless Bolshevik drive to foment world revolution. The institutionalization of antibolshevism in Washington made American policymakers very sensitive to the possibility of Soviet subversion around the world during the interwar years… » (Little, 1983, p.378-380).

The powerful and invincible reign without equal
: = The great Neptune at its highest belfry (Le grand Neptune à son plus hault beffroy) (§885, III-1) = the United States of America after the end of the WWII or after the Korean War (1950-3); « At least in the times of Truman one can say that this country was without equal, powerful and really invincible.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.620); « Stalin’s Espionage Assault on the United States Through most of the twentieth century, governments of powerful nations have conducted intelligence operations of some sort during both peace and war. None, however, used espionage as an instrument of state policy as extensively as did the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. In the late 1920s and 1930s, Stalin directed most of the resources of Soviet intelligence at nearby targets in Europe and Asia. America was still distant from Stalin’s immediate concerns, the threat to Soviet goals posed by Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. This perception changed, however, after the United States entered the war in December 1941. Stalin realized that once Germany and Japan were defeated, the world would be left with only three powers able to project their influence across the globe: the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States. And of these, the strongest would be the United States. With that in mind, Stalin’s intelligence agencies shifted their focus toward America. The Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States formed a military alliance in early 1942 to defeat Nazi Germany and its allies. The Soviet Union quickly became a major recipient of American military (Lend-Lease) aid, second only to Great Britain; it eventually received more than nine billion dollars. As part of the aid arrangements, the United States invited the Soviets to greatly expand their diplomatic staffs and to establish special offices to facilitate aid arrangements. Thousands of Soviet military officers, engineers, and technicians entered the United States to review what aid was available and choose which machinery, weapons, vehicles (nearly 400,000 American trucks went to the Soviet Union), aircraft, and other matériel would most assist the Soviet war effort. Soviet personnel had to be trained to maintain the American equipment, manuals had to be translated into Russian, shipments to the Soviet Union had to be inspected to ensure that what was ordered had been delivered, properly loaded, and dispatched on the right ships. Entire Soviet naval crews arrived for training to take over American combat and cargo ships to be handed over to the Soviet Union. Scores of Soviet intelligence officers of the KGB (the chief Soviet foreign intelligence and security agency), the GRU (the Soviet military intelligence agency), and the Naval GRU (the Soviet naval intelligence agency) were among the Soviet personnel arriving in America. These intelligence officers pursued two missions. One, security, was only indirectly connected with the United States. The internal security arm of the KGB employed several hundred full-time personnel, assisted by several million part-time informants, to ensure the political loyalty of Soviet citizens. A second mission of these Soviet intelligence officers, however, was espionage against the United States, the size and scope of which is the principal subject of this book. The deciphered Venona cables do more than reveal the remarkable success that the Soviet Union had in recruiting spies and gaining access to many important U.S. government agencies and laboratories dealing with secret information. They expose beyond cavil the American Communist party [CPUSA] as an auxiliary of the intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. While not every Soviet spy was a Communist, most were. And while not every American Communist was a spy, hundreds were. The CPUSA itself worked closely with Soviet intelligence agencies to facilitate their espionage. Party leaders were not only aware of the liaison; they actively worked to assist the relationship.» (Haynes & Klehr, 2000, p.20-21).

Those… Shall make conspiracies (nuictz) by fraud: « The word “nuit (night)”, even taken in itself, can evoke us a “nightly” action, namely hidden or clandestine.» (Ionescu, id., p.622).

Advertir
: = « avertir. To notify; To warn.» (Dubois).

Three shall warn three
: The French text of Nostradamus is simply as « trois advertir (three to warn) », where the term trois (three) can be at the same time the Subject and the Object of the verb advertir (to warn). If we consider the situation of Soviet atomic espionage toward the American-British-Canadian atomic project in common predicted in the preceding quatrain (§878, VII-33), the three Objects will be the three countries of America, Britain and Canada, and the three Subjects (the western nuclear spies disclosed in the times of President Truman) may be Allan Nunn May, Klaus Fuchs and Greenglass, each of them in special relation to Canada, Britain and America respectively; « The individuals who had access to classified atomic information and who are definitely known to have conveyed such information to the Soviet Union while employed on the project are three in number [trois]. To list them in the estimated order of their importance, they are: (1) Dr. Klaus Fuchs, the German-born British scientist who worked both upon the key Oak Ridge, Tenn., process and upon weapons at the Los Alamos, N. Mex., laboratory during World War II; (2) Dr. Allan Nunn May, the British scientist, who was arrested and convicted in connection with the Canadian spy exposés of 1946; (3) David Greenglass, an American citizen, who, as an Army technical sergeant, performed weapons work at Los Alamos during World War II.» (Joint Committee on Atomic Energy [USA], 1951, p.
III).

« Allan Nunn May: Gouzenko went to the Canadian Mounted Police and handed over documents which showed beyond question the extent of Soviet espionage in Canada. The Russians indignantly insisted that Gouzenko was a thief who had stolen documents and money from the Soviet Embassy and demanded that he be handed back to them. The Canadian authorities refused, though at one time there was a real risk that they did not realize the seriousness of the situation and Gouzenko was nearly returned to his embassy. The revelations of the Canadian spy trials that followed are well enough known. Allan Nunn May had returned to London, but he was quickly identified as the man known as ‘Alek’ in the Soviet network and in March 1946 was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. Most of the Canadian spies were caught within weeks, but Fuchs was not finally detected until after he returned to Britain, and then only on a tip-off from the FBI in 1949.» (Deacon, 1987, p.275; cf. Ionescu, id., p.623-5); « Allan Nunn May Shortly before World War II ended, Dr. May, a natural-born British scientist, met a Russian military officer in Montreal, Canada, and gave him laboratory samples of U-235 and U-233. This dramatic betrayal attracted wide attention in the press when May was arrested in early 1946, but still more helpful to Russia, no doubt, was the information which he also compromised. He worked closely with the wartime Metallurgical Laboratory at Chicago, visiting there on three occasions; and as a result, he understood a number of the problems overcome in constructing the Hanford, Wash., plutonium piles. May, in addition, was familiar with the Canadian wartime atomic energy effort; and he knew miscellaneous facts about Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Los Alamos, N. Mex., He confessed to writing an over-all report on atomic energy as known to him and transmitting it to the Soviets. A nuclear physicist of considerable ability, May joined the British atomic project during the spring of 1942. He worked first at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, England, and then, in January 1943, joined the Anglo-Canadian research team at McGill University, Montreal. In Canada he became a senior member of the nuclear physics division and remained until September 1945. Thereafter, until his arrest, May was a lecturer on physics at Kings College, London. Igor Gouzenko, the Russian cipher clerk at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, Canada, helped bring about the arrest when he defected to the Canadian authorities in late 1945, taking with him papers which led to the exposure of widespread espionage activity. The wartime Canadian spy ring is primarily associated, in many minds, with divulgement of atomic secrets; but Allan Nunn May is the only member of the ring who gave Russia information in this category. He was 34 years old when arrested and had become a Communist before the war. May is now serving a 10-year sentence in Wakefield Prison, Yorkshire, England.» (Joint Committee on Atomic Energy [USA], 1951, p.2-3).

« Klaus Fuchs: Fuchs resumed his work at Birmingham University. One of its laboratories was designated to play a leading part in the British atomic project. Fuchs was welcomed as a young genius in nuclear research – “more as a candidate for a Nobel peace prize or membership of the Royal Society than a likely traitor,” said his counsel at his trial. His work was brilliant: there was very little in the field of atomic research with which he was not familiar. When he took up his post at Birmingham in June 1942, he signed the usual security declaration. The following month he applied for naturalization as a British subject. In view of the most important contribution he was making, and could continue to make, to atomic research and his very high standard as a scientist, it was decided that he should be granted British nationality. Full enquiries were made, but nothing suggesting the possibility of treachery or foreign affiliations was discovered. All his associates spoke highly of him. He duly took the oath of allegiance to His Majesty – but he had already become a Russian spy. In December 1943, he was sent to America as a member of the British atomic energy research mission. Until August 1944 he worked at Columbia University, living in New York. Again his work was of the utmost importance and highly secret. In August 1944 Fuchs moved to the vital plant at Los Alamos, New Mexico. “He took part in the making of the earliest atomic bombs,” the American Congressional Committee report states. “He was privy to idea and plans for improved atomic weapons, and possessed insight into the thinking of the period as regards the hydrogen bomb.” Although in February 1945 Fuchs went to visit a Russian official in Boston, his spymasters recognized that such direct contacts were dangerous. An American courier was therefore engaged. The headquarters of their organization was the Soviet Consulate in New York. In the summer of 1946 Fuchs returned to England. The British atomic-research laboratory at Harwell was taking shape, and experienced nuclear physicists were scarce. Fuchs was given the important appointment of head of the Theoretical Physics Division. He apportioned tasks to his subordinates and maintained a general control of all their work. He was selected to represent Britain in a conference with American and Canadian scientists in Washington in November 1947. Yet by this time he was getting uneasy. Russian practice did not appear to be following Communist ideas and ideals. “In the post-war period I began to have doubts about the Russian policy,” he confessed later. “During this time I was not sure I could go on giving information as I had.” But the Russians, realizing the true value of this unique agent, were continually demanding more information. Further, they had pressed money on him – one payment was of £100 – and so had him in their power: for there is no suggestion that he spied from financial motives. His salary at Harwell was nearly £1,500 a year – enough to support a bachelor in reasonable comfort! Further, so good was his work that in the autumn of 1949 he received an important promotion. At almost the same time information arrived from America about a serious leakage of atomic information, under circumstances which suggested a British source. The process of elimination took some time, and there was consternation when the evidence pointed clearly to Fuchs – consternation not only because he had always appeared to be acutely ‘security-minded’ and had been completely unsuspected, but especially because it was realized that the information he could have passed to the Russians was vital. In December 1949, two security officers, accompanied by an atomic scientist, called on Fuchs at a guest house at Abingdon… » (Newman, 2013, p.134-8; cf. Ionescu, id., p.625-8); « Klaus Fuchs Dr. Klaus Fuchs was a member of the British atomic-energy mission which came to the United States during World War II, in accordance with the 1943 Quebec agreement between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Prime Minister King of Canada [trois]. The British certified to the Manhattan Engineer District, which then had responsibility for American atomic development, that Fuchs could be trusted; and this certification was accepted without further inquiry. During 1944 Fuchs lived in New York and worked at Columbia University, participating intimately in efforts to develop the gaseous diffusion U-235 separation process – a process now embodied in the K-25-27-29-31 plant complex at Oak Ridge, Tenn., and to be embodied in the major new plant complex under construction at Paducah, Ky. He was one of three Britishers who had complete access to all phases of the Columbia University work. It is little appreciated that Fuchs is not only the great betrayer of weapons data but also the great betrayer of the theory underlying the only Oak Ridge production method in use today. In August 1944 Fuchs moved to Los Alamos with other members of the British mission and worked there until June 1946. He took part in the making of the earliest atomic bombs; he was privy to ideas and plans for improved atomic weapons, and he possessed insight into the thinking of the period as regards the hydrogen bomb. Fuchs returned to England in mid-1946 and soon became Chief of the Theoretical Physics Division at Harwell, Britain’s principal atomic-research laboratory. Some 3 years later American security authorities advised Britain of a lead developed in the United States, and this brought about Fuchs’ arrest, conviction, and imprisonment in early 1950. He had shipped to Russia the most sensitive information, including extensive quantitative data written form, regarding the Oak Ridge gaseous diffusion process, the weapon work at Los Alamos, British activities at Harwell, and other projects located in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.» (Joint Committee on Atomic Energy [USA], 1951, p.1). 

« Greenglass: By the end of May 1950 information about VENONA appears to have percolated through the Soviet system, and the true culprit identified… On 24 May Harry Gold [Fuchs’ previous contact. A chemical engineer who was the son of Russian Jewish immigrants to the United States. Turned to communism during the Great Depression, and had been recruited for industrial espionage by the Soviet Union in 1934. When the United States entered the war in December 1941, Gold had been assigned to the Soviet Union’s military endeavour, which is how he came to be the contact for Klaus Fuchs] was arrested… First, Harry Gold identified another source at Los Alamos – a machanist named David Greenglass. Greenglass was arrested in June, and confessed to having given Gold secret information about the explosive lenses used to initiate implosion. Under questioning, Greenglass led the FBI to the heart of the Soviet spy ring in the United States, his brother-in-law, Julius Rosenberg. Rosenberg was a spy under the charge of Feklisov [a highly experienced KGB officer]. In September 1944, Rosenberg had suggested to Feklisov that he recruit his sister Ruth and her husband David Greenglass. Greenglass, an avowed communist, was in the army and had been posted to Los Alamos. In November 1944 Ruth visited him in Albuquerque and asked him to forward information on the project. So it was that Gold would meet not just Fuchs but also Greenglass on his visits to Santa Fe. Following Harry Gold’s information, the FBI interviewed David Greenglass. He agreed to confess to his own activities and testify against Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in exchange for immunity for his wife, Ruth. As part of this deal, which has been mired in controversy ever since, Ruth testified that the Rosenbergs had urged her to recruit David in espionage. David Greenglass was sentenced to fifteen years in jail; in 1960 he was released after nine and a half years – a similar incarceration to that of Klaus Fuchs. They were relatively fortunate. For others caught in the fallout of Fuchs’ arrest and confession, the penalty would be extreme: on 19 June 1953, Julius and Ethel Rosenbergs were executed by electric chair.» (Close, 2019, p.383-5; cf. Ionescu, id., p.628); « David Greenglass Of the four betrayers [the three cited here and Bruno Pontecorvo] who themselves had access to secret atomic information, only David Greenglass is American-born; only he is an American citizen; and he also stands alone as the only nonscientist in the group. According to his own testimony in open court, Greenglass was assigned to the Los Alamos, N. Mex., weapon laboratory in the summer of 1944 and there worked as a machinist upon high-explosive lens molds (a crucial nonnuclear phase of the atomic bomb). He gave Harry Gold (who was also a courier for Fuchs) sketches and detailed written descriptions of this work, as well as a list of scientific personnel associated with Los Alamos and a further list of Los Alamos individuals whom he thought might be willing to serve as Russian agents. In addition, Greenglass testified that he conveyed to Russia a diagram of the atomic bomb, along with a detailed explanation and related materials in writing. Greenglass grew up on the lower East Side of New York City, attending the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and Pratt Institute. In 1938, at the age of 16, he joined the Young Communist League. At Los Alamos, as an Army technical sergeant, he eventually became foreman of a machine shop concerned with preparing weapon apparatus. Greenglass’ testimony indicates that he was also able to secure information far beyond the scope of his assigned duties. He was arrested in June 1950 as the result of information supplied by Harry Gold and others, and he pleaded guilty to the charges against him. Although his espionage activities had terminated by 1946, when he left the Army, the case is significant because Greenglass was in a position to furnish Russia with mechanical details of bomb gadgetry and weaponeering that might have supplemented the data divulged by a theoretical physicist such as Klaus Fuchs.» (Joint Committee on Atomic Energy [USA], 1951, p.3).

Three: Ionescu’s interpretation of the expression “three (trois)” as “1. The Canadian espionage, 2. The American espionage, and 3. The group of the Fugitives to USSR” (Ionescu, 1976, p.623-628) is weak because this enumeration is principally owing to his own idea and not supported by the explicit historical data such as the report of Joint Committee on Atomic Energy [USA], 1951.

Quant
: = Quand (When).

When the greatest man at the table shall read a Bible
: = In the times of President Truman; « The fact that “The greatest man read a Bible at the table” can be interpreted in two ways: 1. As an allusion to the name itself of Truman, “the true man”, the faithful or veritable man. 2. As an allusion to his passion of bibliophile (of the Greek βίβλος = a book).» (Ionescu, id., p.621). However, the viewpoint of Ionescu seems slightly off the central meaning of the phrase “to read a Bible”, which genuinely indicates the authentic religious character of Mr. Truman: « My mother had taught me my letters and how to read before I was five years old, and because I had a hard time reading newspaper print I was taken to an oculist for an eye examination. I was fitted with glasses and started to school in the fall of 1892, when I was eight years old. The glasses were a great help in seeing but a great handicap in playing. I was so carefully cautioned by the eye doctor about breaking my glasses and injuring my eyes that I was afraid to join in the rough-and-tumble games in the schoolyard and the back lot. My time was spent in reading, and by the time I was thirteen or fourteen years old I had read all the books in the Independent Public Library and our big old Bible three times through.» (Truman, I, p.135); « The United States has been a deeply religious Nation from its earliest beginnings. The need which the founders of our country felt--the need to be free to worship God, each man in his own way--was one of the strongest impulses that brought men from Europe to the New World. As the pioneers carved a civilization from the forest, they set a pattern which has lasted to our time. First, they built homes and then, knowing the need for religion in their daily lives, they built churches. When the United States was established, its coins bore witness to the American faith in a benevolent deity. The motto then was "In God We Trust." That is still our motto and we, as a people, still place our firm trust in God. Building on this foundation of faith, the United States has grown from a small country in the wilderness to a position of great strength and great responsibility among the family of nations. Other countries look today to the United States for leadership in the ways of peace, and it is our task to meet that challenge. I am convinced that we are strong enough to meet the challenge. We are strong enough because we have a profound religious faith. The basic source of our strength as a nation is spiritual. We believe in the dignity of man. We believe that he is created in the image of God, who is the Father of us all. It is this faith that makes us determined that every citizen in our own land shall have an equal right and an equal opportunity to grow in wisdom and in stature, and to play his part in the affairs of our Nation. It is this faith that makes us respect the right of men everywhere to worship as they please and to live their own lives free from the fear of tyranny and strife. It is this faith that inspires us to work for a world in which life will be more worthwhile--a world of tolerance, unselfishness, and brotherhood--a world that lives according to the precepts of the Sermon on the Mount. I believe that every problem in the world today could be solved if men would only live by the principles of the ancient prophets and the Sermon on the Mount. Each one of us can do his part by a renewed devotion to his religion. If there is any danger to the religious life of our Nation, it lies in our taking our religious heritage too much for granted. Religion is not a static thing. It exists not in buildings, but in the minds and hearts of our people. Religion is like freedom. We cannot take it for granted. Man--to be free--must work at it. And man--to be truly religious--must work at that, too. Unless men live by their faith, and practice that faith in their daily lives, religion cannot be a living force in the world today. That is why each of us has a duty to participate-actively-in the religious life of his community and to support generously his own religious institutions. Just as an active faith sustained and guided the pioneers in conquering the wilderness, so today an active faith will sustain and guide us as we work for a just peace, freedom for all, and a world where human life is truly held sacred. Religious faith and religious work must be our reliance as we strive to fulfill our destiny in the world. – (Radio Address as Part of the Program 'Religion in American Life', 30 October 1949).» (Roberts, P., 2020).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2020. All rights reserved.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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