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§792 Nazi holocaust of the Jews (1935-45): VI-17.

VI-17 (§792):

The asinine shall be constrained to change their diverse clothes,
Into uniform, thereafter the limes lighted:
The Saturnians burnt by the millers,
Indeed the greatest part who shall not be under cover.

(Apres les limes bruslez les asiniers,
Constrainctz seront changer habitz divers:
Les Saturnins bruslez par les meusniers,
Hors la pluspart qui ne sera couvers.)

NOTES: Lime (in English): = (in French) « Chaux.» (Dubois).

Les limes bruslez: = the limelights (lumière oxhydrique).

Les asiniers: = The asinine; « In order to name the Nazis, Nostradamus uses two terms: “asiniers (the asinine)” and “meuniers (millers)”. The word “asinier” has as its root “asin” (from the Latin asinus, an ass), an animal about which they say that it is obstinate and shallow, and which works only when conducted by the master. Nostradamus alludes to the qualities and the defaults that have made possible the enregimentation of a whole generation into a docile mass, perfectly organised for the proposed object. But the word “asin” is chosen also because it permits the following anagram: ASIN = NASI, Nasi and Nazi being phonetically equivalent in French.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.502). Cf. Anes (Asses) = Nazis (§793, X-31).

Changer habitz divers: = Changer [d’] habitz divers [en uniforme] (to change their diverse clothes [into uniform]); This is also « the enregimentation, for, in reality, in the times of the Nazism, each was obliged to wear different uniforms according to the organisation to which he belonged.» (Ionescu, id.).

Les limes bruslez: = the limes lighted = the limelights, expressing the notorious festive meetings on a large scale of the Nazis. Therefore, this comes by nature after uniforming people.

Apres les limes bruslez les asiniers, Constrainctz seront changer habitz divers: The construction shall be as follows: Les asiniers seront constrainctz [à] changer [d’] habitz divers [en uniforme], Apres[,] les limes [seront] bruslez (The asinine shall be constrained to change their diverse clothes [into uniform], thereafter the limes [shall be] lighted).

The Saturnians: « The term “Saturnins (Saturnians)” was currently used in the literature of the
XVIth century, to designate the Jews. They were called Saturnians because they celebrated Saturday, the day of Saturn.» (Ionescu, id., p.503).

Les meusniers: = the millers; « The word “meusniers (millers)” is the French correspondent to “Müller”, which is a word so common in Germany that it is used in the pejorative sense of one of the mass.» (Ionescu, id., p.502); This also refers to “the mill that ground the clinker [of the burnt in the furnace] to fine ash” (See below).

Hors
: = Indeed, really; « hors, adv., à l’extérieur (outdoors); tout hors, totalement (totally), entièrement (entirely); prép. en dehors de (prep. outside of).» (Godefroy).

The Saturnians burnt by the millers, Indeed the greatest part who shall not be under cover: « Hitler’s anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) policy was popular with many Germans to begin with... Eventually the terrible nature of what Hitler called his ‘final solution’ of the Jewish problem became clear: he intended to exterminate the entire Jewish race... It is believed that by 1945, out of a total of nine million Jews living in Europe at the outbreak of the Second World War, six million had been murdered [The Saturnians burnt... indeed the greatest part], most of them in the gas chambers of the Nazi extermination camps [they were burnt after having been gassed].» (Lowe, 1988, p.143). As to the rare adverb “hors (totally)”, Ionescu took it as a preposition with the meaning of “except”, so he entirely misunderstood the last line in explaining that « Most of the Jews shall make their escape in abandoning their fortune and fleeing quite naked.» (Ionescu, id., p.503).

The Saturnians burnt... indeed the greatest part...: « The final solution became fact from the spring of 1942. The first mass-gassings began at Belzec on 17 March 1942. This camp had the capacity to kill 15,000 a day. The next month came Sobibor (20,000 a day), Treblinka and Maidanek (25,000) and Auschwitz, which Hoess called ‘the greatest institution for human annihilation of all time’. The documentation on the genocide is enormous. The figures almost defy belief. By December 1941 Hitler had about 8,700,000 Jews under his rule. Of these he had by early 1945 murdered at least 5,800,000 [indeed the greatest part]. At Auschwitz, where 2 million were murdered, the process was run like a large-scale industrial operation. German firms submitted competitive tenders for the ‘processing unit’, which had to possess ‘capacity to dispose of 2,000 bodies every twelve hours’. The five furnaces were supplied by the German firm of Topt & Co of Erfurt. The gas chambers, described as ‘corpse cellars’, were designed by German Armaments Incorporated, to a specification requiring ‘gas-proof doors with rubber surround and observation post of double 8-millimetre glass (Martin Gilbert, Final Journey: the Fate of the Jews in Nazi Europe, London, 1979, 69-70). The ground over the gassing-cellars was a well-kept lawn, broken by concrete mushrooms, covering shafts through which the ‘sanitary orderlies’ pushed the amethyst-blue crystals of Zyklon-B. The victims marched into the cellars, which they were told were baths, and did not at first notice the gas coming from perforations in metal columns:

Then they would feel the gas and crowd together away from the menacing columns and finally stampede towards the huge metal door with its little window, where they piled up in one blue clammy blood-spattered pyramid, clawing and mauling at each other even in death. Twenty-five minutes later the ‘exhauster’ electric pumps removed the gas-laden air, the great metal door slid open, and the men of the Jewish Sonderkommando entered, wearing gas-masks and gumboots and carrying hoses, for their first task was to remove the blood and defecations before dragging the clawing dead apart with nooses and hooks, the prelude to the ghastly search for gold and the removal of the teeth and hair which were regarded by the Germans as strategic materials. Then the journey by lift or rail-wagon to the furnaces, the mill [burnt by the millers] that ground the clinker to fine ash, and the lorry that scattered the ashes in the stream of the Sola. (Quoted from Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution, London, 1953).

In fact, to save money inadequate quantities of the expensive gas were often used, so the healthy victims were merely stunned and were then burned alive (Gilbert, Final Journey, 77-8).» (Johnson, 1991, p.415-416).
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§791 Religious persecution in the French Revolution and by the Nazi regime (1789-95; 1935-45): IX-72.

IX-72 (§791):

Again shall be polluted the sacred temples,
And pillaged by a senate of the Rotunda,
Saturn two three cycles revolved,
In April, May, peoples of a new leaven.

(Encor seront les saintz temples pollus,
Et expillez par senat Tholossain,
Saturne deux trois cicles revollus,
Dans Avril, May, gens de nouveau levain.)

NOTES: Encor: = Encore (Again); « encor, encore, -ores; encoire, v. ancore.» (Daele); « ancore, ancor, encore, encor, encores.» (Daele).

Pollu: = « polu, adj., souillé, sale (sullied, dirty).»
(Godefroy).

Expiller: From the Latin « ex-pīlō, to pillage, rob, plunder thoroughly.» (Smith-Lockwood).

This quatrain seems to concern the two similar cases of the conspicuous religious persecution in modern history: those by the Republicans in the French Revolution (1789-1995) and by the Nazi Government (1935-1945) before and in the World War II, these two hard times containing respectively the two periods of Saturn’s sojourn in Taurus with a lapse of its five revolutions (1793.3.12-1795.4.30 and 1940.3.20-1942.5.8) as described below.

Senat Tholossain (a senate of the Rotunda): = A central government with dictatorship in imitation of the Thirty (the Thirty Tyrants) seated in the Rotunda (θόλος [tholos] in Greek; cf. Plato, Apol., 32c5, d5; In the democratic times the Rotunda (Tholos) was where the Prytanes [Athenian Magistrates by turns] administered the affairs of state [cf. Xenophon, 1980, p.237, tr.'s note25]) in ancient Athens under the Spartan hegemony (404
B.C. – 403 B.C.); « ... the total destruction of their fleet at Aegospontami off Ionia in 405 B.C. left Athens defenceless. The Spartans blockaded the city, and, despite a determined resistance, the Athenians were forced to surrender. Athens was deprived of its fleet and in 404 B.C. a pro-Spartan Council of Thirty was installed to govern it.» (DKHistory, p.53); « The names which it comprised, some of which soon became infamously notorious were: Polyarches, Critias, Melobius, Hippolochus, Euclidas, Hiero, Mnesilochus, Chremo, Theramenes, Aresias, Diocles, Phædrias, Chærilaus, Anætius, Piso, Sophocles (not the poet, who was now dead), Eratosthenes, Charicles, Onomacles, Theognis, Æschines, Theogenes, Cleomedes, Erasistratus, Phido, Dracontides, Eumathes, Aristoteles, Hippomachus, Mnesithides. Besides these a board of Ten was appointed to govern Piræus. The party which had usurped the supreme authority at Athens, had been unfolding the real character of its domination. The first care of the Thirty was to provide themselves with instruments suited to their purposes; they filled all important posts with their creatures. The ephoralty seems to have merged in their own office. According to the new regulation the Thirty presided in person over trials held by the council: two tables were placed in front of the benches which they occupied, to receive the balls, or tokens, by which the councillors declared their verdict, and which instead of being dropped secretly into a box, were now to be openly deposited on the board, so that the Thirty might see which way every man voted. These however were not the only cases which they brought before the council, even in the early part of their reign. The persons who before the surrender of the city had been arrested on information, partly procured by bribery, and partly extorted by fear, or by the rack, charging them with a conspiracy against the state, but who had really been guilty of no offence but that of expressing their attachment to the constitution which was now abolished, were soon after brought to a mock trial, and judicially murdered. Even such executions might be considered as among the temporary evils incident to every political revolution: and there were some of the Thirty who did not wish to multiply them more than was necessary to their safety. But the greater number, and above all Critias, did not mean to stop here: and perhaps some signs of discontent soon became visible, which gave them a pretext for insisting on the need of stronger measures, and of additional safeguards. Two of their number, Æschines and Aristoteles, were deputed by common consent to Sparta, to obtain a body of troops to garrison the citadel. The ground alleged was that there were turbulent men whom it was necessary to remove before their government could be settled on a firm basis; and they undertook to maintain the garrison as long as its presence should be required. Lysander exerted his influence in their behalf, and induced the ephors to send the force which they desired, under the command of Callibius, who was invested with the authority of harmost. His arrival released Critias and his colleagues from all the restraints hitherto imposed on them by their fears of their fellow citizens. They courted him with an obsequiousness proportioned to the wantonness of the tyranny which they hoped to exercise with his sanction and aid. The footing on which they stood with him is well illustrated by a single fact. An Athenian named Autolycus, of good family and condition, who in his youth had distinguished himself by a gymnastic victory, had in some way or other offended Callibius, who, according to the Spartan usage, raised his truncheon to strike him. But Autolycus, not yet inured to such discipline, prevented the blow by bringing him to the ground. Lysander, it is said, when Callibius complained of this affront, observed that he did not know how to govern freemen. He however understood the men with whom he had principally to deal; for the Thirty soon after gratified him by putting Autolycus to death. In return for such deference he placed his troops at their disposal, to lead whom they would to prison: and now the catalogue of political offences was on a sudden terribly enlarged. The persons who were now singled out for destruction, were no longer such only as had made themselves odious by their crimes, or had distinguished themselves on former occasions by their opposition to the ruling party, but men of unblemished character, without any strong political bias, who had gained the confidence of the people by their merits or services, and might be suspected of preferring a popular government to the oligarchy under which they were living... The case of Leon is particularly remarkable for the light it throws on the policy of the oligarchs. After the arrival of the Lacedæmonian garrison they had begun to dispense with the assistance of the council; and Leon was put to death without any form of trial. But they did not think it expedient always to employ the foreign troops on their murderous errands; they often used Athenians as their ministers on such occasions, and men who did not belong to their party, for the purpose of implicating them in the guilt and odium of their proceedings. When they had resolved on the destruction of Leon, they sent for Socrates and four other persons, and ordered them to go and fetch him from Salamis. As his innocence was no less notorious than the fate which awaited him, Socrates, on leaving the presence of the Thirty, instead of obeying their commands, returned home. The rest executed their commission. These atrocities soon began to spread general alarm; for no one could perceive any principle or maxim by which they were to be limited for the future; there was on the contrary reason to apprehend that they would be continually multiplied and aggravated. Critias contended that they were now in a position which they could only maintain by force and terror; and that every man who had the means of thwarting their plans, and who was not devoted to their interest, must be treated as an enemy. They made out a list of three thousand citizens, who were to enjoy a kind of franchise which perhaps was never exactly defined; but one of its most important privileges was, that none of them should be put to death without a trial before the council. All other Athenians were outlawed, and left to the mercy of the Thirty, who might deal as they thought fit with their lives and property. Under pretext of a review all the citizens were deprived of their arms, except the knights, and the Three Thousand, who were thus enabled to cope with the rest. The Thirty now believed themselves completely secure, and grew more and more reckless in the indulgence of their rapacity and cruelty. In the low state to which the Athenian finances were reduced, the maintenance of the garrison was a burden which they found it difficult to support; and, among other extraordinary means of raising supplies, it appears that they resorted to the spoliation of the temples. But this was an expedient which probably required some caution and secrecy, and which could not be carried beyond certain limits. One which perhaps appeared both safer and more productive was suggested by Piso and Theognis, two of their number, who observed that several of the resident aliens were known to be ill-affected to the oligarchy, and thus afforded a pretext for plundering the whole class. The proposition was adopted; and Theramenes was invited to single out his prey with the rest: but he refused to stain his hands with this innocent blood. It was however resolved to begin by taking ten lives; and, for the sake of covering the real motive, two of the victims were to be poor men, who would therefore be supposed to have suffered for some political offence. They emulated the ancient tyrants, who had often removed the lowest class of the commonalty, for whom it was difficult to find employment, from the capital into the country, and prohibited all Athenians who were not on the list of the Three Thousand from entering the city. But by the oligarchs this step seems not to have been adopted so much with a view to their safety, as to increase the facility of rapine and murder. They continued to send out their emissaries to seize the persons and confiscate the property of the citizens, who were now scattered by their decree over Attica. The greater part of the outcasts took refuge in Piræus; but when it was found that neither the populous town, nor their rural retreats, could shelter them from the inquisition of their oppressors, numbers began to seek an asylum in foreign cities; and Argos, Megara, and Thebes, were soon crowded with Athenian exiles... » (HH, IV, p.2-9).
« Thrasybulus, like Alcibiades, had been formally banished by the Thirty; though it is not certain that he was at Athens when their government was established. He was however at Thebes when their furious tyranny began to drive the citizens by hundreds into exile; and the temper now prevailing at Thebes encouraged him to undertake the deliverance of his country. Having obtained a small supply of arms and money from his Theban friends, he crossed the border with a band of about seventy refugees, and seized the fortress of Phyle, which stood on an eminence projecting from the side of Mount Parnes, with which it was connected by a narrow ridge with precipitous sides, twelve or thirteen miles from Athens... those most impious Thirty, who, for the sake of their own gain, have killed almost more of the Athenians in eight months than all the Peloponnesians in ten years’ warfare... The period intervening between the defeat of Ægospotami (October, 405 B.C.), and the re-establishment of the democracy as sanctioned by the convention concluded with Pausanias (some time in the summer of 403 B.C), presents two years of cruel and multifarious suffering to Athens. After such years of misery, it was an unspeakable relief to the Athenian population to regain possession of Athens and Attica; to exchange their domestic tyrants for a renovated democratical government; and to see their foreign enemies not merely evacuate the country, but even bind themselves by treaty to future friendly dealing.» (HH, IV, p.10-16).

Socrates in and out of the Rotunda: « Someone may wonder why I go about in private, giving advice and busying myself with the concerns of others, but do not venture to come forward in public and advise the state. I will tell you the reason of this. You have often heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me, and is the divinity which Meletus ridicules in the indictment. This sign I have had ever since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, and this is what stands in the way of my being a politician. And rightly, as I think. For I am certain, O men of Athens, that if I had engaged in politics, I should have perished long ago and done no good either to you or to myself. And don't be offended at my telling you the truth: for the truth is that no man who goes to war with you or any other multitude, honestly struggling against the commission of unrighteousness and wrong in the state, will save his life; he who will really fight for the right, if he would live even for a little while, must have a private station and not a public one. I can give you as proofs of this, not words only, but deeds, which you value more than words. Let me tell you a passage of my own life, which will prove to you that I should never have yielded to injustice from any fear of death, and that if I had not yielded I should have died at once. I will tell you a story - tasteless, perhaps, and commonplace, but nevertheless true. The only office of state which I ever held, O men of Athens, was that of senator; the tribe Antiochis, which is my tribe, had the presidency at the trial of the generals who had not taken up the bodies of the slain after the battle of Arginusae; and you proposed to try them all together, which was illegal, as you all thought afterwards; but at the time I was the only one of the Prytanes who was opposed to the illegality, and I gave my vote against you; and when the orators threatened to impeach and arrest me, and have me taken away, and you called and shouted, I made up my mind that I would run the risk, having law and justice with me, rather than take part in your injustice because I feared imprisonment and death. This happened in the days of the democracy. But when the oligarchy of the Thirty was in power, they sent for me and four others into the rotunda, and bade us bring Leon the Salaminian from Salamis, as they wanted to execute him. This was a specimen of the sort of commands which they were always giving with the view of implicating as many as possible in their crimes; and then I showed, not in words only, but in deed, that, if I may be allowed to use such an expression, I cared not a straw for death, and that my only fear was the fear of doing an unrighteous or unholy thing. For the strong arm of that oppressive power did not frighten me into doing wrong; and when we came out of the rotunda the other four went to Salamis and fetched Leon, but I went quietly home. For which I might have lost my life, had not the power of the Thirty shortly afterwards come to an end. And to this many will witness.» (Plato, Ap., 31c4-32e1, tr. by Jowett, B.).

Saturn two three cycles revolved, In April, May: Saturn having revolved 2+3=5 times in the sign where the Sun is in Avril and May, namely in Taurus (cf.Ionescu, 1976, p.262) during the period of 1555-2000 [Paris, LMT] as follows:
1557.4.23-1559.6.8,
1586.6.20-1588.8.25,
1616.4.21-1618.6.6,
1646.2.22-1648.4.12,
1675.4.9-1677.5.25,
1705.1.29-1707.3.29,
1734.3.28-1736.5.13,
1763.5.6-1765.6.23,
1793.3.12-1795.4.30,
1822.4.22-1824.6.8,
1851.6.3-1853.7.29,
1881.4.5-1883.5.25,
1911.1.20-1913.3.26,
1940.3.20-1942.5.8,
1969.4.29-1971.6.18,
1998.6.9-2000.8.10.

Of these cases, that of 1793.3.12-1795.4.30 concerns the French Revolution and that of 1940.3.20-1942.5.8 relates to the Nazi regime, and the lapse of the time between them is equal to the 5 cycles of Saturn in Taurus. Therefore, the initial word “Again (encor = encore)” designates the theme of this quatrain as mainly pertaining to the Nazi regime, whereby the seemingly ingenious interpretation by Ionescu (id., p.262-265) who concentrates solely upon the French Revolution is literally half-done.

The sacred temples shall be polluted and pillaged by a senate of the Rotunda: « 1789 Nov: 2nd, nationalisation of property of church in France.» (Williams, 1968, p.54); « THE PROPERTY OF THE CLERGY ABSORBED Twenty months now elapsed of comparative tranquillity. There is no striking event; much intrigue, indeed, fiery debating, the training, dividing, and forming of parties. The revolutionary monster slumbered, stirring at times, and showing life by starts, but not awakening fully. La Fayette possessed most power out of the assembly; and he exercised it with a firmness, a disinterestedness, and courage that did him immortal honour. His first act was to drive the duke of Orleans to exile. It is not well known whether his departure was procured by menace or inducement. His absence had certainly the effect of allowing agitation to subside. On October 10th [1789], the assembly renewed the discussion concerning the goods of the clergy. The abolition of tithes had concluded the first part of this discussion. It remained to come to some decision regarding the livings. It was a noble who proposed that church goods should belong to the nation, it was a bishop who took up the motion – the bishop of Autun, Talleyrand de Périgord, a young prelate of good family, very witty, a Voltairian of rather loose morals, and one who joined the revolutionists merely through ambition and a desire to join in anything. His political role, like that of La Fayette, was not to finish for more than forty years after '89, but this was the only connection there existed between the two roles. The high morality of La Fayette never changed. With Talleyrand it was quite the contrary. He began by serving the Revolution well. He presented the assembly with a plan by which the nation could put its hand on the whole of the church property and gain a revenue of one hundred millions. These properties could be sold to pay up a great many judicial salaries owing and to make up deficits. Mirabeau and the other deputies, though accepting the principles, modified the proposition of Talleyrand. The greater part of the bishops made determined resistance. On Mirabeau's proposition, the assembly declared November 2nd, by a majority of 568 against 346, that all church goods should be at the national disposal, but that the nation was to provide for expenses of public worship, salaries for ministers, and the relief of the poor [The state was anthorised to sell church property to the amount of 400,000,000 livres. The purchasers were the lower middle classes in the country, who thus became attached to the Revolution.]. So ended the Clergy Act. The clergy were no longer an order in the state, they were only a class of citizens charged with looking after public worship. After two days of stormy discussion it was decreed, February 13th, 1790, that the law no longer recognised monastic vows, that the orders and congregations of both sexes should be suppressed in France. The assembly, in striking at institutions, took every care of individuals, and showed neither violence nor harshness. It also made a considerable exception to its decree. It did not touch, provisionally, orders or congregations charged with public education or the care of the sick. Those powerful monastic institutions, which had played so considerable a role in France and Europe since the commencement of the Middle Ages, were not utterly to disappear. Uprooted in tlie eighteenth century, they took root again in the nineteenth. The struggle between the modern spirit and that of the past was not ended by a single victory.» (HH, XII, p.223-225 )

« THE POLICY OF EXTERMINATION The advance of the allies against Paris, and the ridiculous threats of the émigrés, which were strengthened by the signature and authority of the duke of Brunswick, gave great weight to the principle advocated by Danton and Marat, who maintained that there was no other means of rescuing the cause of freedom and the national honour than by a war of extermination carried on by the poor against the rich, and the uneducated against the educated classes. From the 10th of August [1792] the doctrine was universally preached that everything old must be thoroughly extirpated, and the religion and morality of former times put in abeyance till a new order of things was founded; and both Robespierre and Danton acted on this principle to its fullest extent. Horrible as it may seem, it is yet perfectly true that Danton, as minister of justice, employed the administration of the sacred duty with which he was intrusted for the protection of his fellow-citizens, for their murder, and the funds of the state for the payment and reward of the murderers. The national assembly made preparations for another St. Bartholomew's day in the beginning of September... The tribunal of the 10th of August was a prelude to those of the Revolution, and the mere mention of some decrees which were issued by the legislative assembly at the end of August will show the manner in which, and the reason why the legislative assembly was used in order to seize upon individuals, who were afterwards murdered without trial or sentence in the September massacres. First, by the resolution of the 26th of August, the clergy were devoted to death, and on the 28th and 29th care was afterwards taken that no one who was disaffected to the reigning system should escape the eyes of the demagogues. It was decreed that domiciliary visits should be made throughout the whole kingdom, in order to drag to light the persons suspected by the clubs; next, nightly searches were ordered to be made through all the houses of Paris, and everyone was threatened with death who should offer the least obstruction to the agents of the provisional government in tracing out and discovering their enemies. The commune completed this general law by a municipal order. It resolved that every house should be lighted in the evening, and no one be allowed to drive in the streets after ten o'clock. The most dreadful of all these regulations, however, and one whose scope and object was not made obvious till the September days, was that by virtue of which all needy but able-bodied men were put in requisition, because the commune might require their services (for the September massacre), and to whom therefore a daily allowance in money was given as a retaining fee. As the day appointed for the massacre approached, a feeling of universal dread was diffused by the preparations made for the event. The barriers on all the approaches to the city were closed; patrols were constantly on foot around the whole circuit of Paris, and all suspected persons who had an appearance of seeking safety by flight were detained and arrested. What is most horrible is that Danton, as minister of justice, had devised and arranged the whole affair, with that cold-blooded and diplomatic political wisdom which he had learned from Talleyrand and Mirabeau. As it was quite impossible even for the tribunal of the 10th of August to condemn whole masses of human beings, he adopted the very original idea of collecting together a number of people from the wine-houses, who in this night of slaughter and death were to assume the office of judges, and in the midst of intoxication and clamour to condemn or apparently acquit those devoted to destruction.» (HH, XII, p. 269-270)

« THE SEPTEMBER MASSACRES The 2nd of September was a Sunday. A rumour was prematurely spread that Verdun had surrendered (it surrendered later that day). The excitement was intense; the streets were crowded, people sought places of safety, and cries of " death to traitors ! " were heard on all sides. The assembly, seized with the universal frenzy, decreed that all who should refuse to serve, either in person or by contributing arms, should be punished with death. " This is not the time for talking," says Vergniaud, " we must dig the enemy's grave, else every step he advances he digs ours." "Everything upheaves, everything totters," shouts Danton, " let one part of the people so to the frontiers, another dig trenches, and the third defend the heart of the town with pikes. The tocsin which rings is no alarm signal, it sounds the charge upon the enemies of the nation. To defeat them, gentlemen, it needs boldness, still more boldness, always boldness, and France is saved." In answer to these startling phrases the commune had the following placard posted everywhere: " To arms, citizens, to arms ! the enemy is at our gates. The council of the commune has decreed that the gates be shut, that all citizens betake themselves to the Champ-de-Mars to form an army that shall hold itself in readiness to march upon the enemy; all suspected persons will be arrested," etc. At the same time alarm guns were fired, the muster was beaten and the tocsin rung; the whole town was afoot — sections, commune, and assembly. The assembly now sent twelve deputies to work at the Montmartre camp; the commune distributed its members throughout the sections to stir up the popular fury; the sections were full of excitement, and three amongst them doomed all prisoners to death in a body. Then a rumour was whispered abroad that the royalists were advancing on the prisons and going to deliver the town up to the Prussians — an absurd fiction, blindly swallowed by the populace. " To the prisons ! " — this cry resounded with unanimous and fearful spontaneity in the streets, public places, and wherever there were gatherings of the people; and even in the national assembly itself. “ Let not a single enemy remain behind, living, to rejoice in our defeats and to strike at our women and children." At this moment 24 priests were led by federals from the Hôtel-de-Ville to the Abbaye, amidst the hootings of the furious mob; four were killed on the way, and all the others — with the exception of Abbé Sicard, the founder of the deaf and dumb institute — had their throats cut in the courtyard by an armed party under the command of Maillard. The assassins then directed their ruthless steps to the Carmelites and to St. Firmin, where 244 priests were shot or cut down with swords, in the garden and in the church; only 49 succeeded in escaping. Then a return was made to the Abbaye, where 38 Swiss and 26 of the king's guard were massacred. A species of tribunal now was formed under Maillard, the prison register consulted, and after a summary interrogation, the prisoners were either killed or liberated. Seventy-seven prisoners were led out, 45 were restored to liberty " by the judgment of the people " (that is the expression of the prison register, preserved to this day); 32 were condemned to death by judgment of tne people, and executed on the spot. In addition 27 priests were slaughtered; they were asked simply to swear to an oath, which they refused to do. The condemned were hustled out of the court into the yard, where they were hacked to pieces amidst the infuriated cries of a multitude of spectators, with swords and pikes. The acquitted were embraced by the blood-stained executioners to the accompaniment of cries of " Long live the nation ! " and then conducted to their homes. A member of the commune, Billaud-Varennes, walked on the corpses, and shouted to the murderers: " You are saving the country, my brave citizens; go on with your work ! " and he had wine distributed amongst them and promised each one 25 livres for his "work."» (HH, XII, p. 270-271)

Again shall be polluted the sacred temples, And pillaged by a senate of the Rotunda: « Hitler’s anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) policy was popular with many Germans to begin with. There were only just over half a million Jews in Germany, a tiny proportion of the population, but Hitler decided to use them as scapegoats for everything – the humiliation at Versailles, the depression, unemployment and communism – and claimed that there was a world Jewish plot. Lots of Germans were in such a desperate situation that they were prepared to accept the propaganda about the Jews and were not sorry to see thousands of them removed from their jobs as lawyers, doctors, teachers and journalists. The campaign was given legal status by the Nuremberg Laws (1935), which deprived Jews of their German citizenship, forbade them to marry non-Jews (to preserve the purity of the Aryan race) and ruled that even a person with only one Jewish grandparent must be classed as a Jew. Later the policy became more extreme. Jews were harassed in every possible way; their property was attacked and burnt, shops looted, synagogues destroyed, and they themselves herded into concentration camps. Eventually the terrible nature of what Hitler called his ‘final solution’ of the Jewish problem became clear: he intended to exterminate the entire Jewish race. As the Germans occupied countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland and western Russia, he was able to lay his hands on non-German Jews as well. It is believed that by 1945, out of a total of nine million Jews living in Europe at the outbreak of the Second World War, six million had been murdered, most of them in the gas chambers of the Nazi extermination camps.» (Lowe, 1988, p.143).

Peoples of a new leaven: = The rationalistic Atheists of the National Convention and the thoroughgoing Racists of the Nazi; « THE WORSHIP OF REASON Of the three institutions which the Revolution desired to modify or destroy — the throne, the nobility, and the religion of the state — there remained standing only the religion of the state, because, taking refuge in conscience, and amalgamating itself with the very idea, it was impossible for its persecutors to follow it so far. The civil constitution of the clergy; the oath imposed upon the priests; that oath declared schism by the court of Rome; the retractations which the mass of the priests had made of this oath to remain attached to the Catholic centre; the expulsion of these refractory priests from their presbyteries and their churches; the installation of a national and republican clergy in the place of these faithful ministers to Rome; the persecution against these rebel ecclesiastics to the law, for remaining obedient to the faith, their imprisonment, their proscription, en mass, on board the vessels of the republic at Rochefort — all these quarrels, all this violence, all these exiles, all these executions, and all these martyrdoms of Catholic priests, had swept away in appearance the ancient worship from the face of the republic. The constitutional worship - a palpable inconsequence of sworn priests, who exercised a pretended Catholicism in spite of the spiritual chief of Catholicism, was nothing more than a sacred toy which the convention had left to the country people in order not to destroy their customs too suddenly. But the impatient philosophers of the convention, of the Jacobins, and of the commune, felt indignant at this resemblance to religion, which survived, in the eyes of the people, religion itself. The greater number openly proclaimed atheism as the only doctrine worthy of intrepid spirits in the material logic of the period. The leaders of the commune, and above all Chaumette and Hebert, encouraged in the people these seditions against all worship. They demanded brilliant apostacies from the priests, and often obtained them. Some ecclesiastics, many under the empire of fear, others from real incredulity, ascended the chair to declare that they had been until then impostors. Acclamations awaited these renegades from the altar. The once sacred ceremonies were derisively parodied. They dressed an ox or an ass in pontifical ornaments; they paraded these through the streets; they drank wine from the chalice, and shut the church. They wrote upon the gate of the place of the sepulchre, sommeil éternel (eternal rest). In a few months the immense matériel of Catliolic worship — cathedrals, churches, monasteries, presbyteries, towers, belfries, ministers, and ceremonies — had disappeared. They desired to possess themselves of the temples, to offer them a new worship, a kind of renewed paganism, whose dogmas were but images, whose adoration was but a ceremonial, and whose divinity supreme was but Reason become in its own person its own God, and adoring itself in its attributes. The laws of the convention, which continued to salary the national Catholic worship, opposed themselves to this violent invasion of this philosophical religion of Chaumette in the cathedral and in the churches of Paris. It was incumbent to cause these ancient buildings to be evacuated by a voluntary renunciation of the constitutional bishop and his clergy. An equivalent salary was assured to the principals amongst them, or more lucrative functions in the civil and military administrations of the republic. Hope and threats wrung from them their resignation. Chaumette exclaimed that the day when Reason resumed her empire merited a place to itself in the epochs of the Revolution. He demanded that the committee of Public Instruction should bestow in the new calendar a place to the "Day of Reason." This abdication of exterior Catholicism by the priests of a nation surrounded for so many ages by the power of this worship, is one of the most characteristic acts of the spirit of the Revolution. The bells, those sonorous voices of Christian temples, were cast into money or cannon. The directors of the departments forbade the institutors to pronounce the name of God in their tuition to the children of the people. The commune desired to replace the ceremonies of religion by other spectacles, to which the people flocked as they do to all novel sights. But religions do not spring up in the market-place at the voice of legislators or demagogues. The religion of Chaumette and the commune was merely a popular opera transferred from the theatre to the tabernacle. The 20th of December, the day fixed for the installation of the new worship, the commune, the convention, and the authorities of Paris, went in a body to the cathedral. Chaumette, seconded by Laïs, an actor at the opera, had arranged the plan of the fête, Mademoiselle Maillard, an actress, in the full bloom of youth and talent, formerly a favourite of the queen, and high in popular admiration, had been compelled by Chaumette's threats to play the part of the divinity of the people. She entered borne on a palan- quin, the seat of which was formed of oak branches. Women dressed in white, and wearing tri-coloured girdles, preceded her. Popular societies, fraternal female societies, revolutionary committees, sections, groups of chor- isters, singers, and opera dancers encircled the throne. With the theatrical cothurni on her feet, a Phrygian cap on her head, her frame scarcely covered with a white tunic, over which a flowing cloak of sky-blue was thrown, the priestess was borne, at the sound of instruments, to the foot of the altar, and placed on the spot where the adoration of the faithful so lately sought the mystic bread transformed into a divinity. Behind her was a vast torch, emblematical of the light of philosophy, destined henceforward to be the sole flame of the interior of these temples. The actress lighted this flambeau. Chaumette, receiving the encensoir in which the perfume was burning, from the hands of the two acolytes, knelt, and waved it in the air. A mutilated statue of the Virgin was lying at his feet. Chaumette apostrophised the marble, and defied it to resume its place in the respect of the people. Dances and hymns attracted the eyes and ears of the spectators. No profanation was wanting in the old temple whose foundations were confounded with the foundations of religion and the monarchy. Forced by terror to be present at this fête, Bishop Gobel was there, in a tribune, at this parody of the mysteries which three days before he had celebrated at the same altar. Motionless from fear, tears of shame rolled down the bishop's cheeks. A similar worship was imitated in all the churches throughout the departments. The light surface of France bent before every wind from Paris. Only instead of divinities borrowed from the theatres, the representatives in mission compelled modest wives and innocent young maidens to display themselves to the adoration of the public in these spectacles. The devastation of sanctuaries, and the dispersion of relics, followed the inauguration of the allegorical worship of Chaumette.» (HH, XII, p.331-332); « The race theory was that mankind could be divided into two groups, Aryans and non-Aryans. The Aryans were the Geramns, ideally tall, blond and handsome; they were the master race destined to rule the world. All the rest, such as Slavs, coloured peoples and particularly Jews were inferior and were destined to become the slave races of the Germans.» (Lowe, id., p.136).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§790 Hitler’s reign, French occupation and Jewish holocaust (1933-1945): IV-86.

IV-86 (§790):

In the year when Saturn shall be in water conjunct,
With the Sun, the mighty and powerful King:
In Reims and Aix shall be received and anointed,
After conquests he shall murder innocents.

(L'an que Saturne en eaue sera conjoinct,
Avecques Sol, le Roy fort & puissant:
A Reims & Aix sera receu & oingt,
Apres conquestes meurtrira innocens.)

NOTES: Water (eaue): « In theory, this word could refer to any of four zodiacal signs – Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces (the three water triplicities) and Aquarius, the Water-carrier.» (Ovason, 1997, p.212). According to the zodiacal terminology of Nostradamus this term must be identified with Aquarius (Verseau) like the same case of ‘water (eau)’ (VIII-49), together with the examples of ‘urn (urne)’ (IX-73 and X-50), other possible options of it being nominally designated in the Prophecies of Nostradamus as ‘Cancer’ (V-98, VI-4, VI-6, VI-24, VI-35, VIII-48 and X-67), ‘Pisces’ (VIII-91) or ‘Poissons (Fishes)’ (II-5, II-48)’ and ‘Scorpion (I-52)’. The unique option of ‘trine, trigon (the aquatic triplicity = Cancer, Scorpion and Pisces)’ for it must be rejected because the zodiacal place of any planetary conjunction in such a context must be one sign and, besides, Nostradamus employs properly the technical term: ‘the aquatic triplicity’ (l’aquatique triplicité) in the quatrain I-50.

The year when Saturn shall be in water conjunct, With the Sun: There are 36 years of this astronomical determination during the period of 1555-2000 as follows: 1580, 1581, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1639, 1640, 1668, 1669, 1670, 1698, 1699, 1727, 1728, 1729, 1757, 1758, 1786, 1787, 1815, 1816, 1817, 1845, 1846, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1904, 1905, 1933, 1934, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1992 and 1993.

In Reims and Aix shall be received and anointed: « Reims and Aix-la-Chapelle [Aachen] having been in the time of Nostradamus the two cities where were effectuated the coronations of the French kings and of the German emperors, the mighty and powerful King in question shall therefore have succeeded in uniting the two kingdoms.» (Brind’Amour, 1993, p.260).

Now, in the period previously mentioned there have been only five regimes that have united France (Reims) and Germany (Aachen) under one sovereignty, namely:

1° the National Convention by the Peace of Basel with Prussia which admitted the left bank of the Rhine to France (5 April – 26 October, 1795, by the dissolution of the National Convention).
2° the Directoire succeeding the National Convention (27 October 1795 – 9 November 1799 by 18 Brumaire); « Austria having, by the Treaty of Campo-Formio (17 October 1797), approved the French possession of the left bank of the Rhine » (L. & A. Mirot, 1947, p.426 ).
3° Napoleon Bonaparte succeeding the Directoire (10 November 1799 – 30 May 1814 by the First Peace of Paris).
4° William I occupying France (18 January – 10 May 1871 by the Peace of Frankfurt) and
5° Adolf Hitler defeating France (22 June 1940 – 25 August 1944 by the Allied Liberation of Paris).

The mighty and powerful King: Of the five sovereigns above, only Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler are to be retained as pertaining to the years in question: namely, Napoleon to 1815 because he then abdicated and was exiled into St. Helena, and Hitler to 1933 and 1934 because he then became Chancellor (Jan. 1933) and Führer (Aug. 1934). And according to the grammatically possible contextual structure of the verses: “the mighty and powerful King” “in Aachen shall be received and anointed and in Reims shall be received and anointed” Hitler is only to be identified with the King in question because later in 1940 he will occupy the French Republic (Reims), while Napoleon in the year in question will have lost utterly his power. Ordinary interpreters will say that in the year of the Saturn’s conjunction with the Sun in Aquarius there shall take place the King’s coronation in Reims and Aachen at once. But, the coordinate conjunction “and (&)”, only with a general meaning of logical coexistence, does not categorically determine the chronological connotations of simultaneity, linear sequence, etc., so that the reading of the precedence of the coronation in Aachen and the following one in Reims is not grammatically impossible.

In Aachen he shall be received and anointed: « There was some complicated manoeuvring involving Papen and Schleicher who persuaded President Hindenburg, now completely senile, to dismiss Chancellor Brüning and appoint Papen himself as Chancellor. They hoped to bring Hitler in as Vice-Chancellor, but he would settle for nothing less than himself as Chancellor. In January 1933, therefore, they persuaded Hindenburg to invite Hitler to become Chancellor [shall be received] with Papen as Vice-Chancellor, even though the Nazis had by then lost ground in the elections of November 1932. Papen still believed Hitler could be controlled and remarked to a friend: ‘In two months we’ll have pushed Hitler into a corner so hard that he’ll be squeaking.’ In fact, therefore, Hitler was able to come to power legally because all the other parties including the Reichswehr failed to recognise the danger from the Nazis and therefore failed to unite in opposition.» (Lowe, 1988, p.135); « The legal basis of his power was the Enabling Law which was forced through the Reichstag on 23 March 1933. This stated that the government could introduce laws without the approval of the Reichstag for the next four years, ignore the constitution and sign agreements with foreign countries. All laws would be drafted by the Chancellor and come into operation the day they were published.» (Lowe, id, p.137); « When President Hindenburg died [August 1934], the Reichswehr agreed that Hitler should become President as well as Chancellor. (He preferred to use the title Führer – leader.)» (Lowe, id, p.143); « 1934 Aug: 2nd, death of Paul von Hindenburg (aged 87); 19th, German plebiscite approves vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler as Führer.» (Williams, 1968, p.544).

In Reims he shall be received and anointed: = the victory of Hitler over France in June 1940; « The attacks on Holland, Belgium and France were launched simultaneously on 10 May [1940] and again Blitzkrieg methods brought swift victories. The Dutch, shaken by the bombing of Rotterdam which killed almost a thousand people, surrendered after only four days. Belgium held out longer but her surrender at the end of May left the British and French troops in Belgium perilously exposed as German motorised divisions swept across northern France; only Dunkirk remained in Allied hands... The events at Dunkirk were important: a third of a million troops were rescued to fight again and Churchill used it for propaganda purposes to boost British morale with the ‘Dunkirk spirit’. In fact it was a serious blow for the Allies: the armies at Dunkirk had lost all their arms and equipment so that it became impossible for Britain to help France. The Germans now swept southwards; Paris was captured on 14 June and France surrendered on 22 June. At Hitler’s insistence the armistice was signed at Compiègne in the same railway coach which had been used for the 1918 armistice. The Germans occupied northern France and the Atlantic coast, giving them valuable submarine bases, and the French army was demobilised. Unoccupied France was allowed its own government under Marshall Pétain at Vichy, but it had no real independence and collaborated with the Germans.» (Lowe, 1988, p.252).

The term ‘anointed’ in Nostradamus is used beyond the traditional meaning to express figuratively ‘gaining the sovereign power of a country’: for example, the quatrain VI-24 predicts the investiture of Richard Nixon with the Presidency of the United States in terms of « sera nouveau Roy oingt (shall be a new King anointed)».

Conquests: « German expansion Between September 1939 and August 1942 Nazi German forces conquered most of mainland Europe, seizing control of an area from Norway to Crete, and from France to the Black Sea. Britain remained free of German domination, but was subjected to air attacks. Nazi U-boats also preyed on Britain’s shipping lanes.» (DKHistory, p.388).

After conquests he shall murder innocents: « Hitler’s anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) policy was popular with many Germans to begin with. There were only just over half a million Jews in Germany, a tiny proportion of the population, but Hitler decided to use them as scapegoats for everything – the humiliation at Versailles, the depression, unemployment and communism – and claimed that there was a world Jewish plot. Lots of Germans were in such a desperate situation that they were prepared to accept the propaganda about the Jews and were not sorry to see thousands of them removed from their jobs as lawyers, doctors, teachers and journalists. The campaign was given legal status by the Nuremberg Laws (1935), which deprived Jews of their German citizenship, forbade them to marry non-Jews (to preserve the purity of the Aryan race) and ruled that even a person with only one Jewish grandparent must be classed as a Jew. Later the policy became more extreme. Jews were harassed in every possible way; their property was attacked and burnt, shops looted, synagogues destroyed, and they themselves herded into concentration camps. Eventually the terrible nature of what Hitler called his ‘final solution’ of the Jewish problem became clear: he intended to exterminate the entire Jewish race. As the Germans occupied countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland and western Russia, he was able to lay his hands on non-German Jews as well [After conquests he shall murder innocents]. It is believed that by 1945, out of a total of nine million Jews living in Europe at the outbreak of the Second World War, six million had been murdered, most of them in the gas chambers of the Nazi extermination camps.» (Lowe, 1988, p.143).

As to the interpretation by Ionescu (Ionescu, 1993, p.236-238) hoping farsighted the advent in 2023-2024 of the ‘Great Celtic Monarch’, the line 4 appears annoying him: « Apres conquestes meurtrira innocens (After conquests he will bruise the guiltless). Bruising the innocent does not sound like what the world had been led to expect from the great Henry, so it may be that Nostradamus has succeeded in so obscuring himself that he is sullying his own hero.» (Boswell, 1941, p.297). It is really not his hero, but one of Antichrists. Moreover, the annoying effect will far more increase if he follows the most reliable texts with the word: “innocens (innocents, the guiltless, the innocent)” in place of his opted one with “innocent (an innocent)”, which he translates faithfully as follows: “une personnalité en réalité innocente (one personality in reality innocent)”. The line 4 is truly significant because it is predicting the post-fighting murder of multiple innocent people rather than any killing in fighting. This behavior is one of the most evident characteristics of a demonic power.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§789 The Weimar Republic; Hitler in power (1919-1939): III-76.

III-76 (§789):

In Germany shall be born diverse sects,
Approaching much to the happy paganism,
The captive heart and small revenues,
shall return to the payment of the true tithe.

(En Germanie naistront diverses sectes,
S'approchans fort de l'heureux paganisme,
Le cueur captif & petites receptes,
Feront retour à payer le vray disme.)

NOTES: The first hemistich of the quatrain deals with the Weimar Republic with proportional representation in failure in Germany and the second concerns Hitler’s totalitarian policies with success.

Paganism: = « PAGANIISME. n.m. Nom donné par les chrétiens de la fin de l’empire romain aux cultes polythéistes (Paganism. A name given by the Christians of the end of the Roman Empire to the polytheistic cults).» (Petit Robert).

Happy: = Irresponsible; « happy a. (as suf.) irresponsible about (
TRIGGER-happy).» (Sykes).

In Germany shall be born diverse sects, Approaching much to the happy paganism: « The parliamentary system laid down in the new Weimar constitution had weakness, the most serious of which was that it was organised on a system of proportional representation so that all political groups would have a fair representation. Unfortunately there were so many different groups that no party could ever win an overall majority. For example in 1928 the Reichstag (lower house of parliament) contained at least eight groups of which the largest were the Social Democrats (153), conservatives or nationalists (78), and the Catholic Centre Party (62). The communists had 54 seats, while the smallest groups were the Bavarian People’s Party (16) and the National Socialists (12). A succession of coalition governments was inevitable, with the Socialist Democrats having to rely on co-operation from left-wing liberals and Catholic Centre; no party was able to carry out its programme.» (Lowe, 1988, p.127).

« The Weimar Republic was constantly plagued by economic problems, which the government failed to solve permanently: (i) In 1919 Germany was close to bankruptcy because of the enormous expense of the war which had lasted for longer than most people had expected. (ii) Her attempts to pay reparations instalments made matters worse. In August 1921, after paying the £50 million due, she requested permission to suspend payments until her economy recovered. France refused and in 1922Germany could not manage the full annual payment. (iii) In January 1923 French troops occupied the Ruhr (an important German industrial area) in an attempt to seize goods from factories and mines. The German government ordered the workers to follow a policy of passive resistance, and German industry in the Ruhr was paralysed. The French had failed in their aim, but the effect on the German economy was catastrophic and the mark collapsed. The normal rate of exchange was 4 marks to the dollar, but even before the Ruhr occupation reparations difficulties had caused the mark to fall in value so that by 1922 a dollar would buy 191.8 marks. By July 1923, with the Ruhr at a standstill, a dollar would buy 160,000 marks, and at the end of November 1923 the mark was completely worthless at 4,200,000 million to the dollar. It was only when the new Chancellor, Gustav Stresemann, introduced a new currency known as the Rentenmark, in 1924, that the financial situation finally stabilised. The economic situation improved dramatically in the years after 1924, largely thanks to the Dawes Plan of that year which provided an immediate loan from the USA equivalent to £40 million, relaxed the fixed reparations payments and in effect allowed Germany to pay what she could afford; French troops withdrew from the Ruhr. The currency was stabilised, there was a boom in such industries as iron, steel, coal, chemicals and electricals, and wealthy landowners and industrialists were quite happy with the republic. But behind this success there was a fatal weakness. (iv) The prosperity was much more dependent than most people realised on American loans. (v) Following the Wall Street Crash (October 19299 the world economic crisis was developed. The USA stopped ant further loans and began to call in money of the short-term loans already made to Germany. This shook the currency and caused a run on the banks, many of which had to close. The industrial boom had led to world-wide over-production, and German exports, along with those of other countries, were severely reduced. Factories had to close, and by the middle of 1931 unemployment was approaching four million. Sadly for Germany, Gustav Stresemann, the politician best equipped to deal with the situation, died of a heart attack in October 1929 at the early age of 51. (vi) The government of Chancellor Brüning (Catholic Centre Party) reduced social services, unemployment benefit, and salaries and pensions of government officials, and stopped reparations payments. High tariffs were introduced to keep out foreign foodstuffs and thus help German farmers, while the government bought shares in factories hit by the slump. However, these measures did not produce quick results: unemployment continued to grow and by the spring of 1932 it stood at over six million. The government came under criticism from almost all groups in society, especially industrialists and the working class who demanded more decisive action. The loss of working-class support because of increasing unemployment and the reduction of unemployment benefit was a serious blow to the republic. By the end of 1932 the Weimar Republic had thus been brought to the verge of collapse. Even so it might have survived if there had been no other options.» (Lowe, id., p.129-133).

The captive heart and small revenues, shall return to the payment of the true tithe: The Germans by their support to the attractive Nazi policies recovered economic strength so as to be able to pay their ordinary tithe, which they could not afford under the Republic government because of small income or mass unemployment: « Hitler and the Nazi party offered what seemed to be an attractive alternative just when the republic was at its most incapable. The fortunes of the Nazi party were linked closely to the economic situation: the more unstable the economy, the more seats the Nazis won in the Reichstag: March 1924 – 32 seats (economy still unstable after 1923 inflation); December 1924 – 14 seats (economy recovering after Dawes Plan); 1928 – 12 seats (comparative prosperity); 1930 – 107 seats (unemployment mounting – Nazis second largest party); July 1932 – 230 seats (massive unemployment – Nazis largest single party). There is no doubt that the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, fostered by the economic crisis, was one of the most important factors in the downfall of the republic.» (Lowe, id, p.133).

« What was it about the Nazis that made them so popular? (i) They offered national unity, prosperity and full employment by ridding Germany of what they claimed were the real causes of the troubles – Marxists, the ‘November criminals’ (those who had agreed to the armistice in November 1918 and later the Versailles Treaty), Jesuites, Freemasons and, above all, Jews. Great play was made in Nazi propaganda with the ‘stab in the back’ myth (In 1919, the view was widespread that the army had not been defeated: it had been betrayed – ‘stabbed in the back’ – by the democrats who had needlessly agreed to the Versailles Treaty. What most Germans did not realise was that it was Ludendorff who had asked for an armistice while the Kaiser was still in power. However, the ‘stab in the back’ legend was eagerly fostered by all enemies of the republic [id., p.127].). (ii) They promised to overthrow the Versailles settlement, so unpopular with most Germans, and to build Germany into a great power again. This would include bringing all Germans (in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland) back into the Reich. (iii) The Nazi private army, the SA (Sturmabteilung – Storm Troopers), was attractive to young people out of work [The captive heart]; it gave them a small wage [small revenues] and a uniform. (iv) Wealthy landowners and industrialists encouraged the Nazis because they feared a communist revolution and they approved of the Nazi policy of hostility to communists. (v) Hitler himself had extraordinary political abilities. He possessed tremendous energy and will power and a remarkable gift for public speaking which enabled him to put forward his ideas with great emotional force. (vi) The striking contrast between the governments of the Weimar Republic and the Nazi party impressed people: the former were cautious, respectable, dull and unable to maintain order, the latter promised strong, decisive government and the restoration of national pride – an irresistible combination. (vii) Without the economic crisis though, it is doubtful whether Hitler would have had much chance of attaining power; it was the widespread unemployment and social misery which gained the Nazis mass support, not only among the working classes but also among the lower-middle classes – office workers, shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers and small-scale farmers.» (Lowe, id, p.133-134).

« A small clique of right-wing politicians with support from the Reichswehr decided to bring Hitler into a coalition government with the conservatives and nationalists. The main conspirators were Franz von Papen and Kurt von Schleicher. Their reasons for this momentous decision were: (i) They were afraid of the Nazis attempting to seize power by a Putsch. (ii) They believed they could control Hitler better inside the government than if he remained outside it. (iii) The Nazi votes in the Reichstag would give them a majority, which might make possible a restoration of the monarchy, and a return to the system which had existed under Bismarck (Chancellor 1870-90), in which the Reichstag had much less power. Though this would destroy the Weimar Republic, they were prepared to go ahead because it would give them a better chance of controlling the communists.» (Lowe, id, p.134-135).

« There was some complicated manoeuvring involving Papen and Schleicher who persuaded President Hindenburg, now completely senile, to dismiss Chancellor Brüning and appoint Papen himself as Chancellor. They hoped to bring Hitler in as Vice-Chancellor, but he would settle for nothing less than himself as Chancellor. In January 1933, therefore, they persuaded Hindenburg to invite Hitler to become Chancellor with Papen as Vice-Chancellor, even though the Nazis had by then lost ground in the elections of November 1932. Papen still believed Hitler could be controlled and remarked to a friend: ‘In two months we’ll have pushed Hitler into a corner so hard that he’ll be squeaking.’ In fact, therefore, Hitler was able to come to power legally because all the other parties including the Reichswehr failed to recognise the danger from the Nazis and therefore failed to unite in opposition.» (Lowe, id, p.135).

« The legal basis of his power was the Enabling Law which was forced through the Reichstag on 23 March 1933. This stated that the government could introduce laws without the approval of the Reichstag for the next four years, ignore the constitution and sign agreements with foreign countries. All laws would be drafted by the Chancellor and come into operation the day they were published... How was it achieved? The method was typical of the Nazis. The Kroll Opera House (where the Reichstag had been meeting since the fire [on the night of 27 February 1933]) was surrounded by the black-shirted SS troops, and MPs had to push their way through solid ranks to get into the building. The 81 communist MPs were simply not allowed to pass (many were in jail already). Inside the building rows of brown-shirted SA troops lined the walls. It took courage to vote against the bill in such surroundings with the SS outside chanting ‘We want the bill, or fire and murder’. When the Catholic Centre Parry decided to vote in favour, the result was a foregone conclusion: it passed by 441 votes to 94 (all Social Democrats).» (Lowe, id, p.137).

« Hitler’s policies were popular with many sections of the German people. Hitler was successful in eliminating unemployment. This was probably the most important reason for his popularity with the masses. When he came to power the unemployment figure still stood at over six million but as early as July 1935 it had dropped to under two million and by 1939 it had disappeared completely. How was this achieved? The public works schemes provided thousands of extra jobs. A large party bureaucracy was set up now that the Nazi party was expanding so rapidly, providing thousands of extra office and administrative posts. There were purges of Jews and anti-Nazis from the civil service and many other jobs connected with law, teaching, journalism, broadcasting, the theatre and music, leaving large numbers of vacancies. Conscription was reintroduced in 1935. Rearmament was begun in 1934 and gradually speeded up. Thus Hitler had provided what the unemployed had been demanding in their 1932 marches: work and bread (Arbeit und Brot).» (Lowe, id, p.140-141).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§788 The two dictators: their ambition and destruction (1922-1945): IV-59.

IV-59 (§788):

The two personalities with ardent fervour,
Of ambitions shall be besieged and destroyed in exchange for two full cups:
The filed strong one, and an old dreamer,
Shall show their trace of Higher Descent to the Genevans.

(Deux assiegés en ardante ferveur,
De soif estainctz pour deux plaines tasses:
Le fort limé, & un viellart resveur,
Aux Genevois de Nira monstra trasse.

NOTES: Deux assiegés (The two besieged): = The two persons who are destined to be besieged later. This figure of Nostradamus is truly prophesying = « Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany » (Lamont, 1944, p.149) = « Hitler and Mussolini » (Ionescu, 1976, p.490).

Deux assiegés en ardante ferveur, De soif estainctz pour deux plaines tasses: The construction is as follows: Deux [personnes] en ardante ferveur de soif [seront] assiegés [et] estainctz pour deux plaines tasses (The two personalities with ardent fervour, Of ambitions shall be besieged and destroyed in exchange for two full cups), “estainctz (extinguished in the plural)” predicating “deux (the two)”, not “soif (thirst)”.

Two full cups: Their territorial expansion by military aggression following their first « conquest by acquiring Ethiopia and Czechoslovakia » (Lamont, id.); « Mussolini sought to revive Italian national pride and to increase his own personal power by extending Italy’s territory on the Adriatic and enlarging its African empire. His invasion of Ethiopia provoked outrage from countries worldwide.» (Edmonds, 2000, p.47; Chart Expansion of Italy 1922-39); « One of Hitler’s priorities was to regain territory lost to Germany after the First World War and to unite all German-speaking people. In 1938 Germany annexed Austria and, following the signing of the Munich Agreement with the UK and France, the Sudetenland. German troops took control of the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 and their attack on Poland in September 1939 caused the outbreak of the Second World War.» (Edmonds, id., p.46; Chart Expansion of Nazi Germany 1933-39).

Shall be besieged and destroyed: « Mussolini, Benito (1883-1945); ... He declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940, when France was already defeated. On the following October 28th his troops invaded Greece but were repulsed and, soon after, suffered reverses in Libya and East Africa. These defeats weakened Mussolini’s prestige, especially as the Fascists had always sought to inculcate admiration for the glories of war. By the summer of 1941 Mussolini had become virtually a German pensionary but it was not until July 25th, 1943, that a coup by King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal Badoglio forced him to resign. He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Apennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy.» (Palmer, p.194-195); « The collapse of Hitler’s hold on Italy: On the German side, Field-Marshal Kesselring had returned from convalescence in January, but in March he was called to the Western Front on being appointed to succeed Field-Marshal von Rundstedt as Commander-in-Chief there. Vietinghoff now definitely replaced him as C.-in-C. of Army Group C in Italy. Most of Vietinghoff’s forces had been committed to the front line, and he had few reserves – and less fuel – to check an Allied penetration. It was no longer possible to stabilise the front or to extricate his forces, and the only hope of saving them was by retreat – a long retreat. But Hitler had already rejected General Herr’s proposals for an elastic defence, by tactical withdrawals from one river to the next – which might have stultified the British Eighth Army’s offensive. On April 14, just before the American offensive was launched, Vietinghoff appealed for permission to retire to the Po before it was too late. His appeal was rejected, but on the 20th he took the responsibility of ordering such a retreat himself. By then it was far too late. The Allies’ three armoured divisions, in two sweeping moves, had cut off and surrounded most of the opposing forces. Although many Germans managed to escape by swimming that broad river, they were in no condition to establish a new line. On the 27th the British crossed the Adige and penetrated the Venetian Line covering Venice and Padua. The Americans, moving still faster, took Verona a day earlier. The day before that, April 25, a general uprising of the partisans took place, and Germans everywhere came under attack from them. All the Alpine passes were blocked by April 28 [Shall be besieged] – the day on which Mussolini and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were caught and shot by a band of partisans near Lake Como [and destroyed]. German troops were now surrendering everywhere, and the Allied pursuit met little opposition anywhere after April 25. By the 29th the New Zealanders reached Venice and by May 2 were at Trieste – where the main concern was not the Germans but the Yugo-Slavs.» (Hart, 1971, p.670-674).

« Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945); ... His demands on Poland led to the Second World War (September 1939), which he considered he had won in the West when German troops entered Paris (June 22nnd, 1940). In 1941 he moved his troops eastward, but in attacking Russia he encountered heavy opposition and personally assumed command in the field on December 19th, 1941. A series of failures after Stalingrad, culminating in the Allied landings in Normandy, undermined the Army’s confidence in Hitler and led to the attempted assassination of July 20th, 1944. At the end of the war Hitler was cornered in the ruins of Berlin.» (Palmer, p.127-128); « The collapse of Germany: Hitler had stripped his Western Front , and diverted the major part of his remaining forces and resources to hold the line of the Oder against the Russians, in the belief that the Western Allies were incapable of resuming the offensive after the supposedly crippling blow of his Ardennes counter-offensive coupled with V-weapon flying bomb and rocket bombardment of the Antwerp base. So most of the available equipment coming out from the German factories or repair shops was sent eastward. Yet at that very time the Western Allies were building up overwhelming strength for an assault on the Rhine. In this massive effort the main striking role was assigned to Montgomery, the U.S. Ninth Army being employed under him in addition to his own two, the First Canadian and Second British Armies. This decision was strongly resented by most of the American generals who felt that Eisenhower was yielding to the demands of Montgomery and the British at the expense of their own prospects. Indignation spurred them to more vigorous efforts on their sectors to show what they could do, and in the event these efforts achieved striking results, as the strength put into them, though smaller than what Montgomery was amassing, much exceeded what the Germans had left to oppose them. On March 7 the tanks of Patton’s Third Army broke through the weak German defences in the Eifel (the German end of the rugged Ardennes), and reached the Rhine near Coblenz after a sixty-mile drive in three days. For the moment they were blocked, as the Rhine bridges had been blown up before they arrived. But a little farther north, a small armoured spearhead of the neighbouring U.S. First Army had found a gap and raced through it so quickly that the bridge at Remagen, near Bonn, was reached and brilliantly captured before it could be blown. Reserves were rushed up and secured a vital bridgehead. By March 21, Patton had swept the west bank clear of the enemy along a seventy-mile stretch between Coblenz and Mannheim, cutting off the German forces in that sector before they could withdraw to the Rhine. Next night, Patton’s troops crossed the river almost unopposed at Oppenheim, between Mainz and Mannheim. When the news of this surprise stroke reached Hitler, he called for immediate countermeasures, but was told that no resources remained available, and that the most that could be despatched to help fill the gap was a mere handful of five machines just repaired at a tank depot a hundred miles away. ‘The cupboard was bare’, and the American advance beyond the Rhine became a procession. By this time Montgomery had completed his elaborate preparations for the grand assault on the Rhine near Wesel 150 miles downstream. Here he had concentrated twenty-five divisions, after a quarter of a million tons of ammunition and other supplies had been amassed in dumps on the west bank. The thirty-mile stretch of river where he planned to attack was held by only five weak and exhausted German divisions... At midnight on April 12, the news reached Hitler that President Roosevelt had died suddenly. Goebbels telephoned him, and said: ‘My Führer, I congratulate you. Fate has laid low your greatest enemy. God has not abandoned us.’ This was the ‘miracle’, it seemed, for which Hitler had been waiting – a repetition of the death of the Empress of Russia, at the critical moment of the Seven Year War in the eighteenth century. So Hitler became convinced that what Mr Churchill called the ‘Grand Alliance’ between the Eastern and Western powers would now break up through the clash of their rival interests. But the hope was not fulfilled and Hitler was driven a fortnight later to take his own life, as Frederick the Great had been about to do, just when his ‘miracle’ had come to save his fortunes and his life. Early in March Zhukov had enlarged his bridgehead over the Oder, but did not succeed in breaking out. Russian progress on the far flanks continued, and Vienna was entered in the middle of April. Meanwhile the German front in the west had collapsed, and the Allied armies there were driving eastward from the Rhine with little opposition. They reached the Elbe, sixty miles from Berlin, on April 11. Here they halted. On the 16th Zhukov resumed the offensive, in conjunction with Koniev, who forced the crossing of the Neisse. This time the Russians burst out of their bridgeheads, and within a week were driving into the suburbs of Berlin – where Hitler chose to remain for the final battle. By the 25th the city had been completely isolated by the encircling armies of Zhukov and Koniev [Shall be besieged], and on the 27th Koniev’s forces joined hands with the Americans on the Elbe. But in Berlin itself desperate street-by-street resistance was put up by the Germans, and was not completely overcome until the war itself ended, after Hitler’s suicide, with Germany’s unconditional surrender [and destroyed].» (Hart, 1971, p.677-680).

The filed strong one: « In this text, Hitler is named “le fort limé (the filed strong one)”, the strong one sharpened with a file like the edge of a sword. It is a plastic image of his warlike character.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.490).

Viellard: = Vieillard; « Viellard, See Vieillard.» (Huguet).

An old dreamer: « The expression “un viellard resveur (an old dreamer)” should not be taken literally. It must be understood as “a dreamer of the ancient times”. Therefore it is an allusion to Mussolini’s Utopian dreams of restoring the glory of the ancient Rome.»
(Ionescu, id.).

Trasse
: = « Trasseure. Trace (Trace, track, footprint, footstep, trail, remains.). – Trace ou Trassure.» (Huguet).

De Nira trasse: = « Aryan tracts.» (Lamont, id.); « About the term “Nira”, it is an anagram of “Iran”. Iran is considered by many historians as the original region of the Aryan peoples. And “Nira” is also an anagram for “Arian”. “To show the trace of Aryans” is to show oneself as descendants of the ancient Aryans.» (Ionescu, id., p.491).

Monstra: = « for monstrera by syncope.» (Ionescu, id., p.490).

The Genevans: = The « League of Nations.» (Lamont, id.).

Shall show their trace of Higher Descent to the Genevans: « A Chief well armed and another one dreaming of the glory of the past shall oppose the League of Nations by the doctrine of the superiority of the Arian race.» (Ionescu, id., p.491).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§787 The failure of the League of Nations; the Allies against the Germans in Italy (1920-1946): VI-20.

VI-20 (§787):

The feigned union shall be of brief duration;
Some changed, reformed the greater part:
Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy,
When a new leopard shall have Rome.

(L'union feincte sera peu de duree,
Des uns changés reformés la pluspart:
Dans les vaisseaux sera gent enduree,
Lors aura Rome un nouveau liepart.

NOTES: The feigned union: An ineffective international organization of the League of Nations (1920-1946).

Sera peu de duree: = Sera [de] peu de durée, the preposition [de] being left out by a prophetic embroilment as Augures, creuz eslevés [à] aruspices (§762, III-26). Cf. A l'Entrée des Prophéties, §5, Catégorie d: Ellipse de prépositions pour embrouiller prophétiquement.

The feigned union shall be of brief duration: = A gray bird... shall die soon (§786, I-100): « League of Nations. An international organization created in 1920 to preserve peace and settle disputes by arbitration or conciliation... In the pre-war crisis of 1938-39 the Great Powers tended to ignore the existence of the League... It was formally dissolved in April 1946.» (Palmer, p.157-158)

Some changed: = « When Congress refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, the U.S.A. dissociated itself from the League and never became a member. Germany belonged to the League only from 1926 to 1933, Russia from 1934 to 1939. Brazil withdrew from the League in 1926, Japan in 1933, Italy in 1937.» (Palmer, p.158)

Reformed the greater part
: Most of the member-states of the League in the World War II rallied to the Allies pivoting on Great Britain, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., that developed into the new post-war organization of the United Nations including the U.S.A. as one of its most influential powers. In fact, of 63 member-states in all of the League between its beginning in 1920 and its end in 1946, 47 states rallied to the Allies in declaring war upon Germany (cf. Ploetz, 1998, p.757).

Those in the vessels: = The Anglo-American invading armies of Sicily in 1943; « Invasion of Sicily 9 July -17 August 1943. The Anglo-American invasion and capture of Sicily was a vital stepping-stone for the campaign in Italy, although the Allies were at fault in failing to prevent the Axis from successfully evacuating their best divisions from the island to continue the defensive battle on the mainland. While the British wanted to pursue an offensive against Italy after the Allied capture of Tunisia, their U.S. partners were less enthusiastic, but the British prevailed. The invasion of Sicily, the first part of the plan, was a massive undertaking – in Europe, second only to D-Day – involving 2,600 Allied ships and sustained air support. The invading force was made up of two armies – the U.S. Seventh Army and the British Eighth Army – and once ashore the Allies pressed forward in an attempt to destroy and capture the Axis units on the island. The few German troops on Sicily were quickly reinforced to a total of four elite divisions, along with a substantial Italian force. Commanded by Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, the Germans skillfully used the island’s mountainous terrain to carry out an effective delaying operation. The Allies, especially the British, advanced cautiously against the Germans. Although Hitler insisted that Sicily must be held at all costs, Kesselring soon realized that he must abandon the island if his German formations and their valuable weapons and equipment were not to be lost to the Allies. On the night of 11-12 August the Germans began a well-executed withdrawal that saw 40,000 German and 60,000 Italian troops cross over to the mainland with minimal hindrance from the Allies.» (Grant, 2011, p.856); « Finally the Big Three [Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt] called from Yalta for the remaining neutrals to declare war on Germany before 1 March 1945 and thus gain a ticket of admittance to the founding conference of the United Nations at San Francisco.» (Campbell, 1985, p.147). In response to this call, 12 countries declared war anew upon Germany by 27 March 1945 (Ploetz, id.).

Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy
: « Salerno 9-16 September 1943. The signing of the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 might have seemed to support Churchill’s claim that Italy was the “soft underbelly of Europe,” but the fierce and intelligent resistance displayed by the Germans at Salerno was a portent of things to come. While Field Marshal Montgomery’s British Eighth Army had an easy, unopposed landing at Reggio di Calabria, the Allied amphibious assault against mainland Italy in the Gulf of Salerno did not go as planned. Under the command of Lieutenant General Mark Clark’s U.S. Fifth Army, the landing force was drawn from the British X Corps, which would hit the beaches at Salerno, and the U.S. VI Corps, acting as a flank guard and landing farther to the south. The X Corps troops faced little resistance as they reached the beaches on 9 September 1943, but once ashore they came under sustained attack from the German XIV Panzer Corps. The U.S. VI Corps faced similar problems, unable to push forward from its beachhead. When, on 12 September, the Germans mounted a concerted counterattack, it seemed possible that the Allies might lose their tenuous hold on the Italian mainland. But the arrival of reinforcements – including a parachute drop by two battalions of the U.S. 82d Airborne Division – and the mass redeployment of Allied airpower to the Salerno front turned the tide. On 16 September the Germans disengaged from the battle and began to withdraw to a specially prepared defensive line farther north; meanwhile, U.S. troops on the right of the beachhead made contact with units from the Eighth Army advancing from the south. As the Germans fell back, the Allies occupied the key port of Naples.» ( Grant, id., p.858);

« Monte Cassino 17 January-18 May 1944. The struggle for Monte Cassino in World War II sucked Allied troops on the Italian front into a brutal battle that lasted four bloody months. While Allied material strength was to decide the day ultimately, the Germans again demonstrated their determination and skill in defensive operations. Allied progress up the “boot” of Italy had ground to a halt during the winter of 1943 to 1944, thwarted by the German Gustav Line [Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy]. The towering hill of Monte Cassino – topped by a historic monastery – was the linchpin in the line, which the Allies were determined to capture... The fourth battle, spearheaded by the Polish Corps, finally took the hill. The Germans had already decided to retire to a new defensive line farther north, and when the lead Polish troops gained the summit of the hill on 18 May, they found it unoccupied.» ( Grant, id., p.861);

« Anzio 22 January-25 May 1944. Intended as a daring outflanking move that would open up the way to the capture of Rome, the Anzio landings degenerated into World War II deadlock: the Allies unable to drive forward from their bridgehead and the Germans without the means to push the invaders back into the sea. Having failed to break through the German Gustav Line the Allies proposed to land an amphibious force on the (western) Italian coast behind German lines. A combined U.S.-British operation, under the command of Major General John Lucas’s U.S.VI Corps, it lacked the resources to be effective. The landing on 22 January did, however, achieve complete surprise and were virtually uncontested. Responding with their customary alacrity, the Germans soon had the Allied troops corralled within a tight perimeter. The geography favored the Germans, too; they held a ring of high ground above the Allied position and poured down a massive volume of artillery fire on the soldiers holding the marshy ground below. Both sides reinforced their positions, which further encouraged a tactical stalemate [Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy], conditions reminiscent of World War I. Lucas was made a scapegoat and replaced by Major General Lucien Truscott, but he too could not little to break the deadlock. It was only the slow, relentless pressure applied on land and in the air throughout Italy that forced the Germans to give way. On 25 May, with the Germans in retreat, the men from the Anzio bridgehead met up with Allied troops fighting their way up from the south. On 5 June, the Allies marched into Rome unopposed.» (Grant, id.); « ... Rome fell on 4 June, but by autumn 1944 the Germans were again making a stand, this time on the Gothic Line just north of Florence.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.135).

A new leopard: The two examples of « liepard (leopard, panther) » in the quatrain I-23 (§832) refer to Mussolini (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.530), and here « un nouveau liepart (a new leopard, a new panther) », who shall occupy Rome anew in place of the Italian chief, refers to Hitler designated in the cited quatrain as “sanglier (a wild boar)”. Besides, the alternative character “T” of the irregular orthography “liepart” (‘lie-’ itself instead of LEO being naturally derived from “lion”) seems to suggest the ‘T’ of ‘Hitler’. The identification by Ionescu of ‘a new leopard’ with ‘a leopard’ of the quatrain I-23, thence with Mussolini (Ionescu, id.), is utterly erroneous. Because of this he could not give any interpretation about the quatrain I-23 in its entirety.

When a new leopard shall have Rome
: « Hitler, by contrast, had wasted no time in taking steps to counter the likelihood that the new Italian Government would seek peace and abandon the alliance with Germany. On the day of the coup d’état in Rome, July 25 [1943], Rommel had arrived in Greece to take command there, but just before midnight he received a telephone call telling him that Mussolini had been deposed, and that he was to fly back at once to Hitler’s headquarters in the East Prussian forests. Arriving there at noon next day he ‘received orders to assemble troops in the Alps and prepare a possible entry into Italy’... So by the beginning of September eight German division under Rommel were established inside Italy’s Alpine frontier-wall as a potential support or reinforcement to Kesselring’s forces in the south. Moreover the 2nd Parachute Division, a particularly tough force, was flown from France to Ostia, close to Rome. General Student, the Commander-in-Chief of the German airborne forces, went with it. When interrogated after the war, he said: “The Italian High Command was given no previous warning of its arrival, and was told that the division was intended for the reinforcement of Sicily or Calabria. But my instructions, from Hitler, were that I was to keep it near Rome, and also take under my command the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division, which had moved down there. With these two divisions I was to be ready to disarm the Italian forces around Rome.” The presence of these divisions nullified the Allies’ plan to drop one of their own airborne divisions, the 82nd American (General Matthew Ridgway), on Rome itself to support the Italians in holding the capital... Marshal Badoglio had kept five Italian divisions concentrated in the Rome area despite the Germans’ efforts to persuade him to send some of these divisions to help in defending the coast in the south... On September 3, the invasion was opened by Montgomery’s Eighth Army crossing the narrow Straits of Messina, from Sicily, and landing on the toe of Italy. That same day the Italian representatives secretly signed the armistice treaty with the Allies. But it was arranged that the fact should be kept quiet until the Allies made their second and principal landing – which was planned to take place on the shin of Italy, at Salerno, south of Naples.» (Hart, 1971, p.451-452).

« At midnight on September 8 the Anglo-American Fifth Army under General Mark Clark began to disembark in the Gulf of Salerno – a few hours after the B.B.C. had broadcast the official announcement of Italy’s capitulation. The Italian leaders had not been expecting the landing to come so soon, and they were warned about the delivery of the broadcast only late in the afternoon. Badoglio complained, with some justification, that he was caught unready to co-operate, before his preparations were complete. But the Italians’ state of unreadiness and trepidation had already become so evident to General Maxwell Taylor, who had been sent to Rome secretly by Eisenhower, that Ridgway’s intended airborne descent on Rome had been cancelled after Eisenhower had received that morning a warning message from Taylor that the prospects were poor. The broadcast announcement of the Italian capitulation also took the Germans by surprise, but their action in Rome was prompt and decisive, despite the simultaneous emergency in the south produced by the landing at Salerno. The outcome might well have been different if Italian action had matched Italian acting, which had gone a long way to conceal intentions and lull Kesselring’s suspicions during the preceding days. A piquant account of this is given in a narrative written by his Chief of Staff, General Westphal: “On September 7 the Italian Minister of Marine, Admiral Count de Courten, called on Field-Marshal Kesselring to inform him that the Italian Fleet would put out on the 8th or 9th from Spezia to seek battle with the British Mediterranean Fleet. The Italian Fleet would conquer or perish, he said, with tears in his eyes. He then described in detail its intended plan of battle.” These solemn assurances made a convincing impression. The next afternoon Westphal and another general, Toussaint, drove to the headquarters of the Italian Army in Monterotondo (sixteen miles north-east of Rome). “Our reception by General Roatta was very cordial. He discussed with me in detail the further joint conduct of operations by the Italian 7th and German 10th Armies in Southern Italy. While we were talking a telephone message came through from Colonel von Waldenburg with the news of the broadcast announcement of the Italian capitulation to the Allies... General Roatta assured us that it was merely a bad propaganda manœuvre. The joint struggle, he said, would be continued just as had been arranged between us.” Westphal was not altogether convinced by these assurances and when he got back to the German headquarters at Frascati late in the evening he found that Kesselring had already signalled to all subordinate commands the code-word ‘Axis’ – the pre-arranged signal which meant that Italy had quitted the Axis and that the appropriate action must be taken to disarm the Italians immediately. The subordinate commands applied a mixture of persuasion and force according to the situation and their own disposition. In the Rome area, where the potential odds against him were heavy, Student used shock tactics. “I made an attempt to seize the Italian General Headquarters by dropping on it from the air. This was only a partial success. While thirty generals and a hundred and fifty other officers were captured in one part of the headquarters, another part held out. The Chief of the General Staff had got away, following Badoglio and the King, the night before.” Instead of trying to overcome Student’s couple of divisions, the Italian commanders hastened to withdraw out of reach, falling back eastward to Tivoli with their forces, and leaving their capital in the hands of the Germans.» (Hart, id., p.452-454).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§786 The failure of the League of Nations (1920-1946): I-100.

I-100 (§786):

For a long time in the sky shall be seen a gray bird,
The place being near Dole and Tuscany,
Holding in its beak a verdant bough,
Shall die soon, and the great shall end the war.

(Long temps au ciel sera veu gris oiseau
Au pres de Dole & de Tousquane terre,
Tenant au bec un verdoiant rameau,
Mourra tost grand, & finira la guerre.)

NOTES: Dole: « The county seat of the arrondissement of Jura, [France,] near Switzerland and the name of the mountain quite close to Lake Leman, by which the city of Geneva is situated.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.474).

Tuscany: « Synecdoche: Tuscany (a part), for Italy (the whole).» (id.).

Great: « Ellipsis: great for the great power, namely America.» (id.).

Mourra tost grand, & finira la guerre: « The construction: “Mourra tost et (le) grand (pouvoir) finira la guerre (Shall die soon and [the] great [power] shall end the war).”» (id.).

« For a long time they shall see in the sky the pigeon of peace (a gray bird), above the palace of the League of Nations, between Dole and Italy – holding in its beak a bough of olive (a verdant bough). But this bird shall die [soon] and the war shall break out. America – the great power – shall be one that shall intervene and end the war.» (id.).

A gray bird... shall die soon: « League of Nations. An international organization created in 1920 to preserve peace and settle disputes by arbitration or conciliation... The League succeeded in settling a number of international disputes, notably in the Balkans and South America. It was able to assist the refugees from Russia and Turkey in the 1920s, although the general refugee problem of the 1930s was beyond its resources. It also helped the Danubian states to obtain reconstruction loans, and, through the International Labour Organization, secured more equitable working conditions among its member-states. The League was ultimately responsible for the system of mandates, for the judicial administration of Upper Silesia, and for the maintenance of the Free City of Danzig. It failed to prevent Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China, Italian aggression against Abyssinia or the Russian attack on Finland in 1939, despite the fact that all six of these countries were member-states. In the pre-war crisis of 1938-39 the Great Powers tended to ignore the existence of the League. During the war the League sought to continue its non-political activities so far as was possible. It was formally dissolved in April 1946, handing over its remaining responsibilities to the United Nations Organization.» (Palmer, p.157-158).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§785 General Franco escaped from the Canary Islands to Tetuan to prevail in Spain (1936-1975): III-54.

III-54 (§785):

The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain,
That shall later come to bleed with a long wound.
Passing troops beyond the high mountains
Devastating all and next shall reign in peace.

(L'un des plus grands fuira aux Hespaignes,
Qu'en longue plaie apres viendra saigner.
Passant copies par les hautes montaignes,
Devastant tout & puis en paix regner.)

NOTES: The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain: « Franco Faces the Revolution ON THAT SUNDAY AFTERNOON OF FEBRUARY 16, 1936, THE mobs, faithful to the watchword of the revolution, poured out into the streets. Completely ignoring the true results of the elections, they proclaimed themselves the victors. They had been thus instructed. Three hours after the end of the balloting, they were to give themselves up to jubilant and frenzied demonstrations, demanding complete power, the liberation of the prisoners of October, 1934, and the heads of certain politicians. The night augured serious street fighting... The Popular Front thus assumed power. The decree sending General Coded and General Franco away from Madrid was not delayed. One was sent as the Commander-General of the Balearics, and the other to the Canary Islands. Azaña repeated anew that by sending them away to distant posts he was removing them from temptation. Before departing to his destiny, General Franco called on Alcalá Zamora and Azaña. His interview with the former was of long duration. Franco pointed out the dangers threatening Spain, and the lack of equipment with which to oppose the victorious revolution. Alcalá Zamora smiled between blindness and simplicity. "The revolution,” he said, "was crushed in Asturias.” "Remember, Mr. President,” answered Franco, "what it cost to suppress it in Asturias. If the assault is repeated throughout the entire nation, it will be very difficult to suppress it, because the army does not have the necessary equipment, and because generals determined that it shall not be suppressed have been reinstated in command. Gold braid means nothing when he who displays it has no authority, prestige, or competence, the indispensable foundations of discipline,” Alcalá Zamora minimized all this, refusing to comprehend that language of loyalty and honour. He gesticulated incredulously. He shook his head from side to side. The general arose. The President of the Republic gave him leave. “Don’t worry General. Don’t worry. In Spain there will be no Communism.” “One thing that I am sure of,” answered Franco, “and which I can answer truthfully, is that whatever the contingencies that may arise here, wherever I am there will be no Communism.” His interview with Azaña was shorter and more brusque. In those days the Premier spent his time pacifying the people with the promise of a moderate and semi-bourgeois revolution. Franco’s predictions were received with a self-satisfied and sardonic smile. “ You are making a mistake in sending me away,” the general pointed out regretfully, “because I could be of more service to the army and to the peace of the country by remaining in Madrid.” Azaña answered, “I have no fear of insurrections. I knew all about Sanjurjo’s, and I could have prevented it, but I preferred to see it end in disaster.” He himself was the revolution, and he cared little for the advice of generals. Franco, neither with the idea of conspiracy nor because of hostility towards the régime, but having in mind Spain alone, and the dangers confronting her, decided to hold several interviews which he considered necessary. He held one with General Mola and General Varela, to whom he entrusted the task of maintaining permanent connections with the generals of those divisions which deserved full confidence and with those military elements of the highest responsibility whom, by reason of their positions of command, it would be expedient to keep enlightened on the march of events, so as to be prepared for any emergency which might arise. He named a person in whom he had full confidence to maintain through him the contacts which he considered indispensable, from his post in the Canary-Islands. From the Canary Islands General Franco witnessed the drama unfolding itself in Spain. Every day the chaos was more profound, and the havoc greater. When the elections were repeated in Cuenca, the conservative parties again offered him a place on their lists, but Franco declined it publicly. Political passions were fanned to a white heat, and he believed that nothing noble or effective could be expected from the existing parliament. Nor did he believe in the genuineness of the voting. “When the funds of the workers’ organizations,” he said, “are devoted to political bribery, the purchase of arms and munitions, and the hiring of gunmen and assassins, democracy, as represented by universal suffrage, has ceased to exist.” Early in July he received news regarding the march of conspiracy, and the information that he, as the general most qualified, had been chosen for the command of the troops in Africa. He was also consulted upon the policy to be followed in several other places, especially in the Spanish capital.» (Joaquín Arrarás, 1938, p.164-174).

« From Tenerife to Tetuán SHORTLY AFTER HIS ARRIVAL AT SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE, Franco realized that he was a prisoner of the Popular Front. The political satraps who had decreed his removal from Spain had done so with another Elba in mind. But this was an Isle of Elba on which paid assassins hovered and spied on the exile as government agents. He was watched day and night, his mail was censored, his telephone messages were intercepted, and he was surrounded by a veritable ring of spies organized by the hostile authorities on the island. Hostile pens and voices assailed the general. The municipal government of Realejo Alto directed all the municipalities of the province to ask the government to dismiss Franco as a dangerous element. A friend warned the general, “There are plans on foot to take your life.” “Two years ago,” he answered, “Moscow sentenced me to death.” On the night of July 13 occurred the last criminal attempt to take his life. The assassins attempted to scale the walls of the garden and from there reach the central pavilion, where Franco's sleeping quarters were located. The assailants were three. When they were climbing the wall, one of the sentinels in the garden challenged them, and as they made no response he fired on them and put them to flight. The guard stationed outside also fired, but the malefactors escaped. The civil authorities of the island hastened to the commandancy to find out what had happened. The wife and daughter of the general were also guarded by a special guard, for their lives, too, were threatened. On July 14, the diplomat José Antonio de Sangróniz arrived at Santa Cruz de Tenerife to inform the general, with whom it was so difficult to communicate, of the latest news about the movement, and to set the date for its inauguration. The aeroplane which was to carry Franco to Tetuán was to arrive at Las Palmas on the following day. “Now we must plan the escape [The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain]," said the general. “I have announced, with the authorization of the ministry, an inspection tour of the islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. It will be the pretext.” On the following night the general carried on long conversations with his friends concerning future developments. He had just ciphered some letters with the aid of a little book which he always had with him. “The time is ripe’ exclaimed the general, “and we cannot delay much longer, because the advances of anarchy have been considerable, and very soon they will have forestalled the possibilities of a popular reaction which still pulsates in Spain.” On the morning of the 16th, the telegraph wires carried sad and unexpected news to Tenerife. General Amado Balmes, military commander of Las Palmas, had been killed by the bullet of a revolver which he was trying out in the target field of that city. He was the first victim of the movement, for the general had for many days been experimenting with firearms, “so that when the moment arrived the youths would be provided with a useful weapon and not something useless.” Balmes was in close touch with Franco. He knew what was being planned in all its details, he was in full agreement, and was to be substitute general commandant. Franco, saddened by the news, called the War Ministry to tell them that he planned to go to Las Palmas to attend the burial. On asking for this permission, the general turned to those who were around him, and said, “Probably they will take advantage of this occasion to dismiss me.” But that was not the case. The sub-secretary of war, in the name of the minister, authorized him to make the trip, and at twelve-thirty o’clock that night General Franco, with his wife and daughter, embarked on the inter-insular ship Viera y Clavijo. His adjutants accompanied him, four officers as guards, two infantrymen and two artillerymen, and the fiscal judge, Martínez Fusset. After attending the funeral of General Balmes, at noon on the 17th, Franco spent all his time receiving calls at his hotel, where he virtually incarcerated himself. At three o’clock in the morning the adjutants and guarding officers were awakened abruptly by the fiscal judge Martínez Fusset, who brought sensational news. “The troops in Africa have rebelled,” he said; “we must take extreme precautions.” All put on their clothing without delay and went out into the hallway, where Franco soon appeared, for he already knew what was happening, having been informed at two-fifteen by the commandant at Tenerife. Franco drew up a manifesto and dictated the first orders as the “Rebel” leader to assure the triumph of the movement in the Canaries. He remained in the commandancy until eleven o’clock when he went out to find an aeroplane that awaited him, where again there were farewells and applause for the leader. The general repeated his watchword, “Blind faith in victory!” An automobile carried him to the pier where he was awaited by the tugboat which was to take him to the aerodrome at Gaudo. There was a moment of delay, while Franco said good-bye to his wife and daughter. “Tell them,” he told one of his officers, “that I have gone to make an inspection and that I will see them soon.” The motors began to roar. The general bade farewell, one by one, to those who surrounded him. Their eyes gleamed with hope, and they were pale with emotion. The general, serene, repeated his counsels. With him embarked the military aviator Villalobos and his adjutant Franco Salgado. The aeroplane sped down the runway and was soon in the air. It disappeared in the distant blue of the sky. It was exactly two-ten p.m., July 18, 1936, a moment memorable in Spanish history. After a short stop in Agadir, the plane continued on to Casablanca, where it landed at nine-thirty p.m. From the aerodrome the travellers went to a small hotel in the vicinity, where, after eating, they engaged in a conversation which was carried on almost entirely by General Franco, who discussed the subject which was nearest to his heart, abounding with hope, Spain and Its future. During those hours of the night and early morning, meaningful hours for the future of Spain, he gave every promise of desiring good government. It was three o’clock in the morning and Franco gave no thought to sleep. At four o’clock in the morning they left for the aerodrome, and a half-hour later they were again in the air. Sunrise found them over the Beni-Arós mountains, brightened by blending rose-coloured and golden hues. Franco recognized by name the roughest parts of the mountains, the steep cliffs, and the crests. The sky was radiant. At seven o’clock that morning Tetuán loomed in the distance, dazzling in the rays of the sun, Tetuán! The aerodrome was swarming with people. The plane circled low and Franco recognized friends. Finally they landed. The motor still roared, and there was cheering and applause. Franco emerged smiling, Lieutenant-Colonel Yagüe was at the side of the plane. Legionnaires rendered homage. At the offices of the High Commissary there gathered the leaders and officers of the Regular Army, of the Legion, and of the mejalas, the men who soon were to stir Spain with their valour, heroes who wept on hearing Franco’s voice, a voice that already appeared to have been silenced by exile, to be forgotten forever. It was the voice of Spain; a voice from her heart and steeped in the nation’s past. "We were coming to a point,” said Franco, ""when we were ashamed of being Spaniards and of wearing our uniforms, which represented our honour, our pride, and our spiritual patrimony! Now we are on our way. Each one to his post, to fulfil his duty. For Spain everything we may do will seem very little. The offering of our lives for its cause is a glorious deed if the nation will have reconquered its soul and its glory, and will have come to see itself face to face again.” The officers listened with stout hearts, their muscles quivering, and tears in their eyes. Their emotion finally burst forth in cheering and applause. From there, the general went to address the Banners of the Legion formed in Dar Rifien. Just as he was leaving, an officer notified him, “My general, some suspicious ships are cruising in the vicinity of Ceuta and they do not answer to the signals which are made to them.” “Have them repeated,” Franco ordered, “and if they do not answer, fire on them.” During the night the voice of Franco, a victorious voice, reached Spain from end to end through the miracle of radio: “On taking over the command of this glorious and patriotic army here in Tetuán, I send to the loyal garrisons and their country the most enthusiastic greetings. Spain has been saved. You may pride yourselves on being Spaniards. “Have blind faith. Never doubt. Gather energy, without pausing, for the nation demands it. The movement is marching on. There is no human force which will stop it. I greet you with a strong and hearty embrace. Long live Spain!” Franco then prepared to spend his third sleepless night devoted to hard work. When the first news of the military uprising in Morocco reached Madrid, Azaña, President of the Republic, felt the same uneasiness that he had experienced on that morning of August 10, 1932, the occasion of General Sanjurjo’s insurrection. Just as he had then called upon the governor of Coruña, now he asked insistently, “What is Franco doing?” In his desire to calm the nerves of the president, Casares Quiroga answered, “He is well guarded on the Canary Islands.”» (Joaquín Arrarás, id., p.185-196).

Under ordinary circumstances, the phrase « The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain » means “the flight from abroad to Spain” and cannot mean “from in Spain to Spain”, namely “from the Spanish Canary Islands to the Spanish Morocco”. However, the particular situation in which General Franco was a kind of political prisoner in the Canary Islands permits the phrase to be applied to him in July 1936 as E. Cheetham explains well: « In 1936 General Franco was exiled from Spain to the Canary Islands as military governor. He then flew (fuira) to Morocco and back to Spain to start the rebellion that led to the Spanish Civil War.» (Cheetham, 1973, p.143)

Qu’: = Qui (Who, that), whose antecedent is Spain. The nominative relative pronoun “qui” is replaced frequently by “que” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus according to the exceptional usages of the
XVIth century: « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70). Cf. ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4), Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96), Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98) and L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché (§603, III-91) and also I-99, II-10, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VIII-28, VIII-88 and IX-29.

That shall later come to bleed with a long wound... Devastating all: « Spanish Civil War, 1936-9; The Civil War began by a revolt of military commanders in Spanish Morocco on July 18th, 1936. The Government remained in control of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia; Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos declared for the insurgent nationalists. Spain became an ideological battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries... Some three-quarters of a million lives were lost in the course of the Civil War.» (Palmer, p.262-263); « ... the French Revolution to enter and thus crucified the country for fifteen years of civil war, ... Now the invasion by post-Christian totalitarian culture had brought another three years of martyrdom. On the Nationalist side, 90,000 had been killed in action; 110, 000 Republican soldiers were dead; there were a million cripples; 10,000 died in air-raids, 25,000 from malnutrition, 130,000 murdered or shot behind the lines [to bleed with a long wound]; now 500,000 were in exile, half never to return. The destruction of treasure had been immense, ranging from the famous library of Cuenca Cathedral to Goya’s earliest paintings in his birth-place, Fuentodos [Devastating all].» (Johnson, 1991, p.339).

Copie
: = « T. de guerre, troupes, forces militaires (Term of war, troops, military forces).» (Godefroy).

To bleed with a long wound. Passing troops beyond the high mountains
: « ... the long wound of the Spanish Civil War raged over the mountainous Spanish countryside... » (Hogue, 1997, p.262).

Passing troops beyond the high mountains
: “The one of the greatest” as a subject rules over the following predicatives: fuira (shall escape), passant (passing), devastant (devastating) and regner (shall reign). As the victor in the Civil War, General Franco and the Nationalists took all the territories full of high mountains of Spain in the end. They began to occupy the Canary Islands, Morocco, Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Granada, Cordoba, Caceres, Saramanca, Avila, Segovia, Zamora, Valladolid, Saragossa, Teruel, Huesca, Pamplona, Vitoria, Burgos, Mallorca and Ibiza, while the Government remained in control of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Gijon, Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena, Badajoz and Albacete (cf. Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 15, Chart 1).

14 August 1936. The Republican city of Badajoz in the valley of the Guadiana was taken by a Nationalist force of Lieutenant Colonel Juan Yagüe under General Franco’s instructions coming from Seville beyond the mountains of Sierra Morena (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart
C; Grant, 2011, p.783).

13 September 1936. San Sebastian was occupied by the Nationalist soldiers passing the Basque mountains (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart
C).

3° 27 September 1936. Colonel José Moscardó, the military governor of Toledo, a town itself situated on the rock 530 meters above sea level, commanding around 1,000 Nationalist soldiers defended the Alcázar against a Republican attack that lasted for around seventy days. The Nationalist resistance held out against heavy bombing and artillery fire until the Army of Africa, commanded by General Franco, arrived passing the mountains of Sierra Morena, Guadalupe and Meseta (Table mountains) of Toledo to provide relief and defeat the Republicans. (cf. Duby, id.; Grant, id., p.782).

17 October 1936. Oviedo in Asturias was occupied by the Nationalists passing the mountains of Leon (cf. Duby, id.).

8-23 November 1936. Around 20,000 Nationalist soldiers from the mountains of Sierra Morena, Guadalupe and Gredos under the command of General José Varela attacked in vain Madrid by the delay of their offensive owing to Franco’s decision to liberate first the Alcazar of Toledo. (cf. Duby, id.; Grant, id., p.784).

In the summer of 1937. The Basque countries were crushed by the Nationalist force passing the mountains in Cantabria (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart
D).

15 April 1938. The Nationalist force passing the mountains of Gudar in Aragon attained the city of Vinaroz on the Mediterranean to split in two the Republican territories (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart
D).

23 December 1938 – February 1939. Catalonia was entirely conquered by the Nationalist force, whose some contingents past the Catalan mountains of Guara and Cadi (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart
D).

And next shall reign in peace: « Franco was determined to keep out of war, which he saw as the supreme evil, and especially a war waged by Hitler in association with Stalin, which he felt incarnated all the evils of the century. He declared strict neutrality in September 1939. He advised Mussolini to keep out too. As the price for entering the war he pitched his demands impossibly high: Oran, the whole of Morocco, huge territories in West Africa, massive quantities of war supplies and equipment to attack Gibraltar and defend the Canaries. When he met Hitler at Hendaye on 23 October 1940 he not only increased these demands but greeted his German benefactor with icy coldness verging on contempt. As he was himself a professional soldier, and Hitler an amateur – not even a gentleman, a corporal! – he treated Hitler’s customary military tour d’horizon with unconcealed contempt. They talked, wrote Hitler’s interpreter Paul Schmidt, ‘to or rather at one another’ until two in the morning and failed to agree on anything whatever. Hitler later told Mussolini he would rather have two or three teeth out than go through that again.» (Johnson, 1991, p.366);

« When Franco [1892-1975] handed over his authority in summer 1974 to Juan Carlos (crowned King in November 1975 immediately after Franco’s death), he had held effective power for thirty-eight years, an achievement even Philip II might have respected. He was probably right in thinking that a Republican victory would have produced another civil war and that his regime was the one ‘which divides us least’, for there were two bitterly divided monarchical factions, a fascist and a traditional conservative faction as well as the mortal enmity between the
CP and other Republicans. In October 1944, after the liberation of France, 2,000 republicans ‘invaded’ across the Pyrenees, expecting a general insurrection: nothing happened. A Republican government was formed in 26 August 1945: a non-event. The Allies would not act against Franco because they would not want civil war in Spain. To please them he gave up the fascist salute (which he had never liked) but would not ban the Falange, much as he deplored its posturings, because it was a safety-valve for the extremist Right, and controllable. In essence Franco was a non-political figure, who ruled through men acceptable to the Church, the landed classes and business. That was what the army wanted and the army had a veto on policy which long antedated Franco. Franco, like the army, was a negative force. He kept the state immobile and unadventurous; he prevented professional politicians from doing things. He described himself dourly to senior army officers as ‘the sentry who is never relieved, the man who receives the unwelcome telegrams and dictates the answers, the man who watches while others sleep.’ If he had been a younger man he might have devised a plebiscitary framework. As it was, on 6 July 1947 he submitted a ‘Law of Succession’, embodying the monarchical principle, to a vote. Out of an electorate of nearly 17,200,000, 15,200,000 cast their votes and 14,145,163 voted ‘Yes’, under conditions which observers testified to be fair. With that out of the way Franco educated and coached Juan Carlos as his successor. In the meantime, within the framework of negative government, the economy modernized itself with the help of market forces. In the twenty years 1950-70, Spain was transformed. Those living in towns over 20,000 rose from 30 per cent to nearly 50 per cent of the population. Illiteracy dropped from 19 to 9 per cent in thirty years, and in a mere fifteen years the student population doubled. Spain was in some ways more successful in modernizing its backward south than Italy. Physically and visually the landscape of Andalusia was transformed in the quarter-century 1950-75, and the rapidly falling rural population benefited more, in terms of real wages, than the industrial workers of the swelling towns. But the important change was in expectation: surveys showed that workers could expect much better jobs, in pay and prestige, than their fathers; that a man had higher expectations at forty than at twenty. The old hopelessness of Spain, the source of its sullen misery and occasionally of its frantic violence, had gone. During the 1950s and 1960s, in effect, Spain became part of the general modern European economy, sharing its successes and failures and its overall prosperity: the Pyrenees ceased to be a cultural-economic wall.» (id., p.608-609).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§784 From Valencia to Barcelona; The end of the Republic (1931-1939): X-14.

X-14 (§784):

A small voting-Urn, Valencia without its own design,
Being bold timid by fear taken vanquished,
Accompanied by several blond villains,
At Barcelona determined to be prisoners.

(Urnel Vaucile sans conseil de soy mesmes
Hardit timide par crainte prins vaincu,
Acompaigné de plusieurs putains blesmes
A Barcellonne aux chartreux convaincu.)

NOTES: The first hemistich of this quatrain seems to be composed of the first and third lines: A small voting-Urn, Valencia without its own design, Accompanied by several blond villains, and the second of the second and fourth: Being bold timid by fear taken vanquished, At Barcelona determined to be prisoners.

Urnel (A small voting-Urn): From the Latin « urnula, petite urne (a small urn).» (Nimmo) (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.458); « urna, a water-pot, water-jar; a voting-urn.» (Smith-Lockwood) (cf. Ionescu, id.).

Urnel: = « la République (the Republic).»
(Fontbrune, 1939, p.164)

Vaucile
: = « VANCILE: anagramme de VALENCI (an anagram of VALENCI.» (Fontbrune, id.).

Urnel Vaucile: = « La république de Valence (The republic of Valencia).»
(Fontbrune, id.); « Thus Nostradamus suggests a Republic that did not last long, and in fact, this Republic lasted only eight years in Spain... Valencia, the city where the Republican Government settled on November 7, 1936. It retired to Barcelona on October 31, 1937, and there remained until January 26, 1939, when it finished with capitulation.» (Ionescu, id.).

Conseil: = « Vx. Résolution mûrement pesée; Les principes qui dirigent une personne (Arch.
A maturely weighed resolution; The principles that direct a person).» (Petit Robert).

A small voting-Urn, Valencia without its own design: « The thirteen points in outline of May, 1938, by the premier of the Republic Negrín made clear her end of war in proposing the withdrawal of foreign troops, the decision of regime by referendum, the guarantee of the freedom of religion, agrarian reforms, etc., tried to elicit a change of policy toward Spain from Great Britain and France in insisting upon her moderate policies, and offered to Franco the conditions of peace. But neither Great Britain and France nor Franco did respond to his propositions, and his clear definition of the end of war could not strengthen the Republican unity. Rather, the manoeuvres of Negrín through his strong leadership aroused repulsive reaction from his parties. In the middle of August the Leftist Catalonian Republicanism and the Vasco-Nationalist Party quitted the cabinet and the relation of the Central Government with the Catalonian Autonomous Government deteriorated.» (Tateishi, 2000, p.304-305); « Reasons for the nationalist victory were that Franco was extremely skilful in holding together the various right-wing groups (army, church, monarchists and Falangists); the republicans were much less united (anarchists and communists actually fought each other for a time in Barcelona).» (Lowe, 1988, p.175).

Putain: = « (adj.) Mauvais. – En putains jours... (Bad, evil. – In bad days...).» (Huguet). The term in this quatrain is used as the substantive (a villain)

Blesme: = « Blond. – et la frizure blonde De ses cheveux... (Blond. – and the golden curls Of his hairs... ) D
U BELLAY, 4e Liv. de l’Eneide (M.-L., I, 367.)» (Huguet).

Plusieurs putains blesmes (Several blond villains): = Several Russian agents of Stalin in Spain, the majority of the Russians being blond; « It was one of Spain’s many misfortunes at this time that her Civil War coincided with the climax of Stalin’s great terror. Many of the Barcelona murders had little to do with Spain’s internal politics but were, rather, the backlash of events in Moscow and Leningrad. Thus Robles was executed because, as interpreter of General Jan Antonovich Berzin, head of the Russian military mission to Spain, he knew too much about Berzin’s recall and liquidation as part of Stalin’s purge of the army. Stalin was having his leading agents killed all over the world in 1937-8. And, as in Russia, virtually all the creatures who helped him to take over the Left in Spain, and then to terrorize it, were murdered in turn. The head of the
NKVD’s foreign department was cornered in his own office in Paris in February 1938 and forced to take cyanide. Of those who organized arms supplies to Spain, Evhen Konovalek was killed in Rotterdam in May 1938, Rudolf Clement was found, a headless corpse, in the Seine, and Walter Krivitsky, boss of Soviet military intelligence in Western Europe, was chased for three years by Stalin’s hit-men until they got him in Washington on 10 February 1941. In addition to General Berzin, Stalin murdered Michael Koltzov, the famous Pravda Spanish correspondent, Arthur Stashevsky, head of the economic mission to Spain, and Antonov Ovseenko, Consul-General in Barcelona, who was told he was being recalled to Moscow to be made Minister of Justice, a joke characteristic of Stalin’s gallows-humour.» (Johnson, 1991, p.335).

Being bold timid by fear taken vanquished At Barcelona: « Toledo 20 July-27 September 1936. Following the Nationalist military rebellion, the Spanish Republican government sent a militia force of around 8,000 men to take the city of Toledo in July 1936. Around 1,000 Nationalist soldiers commanded by Colonel José Moscardó, the military governor of Toledo, defended the Alcázar against a Republican attack that lasted for around seventy days [Being bold]. The Nationalist resistance held out against heavy bombing and artillery fire until the Army of Africa, commanded by General Franco, arrived to provide relief and defeat the Republicans. Franco emerged as the principal leader of the Nationalists and was proclaimed Generalissimo.» (Grant, 2011, p.782).

« Teruel 15 December 1937-20 February 1938. Having discovered that Franco was planning another major offensive on Madrid, the Republicans decided to launch a preemptive attack on the Aragon front in Teruel. The offensive – mounted in extreme weather conditions – took the Nationalist forces, commanded by Colonel Rey d’Harcourt, by surprise. German and Italian aircraft were grounded by ice, and Nationalist reinforcements were prevented from quickly reaching Teruel. Consequently, as at Brunete [6-26 July 1937] and Belchite [24 August-7 September 1937], the Republicans were initially successful and took the town... Following some of the war’s fiercest fighting, the Republicans were forced to retreat [Being bold timid].» (Grant, id., p.795).

« Cape Palos 5-6 March 1938 On 5 March 1938 a strong force of three Nationalist cruisers supported by destroyers and minelayers put to sea to escort an inbound convoy. At 1:00
AM on 6 March the Nationalist ships steamed headlong into Vice-Admiral Ubieta’s Republican force of cruisers, destroyers, and Soviet-supplied torpedo boats. Dodging a Republican torpedo attack, the Nationalist squadron tried to disengage, preferring to delay the action until daybreak, but Ubieta pursued and, at 2:15 AM, his ships opened fire off Cape Palos, near Cartagena. As the cruisers fought an inconclusive and inaccurate long-range gunnery duel, three Republican destroyers crept unobserved into torpedo range of them. Each ship fired a spread of four torpedoes [Being bold], at least two of which hit the Nationalist cruiser Baleares, flagship of Vice-Admiral Vierna, between her two forward turrets. The explosion detonated her forward magazines and wrecked the forepart of the ship, including her bridge, which disintegrated with the loss of all inside, including Vierna, but the Nationalist blockade remained intact.» (Grant, id., p.795).

« Ebro 24 July-16 November 1938. Having managed to defend Valencia against Nationalist attacks, the Republicans attempted to restore contact with Catalonia with an offensive over the Ebro River. The attack, led by communist General Juan Modesto, once again took the Nationalists by surprise, bringing the Republicans early success. Eighty thousand Republican soldiers crossed the river in boats and attacked General Juan Yagüe’s Nationalist troops, inflicting substantial damage [Being bold]. Upon reaching the town of Gandesa, however, the Republicans met fierce resistance. The rocky terrain offered little cover for the fighters, and German and Italian planes were easily able to target Republican positions [Being timid by fear taken]. Determined to annihilate the Republicans, General Franco ordered large reinforcements to join the battle, which was to last for over three months. Ebro was the last major battle of the Spanish Civil War. Following the defeat, the Republicans continued to concede territory to the Nationalists until 1 April 1939, when General Franco declared the war over, signifying the end of the Spanish Republic [vanquished].» (Grant, id., p.797);

« After the destruction of the
POUM, Republican morale declined steadily. In these circumstances, Franco opted for a war of attrition throughout the appalling winter of 1937-8, and in April he cut Republican Spain in two. Thereafter it was really a matter of time only, with Franco taking no chances and insisting on overwhelming superiority. By the autumn Stalin had tired of the war, had extracted the last ounce of propaganda value out of it, had completed his purges and was already thinking of a new deal, either with the Western democracies or, more likely, with Hitler. He had also got all the Republic’s gold. So he cut off aid, and Franco was able to open his last Catalonian offensive, just before Christmas, confident that the end was near. Barcelona fell on 28 January 1939 [Being vanquished At Barcelona], and Madrid on 28 March. Franco had fought the war without passion, and when he heard it was over he did not even look up from his desk.» (Johnson, id., p.338).

Chartreux: « CHARTREUX, EUSE. Religieux de l’ordre de Saint-Bruno (A monk or a nun of the monastery of Saint-Bruno).» (Petit Robert). Upon this vocable of French dictionaries is modelled by Nostradamus the French word « les chartreux », semantically derived from « Chartre. Prison, cachot (A prison, dungeon).» (Huguet), with the meaning of « the prisoners ».

Convaincre: « Convaincre à: Décider à.» (Huguet); « Décider à means « to determine ».» (Dubois).

Aux chartreux convaincu[s]: [The defeated Republicans were] determined « to be prisoners.»: « Franco determined to end the destructive process of corruption by amputating the agonized limb of Spanish collectivism. His feelings towards the Left anticipated those of the wartime Allies towards Nazism: he got unconditional surrender first, then de-Communized, but in a manner closer to the drumhead purges of liberated France than the systematic trials in Germany. It was not a Lenin-style totalitarian massacre by classes: the Law of Political Responsibilities of 9 February 1939 dealt with responsibility for crimes on an individual basis (the only exception was Freemasons of the eighteenth degree or higher). Strictly speaking, there was no death penalty for political offences as such. But there was a great rage in the conquerors – the Interior Minister, Suñer, wanted revenge for his brothers who had been shot in Republican prisons, and he was typical of thousands – and it was not difficult to pin capital crimes on Republican officials of all degrees. Mussolini’s son-in-law Ciano reported from Spain in July: ‘Trials going on every day at a speed which I would call summary.... There are still a great number of shootings. In Madrid alone between 200 and 250 a day, in Barcelona 150, in Seville 80.’ Some tens of thousands thus died, but the figure of 193,000 sometimes given for the total is wrong, since many death-sentences passed by courts were commuted. Franco made it clear on 31 December 1939 that many long prison sentences (fifteen years was usual) would have to be served: ‘It is necessary to liquidate the hatred and passions left us by our past war. But this liquidation must not be accomplished in the liberal manner, with enormous and disastrous amnesties, which are a deception rather than a gesture of forgiveness. It must be Christian, achieved by means of redemption through work accompanied by repentance and penitence.’» (Johnson, id., p.339).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§783 Franco in revolt shall annihilate the Republic (1936-1939): VIII-26.

VIII-26 (§783):

Those after Cato the Elder found in Barcelona,
The place and territories made unprotected and ruin being,
The great who holds, doesn’t hold, shall want Pamplona.
At the armed abbey of Monferrat drizzle being.

(De Catones trouves en Barsellonne,
Mys descouvers lieu terrouers & ruyne,
Le grand qui tient ne tient vouldra Pamplo
Par labbage de Monferrat bruyne.)

NOTES: De Catones (Those after Cato the Elder): « CATON, subst. mas., t. d’hist. anc., nom de deux fameux Romains remarquables par la sévérité de leurs mœurs. - On le dit familièrement d’un homme sage ou qui affecte de l’être: c’est un Caton; il fait le Caton (term of ancient history, name of two famous Romans remarkable for the severity of their morals. It is said familiarly about a sage man or one who pretends to be so: he is a Caton; he pretends to be a Caton).» (Landais); « Männer, die die Charakterstärke des alten Cato in Rom besaßen, der kategorisch die Vernichtung Hannibals gefordert hatte (Those men, who had the strong character of the old Cato in Rome, who had demanded categorically the annihilation of Hannibal).» (Centurio, 1953, p.175) = The Nationalists led by Francisco Franco, who shall demand the Republican unconditional surrender to end the Civil War in 1939. The interpretation of the term as “ceux que l’on voyait graves et sévères en paroles, et en fait désordonnés et vicieux (those one saw grave and severe in speech, and in deed dissolute and vicious)” (Fontbrune, 1980, p.91) neglects another meaning, more original, of it.

Terrouer: = « terroier, s.m., territoire, possession territoriale (territory, territorial possession).» (Godefroy). The interpretation of this term as “de frayeur (by fright)” (Fontbrune, id.) or “d’épouvante (of terror)” (Guinard, 2011, p.53) can’t be supported grammatically, the form “terrouer” with an alleged adverbial or adjective meaning being unable to be derived morphologically from the Latin verb “terreo (to terrify)” they invoked.

Pamplo: = « Pamplonne. (Pamplona.).» (№10). Pamplona in northern Spain was one of the cities whose Nationalist risings were successful in July 1936 (cf.
Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 15, Chart 1).

Labbage
: = L’abbage = L’abbaye + bagage (the abbey + baggage), the abbey representing a magnificent building like an abbey and baggage something related to the army. In short, the neologism abbage means Alcazar (in Arabic a castle) in Toledo.

Monferrat: A metaphor in a very familiar Italian place-name for Toledo as an invulnerable town (an iron-grille mountain), « montagna » and « ferrat » meaning in Italian “mountain” and “iron grille” respectively; « The invulnerable fortress, this is another name of Toledo.» (Kawanari, 1999, p.22).

Bruyne (drizzle): representing figuratively something uncertain in prospect. The 8 usages in all of the words
bruine/bruyne/bruyneux in the Prophecies of Nostradamus have three kinds of meaning: 1° the weather of drizzle (IV-46, VI-25 et IX-100); 2° the situation without favourable perspective (II-83 et VIII-26); 3° to be under shelter (V-35, VI-27 et VI-37), this quatrain falling under the second.

Those after Cato the Elder found in Barcelona, The place and territories made unprotected and ruin being: While the second hemistich of the quatrain treats of the prelusive stage of the Spanish Civil War, the second concerns the conclusive stage: In Barcelona were found the Nationalists on 28 January 1939, the city and the surrounding territories having been conquered by them = On the front of Barcelona the army taken by diligence (§782, VI-64): In Catalonia the Republican army defeated by the Nationalists diligently commanded by General Franco; « Ebro 24 July-16 November 1938. Having managed to defend Valencia against Nationalist attacks, the Republicans attempted to restore contact with Catalonia with an offensive over the Ebro River. The attack, led by communist General Juan Modesto, once again took the Nationalists by surprise, bringing the Republicans early success. Eighty thousand Republican soldiers crossed the river in boats and attacked General Juan Yagüe’s Nationalist troops, inflicting substantial damage. Upon reaching the town of Gandesa, however, the Republicans met fierce resistance. The rocky terrain offered little cover for the fighters, and German and Italian planes were easily able to target Republican positions [The place and territories made unprotected]. Determined to annihilate the Republicans, General Franco ordered large reinforcements to join the battle, which was to last for over three months. Ebro was the last major battle of the Spanish Civil War. Following the defeat, the Republicans continued to concede territory to the Nationalists until 1 April 1939, when General Franco declared the war over, signifying the end of the Spanish Republic [ruin being].» (Grant, 2011, p.797); « Franco in April [1938] cut Republican Spain in two. Thereafter it was really a matter of time only, with Franco taking no chances and insisting on overwhelming superiority. By the autumn Stalin had tired of the war, had extracted the last ounce of propaganda value out of it, had completed his purges and was already thinking of a new deal, either with the Western democracies or, more likely, with Hitler. He had also got all the Republic’s gold. So he cut off aid, and Franco was able to open his last Catalonian offensive, just before Christmas, confident that the end was near. Barcelona fell on 28 January 1939, and Madrid on 28 March.» (Johnson, 1991, p.338).

The great who holds, doesn’t hold, shall want Pamplona
: Franco followed by the Nationalists, only the south and the north of Spain separately in hand, shall try to bring the former (centered in Cadiz) into contact with the latter [represented by Pamplona] geographically and militarily through taking Badajoz between them (cf. Tateishi, 2000, p.293, Chart of July 1936): « Badajoz 14 August 1936. The attack on the Spanish city of Badajoz was one of the first major victories for the Nationalist rebellion against the Republic in the Spanish Civil War. By July 1936 the Nationalist military rebellion against the Spanish Republic had gathered momentum. Soldiers of the Army of Africa, commanded by General Francisco Franco, had been airlifted by German and Italian planes to join the Nationalist offensive in southern Spain. Badajoz was the final remaining Republican outpost on the Portuguese border, isolated from the Republican territory. Under General Franco’s instructions, Lieutenant Colonel Juan Yagüe led a Nationalist force, consisting largely of Foreign Legionaries and Moroccan mercenary fighters, in an offensive against the city. Badajoz was defended by Republican militiamen, who had taken control of the city’s medieval fortress. On 14 August the attack began with heavy artillery and bombing, which enabled the Nationalist forces to breach the defense. The professional Nationalist soldiers faced fierce resistance from the militia force, but at last took control of Badajoz.» (Grant, id., p.783).

At the armed abbey of Monferrat drizzle being
: The so-called ambiguous significance of the battle of Toledo: « Toledo 20 July-27 September 1936. Early in the Spanish Civil War, the siege of Toledo’s Alcázar was a hugely symbolic victory for the Nationalists. The fortress, controlled by Nationalist soldiers, was besieged by Republican militiamen for two months, before General Franco’s Army of Africa arrived to relieve the defenders. Following the Nationalist military rebellion, the Spanish Republican government sent a militia force of around 8,000 men to take the city of Toledo in July 1936. The Nationalist force in Toledo took a number of hostages (family members of known leftists) and retreated into the city’s Alcázar, a half-palace half-fortress [the armed abbey of Monferrat] that had served as a military academy since the nineteenth century. Around 1,000 Nationalist soldiers commanded by Colonel José Moscardó, the military governor of Toledo, defended the Alcázar against a Republican attack that lasted for around seventy days. The Nationalist resistance held out against heavy bombing and artillery fire until the Army of Africa, commanded by General Franco, arrived to provide relief and defeat the Republicans. While strategically the Alcázar was of little value to either side [drizzle being], symbolically it was very important. The victory was the subject of a huge Nationalist propaganda campaign; the liberation was restaged for news cameras on the next day. Franco’s decision to relieve the troops at Toledo, rather than advance to Madrid as many had expected, was taken largely because he recognized the propaganda value of the Alcázar. Franco emerged as the principal leader of the Nationalists and was proclaimed Generalissimo.» (Grant, id., p.782).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§782 The firmness of Franco leading to Republican unconditional surrender (1936-1939): VI-64.

VI-64 (§782):

They shall not keep any fixed pact,
All the containers shall come by deceit:
He protests against a peace and armistice by land and sea,
On the front of Barcelona the army taken by diligence.

(On ne tiendra pache aucune arresté,
Tous recevans iront par tromperie:
De paix & tresve terre & mer proteste,
Par Barcelone classe prins d'industrie.)

NOTES: Pache: = A pact. « pache, pacte, accord, convention (a pact, accord, convention).» (Godefroy).

A fixed pact: = The Non-Intervention Agreement of 1936.
« BIRTH OF THE "NON-INTERVENTION" POLICY The policy of non-intervention in Spain which was adopted on the initiative of France, and of which Great Britain subsequently became the leading advocate, was put into effect six weeks after the outbreak of the Civil War. The object of the promoters of the policy was to prevent the Spanish conflict from expanding into an open war between Great Powers on an arena extending far beyond the bounds of the Iberian Peninsula and at the same time to safeguard the independence of the Spanish nation and its freedom to decide its own destiny. But as the Spanish Republican Government pointed out, their unhappy country itself became the theatre of an international war in fact. Disappointing as the results of the Non-Intervention Agreement were to prove in practice, it is probably true to say that at no time did the danger that the conflagration would spread all over Europe appear as acute as it had seemed during the first five or six weeks of the Civil War. Says Prof. Toynbe, "The States of Europe might still be standing uncomfortably, close to the edge of the precipice; but the facts that the Governments had entered into an agreement not to intervene in Spain and that they continued to pay lip-service to the principle of non-intervention (even though some of them were engaged at the same time in evading to the best of their ability the obligations into which they had entered), indicated that even the most aggressive-seeming among them were genuinely afraid of taking the final-step which might plunge them into the abyss." (Sur. Int. Aff. l937, Vol. II Page 222). Since French sympathies or at any rate the sympathies of most of the supporters of the Popular Front - were naturally with the Spanish Republicans, the French Government might have been expected to take the line that there was no reason for refusing to let the legally constituted Government of Spain have munitions, and other supplies which they needed to help them in putting down an insurrection. But, the decision, as is now well-known, was taken against this course. But, in the meantime, an incident occurred, ( the landing of Italian air-craft on the French Moroccan soil, which has already been alluded to) which definitely proved that foreign nations were intervening to the advantage of the Nationalists. M. Blum and his colleagues came to the conclusion that if the danger of a general ideological war was to be averted and the trouble confined within the frontiers of Spain, something more was required than a unilateral decision on their part to withhold supplies from one party to the conflict. They realized indeed, that in view of the Republican sympathies of their supporters it would be impossible for them to implement their own decision not to send supplies to Spain unless some check could be imposed on the flow of foreign munitions to the Spanish Nationalists. So, a proposal for an agreement to refrain from intervening in the Spanish Civil War by sending supplies of war material to either party was made by the French Government to Governments of Great Britain and Italy on the 1st August 1936. The British Government’s response to this French demarche was prompt and favourable. In a note of the 4th August, they showed their willingness and suggested that other States which had a special interest in the Spanish question (chiefly, Germany, Russia and Portugal) he included in the negotiations. In the hope of speeding up the negotiations the French Government circulated the draft text of a declaration on the 6th August. This provided for a formal renunciation of intervention, direct or indirect, in the Spanish civil war and laid it down that the export to Spain of all war material, including aircraft of all kinds and not excepting, material which had been ordered before the civil war began, should be prohibited by the signatories and that there should be an exchange of information regarding the measures taken by the various Governments to put this prohibition into effect. The prohibition of export of war material from France to Spain was put into effect on the 9th August. (The prohibition on the transit of material through France did not become effective until the 8th September.) The French suggestion was approved by all; but in diplomatic language an approval does not necessarily mean acceptance of concrete terms; and the 'Fascist' Powers now gave the first example of tactics which were to become so unpleasantly familiar later. By delaying their definitive acceptance or refusal to a suggestion they protracted the negotiations without allowing them to break down and laid themselves open to the suspicion that they were deliberately trying to gain time in the hope that the help which they were giving to the Nationalists might turn the scale in the latter’s favour before a decision which might limit activities on their behalf has been taken. On the 5th August, the French diplomatic representative in Moscow was informed that the Soviet Government were prepared to accept the principle of non-intervention in Spain, but that they considered it essential that Portugal should be a party to the Agreement, and the foreign assistance to the rebels should cease immediately; By the 10th August the Soviet Government had signified their approval of the draft text of an agreement which the French Government had forwarded to them. The attitude of Italy was less favourable. Italy declared to adhere in principle to the thesis of nonintervention. The Italian Government asked whether ‘moral solidarity’ with one of the parties to the agreement (as expressed in public demonstrations, etc.) did not constitute a noisy and dangerous form of intervention; and what methods of control over the observance or non-observance of the undertaking not to intervene in Spain were contemplated. For the Italian suggestions, there was a strong suspicion in France that they were put forward in a deliberately obstructionist spirit. The Italian reply to the French proposals was therefore not of a nature to encourage the hope of a successful outcome of the negotiations at an early date. On the 9th August, the German charged Affaires in London gave the British Government a formal assurance that no war material was being sent or would be sent to the Spanish Nationalists from Germany and that German warships in Spanish waters would not take any action which could be interpreted as showing sympathy with or giving support to the Nationalists. Herr Von Neurath was also said to have assured the French Ambassador, when the latter broached the subject of non-intervention, that Germany’s policy towards Spain was one of strict neutrality. The German Foreign Minister's first response to the French proposal was said to have been favourable but in the subsequent diplomatic conversations in Berlin the German attitude became stiffer. By the middle of August, in addition to Great Britain, Russia was the only other State, within the group whose adherence was considered essential, which had yet returned a definite favourable reply. On the 15th August declarations were exchanged in Paris by which the French and British Governments placed on record their decision to abstain vigorously from all intervention direct or indirect, in the internal affairs of Spain and announced that they intended to prohibit the export direct or indirect, the re-export and the transit to any destination in Spain, the Spanish possessions or the Spanish Zone of Morocco, all arms, munitions and materials of war, as well as of all aircraft, complete or in parts and of all warships. Finally, they pledged themselves to put these measures into force as soon as the Governments of Germany, Italy, the U.S. S. R. and Portugal had adhered to the declaration. A statement from Foreign Office in London declared: "It should he realized that the maintenance of a strict and impartial attitude of non-intervention is essential if the unhappy events in Spain are to be prevented from having serious repercussions elsewhere. British subjects who assist either side in Spain by land, sea or air, are not only running grave risks for themselves, but are rendering it more difficult to arrive at the proposed agreement. They must not expect to receive any assistance or support whatever in difficulties which they may meet with during such enterprises, which run counter to the objects which His Majesty’s Government are seeking to attain." (Toynbee, op. cit. p.240). On the 17th August, the German Government had notified the French Government their willingness to accept the terms laid down in the Anglo-French declaration as soon as some little demands were fulfilled. On the 21st August, Italy "allowed herself to be persuaded" not to make the prohibition of 'moral solidarity’ an essential condition for their acceptance of an agreement to forbid the supply of war materials to Spain and they adhered to the Anglo-French declaration on the same terms as Great Britain, and France themselves. On the 21st August, also, the Portuguese Government declared in writing their acceptance not to intervene in the Spanish conflict. But they hedged their acceptance about with so many reservations that they retained very considerable freedom of action. On the 23rd August, the Government of the U.S.S. R. notified the French Government of their formal adherence to the declaration on the usual condition of reciprocity. On the 24th August, the German Government, informed the French Government that in view of the fact that the other interested Governments had now accepted the French Proposals, they themselves would waive the condition that their negotiations over the Lufthansa machine must first be concluded and would put into force immediately the measures for which the declaration provided. The twenty-one Governments which ultimately accepted the Non-Intervention Agreement, in addition to the six specially interested Powers were: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, The Irish Free State, Yugoslavia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Rumania, Sweden and Turkey. It will be noticed that the only European State which was absent from the list was Switzerland, and the Swiss Federal Government had informed the French Government that, while they felt precluded by the permanent neutrality of the Swiss Confederation from participating in the suggested joint declaration: they had on their own initiative taken certain measures designed to secure the same object. As soon as the successful conclusion of the first phase of the non-intervention negotiations had been ensured by the adherence of Germany to the agreement, the French Government had taken a further step. They had invited the Powers to take part in further discussions and had suggested that the most convenient method of arranging for the exchange of information which was an integral part of their plan, might be the establishment of a Committee in London, composed of representatives of all the parties to the agreement. Up to 5th September, all States except Portugal whose attendance was of the first importance, had consented to serve in the Committee. The delay in accepting the French proposals for a Non-Intervention Agreement, and the reservations which accompanied Portugal’s final acceptance, had shown how reluctant Dr. Salazar’s Government were to tie their hands in any way and it was said that, considerable diplomatic pressure from France and Great Britain had been needed to secure the issue in Lisbon, of the decree that placed an embargo on the export on transit of war materials to Spain. By the beginning of September the Portuguese Government had indicated that they might agree to be represented on the Non-Intervention Committee if its scope and competence were more clearly defined; and after the German acceptance had been received it was decided to summon the first meeting of the Committee on the 9th September in the hope that by that time French and British influence in Lisbon would have elicited a definite acceptance. But Portugal was an absentee when the first meeting of the Non-Intervention Committee took place on the 9th September and it was not until the end of September that the combined influence of France and Great Britain exercised not only through diplomatic channels but also through the medium of conversations at Geneva between Mr. Eden and the Portuguese Foreign Minister, was successful in inducing the Portuguese Government to waive their objections to representation on the Non-Intervention Committee.» (Scharma, 1946, p.59-67).

On ne tiendra pache aucune arresté: = On ne tiendra aucune pache arresté[e].

Recevans: = Containers. « Recevant, (subst.) Récipient (Container, receptacle).).» (Huguet).

They shall not keep any fixed pact, All the containers shall come by deceit: « In the two first verses the point in question is the foreign intervention in Spain and the efforts made by the powers to prevent and control it.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.456); « During the battles over Madrid which began in October [1936], the conditions of war changed. Primarily, the relief from Germany and Italy augmented. These two countries recognized the Franco Government on November 18, and therefore took part in the camp of Franco at the risk of their prestige. In November and December Germany sent the ‘Condor Legion’ of her air force in addition to aircraft and tank corps, and then from Italy arrived her ground ‘Volunteer Troops’. Secondly, the U.S.S.R began to grant aids to the Spanish Republic. The U.S.S.R. searching for a security against Germany did not want to confront Great Britain and France by her aids to the Republic nor to face a pro-German regime in place of the Republic in case of its defeat, but as self-fancied leader of anti-Fascism she could not deny the demands of the Republic. Moreover, the campaigns of her solidarity with Spain served to boost the morale of the nation depressed through Stalin’s Great Purge. At the beginning of October the U.S.S.R. declared not restricted by the Non-Intervention Agreement and began to transport relief supplies.» (Tateishi, 2000, p.297-298); « The failure of the efforts made by France and Great Britain to check the internationalization of the conflict is obvious.» (Trémolières IV, p.96).

Sea battle: « Cape Palos 5-6 March 1938 While the Republican navy became listless, the Nationalist navy was extremely active. Concentrated at Palma, on Majorca, Nationalist ships, strongly supported by Italian aircraft, blockaded the Republican coast and escorted convoys of Italian war matériel to the mainland. On 5 March 1938 a strong force of three Nationalist cruisers supported by destroyers and minelayers put to sea to escort an inbound convoy. At 1:00
AM on 6 March the Nationalist ships steamed headlong into Vice-Admiral Luis González Ubieta’s Republican force of cruisers, destroyers, and Soviet-supplied torpedo boats, originally despatched to attack the Nationalist base at Palma. Dodging a Republican torpedo attack, the Nationalist squadron tried to disengage, preferring to delay the action until daybreak, but Ubieta pursued and, at 2:15 AM, his ships opened fire off Cape Palos, near Cartagena. As the cruisers fought an inconclusive and inaccurate long-range gunnery duel, three Republican destroyers crept unobserved into torpedo range of them. Each ship fired a spread of four torpedoes, at least two of which hit the Nationalist cruiser Baleares, flagship of Vice-Admiral Manuel de Vierna, between her two forward turrets. The explosion detonated her forward magazines and wrecked the forepart of the ship, including her bridge, which disintegrated with the loss of all inside, including Vierna. As the smouldering remains of Baleares wallowed in the water, slowly sinking, the remaining Nationalist ships fled. Out of crew of 1,206, 441 survivors were eventually rescued by British destroyers. Cape Palos was the largest naval battle of the Spanish Civil War, and a significant victory for the Republicans, but the Nationalist blockade remained intact.» (Grant, 2011, p.795).

Proteste: = Il [Franco] proteste (He [Franco] protests).

A peace and armistice by land and sea: « The thirteen points in outline of May, 1938, by the premier of the Republic Negrín made clear her end of war in proposing the withdrawal of foreign troops, the decision of regime by referendum, the guarantee of the freedom of religion, agrarian reforms, etc., tried to elicit a change of policy toward Spain from Great Britain and France in insisting upon her moderate policies, and offered to Franco the conditions of peace.» (Tateishi, id., p.304).

He protests against a peace and armistice by land and sea
: « But neither Great Britain and France nor Franco did respond to his propositions, and his clear definition of the end of war could not strengthen the Republican unity... Franco with the menace of all-out assault insisted upon a capitulation without conditions to the bitter end.» (Tateishi, id., p.304-307).

On the front of Barcelona the army taken by diligence
: = In Catalonia the Republican army defeated by the Nationalists diligently commanded by General Franco; « Ebro 24 July-16 November 1938. After an initial success in their last-throw offensive at Ebro, the Republicans were once again driven back by Nationalist forces, suffering huge losses. Aided by German and Italian planes, the Nationalists claimed a decisive victory, which sealed the fate of the Spanish Republic. Having managed to defend Valencia against Nationalist attacks, the Republicans attempted to restore contact with Catalonia with an offensive over the Ebro River. The attack, led by communist General Juan Modesto, once again took the Nationalists by surprise, bringing the Republicans early success. Eighty thousand Republican soldiers crossed the river in boats and attacked General Juan Yagüe’s Nationalist troops, inflicting substantial damage. Upon reaching the town of Gandesa, however, the Republicans met fierce resistance. The rocky terrain offered little cover for the fighters, and German and Italian planes were easily able to target Republican positions. Determined to annihilate the Republicans, General Franco ordered large reinforcements to join the battle, which was to last for over three months. Even when it became clear that they could not win, the leader of the Spanish Republic, Juan Negrín, was unable to withdraw troops as few options remained for the increasingly desperate Republic. In one of the war’s hardest fought battles, both sides incurred huge losses, but for the Republicans these losses were unsustainable. Ebro was the last major battle of the Spanish Civil War. Following the defeat, the Republicans continued to concede territory to the Nationalists until 1 April 1939, when General Franco declared the war over, signifying the end of the Spanish Republic.» (Grant, id., p.797); « Franco in April [1938] cut Republican Spain in two. Thereafter it was really a matter of time only, with Franco taking no chances and insisting on overwhelming superiority. By the autumn Stalin had tired of the war, had extracted the last ounce of propaganda value out of it, had completed his purges and was already thinking of a new deal, either with the Western democracies or, more likely, with Hitler. He had also got all the Republic’s gold. So he cut off aid, and Franco was able to open his last Catalonian offensive, just before Christmas, confident that the end was near. Barcelona fell on 28 January 1939, and Madrid on 28 March. Franco had fought the war without passion, and when he heard it was over he did not even look up from his desk.» (Johnson, 1991, p.338).

Classe prins d'industrie (the army taken by diligence): V. Ionescu’s interpretation of the phrase « classe d'industrie (the class of industry) » as « la classe prolétaire (the proletarian class) » seems illogical because the most ordinary meaning of the term: the class of industry is probably that of enterprisers or capitalists rather than that of workers: « industry friction between labor and industry » (Obunsha); « industry the conciliation of labor and industry » (Koine). And in truth, however, the term classe in this context means army and that of industrie diligence: « Classe (classis). Flotte.» (Huguet); « classis, an army. a. On land (very ancient). b. At sea, a fleet.» (Smith-Lockwood) « INDUSTRIE. 1° Vx: Habileté à exécuter qqch (ability, skill to do something).»
(Petit Robert); « Industrie. Activité, habileté, soin (Industry. Activity, ability, care). – D’industrie. Avec intention, à dessein (By industry. By intention, on purpose).» (Huguet).

The diligence of General Franco: « He exploited the two insurrectionary movements, the Falange and the Carlists, amalgamating them under his leadership, but their role was subservient, indeed servile. Franco was never a fascist or had the smallest belief in any kind of Utopia or system. At his headquarters only one politician had influence: his brother-in-law, Ramón Serrano Suñer, and he was a functionary... Franco made better usages of his human and material resources because he fought a military war, and the Republicans fought a political war. He was a master of the nuts and bolts of war: topography, training, infrastructures, logistics, signals, air control. No genius but very thorough and calm; he never reinforced failure and he learnt from mistakes....» (Johnson, 1991, p.331); « Reasons for the nationalist victory were that Franco was extremely skilful in holding together the various right-wing groups (army, church, monarchists and Falangists); the republicans were much less united (anarchists and communists actually fought each other for a time in Barcelona).» (Lowe, 1988, p.175).
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§781 General Franco against the Leftist Government (2) (1936-1940): VI-19.

VI-19 (§781):

The true flame shall swallow up the country of Spain,
That shall want to involve the Innocents in the fires of war:
Immediately after the assault the army shall have become inflamed,
When in Seville shall be seen a monster like an ox.

(La vraye flamme engloutira la dame,
Que vouldra mettre les Innocens à feu:
Pres de l'assault l'exercite s'enflamme,
Quant dans Seville monstre en bœuf sera veu.)

NOTES: The true flame: = The real flame of war, i.e. the Spanish Civil War. V. Ionescu’s interpretation of the expression as ‘the forces of the true faith of Spain (les forces de la vraie foi de l’Espagne)’ (Ionescu, 1976, p.454) is too narrow, interpolative and one-sided, ‘a true flame’ being never ‘a flame of truth’. This flame is not but the total event of firing crash between the Republicans and the Nationalists in Spain.

La dame (the lady): = The State of Spain. In fact, of 23 usages of the terms dame, Dame and dames in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 17 refer literally to particular feminine persons and 6 figuratively to sovereign countries as follows: II-44: France under Napoleon I, II-87: France under Louis XVIII, V-9: a country in general, VI-19: Spain, VII-18: France defeated by Prussia in 1870 and X-25: French Empire of Napoleon I. V. Ionescu’s interpretation of the term as ‘the Communism (le communisme)’ (Ionescu, id.) is totally erroneous because there is no such usage found in the Prophecies of Nostradamus. The meaning of the term dame[s] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus is either [a] particular woman [women] or an independent country.

Que: = Qui (a nominative relative pronoun), whose antecedent is the true flame. The nominative relative pronoun “qui” is replaced frequently by “que” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus according to the exceptional usages of the
XVIth century: « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70). Cf. ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4), Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96), Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98) and L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché (§603, III-91) and also I-99, II-10, III-54, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VIII-28, VIII-88 and IX-29.

Feu (fire): = « Combat, guerre (Combat, war).» (Petit Robert); « mettre à feu (to put on fire) to involve [a country, a city] in the fires of war.» (Suzuki).

The true flame shall swallow up the country of Spain, That shall want to involve the Innocents in the fires of war: « Spanish Civil War, 1936-9 [The true flame shall swallow up the country of Spain]; arose from the resentment of the Army leaders at the growing socialist and anti-clerical tendencies of the Popular Front Republican Government of President Azana. The Civil War began by a revolt of military commanders in Spanish Morocco on July 18th, 1936. The Government remained in control of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia; Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos declared for the insurgent nationalists. Spain became an ideological battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries... Some three-quarters of a million lives were lost in the course of the Civil War [That shall want to involve the Innocents in the fires of war].» (Palmer, p.262-263); « The day Madrid surrendered [28 March 1939], Hitler denounced Germany’s 1934 treaty with Poland, having occupied the whole of Czechoslovakia a week before. It was obvious that a European war was inevitable and imminent. Franco’s reaction was a brutal attempt to seal off Spain not only from the coming catastrophe but, as far as possible, from the whole of the twentieth century. Spain had a long tradition of crude social engineering and internal crusades. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries it had expelled in turn vast numbers of Moors, Jews and Protestants. By such macro-persecution it had avoided the Reformation and the horrors of the Wars of Religion. The failure to adopt similar methods of drastic extrusion had permitted the French Revolution to enter and thus crucified the country for fifteen years of civil war, as Goya’s drawings bore eloquent testimony. Now the invasion by post-Christian totalitarian culture had brought another three years of martyrdom [That shall want to involve the Innocents in the fires of war]. On the Nationalist side, 90,000 had been killed in action; 110, 000 Republican soldiers were dead; there were a million cripples; 10,000 died in air-raids, 25,000 from malnutrition, 130,000 murdered or shot behind the lines [That shall want to involve the Innocents in the fires of war]; now 500,000 were in exile, half never to return. The destruction of treasure had been immense, ranging from the famous library of Cuenca Cathedral to Goya’s earliest paintings in his birth-place, Fuentodos.» (Johnson, 1991, p. 338-339).

Pres de l'assault (Immediately after the assault): The preposition près (near) can signify an immediate past as well as a near future: e.g. Pres de Verbiesque conflit mortelle guerre (Near Serbia a conflict, a mortal warfare) (§747, VIII-48); it is worth remarking that the phrase « Pres de Verbiesque » may mean a postwar near future, for the preposition « près (near) » is capable of expressing a proximate past or future in time (e.g. « Heure indue? Monsieur voit qu’il est aussi près du matin que du soir (An undue hour? ... it is as near the morning as near the evening) » (BEAUMARCH.) (Petit Robert)) besides a proximity in space and the word « Verbiesque » with its original sense of verbiage, wordiness, all talk, just words and majuscule initial can designate an International Organization of conference in general, the League of Nations to come after the Great War as Ionescu ingeniously comments so (Ionescu, id., p.378). This is why Nostradamus employed the seemingly odd word Verbiesque at first to make a message of Near Serbia as the original place of the Great War. « près de ... near [in time]: Cet événement est encore trop près de nous (That event is yet too proximate to us).» (Ibuki).

Immediately after the assault the army shall have become inflamed: « After the murder of the monarchist deputy C
ALVO SOTELO (13 Jul. [1936]) [Immediately after the assault] the counter-revolution initiated the 1936-9 Spanish Civil War. [18] Jul. 1936 Military uprising [the army shall have become inflamed] of the generals SANJURIO, GODED, FRANCISCO FRANCO (1892-1975), MOLA, QUEIPO DE LLANO. It was supported by monarchists, Catholics and the Fascist Falange, which had been founded in 1933 by JOSÉ ANTONIO PRIMO DE RIVERA (1903-36), son of the dictator.» (PenguinAtlas 2, p.161).

Seville
: « The city of Seville was among the first centres that rallied to the army of Franco, thanks to General Llano, one of the most eminent figures of the movement of liberation. This city represents here – by synecdoche – the whole nationalist Spain.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.455); « The Civil War began by a revolt of military commanders in Spanish Morocco on July 18th, 1936. The Government remained in control of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia; Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos declared for the insurgent nationalists.» (Palmer, id.).

An ox
: A metaphor for military strength, to the detriment of Ionescu’s interpretation as ‘a symbol of the anti-Christian, communist heresy, Baal’ (Ionescu, id.); « ox n. strong as an ox: extremely strong.» (Obunsha).

Monstre en bœuf
(a monster [extremely strong] like an ox): Ionescu’s interpretation of the preposition ‘en’ as ‘contre (against)’ (the prodigious hero who shall fight against Baal – the Bull God, symbol of heresy) (Ionescu, id., p.454-455) is grammatically impossible because the French preposition ‘en’ has no such meaning and the Latin preposition ‘in’, to which he reduces it straightway with a meaning of ‘contre (against)’, does not correspond one by one to the French ‘en’. His is an example of the abuse of the so-called Latinism in Nostradamus. His another abuse of the same genre is found in his interpretation of the quatrain IX-100 (Ionescu, id., p.324).

Quant
(When): = Quand, as in the quatrains V-46, V-59, V-67, V-83, VI-21 and VI-32.

When in Seville shall be seen a monster like an ox
: « [24] Jul. 1936 Establishment of the supreme military command (Junta de Defensa Nacional), which appointed Sep. 1936 General Franco as head of government of the Spanish state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The F
RANCO government was recognized by Germany and Italy in 1936; by France, Britain and the U.S.A. in 1939, after the ultimate defeat of the republic following three years of bitter fighting. Although Spain joined the Anti-Comintern pact (Apr. 1939), she [la dame (the lady)] remained neutral during the 2nd World War.» (PenguinAtlas 2, p.161).

A monster like an ox: « Franco’s philosophy is worth examining briefly because it was so remote from all the prevailing currents of the age, both liberal and totalitarian. The soldier-statesman he most resembled was Wellington, a figure much admired in Spain. Franco thought war a hateful business, from which gross cruelty was inseparable; it might sometimes be necessary to advance civilization. He was in the tradition of the Romans, the crusaders, the conquistadors, the tercios of Parma. In Africa his Foreign Legionaries mutilated the bodies of their enemies, cutting off their heads. But they were under strict discipline: Franco was a harsh, but just and therefore popular commander. He saw Spanish Christian culture as unarguably superior; he found ‘inexplicable’ the Moroccan ‘resistance to civilization’. Later, putting down the Asturian miners, he was puzzled that, while ‘clearly not monsters or savages’, they should lack ‘that respect for patriotism or hierarchy which was necessary for decent man’. His own motivation he invariably described as ‘duty, love of country’. For Franco, the army was the only national institution, ancient, classless, non-regional, apolitical, incorrupt, disinterested. If it was oppressed, it mutinied, as it had done since the sixteenth century and as recently as 1917; otherwise it served. Everything else in Spain was suspect. The Church was soft. Franco was croyant – he made the sceptical Mola pray for ammunition supplies – and he deliberately courted the approval of the hierarchy by setting up an ‘ecclesiastical household’, but he was in no sense a clericalist and never took the slightest notice of ecclesiastical advice on non-spiritual matters. He hated politics in any shape. The Conservatives were reactionary and selfish landowners. The Liberals were corrupt and selfish businessmen. The Socialists were deluded, or worse. He exploited the two insurrectionary movements, the Falange and the Carlists, amalgamating them under his leadership, but their role was subservient, indeed servile. Franco was never a fascist or had the smallest belief in any kind of Utopia or system. At his headquarters only one politician had influence: his brother-in-law, Ramón Serrano Suñer, and he was a functionary. Franco said: ‘Spaniards are tired of politics and of politicians.’ Again: ‘Only those who live off politics should fear our movement.’ He spent his entire political career seeking to exterminate politics. Franco made better usages of his human and material resources because he fought a military war, and the Republicans fought a political war. He was a master of the nuts and bolts of war: topography, training, infrastructures, logistics, signals, air control. No genius but very thorough and calm; he never reinforced failure and he learnt from mistakes....» (Johnson, 1991, p. 330-331).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§780 General Franco against the Leftist Government (1936-1940): IX-16.

IX-16 (§780):

Of a castle Franco shall leave the assembly,
The ambassador shall make a split:
Those of Ribiere shall be in the conflict,
And in the great abyss shall deny the entry.

(De castel Franco sortira l'assemblee,
L'ambassadeur non plaisant fera scisme:
Ceux de Ribiere seront en la meslee,
Et au grand goulfre desnieront l'entree.)

NOTES: Vlaicu Ionescu, having criticized with reason Stewart Robb’s interpretation of the quatrain (Robb, 1961a, p.38-39), gives us a fully elaborate one: « General Franco, having Castile as his base and the Castle of Alcazar in Toledo as his general headquaters (de castel), shall make a split of regime in opposing the Republican government (Franco fera scisme). The ambassador of this government shall leave the League of Nations (l’assemblee) frustrated (non plaisant). The members of the family of Primo de Rivera (ceux de Ribiere) shall engage themselves body and soul in the strife of Franco (seront en la meslee). Once liberated, Spain shall maintain her neutrality in refusing to enter (desnieront l’entree) the great whirlwind of the World War (au grand goulfre).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.454).

Castel: « castel,
V. chastel.» (Daele); « chastel, sm. château (a castle).» (Daele).

Scisme: « Schisme.
Division (a division). On écrit aussi scisme et cisme (One spells also scisme and cisme(Huguet).

Of a castle Franco shall leave the assembly, The ambassador shall make a split: These verses are « a hyperbaton of the phrase: Of a castle Franco shall make a split, The ambassador shall leave the assembly. Franco has made a split in the true sense of the term, for he has separated from the already existent government in Spain and from its ideology, clearly oriented toward the Communism... The assembly here mentioned is surely the League of Nations. It is known that the Republican government had as its ambassador to the League a certain De Vayo, who was seeking [in vain] to obtain the intervention of the great powers in favour of his cause...» (Ionescu, id., p.452-453).

L'ambassadeur sortira l'assemblee: = [Literally] L'ambassadeur expulsera l'assemblee (The ambassador shall expel the assembly) = [En fait] L'ambassadeur sortira de l'assemblee (The ambassador shall get out of the assembly); « 1939 May: 8th, Spain leaves the League.» (Williams, 1968, p.470).

Those of Ribiere shall be in the conflict: « The expression “those of Ribiere” refers not to the Italian Riviera, but to those of the family of Primo de Rivera, the son of the dictator of the same name, who was the founder of the famous Falange, a powerful nationalist organization, which supported the movement of Franco during the whole span of the war. José Antonio Primo de Rivera was assassinated by the communists. The two nephews of the former dictator, having been military chiefs under Franco, were killed on the battlefield. At last the daughter of the former dictator, Pilar Primo de Rivera, led a national organization of women, and another son, Miguel, occupied for a long time high offices of the state led by Franco. Immediately after the war, Franco reorganized the Falange, which constituted the base of the new government. The new chief of the Falange, Ramon Serrano Suñer, brother-in-law of Franco, became Minister of Internal Affairs... In truth, all of the family of Primo de Rivera had important roles in Franco’s fight.» (Ionescu, id., p.453).

And in the great abyss shall deny the entry: = And [Franco and his government] shall deny the entry in the great abyss: « Hitler was less lucky with Spain. Franco was determined to keep out of war, which he saw as the supreme evil, and especially a war waged by Hitler in association with Stalin, which he felt incarnated all the evils of the century. He declared strict neutrality in September 1939. He advised Mussolini to keep out too. As the price for entering the war he pitched his demands impossibly high: Oran, the whole of Morocco, huge territories in West Africa, massive quantities of war supplies and equipment to attack Gibraltar and defend the Canaries. When he met Hitler at Hendaye on 23 October 1940 he not only increased these demands but greeted his German benefactor with icy coldness verging on contempt. As he was himself a professional soldier, and Hitler an amateur – not even a gentleman, a corporal! – he treated Hitler’s customary military tour d’horizon with unconcealed contempt. They talked, wrote Hitler’s interpreter Paul Schmidt, ‘to or rather at one another’ until two in the morning and failed to agree on anything whatever. Hitler later told Mussolini he would rather have two or three teeth out than go through that again.» (Johnson, 1991, p.366).
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§779 The Spanish civil war (1936-1939): V-51.

V-51 (§779):

Peoples of Dacia, of England and Poland,
And of Bohemia shall make a new league:
To pass beyond the pillar of Hercules,
Those of Barcelona and Aragon shall set up a cruel intrigue.

(La gent de Dace, d'Angleterre & Polonne
Et de Bohesme feront nouvelle ligue.
Pour passer oultre d'Hercules la colonne,
Barcins, Tyrrens dresser cruelle brigue.)

NOTES: The pillar of Hercules: « The Straits of Gibraltar.» (Dufresne, 1995, p.169).

Barcins: « Inhabitants or natives of Barcino, Barcelona (Spain).» (Le Pelletier, II, p.420); « BARCINO, The name which Barcelona bore at the time of the Romans’ invasion into Spain.» (Landais).

Tyrrens: = Tyrrene (§507, III-62) = Tiryns = « 
Τίρυνς [Tiruns], Tiryns, a city of Argolis.» (Pillon); « TYRINTHE, Son of Argus and grand-son of Jupiter, founder of the city of Tiryns. – Anc. geogr. A city of Argolis [Argolis may suggest Aragon], near the Gulf of Argolis. Hercules had his residence there.» (Landais). This north-eastern region of the Peloponnesus can represent, in the context of the quatrain where the Iberian Peninsula is the point in question, that of the Peninsula by geographical analogy: Aragon and Catalonia, the provinces of Republican Spain during the Civil War (cf. Duby, p.126, Chart A and p. 127, Chart D). This type of geographical analogy is also found in the quatrain IX-10 (§738) concerning « Fois & Pamyes contre Tholose Carcas (Foix and Pamiers against Toulouse and Carcassonne)».

Or, the interpretation of the term ‘Tyrrens’ by Le Pelletier (II, p.471), followed by Dufresne (id., p.168), as Sagunto (Sagonte) is not historically supported, for the ancient name of Sagunto for the Iberians was « Arse » (cf.
GeoCenter, Euro Atlas Spain Portugal, 2000, p.105, Ze 110); « It is evident that those who at first identified themselves with Arse, passed then to the stage where they came to recognize themselves as Sagontins (Sagontians), the observation for which the monetary legends give an essential support.» (Ripollès et Llorens, 2002, p.25-26).

Peoples of Dacia, of England and Poland, And of Bohemia shall make a new league: To pass beyond the pillar of Hercules: « The first three verses treat of a military alliance rounding up Rumania (Dacia), England, Poland and the ex-Czechoslovakia as well as of their troops jumping over the Straits of Gibraltar in order to intervene in the Spanish civil war. Now, the year 1936 has certainly seen this particular regrouping of nations under the name of “international Brigades”, offering a helping hand to the Republicans opposed to the fascists of Franco. La Chronique du XXe siècle (the Chronicle of the XXth century) (Larousse) tells us about it in the following terms: “The Brigades, created at the end of October, 1936, are composed of a majority of communists, but also of libertarians, of socialists. The French are there some 10,000, the Italians and the Germans about 5,000, the Americans more than 3,000, the Czechs [Peoples of Bohemia] and the Englishmen [Peoples of England] more than 2,000, the Yugoslavs, Canadians and Austrians more than 1,000. The Swiss, Irish, Cubans and representatives of other countries have participated there, too. The movement, spontaneous at the origin, has been rapidly undertaken by the communist parties and by USSR, which, after having received a reserve of gold of the bank of Spain, furnished it with officering and materials.”» (Dufresne, 1995, p.169); « The Russians also sent 1,000 pilots and about 2,000 other specialists, but no large units. They regarded Spain mainly as an international propaganda exercise, and their effort went into organizing the international brigades. Altogether 40,000 foreigners fought for the Republic, 35,000 in the brigades, though never more than 18,000 at any one time. In addition there were 10,000 doctors, nurses and civilian specialists. The largest contingent, about 10,000, came from France, followed by 5,000 Germans and Austrians, 5,000 Poles [Peoples of Poland], 3,350 Italians, about 2,500 each from Britain and the United States, 1,500 each from Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia, 1,000 each from Scandinavia, Canada and Hungary, and smaller contingents from over forty other countries [Peoples of Dacia, etc.].» (Johnson, 1991, p.330).

Those of Barcelona and Aragon shall set up a cruel intrigue
: This prediction seems to refer mediately to the Russian intervention full of Stalin’s political intrigues in Republican Spain based in Catalonia and Aragon: « Franco made better usages of his human and material resources because he fought a military war, and the Republicans fought a political war. He was a master of the nuts and bolts of war: topography, training, infrastructures, logistics, signals, air control. No genius but very thorough and calm; he never reinforced failure and he learnt from mistakes... In one sense finance was the key to the war, and Franco and his advisers handled it shrewdly. Their greatest achievement was to maintain a respectable paper currency without the benefit of the nation’s gold reserves and central banking system. By contrast, the Republicans handled their finances with consummate folly. They started with one of the greatest gold reserves in the world: 700 tons, worth £162 million (or $788 million). Instead of using this to raise loans, or for direct payments in the ‘hard’ arms markets of the capitalist countries of the West, while getting arms from the Russians on credit, they handed over more than two-thirds of their gold to Stalin... Still more disastrous, from the Republic’s point of view, was Stalin’s insistence, while being paid in gold on the nail, on a political price for supplying arms at all. The moment the fighting started, and the need for arms became desperate, the influence of the Spanish
CP rose dramatically. This might not have mattered so much if it had led an independent existence. In fact it was controlled through the Russian embassy, by NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs) and OGPU (Special Government Political Administration) units under Alexander Orlov – who himself went in mortal terror of Yezhov – and by such Comintern figures as the French witch-hunter André Marty, whose face, wrote Hemingway, ‘had a look of decay, as if modelled from the waste material you find under the claws of a very old lion’. It is not clear to this day how anxious Stalin was to win the war; but in any event he was determined to control the Republican side. The Communists – that is, Stalin’s secret police – took over Republican Spain. The result was one of the major political tragedies of the century. It is clear that, if the army had not staged a putsch in July 1936, sooner or later Spain would have had to endure a civil war fought among the Left. It broke out in Barcelona in the spring of 1937, with the Communists fighting the POUM (Workers’ Party of Marxist Unification) and the anarchists. The immediate pretext, as in the wider civil war, was a political murder, of a leading Communist, Roldán Cortada, shot on 25 April, possibly by an anarchist ‘control patrol’, possibly by the Comintern agent Ernö Gerö. Both sides had private armies, secret police forces, gangs of murderous thugs. The moment Negrín was installed as nominal premier, the Communists took over the Interior Ministry and all the key police and paramilitary posts, and moved forward to a règlement des comptes. The purge coincided with Stalin’s massacre of his own party in Russia, and it bore all the marks of his methods. The CP-controlled Madrid police forced two captured Falangists to prepare a fake plan for a Madrid rising by Franco’s much-vaunted ‘Fifth Column’, and they forged a letter to Franco, on the back of this plan, from Andrés Nin, the POUM leader. A great mass of forged documents implicating the POUM in a fascist betrayal was put in a suitcase left in Gerona, then ‘discovered’ by police. On 14 June, Orlov, as head of the Spanish NKVD, probably acting on direct instructions from Stalin, ordered the arrest of all POUM leaders. This was despite the protests of the Communist members of the cabinet (the non-Communist members, least of all Negrín, were not even informed). The Commander of the 29th POUM division was recalled from the front for ‘consultations’ and arrested too. The detained men were taken straight to carefully prepared interrogation-centres and torture-chambers, most of them underground but including the former Barcelona convent of St Ursala, known as ‘the Dachau of Republican Spain’. Efforts by the cabinet to secure Nin’s release were quite unavailing. But Stalin’s plans to make him the centre of a Spanish show-trial were frustrated, since Nin, the model for Orwell’s hero Goldstein in Nineteen Eighty-Four, preferred to die under torture rather than confess. (He was eventually murdered by Orlov in the park of El Pardo, later Franco’s palace.) During the rest of 1937 and well into 1938, many thousands of POUM members, and indeed other Leftists of all descriptions, were executed or tortured to death in Communist prisons. They included a large number of foreigners, such as Trotsky’s former secretary, Erwin Wolff, the Austrian socialist Kurt Landau, the British journalist ‘Bob’ Smilie and a former lecturer at Johns Hopkins University, José Robles. Among those who just managed to escape were Orwell and Willy Brandt, the future German Chancellor.» (Johnson, id., p.333-335).

« It was one of Spain’s many misfortunes at this time that her Civil War coincided with the climax of Stalin’s great terror. Many of the Barcelona murders had little to do with Spain’s internal politics but were, rather, the backlash of events in Moscow and Leningrad. Thus Robles was executed because, as interpreter of General Jan Antonovich Berzin, head of the Russian military mission to Spain, he knew too much about Berzin’s recall and liquidation as part of Stalin’s purge of the army. Stalin was having his leading agents killed all over the world in 1937-8. And, as in Russia, virtually all the creatures who helped him to take over the Left in Spain, and then to terrorize it, were murdered in turn. The head of the
NKVD’s foreign department was cornered in his own office in Paris in February 1938 and forced to take syanide. Of those who organized arms supplies to Spain, Evhen Konovalek was killed in Rotterdam in May 1938, Rudolf Clement was found, a headless corpse, in the Seine, and Walter Krivitsky, boss of Soviet military intelligence in Western Europe, was chased for three years by Stalin’s hit-men until they got him in Washington on 10 February 1941. In addition to General Berzin, Stalin murdered Michael Koltzov, the famous Pravda Spanish correspondent, Arthur Stashevsky, head of the economic mission to Spain, and Antonov Ovseenko, Consul-General in Barcelona, who was told he was being recalled to Moscow to be made Minister of Justice, a joke characteristic of Stalin’s gallows-humour. The only man who escaped Stalin was the arch-killer Orlov himself, who defected, wrote an account of all he knew, informed Stalin that he had arranged to have it published immediately if he died violently, and so was left in peace, publishing his tale after Stalin’s death. It may be asked: how was it that the atrocities against the Left in Barcelona [Those of Barcelona and Aragon shall set up a cruel intrigue] did not cause a wave of revulsion against Stalinism throughout the world? One factor was luck. On 26 April 1937, the day after Cortada’s murder in Barcelona detonated the internal crisis, forty-three aircraft of the Condor Legion bombed the historic Basque town of Guernica, whose famous oak tree had shaded the first Basque parliament. About 1,000 people were killed and 70 per cent of the buildings destroyed. It was not the first bombing of a town by either side, and Guernica was a legitimate target, though the object of the raid was terror. It was decided upon by Colonel Wolfgang von Richthofen, the Legion’s Commander, in consultation with Colonel Juan Vigón, Mola’s Chief of Staff. [General Mola, cynosure of the militant Right (id., p.322).] There is no evidence Mola knew about it beforehand; Franco certainly did not; and the Germans did not know of the town’s historical significance. For the Comintern propagandists – the best in the world – it was a stroke of uncovenanted fortune, and they turned it into the most celebrated episode of the entire war. Picasso, who had already been asked to do a large painting for the Spanish pavilion at the Paris World Fair, leapt at the subject, and the result was later taken to the New York Metropolitan. Guernica helped to push a whole segment of Western opinion, including the magazines Times and Newsweek, over to the Republican side. In the subsequent hullabaloo, the echoes of which could still be heard in the 1980s, when the painting was solemnly hung in the Prado, the sounds of mass-slaughter in Barcelona went unheard.» (Johnson, id., p.335-336).

« The way in which Guernica was used to screen the destruction of the
POUM was typical of the brilliance of the Comintern propaganda, handled by two inspired professional liars, Willi Muenzenberg and Otto Katz, both later murdered on Stalin’s orders. Throughout the Spanish war, Stalinism was assisted not only by superb public relations but by the naïvety, gullibility and, it must also be said, the mendacity and corruption of Western intellectuals, especially their willingness to overlook what W.H.Auden called “the necessary murder”. When Orwell escaped and sought to publish an account of the POUM scandal, “Spilling the Spanish Beans”, in the New Statesman, its editor, Kingsley Martin, turned it down on the grounds that it would damage Western support for the Republican cause. But when Orwell’s exposure appeared in the New English Weekly, it attracted little notice. The intellectuals of the Left did not want to know the objective truth; they were unwilling for their illusions to be shattered. They were overwhelmed by the glamour and excitement of the cause and few had the gritty determination of Orwell to uphold absolute standards of morality, or the experience of the horrors that occurred when relative ones took their place. Many of them treated ‘the Party’ with abject subservience. Besides, the Communists controlled access to Republican Spain. To get there a British writer, for instance, needed a letter from the head of the CP, Harry Pollitt, who worked closely with Victor Gollancz, the leading left-wing publisher, whose Left Book Club dominated the market. The poet W.H.Auden was saved by his ‘Pollitt letter’ from a prison sentence when he was arrested for indecency in a Barcelona Park. A visit to ‘our’ Spain was essential to the self-respect of a progressive intellectual. Just as the Germans, Russians and Italians used Spain to test their new military equipment – exploitation by hardware – so writers went there to acquire material for their next novel or poem, what might be termed exploitation by software. André Malraux, whose novel about the Chinese revolution, La Condition humaine (1932), had made him world famous, went to Spain hoping for a sequel, which duly appeared as L’Espoir (1938). He brought with him a squadron of slow Potex bombers, which created a noisy splash in the papers but did little damage to the nationalists, and anyway had to be crewed by Spaniards. The commander of the Republican fighters, García Lacalle, wrote that Malraux’s people were ‘writers, artists, photographers, women, children and I don’t know what – everything but aviators’. Hemingway was in Spain too, ‘researching’ For Whom the Bell Tolls. Fancying himself hard-boiled and experienced in the cynicism of war, ‘Papa’ was easily duped. When his friend Dos Passos became worried about the disappearance of Robles, whom he knew well (he had in fact already been murdered), Hemingway was tipped off by his ‘amigo’ in counter-espionage, the sinister Pepe Quintanilla, that Robles was a spy, and at once assumed he was guilty. He attributed Dos Passos’ ‘continued belief in Robles’ loyalty to the good-hearted naïvety of a “typical American liberal attitude’” – but of course it was Hemingway who proved naïve.» (Johnson, id., p.336-337).

« After the destruction of the
POUM, Republican morale declined steadily. In these circumstances, Franco opted for a war of attrition throughout the appalling winter of 1937-8, and in April he cut Republican Spain in two. Thereafter it was really a matter of time only, with Franco taking no chances and insisting on overwhelming superiority. By the autumn Stalin had tired of the war, had extracted the last ounce of propaganda value out of it, had completed his purges and was already thinking of a new deal, either with the Western democracies or, more likely, with Hitler. He had also got all the Republic’s gold. So he cut off aid, and Franco was able to open his last Catalonian offensive, just before Christmas, confident that the end was near. Barcelona fell on 28 January 1939, and Madrid on 28 March. Franco had fought the war without passion, and when he heard it was over he did not even look up from his desk.» (Johnson, id., p.338).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§778 The downfall of the Spanish monarchy (1921-1941): III-19.

III-19 (§778):

In Luke blood and milk shall come to rain:
A little earlier change of the praetor,
Shall make see great plague and war, famine and thirst
The distant place, where their prince-rector shall die.

(En Luques sang & laict viendra plouvoir:
Un peu devant changement de preteur,
Grand peste & guerre, faim & soif fera voyr
Loing, ou mourra leur prince recteur.)

NOTES: Luques (Luke): « Synecdoche – Luke, a city of Spain, for Spain herself.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.447); « In order to indicate Spain, Nostradamus chooses a city of this country, a city which has the name of one of the Evangelists. The point in question is therefore the monarchical and traditional Spain.» (Ionescu, id.).

In Luke blood and milk shall come to rain: « The words “blood and milk” seem to be an indication of the downfall of the King because “blood” means a noble birth and “milk” (together with honey) is a ritual substance of the royal anointment.» (id., p.447-448); «The constitutional monarchy under Alfonso XIII was never very efficient and reached rock bottom in 1921 when a Spanish army sent to put down a revolt led by Abd-el-Krim in Spanish Morocco was massacred by the Moors. In 1923 General Primo de Rivera seized power in a bloodless coup, with Alfonso’s approval, and ruled for the next seven years. The king called him ‘my Mussolini’, but though Primo was a military dictator, he was not a fascist. He was responsible for a number of public works – railways, roads and irrigation schemes; industrial production developed at three times the rate before 1923; most impressive of all, he managed to end the war in Morocco (1925). When the world economic crisis reached Spain in 1930 unemployment rose, Primo and his advisers bungled the finances, causing depreciation of the peseta, and the army withdrew support, whereupon Primo resigned [A little earlier change of the praetor]. In April 1931 municipal elections were held in which the republicans won all the large cities; as huge crowds gathered on the street of Madrid, Alfonso decided to abdicate to avoid bloodshed, and a republic was proclaimed [In Luke blood and milk shall come to rain]. The monarchy had been overthrown without bloodshed, but unfortunately the slaughter had merely been postponed until 1936.» (Lowe, 1988, p.171-173);

« 1931 Apr: 14th, King Alfonso flees in Spanish revolution and Alcalá Zamora becomes President of provisional government.» (Williams, 1968, p.528).

Praetor: « Ancient-Roman magistrate below consul.» (Sykes).

A little earlier change of the praetor: « 1930 Jan: 28th, dictatorship of Primo de Rivera ends in Spain and General Damaso Berenguer forms ministry.» (Williams, id., p.524).

In Luke blood and milk shall come to rain: A little earlier change of the praetor, Shall make see great plague and war, famine and thirst
: = In Luke blood and milk shall come to rain: A little earlier change of the praetor, [which] Shall make see great plague and war, famine and thirst: Namely, the downfall of the monarchy and the Republican political inefficiency in Spain make finally ensue the civil war [war] with horrible atrocities [great plague] and miseries [famine and thirst]: « It was an unexpected flare-up in Spain in 1936 that first brought the forces of Fascism and democracy (or was it communism?) into open conflict. Franco, the Spanish general who led the right-wing revolt against the not very competent left-wing government of Spain, quickly got the upper hand in this fighting. During 1937 he completed the conquest of the north; in 1938 he split the remaining republican territory into two halves by driving through to the Mediterranean. The next year’s campaign was to bring him complete victory. By then a half a million Spaniards had died, more of them in the mass executions that both sides were prone to indulge in than in the front-line fighting. The Spanish Republic had come into existence in 1931, when a popular rebellion forced King Alfonso XIII to flee. The Republicans then attempted to push Spain from the eighteenth century into the twentieth in one go, a programme that alienated the church, the army and the upper classes and finally precipitated Franco’s rebellion. Franco received important, but probably not critical, help from Hitler and Mussolini; the Republicans got a bit of help – not enough to make any difference – from Stalin, and rather more from the international communist movement which sponsored the volunteer international Brigades.» (McEvedy, 1982, p.70).

Rector
: « Head priest of church, etc.; head of university, college, school, or religious institution.» (Sykes).

The distant place, where their prince-rector shall die
: « The last verse returns to the King Alfonso XIII, who shall die far off his country. Nostradamus names him “prince-rector” because the word “rector” has the meaning of ‘chief’, but also ‘by right, good, legitimate and virtuous’. The good King of legitimacy shall die in Rome [on February 28, 1941], far off his country.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.447).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§777 The Fascists aspiring to revive the Roman glory end in catastrophe (1922-1945): VI-66.

VI-66 (§777):

At the foundation of the new sect,
Shall be found the bones of the great Roman,
The covered sepulcher of marble shall appear,
The earth shall tremble in April, deformed burials.

(Au fondement de la nouvelle secte,
Seront les oz du grand Romain trouvés,
Sepulcre en marbre apparoistra couverte,
Terre trembler en Avril, mal enfouetz.)

NOTES: The new sect: = « the Fascism.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.535).

The bones of the great Roman: = « those of Caesar.» (id.).

At the foundation of the new sect, Shall be found the bones of the great Roman: = When the sepulcher of the great Roman found (§772, III-65) = The buried shall come out of his tomb (§773, VII-24): « The profound cause of the birth, the development and the end of the Fascism was the worship of [Caesar and] the Roman emperors, of whom it made a model.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.535).

Sepulcre en marbre apparoistra couverte: = Sepulcre en marbre couverte apparoistra, the feminine form of the word ‘couvert’, “couverte”, being rhymed with “secte” of the first line.

The covered sepulcher of marble shall appear: The success in the beginning of the Fascist party = One of the Royal mountain, Who bets and is reliable, shall come to tyrannize, Shall raise troops of the Milanese march (§770, VII-32).

Enfouetz: The past participle in the plural of the verb « enfouer, v.a., enfouir, enterrer (to bury, to inter).» (Godefroy).

The earth shall tremble in April, deformed burials: = The earth shall tremble [It shall take place the World War II], deformed burials in April [in April 1945 Mussolini was assassinated and hung] (Ionescu, id., p.536): « He declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940, when France was already defeated. On the following October 28th his troops invaded Greece but were repulsed and, soon after, suffered reverses in Libya and East Africa. These defeats weakened Mussolini’s prestige, especially as the Fascists had always sought to inculcate admiration for the glories of war. By the summer of 1941 Mussolini had become virtually a German pensionary but it was not until July 25th, 1943, that a coup by King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal Badoglio forced him to resign. He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Appennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy. On April 28th, 1945, he was captured by Italian partisans and shot on the shore of Lake Como while attempting to escape into Switzerland. His corpse was taken to Milan and hung in the Piazzale Loreto amid demonstrations of public execration.» (Palmer, p.194-195).

In April, deformed burials
: « The tragic end of the Duce. The Italian partisans, refusing to deliver Mussolini to the Allies, shot him with 17 loyal followers of his. His mistress shared the same fate. Their corpses hung by the legs were subject to the public vengeance at Loreto Place in Milan.» (Trémolières IV, p.61).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§776 The belligerent Mussolini disastrous in the end (1935-1945): IX-80.

IX-80 (§776):

The duke shall want to terminate those of his own,
Shall send the strongest into foreign countries,
By tyranny shall ruin Pise and Lucca,
Next the barbarous shall reap harvests without wine.

(Le duc vouldra les siens exterminer,
Envoiera les plus fortz lieux estranges,
Par tyrannie Pize & Luc ruiner,
Puis les barbares sans vin feront vendanges.)

NOTES: The duke: = Your great Duke (§775, X-64) = Il Duce Benito Mussolini (§774, IX-96); « This quatrain is remarkable even from the first words, for the word “duke (duc)” indicates us with the greatest clarity Mussolini, “il Duce”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.526).

Les siens (those of his own): = « his [Mussolini’s] own people.» (Halley, 1999, p.145).

Les plus fortz (the strongest): = the strongest of his people = the soldiers of his army, Ionescu’s interpretation of the verses as “his best forces (ses meilleures forces)” (Ionescu, 1976, p.528) being too narrow to be faithful to the text.

Lieux estranges: = En lieux estranges (into foreign places), sur les pays étrangers (to the foreign countries) (Ionescu, id.), this type of ellipse of preposition can be called as “embrouiller prophetiquement (to embroil prophetically)” (See Category d, §5, A l’Entrée des Prophéties).

The duke Shall send the strongest into foreign countries: = He claims the army led to the vulnerable gates, They shall wage wars, death of bloodshed (§774, IX-96). 

Pise and Lucca: = « By synecdoche: Italy herself.» (Ionescu, id., p.526).

The duke shall want to terminate those of his own, Shall send the strongest into foreign countries, By tyranny shall ruin Pise and Lucca
: = One of the Royal mountain shall come to tyrannize, Shall exhaust Faenza, Florence, wealth and the nation (§770, VII-32): « From the Corfu Incident of 1924 [sic; (1923)] to the attack on Abyssinia of 1935, [Mussolini] indulged in an aggressive foreign policy. Although at first hostile to Hitler’s Germany because of its ambitions in Austria (Italy’s neighbour), the similarity between the Fascist and Nazi systems and the international ostracism imposed on Italy because of the Abyssinian War led Mussolini to bring the two countries together in what he called the ‘Axis’ of 1936. At Easter 1939 he annexed Albania. He declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940, when France was already defeated. On the following October 28th his troops invaded Greece but were repulsed and, soon after, suffered reverses in Libya and East Africa. These defeats weakened Mussolini’s prestige, especially as the Fascists had always sought to inculcate admiration for the glories of war. By the summer of 1941 Mussolini had become virtually a German pensionary but it was not until July 25th, 1943, that a coup by King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal Badoglio forced him to resign. He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Appennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy. On April 28th, 1945, he was captured by Italian partisans and shot on the shore of Lake Como while attempting to escape into Switzerland. His corpse was taken to Milan and hung in the Piazzale Loreto amid demonstrations of public execration.» (Palmer, p.194-195).

The barbarous
: « The “barbarous” are the troops of Hitler, who invaded Italy, in order to resist the Allies.» (Ionescu, id., p.528).

Next the barbarous shall reap harvests without wine: « During the World War II, the Germans will intervene to occupy the weakened country of Mussolini, but their sanguinary efforts will rest without result.» (Ionescu, id.); « Mussolini is no more than a marionette in the hands of the Führer. He opposes against the government of Marshal Badoglio an ‘Italian Social Republic’ born on December 1st, 1943, on the shore of Lake Garda. Surnamed the ‘Republic of Salo’, this ephemeral regime is not but a last misadventure of the radical fascism, subject to the German protector, whose members draw the northern Italy into fire and blood.» (Trémolières IV, p.61).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§775 Mussolini into war to be lost in the end (1940-1943): X-64.

X-64 (§775):

Weep Milan, weep Lucca, Florence,
For your great Duke who shall mount the chariot,
Who shall change his seat to advance near Venice,
When the Pillar at Rome shall change.

(Pleure Milan, pleure Luques, Florence,
Que ton grand Duc sur le char montera,
Changer le siege pres de Venise s'avance,
Lors que Colomne à Rome changera.)

NOTES: Milan, Lucca, Florence: Representing Italy by synecdoche, = Millane, Florence (§770, VII-32), = Luc (§776, IX-80).

Your great Duke
: = Il Duce Benito Mussolini (§774, IX-96), = the Duke (§776, IX-80)

Colomne: = the Pillar of the state of Italy, i.e., the sovereign King of Italy, being from the Latin « columna, ae, f., a column, pillar, post.» (Smith-Lockwood). The word Columna in the quatrain IX-2 (§770) represents Colonne near Rome, though it resembles perfectly columna, while the word Colomne represents columna, though it nearly resembles Colonne. These are the perverse expressions familiar in the domain of prophecies.

Weep Milan, weep Lucca, Florence, For your great Duke who shall mount the chariot, Who shall change his seat to advance near Venice, When the Pillar at Rome shall change: = §770, VII-32: One of the Royal mountain shall be born of a hovel... Shall exhaust Faenza, Florence, wealth and the nation: « He declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940, when France was already defeated [your great Duke who shall mount the chariot]. On the following October 28th his troops invaded Greece but were repulsed and, soon after, suffered reverses in Libya and East Africa. These defeats weakened Mussolini’s prestige, especially as the Fascists had always sought to inculcate admiration for the glories of war [Weep Milan, weep Lucca, Florence, For your great Duke who shall mount the chariot...]. By the summer of 1941 Mussolini had become virtually a German pensionary but it was not until July 25th, 1943, that a coup by King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal Badoglio forced him to resign [When the Pillar at Rome shall change]. He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Appennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy [Who shall change his seat to advance near Venice].» (Palmer, p.194-195).

Who shall change his seat to advance near Venice: « Mussolini is no more than a marionette in the hands of the Führer. He opposes against the government of Marshal Badoglio an ‘Italian Social Republic’ born on December 1st, 1943, on the shore of Lake Garda. Surnamed the ‘Republic of Salo’ [his seat near Venice], this ephemeral regime is not but a last misadventure of the radical fascism, subject to the German protector, whose members draw the northern Italy into fire and blood.» (Trémolières IV, p.61).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§774 Mussolini in Rome and overseas (1922-1939): IX-96.

IX-96 (§774):

The army denied to enter the city,
Il Duce shall enter there by persuasion,
He claims the army led to the vulnerable gates,
They shall wage wars, death of bloodshed.

(Dans cité entrer exercit desniee,
Duc entrera par persuasion,
Aux foibles portes clam armee amenee,
Mettront feu, mort de sang effusion.) (№10)

NOTES: Exercit: = « exercite, s.m., armée (army).» (Godefroy).

Desnier: = Dénier (to deny, to refuse) (Dubois).

Duc
: « ‘Duc’ may be taken for ‘Duce’, the title Benito Mussolini assumed as fascist head of the Italian State after 1924.»  (Halley, 1999, p.145).

Clam
: = Clame by apocope, for the liaison with armee; « clamer, v.n. crier, réclamer (to cry, to claim).» (Godefroy).

The army denied to enter the city, Il Duce shall enter there by persuasion
: At Udine he told them, in the last of a series of major speeches given all over the country: ‘Our programme is simple: we wish to govern Italy.’ He would govern Italy as it had never been governed since Roman times: firmly, fairly, justly, honestly, above all efficiently. On 16 October 1922 Mussolini decided to force the issue, believing that if he waited, Giolitti, the one man he feared, might steal his role. He arranged for a march on Rome for the end of the month, by four divisions totalling 40,000 blackshirted men. Many army and police commanders agreed not to fire on them, and his paper, Il Popolo d’Italia, carried the banner: I grigioverdi fraternizzano con le Camicie Nere! [The graygreens (of the Italian Army uniforms) will fraternize with the Black Shirt (of the Fascists)!] Mussolini had a lifelong capacity for hovering uneasily between grandeur and farce. By the time his ill-equipped, badly clothed and unfed army had halted outside Rome [The army denied to enter the city], in pouring rain, on the evening of 28 October, it did not present a very formidable spectacle. Mussolini played his cards skillfully. When he was telephoned in Milan by the King’s
ADC, General Cittadini, and offered partial power in a new ministry, he simply replaced the receiver. The next day, 29 October, he graciously consented to form his own government, provide the invitation by phone was confirmed by telegram. The wire duly came, and that evening he went to Milan Station in state, wearing his black shirt, to catch the night-sleeper to Rome... [Il Duce shall enter there by persuasion]» (Johnson, 1991, p.99-100).

Duc
: « ‘Duc’ may be taken for ‘Duce’, the title Benito Mussolini assumed as fascist head of the Italian State after 1924.»  (Halley, 1999, p.145).

He claims the army led to the vulnerable gates, They shall wage wars, death of bloodshed

« 1935 Jun: 23rd, Anthony Eden offers Benito Mussolini concessions over Abyssinia, which he rejects.» (Williams, 1968, p.546);
« 1935 Oct: 2nd, Italy invades Abyssinia.» (Williams, id., p.548);
« 1935 Oct: 19th, League imposes sanctions against Italy.»  (Williams, id., p.548); The vulnerable gates: « The vulnerable gates would then be those of Makale, the provincial capital of Ethiopia, when fell to the Duce on 8 November 1935.»  (Halley, id.);
« 1936 May: 5th, Italians occupy Addis Ababa, ending Abyssinian war [They shall wage wars, death of bloodshed] and, 9th, Abyssinia is formally annexed by Italy.»  (Williams, id., p.552);
« 1937 Mar: 16th, Benito Mussolini visits Libya.»  (Williams, id., p.558);
« 1938 Oct: 25th, Libya is declared to be part of Italy.»  (Williams, id., p.566);
« 1939 Jan: 1st (-6th), Édouard Daladier [radical Socialist premier of France] visits Algiers, Tunisia and Corsica to counter Benito Mussolini’s demands for colonies in North Africa; 10th, Neville Chamberlain and Lord Halifax visit Rome for conversations with Benito Mussolini.»  (Williams, id., p.568);
« 1939 Apr: 7th, Italy invades Albania.»  (Williams, id., p.568).
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§773 Mussolini, Pius XI and Hitler (1929-1939): VII-24.

VII-24 (§773):

The buried shall come out of his tomb,
Shall make bind the strong of the bridge with chains:
Shall be poisoned with the roes of a barbel,
A great of Lorraine by the Marquis of the Bridge.

(L'ensevely sortira du tombeau,
Fera de chaines lier le fort du pont:
Empoysoné avec œufz de barbeau,
Grand de Lorraine par le Marquis du Pont.)

NOTES: The buried shall come out of his tomb: = When the sepulcher of the great Roman found (§772, III-65) = At the foundation of a new sect, The bones of the great Roman shall be found, The sepulcher of marble shall appear covered (§777, VI-66): « The profound cause of the birth, the development and the end of the Fascism was the worship of the Roman emperors, of whom it made a model.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.535).

The buried Shall make bind the strong of the bridge with chains
: Mussolini’s strategic policy of his reconciliatory agreement with the Pope has a nuance of fastening the Holy See (le fort du pont, the strong of the bridge, the fort of the Pontiff, the Vatican) within his regime in a manner: « An understanding was reached with the pope by the Lateran Treaty (1929). Mussolini, though something of an atheist himself, was well aware of the power of the Roman Catholic Church, and put himself out to win over Pius XI who, as the Duce well knew, was obsessed with the fear of communism. The result was the Lateran Treaty by which Italy recognised the Vatican City as a sovereign state, paid the pope a large sum of money as compensation for all his losses, accepted the Catholic faith as the official state religion and made religious instruction compulsory in all schools. In return the Papacy recognised the kingdom of Italy. Some historians see the ending of the long breach between church and state as Mussolini’s most lasting and worthwhile achievement.» (Lowe, 1988, p.100).

Shall be poisoned
: This expression is analogous to that of the preceding quatrain: His blood in the sacred chalice poisoned (§772, III-65), in this case the Pope Pius XI (le fort du pont, le Marquis du Pont) shall be poisoned by a great of Lorraine (Hitler).

The roes of a barbel
: a very delicious plate.

A great of Lorraine
: = Hitler, Alsace-Lorraine belonging to the Nazi Germany.

The Marquis of the Bridge
: = the Pope Pius XI, the French word le Pont (the Bridge) immediately suggesting the Pontiff, and the etymology of the word le Marquis (the Marquis): “la marche”, i.e. « Province frontière d’un état, A frontier province of a state.» (Petit Robert) recalling the Vatican, a frontier district of Italy.

Shall be poisoned with the roes of a barbel, A great of Lorraine by the Marquis of the Bridge
: The construction is as follows, the preposition ‘by (par)’ being in dislocation (cf. §731-sequel 5): The Marquis of the Bridge shall be poisoned with the roes of a barbel by a great of Lorraine: « Initially, Pius saw Communism as more damaging than the emergent National Socialism of Germany, and therefore he signed the concordat [the roes of a barbel] with Hitler in 1933. Nevertheless, it quickly became obvious that National Socialism was both oppressive and dangerous and so, after many protests addressed to the Nazi government, Pius denounced it in 1937 as anti-Christian and ordered his letter to be read from every Catholic pulpit.» (Maxwell-Stuart, 2006, p.225).
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§772 Mussolini and Pius XI (1919-1939): III-65.

III-65 (§772):

When the sepulcher of the great Roman found,
On the day thereafter shall be elected a pontiff,
He shall not be unanimously approved by the senate
His blood in the sacred chalice poisoned.

(Quand le sepulchre du grand Romain trouvé,
Le jour apres sera esleu pontife,
Du senat gueres il ne sera prouvé
Empoisonné son sang au sacré scyphe.)

NOTES: When the sepulcher of the great Roman found: « On 23 March 1919 Mussolini and his syndicalist friends founded a new party. Its programme was partial seizure of finance capital, control over the rest of the economy by corporative economic councils, confiscation of church lands and agrarian reform, and abolition of the monarchy and senate.» (Johnson, 1991, p.96); « Italy was not short of poetic myths. There was the nineteenth-century nationalist myth of Garibaldi and Mazzini, still enormously powerful, the Realpolitik myth of Machiavelli (another of Mussolini’s favourite authors), and the still earlier myth of Rome and its empire, waiting to be stirred up from its long sleep and set to march with new legions [the sepulcher of the great Roman]...» (Johnson, id., p.97); « At Udine he told in the last of a series of major speeches given all over the country: ‘Our programme is simple: we wish to govern Italy.’ He would govern Italy as it had never been governed since Roman times: firmly, fairly, justly, honestly, above all efficiently.» (Johnson, id., p.99); « In 1919, he [Mussolini] founded the fascist party [When the sepulcher of the great Roman found] with a socialist and republican programme and showed sympathy with the factory occupations of 1919-20. The local party branches were known as fasci di combattimento (fighting groups) – the word fasces meant the bundle of rods with protruding axe which used to symbolise the authority and power of the ancient Roman consuls.» (Lowe, 1988, p.96);

= The buried shall come out of his tomb (§773, VII-24) = At the foundation of a new sect, The bones of the great Roman shall be found, The covered sepulcher of marble shall appear (§777, VI-66): « The profound cause of the birth, the development and the end of the Fascism was the worship of the Roman emperors, of whom it made a model.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.535).

On the day thereafter shall be elected a pontiff: « Ratti became Archbishop of Milan... Achille Ratti had been a Cardinal for only seven months when Pope Benedict XV died suddenly. He received the news with deep regret, because of the affection and affinity of views on many questions between him and the Pope. Before Cardinal Ratti left for the conclave in Rome, he celebrated a requiem Mass. At the end of the service he asked the congregation to pray with him that God provide a worthy successor as the new Pope. On the same evening he took the train for Rome. Upon arriving in Rome, he took up his quarters in the Lombard Seminary, the institution where he had spent three years during his youth... There is no doubt that he was fully aware of the possibility that stood before him, namely, to become Pope. It was but a premonition. Ratti had no vaulting ambition to become the leader of the universal Church.. On February 2, 1922, when he entered the conclave, he said good-bye to the seminarians by asking again for their prayers, and left them with the words: “Fiat voluntas tua” - Thy will be done... In 1922 the conclave was held in a restricted area of the Vatican Palace. Each Cardinal was assigned three rooms: one for himself and two for his secretary and valet. The balloting itself is held in the Sistine Chapel. There are four ballots every day; two in the morning and two in the afternoon. At the end of a balloting the ballots are immediately burned in a stove, the chimney of which faces St. Peter's Square. When the new Pope has been finally elected, wet straw is added to the ballots that are to be burned and this produces the famous white smoke that traditionally conveys to the outside world the news that a new Pontiff sits on the throne of St. Peter. The College of Cardinals, when full, has seventy members. At the death of Benedict XV there were sixty; of these, fifty-three participated in the election. Descriptions of the proceedings of conclaves have very often been published by participants, yet certain aspects of the proceedings of a conclave are secret, and any Cardinal who reveals them would be breaking his oath. There are, however, certain aspects of a papal election which are not secret and if revealed do not harm the Church. Most of the published accounts agree that Achille Ratti was elected on the fourteenth ballot on February 6 [, 1922. On the day thereafter]. Cardinal Ratti accepted the election and was immediately vested in the traditional white robes. He chose Pius XI as his new name, because, as he said, he had been born into the Catholic Church during the pontificate of Pius IX, and it was Pius X who had called him to Rome. Furthermore, Pius is a name expressing peace; his predecessor Benedict XV dedicated himself to peace and he, Ratti, wanted to devote himself to the pacification of the world. After a moment of silence, he lifted his voice. As he pronounced the words of acceptance, he was humble though firm. But then his voice became the voice of the Pope making his first pronouncement, declaring that he would defend all the prerogatives and rights of the Holy See. And he told the assembled cardinals that he would make an appearance on the outer balcony of St. Peter's because he wanted to give a sign of his good will to Italy and to the entire world, something no Pope had done for the last fifty years.»
(Aradi, 1958, p.122-128).

Gueres: = « GUÈRE ou GUÈRES. adv. 1. Vx. Beaucoup, très (Arch.
Much, greatly).» (Petit Robert).

Du senat gueres il ne sera prouvé
: = Il ne sera gueres prouvé du senat: = Il ne sera beaucoup prouvé du senat: = Il ne sera prouvé du senat à l’unanimité (He shall not be unanimously approved by the senate, the Fascism in principle pretending to be unanimous also in the Senate as the Chamber being so): « Thus began the 200 meetings in which the problem was studied. Francesco Pacelli made it clear at the first meeting that the Pope would insist on two conditions: that in some way or other the Pope's temporal sovereignty be re-established; and that religious marriage ceremony be put on a par with civil marriage ceremony. Since Barone agreed, this became the basis for the preliminary negotiations during which the territorial limits of the Vatican state were agreed upon. It was also agreed that a concordat would follow the agreement, and that the state would adjust its marriage laws to those of the Church. On his part, the Holy Father renounced any guarantees from any other powers. In 1926, the negotiators had 110 conferences and 129 audiences with the Pope (often lasting from three to four hours). On November 24, 1926, the first drafts were ready. In the last months of 1926 and thereafter, negotiations on behalf of the papacy were carried on by Msgr. Borgongini-Duca at Cardinal Belmonte's villa. They often lasted from 10:00 in the morning until 7:00 at night. On September 5, 1928, when the whole question was almost settled between the two parties, it was announced that negotiations could begin officially. On November 22, 1928, the king formally authorized Barone, and the Pope authorized Cardinal Gasparri, to sign any agreements that were reached. Barone fell ill, and his place was taken by Mussolini himself. After January 21, 1929, the treaty and the concordat were discussed point by point, so that Francesco Pacelli could report to the Pope every morning. There was, of course, an army of jurists, specialists, protocolists, and others involved. On February 7, 1929, Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of State of the Vatican, called together the heads of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See to his official chambers. There he announced that the seemingly insoluble Roman question had been peacefully solved, and that the Vatican and Italy were working on a concordat to regulate their mutual relations. At noon on February 11, 1929, Cardinal Gasparri, representing Pius XI, received Mussolini, who was representing King Victor Emmanuel, in the Lateran Palace. Both were accompanied by their entourages and both signed the documents that had been prepared. On the next day the Pope celebrated the seventh anniversary of his coronation in the festively adorned St. Peter's Church. He was acclaimed by cheering thousands. Among the honored guests were high Italian army officials, three government ministers, and King Gustav of Sweden. From the loggia he imparted blessings to 200,000 persons in the square. Rome was gaily illumined that night, public buildings decked with flags of the papacy and the Italian kingdom. Crowds gathered respectfully before the residence of the king and queen, a Te Deum was celebrated, and the Nuncio held a reception. On March 9 the diplomatic corps (twenty-seven ambassadors and ministers) was festively received in the Vatican. Pius XI was exposed to criticism by some anti-fascists because of the speech he delivered on the day after the signing of the Lateran Treaty. In this speech it was said he called Mussolini “l’uomo della providenza” - the man of providence...» (Aradi, 1958, p.153-154); « On March 10, 1929, Mussolini delivered his most important electoral campaign speech, and praised the Church, and the Pope. Being a good politician, he exploited to the utmost the signature of the treaty. The elections took place on March 24, and, as expected, the national list of the fascist party received an overwhelming majority (8,500,000 votes to 136,000). The opening speech of King Victor Emmanuel III, inaugurating the fascist chamber, also hailed the reconciliation between the Holy See and Italy. The first sign of how Mussolini might interpret the treaty came from Mussolini himself in his speech of May 13, when the Lateran Treaty came up for formal ratification in the fascist chamber. Mussolini minimized Italy's concession and presented the treaty as a victory of the Italian government, that is, a victory of the lay state over the Church. The fascist chamber passed the ratification unanimously. In the senate, 293 voted for the treaty and 10 against it [He shall not be unanimously approved by the senate]. Benedetto Croce, the philosopher of liberalism, whom Mussolini esteemed highly and kept as a member of the senate, spoke against the treaty. The opposing votes were those of Croce's followers...» (Aradi, id., p.157).

Scyphe
: « Latin scyphus, chalice » (Leoni, 1982, p.208).

His blood in the sacred chalice poisoned
: The Pope Pius XI in his later years made laborious efforts, as it were, to detoxify his reconciliatory relations with Mussolini and Hitler he had established in his earlier years; « In 1936, Cardinal Pacelli negotiated personally in Barcelona on his trip back from the Eucharistic Congress of Buenos Aires, but the course of history could not be arrested. Communist infiltration was too widespread, and the Soviet had decided to make a test case of Spain. The disappearance of the liberals and the overt terror and anti-religious attitude of the communists left no choice for Pius XI but to condemn the regime as evil and make the issue clear: the Church chose martyrdom rather than subservience. The victory of Franco then made negotiation with the Holy See possible. It granted religious freedom, but the agreement did not mean that the Holy See backed all Franco's political aims. Pius XI’s fight with Hitler adds another dramatic chapter to his reign. Much has been written about the concordat that Pius XI concluded with Germany in 1934. Indeed the Pope and Holy See have been criticized, sometimes bitterly, for having negotiated the agreement with Hitler.» (Aradi, 1958, p.212);

« The last year of his life was a great human drama. The Pope wanted to forestall the threatening events, because he was aware that the forces of evil were preparing a horrible conflagration. At the same time, he had to struggle with his own physical decline. He had had several heart attacks and had been on the verge of death a number of times. He had often told members of his entourage that he wanted to die with the words, "Jesus, Mary and Joseph," on his lips, as these had been taught to him by his mother. He requested that those close to him recite "Jesus, Mary and Joseph" with him when the time came, Life for Pius XI in a physical sense became more and more difficult. Archbishop Confalonieri, his secretary, recorded all the utterances of the Pope during these years. They are truly the remarks of a man saintly in suffering. Once he said to Confalonieri: "It is really most comforting for me to have the Holy Sacrament. There Jesus in silence lives His divine life and governs the world. Even during the night He is an ineffable Companion. One prays, and so many problems are settled. It is almost like anticipating paradise." While the Pope lived in complete union with God and was prepared to be taken to Him, Hitler prepared for war. The "pact of steel" of the Axis Powers was signed; the persecution of all adversaries of Hitler and Mussolini was intensified. Even Mussolini tried to introduce racial laws, despite the firm refusal of the population and the authorities in Italy to accept them. The ailing Pope found many occasions to condemn such actions. The most striking condemnation was his speech on July 28, 1938, when he received professors and students of the University of the Propaganda Fide in audience. He said that racism and exaggerated nationalism are barriers between man and man, between nation and nation, and he warned that those who fancied that they could attack Catholic Action and Catholic ideas without attacking the Pope and the Church are gravely mistaken. Hitler and his associates, however, went on without heeding these warnings from the Vatican. Pius XI ordered prayers for peace. During the mounting tension in the summer of 1938 there were moments when he said: "Even I start to become a pessimist, I who am an optimist by nature." And he said to an audience composed of young people: "Never did I have such a desire to die than in these times. I hope that I will go first, but you younger people, I am afraid, will see sad things/' He predicted the war and he predicted the great destruction in Europe. On September 28, when the tension rose to its climax, the Pope said he wanted to offer his life or his death in exchange for the settling of the world's problems. He was terribly shaken. The Munich Conference was scheduled for September 29 and the Pope decided to speak the night before. In this most memorable radio message, directed to the whole world, he directed his greatest plea to God and man for peace. Since Czechoslovakia was the victim at that time, the Pope ended his radio message by recalling the heroic martyrdom of Saint Wenceslaus, the patron saint of Czechoslovakia. Although the tension momentarily eased, the Pope no longer believed that human power could avoid war. His strength began to fail. His pulse weakened. After an audience on February 1, 1939, he worked as usual in his private library. But when his male nurse came on duty in the evening he noticed that the Pope was not at all well. On February 4 he decided to invite the entire episcopate for an audience to be held February 11. He wanted to have a more intimate non-official, paternal conversation with them on February 12. No one expected this move from the Pope, although it was known that he considered Mussolini's attachment to Hitler dangerous and fatal, not only for Italy but for the relationship between the Holy See and Italy. He was preparing an important stroke. He denounced racism, fascism and national socialism on every occasion. He sent warnings through diplomatic channels, delivered in a soft voice, warnings by special ambassadors and warnings spoken out clearly by himself but to no avail. As subsequent events proved, the idea of a major stroke against Hitler and Mussolini had been maturing in the Pope's mind for quite a long time. Now he gave orders for the convocation of the Bishops of Italy. February 11 was a day doubly important for him. This is the feast day of Lourdes, and on February 11, 1929, ten years before, the Lateran Treaty had been signed... On February 10, at 3:00 in the morning, the end was obvious. The Cardinal Penitentiary of the Holy Roman Catholic Church, whose duty it is to administer the sacrament of extreme unction, could not be reached and Msgr. De Romanis, a high-ranking prelate with the title of Sacristan of the Holy Roman Catholic Church, administered the last rites and gave to the Pope the blessing that is given to the dying. Before 4:00 Prof. Milani arrived, too, but he could do nothing for the dying Pontiff. Pius XI never regained consciousness from the time he had fallen asleep around 3 P.M. the previous day. At 4:00 Radio Vatican gave out the first bulletin reporting that the Pope's temperature was above 104 degrees. The bulletin also acknowledged that his condition was deteriorating rapidly. While the bulletin was being broadcast one of his secretaries was celebrating Mass, and all those present prayed on their knees for the Pope. At 5:31 in the morning, February 10, 1939, Pope Pius XI was pronounced dead by his physicians. In the meantime, all the Italian bishops summoned for the audience on February 11 had arrived in Rome, not for an audience with Pius XI, as they had supposed, but to pray at his bier.» (p. 242-248).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§771 The assassination of Giacomo Matteoti (1924): IX-2.

IX-2 (§771):

From the height of Mt. Aventine, the voice heard,
“Run away, run away in all directions,”
“The wrath of the revolutionaries shall be calmed down by the blood,”
Rome rejected by Rimini and Prato.

(Du hault du mont Aventin, voix ouye,
Vuydez vuydez de tous les deux costez,
Du sang des rouges sera l'ire assomye,
D'Arimin Prato, Columna debotez.)
(№10).

NOTES: This quatrain « predicts one of the events that followed the takeover of the power by the Fascists. These verses evidently allude to the assassination of one of the chiefs of the parliamentary opposition against the government of Mussolini, the socialist Deputy Matteoti who was killed in 1924 by a group of fascist assassins. To make public their will of protestation, the representatives of the opposition did retire on the Aventine Hill and did participate no more in the works of the Chamber of Deputies seated in the palace of Montecitorio in Rome.» (Corvaja, 1977, p.132).

Mont Aventin
(Mt. Aventine): One of the seven hills in Rome, representing ‘the refuge of the liberal Romans in antiquity in revolt against the Senate in power’ (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.202), symbolizing in general the Liberal opposition against the regime in power (e.g. III-17: Mont Aventine = Roman Republicans in 1848; V-57: mont Aventin = Those in the French Revolution; IX-2 also refers to Italian liberalism with Italian place-names, i.e. 'the Aventine Union' (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.489).

Vuyder
: = « vuidier, laisser vide (to empty); partir, s’en aller (to depart, to go away); s’éloigner, sortir (to get away, to leave).» (Godefroy).

Ouy: = Ouï (Heard).

Assomy: = Assommi, past participle of « assommir, jeter dans le sommeil, assoupir (to make fall in sleep, to make sleepy).» (Godefroy).

Du sang des rouges sera l'ire assomye: The construction is as follows: L'ire des rouges sera assomye du sang (The wrath of the revolutionaries [= Fascists] shall be calmed down by the blood).

Arimin: = « Latin: Ariminum: Rimini.» (Fontbrune, 1980, p.323).

Prato: = « A city in Tuscany.» (Fontbrune, id.).

Arimin Prato: = « Celui qui sera originaire de Rimini-Prato (He who shall be a native of Rimini-Prato). Mussolini had begun to write his autobiography: I was born on July 29, 1883 at Varnano dei Costa, near the village of Dovia itself near that of Predappio. The village of Predappio is situated upon the axe Rimini-Prato, equally distant from the two cities, or about 50 km apart.» (Fontbrune, id., p.323-324).

Columna: = « Colonne in Italy.» (Fontbrune, id., p.323); Columna, near Rome, representing the opposing Deputies in Rome.

Debotez: = « debouter, repousser (to push back).» (Godefroy).

D'Arimin Prato, Columna debotez
: The construction is as follows: Columna [sera] debotez d'Arimin Prato (Colonne (= Rome) [shall be] rejected by Rimini-Prato), i.e., the opposing groups shall be rejected by Mussolini: « The assassination of the Socialist Deputy Giacomo Matteoti on June 10, 1924 by the extremist partisans of Mussolini unlatched a new phase in the arrangement of the fascism. In the face of the outcry [From the height of Mt. Aventine, the voice heard] raised by this murder, Mussolini reeled under the accusations. He confronts it and makes his profit of the occasion to unmask himself.» (Trémolières IV, p.60); « In a very characteristic mixture of arrogance and fatalistic despair, he announced the beginning of fascism in a notorious speech delivered on 3 January 1925. Opposition newspapers were banned. Opposition leaders were placed in confino on an island [Rome rejected by Rimini and Prato]. As Mussolini put it, opposition to the monolithic nation was superfluous – he could find any that was needed within himself. He produced a resounding totalitarian formula, much quoted, admired and excoriated then and since: ‘Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.’ A whole series of ‘fascist laws’ were drawn up, some constitutional, some punitive, some positive, the last being the Leggi di riforma sociale, which purported to bring the Corporate State into existence.» (Johnson, 1991, p.101).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§770 The March on Rome; Dictatorship of Mussolini (1919-1945): VII-32.

VII-32 (§770):

One of the Royal mountain shall be born of a hovel,
Who bets and is reliable, shall come to tyrannize,
Shall raise troops of the Milanese march,
Shall exhaust Faenza, Florence, wealth and the nation.

(Du mont Royal naistra d'une casane,
Qui cave, & comte viendra tyranniser,
Dresser copie de la marche Millane,
Favene, Florence d'or & gents expuiser.)

NOTES: The Royal mountain: « Rome sometimes is called “The Royal Mountain,” from its Capitoline Hill.» (Boswell, 1941, p.257).

Casane
(hovel): = « diminutif de casa, maison, taudis (diminutive of casa, house, hovel).» (Fontbrune, 1939, p.224).

One of the Royal mountain shall be born of a hovel: « Benito Mussolini was the son of Alessandro Mussolini, socialistic blacksmith and innkeeper of the hamlet Dovia, in Romagna. A “Sunday child,” like Goethe, the future Duce was born on July 29, 1883.» (Boswell, id.).

Who bets and is reliable, shall come to tyrannize
: « Mussolini organized the first Fascio di Combattimento in March, 1919, while he was in Milan editing Popolo d’Italia. Though Mussolini started fascism to combat the wave of anarchy sweeping Italy, he had to control all industries to keep them open and to provide jobs for the workers. Factories remained in the owners’ hands, but profits were controlled strictly. Fascism took over the entire national economy to provide a living for all Italians. Thus, Il Duce tyrannized ...» (Boswell, id.).

Cave
: = He bets; « CAVER. 1° Creuser (to hollow); 2° Faire mise d’une somme d’argent à certains jeux: poker, bouillotte (to bet a sum of money on certain games: poker, an old French card game).» (Petit Robert).

Comte
: = Compte = He is reliable; « COMPTER. ... 4° Être compté, avoir de l’importance (to be counted, to be of importance).» (Petit Robert).

Who bets and is reliable,
Shall raise troops of the Milanese march: « The wind of change was blowing in rather a different direction. By the second half of 1919 new types of ‘vanguard élites’ were making their appearance in Europe. They too were socialists. Marx was often in their pantheon. But they appealed to something broader than an abstract ‘proletariat’ which was mysteriously failing to respond – at any rate as an electoral or a fighting force – and their collective dynamic was not so much class as nation, even race. They also had a powerful and immediate grievance in common: dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles. In Turkey, which had lost its Arab empire and appeared to be losing its western littoral also, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, soon to be ‘Ataturk’, likewise offered national socialism and was already proving that a settlement determined in Paris could not be enforced on the spot. Italy, too, though a big gainer, still had a grievance against Versailles: she had not got the Dalmatian coast. On 11 September, the poet and war-hero Gabriele d’Annunzio led a raggle-taggle force of army deserters into the port of Fiume. It was an impudent bluff: but Britain and France, the custodians of the settlement, backed down – an ominous portent. D’Annunzio, too, was a national socialist. From Milan, Mussolini sniffed this new wind and liked it, just as five years earlier he had caught the whiff of wartime excitement, and liked that too. The coming of war and his own determination to bring Italy into it had taken him right out of the official socialist party. It had made him a nationalist, not merely in the romantic-Left tradition of Mazzini but in the acquisitive tradition of the old Romans, whose fasces, turned into a radical emblem of the French Revolution, he found a useful symbol, just as Lenin had picked on the hammer and sickle of the old Social Democrats. It made him hate Lenin for taking Russia out of the war and so jeopardizing Italy’s promised gains. By 1919 Lenin’s economic failure had turned him away from the outright expropriation of industry. He now wanted to use and exploit capitalism rather than destroy it. But his was to be a radical revolution nonetheless, rooted in the pre-war ‘vanguard-élite’ Marxism and syndicalism (workers’ rule) which was to remain to his death the most important single element in his politics. Many other young Italian former socialists shared his radicalism while abandoning their internationalism. Internationalism had not worked either in 1914, when it had failed to stop war, or in 1917, when it had failed to respond to Lenin’s call for world revolution. But the desire to install a new economic Utopia remained. On 23 March 1919 Mussolini and his syndicalist friends founded a new party. Its programme was partial seizure of finance capital, control over the rest of the economy by corporative economic councils, confiscation of church lands and agrarian reform, and abolition of the monarchy and senate.» (Johnson, 1991, p.95-96); « Italy was not a happy or a well-governed country. It had appalling poverty, the highest birth-rate in Europe and, after Germany, one of the highest inflation-rates. The parliamentary regime was grievously corrupt. The monarchy was unloved. The state itself had been at daggers with the Church since 1871, and was denounced from every pulpit on Sundays. There was genuine fear of a Red Terror, for the Catholic newspapers were full of Lenin’s atrocities and the Russian famine. Mussolini was not personally identified with violence. On the contrary: he seemed to many to be the one to stop it. He had become a wonderful public speaker. He had learnt from d’Annunzio the gift of conducting a quasi-operatic dialogue with the crowd. But he was not just a demagogue. His speeches specialized in the wide-ranging philosophical reflections Italians love. Liberals from Benedetto Croce downwards attended his meetings. By the early autumn of 1922 his oratory had acquired a confident and statesmanlike ring [Who is reliable]. He was now in secret contact with the palace, the Vatican, the army, the police and big business. What, they all wanted to know, did he want? At Udine he told them, in the last of a series of major speeches given all over the country: ‘Our programme is simple: we wish to govern Italy.’ He would govern Italy as it had never been governed since Roman times: firmly, fairly, justly, honestly, above all efficiently. On 16 October 1922 Mussolini decided to force the issue [Who bets], believing that if he waited, Giolitti [in premiership in May 1892 – Dec. 1893 and in May 1906 – Dec. 1909], the one man he feared, might steal his role. He arranged for a march on Rome for the end of the month, by four divisions totalling 40,000 blackshirted men. Many army and police commanders agreed not to fire on them, and his paper, Il Popolo d’Italia, carried the banner: I grigioverdi fraternizzano con le Camicie Nere! [The graygreens (of the Italian Army uniforms) will fraternize with the Black Shirt (of the Fascists)!] Mussolini had a lifelong capacity for hovering uneasily between grandeur and farce. By the time his ill-equipped, badly clothed and unfed army had halted outside Rome, in pouring rain, on the evening of 28 October, it did not present a very formidable spectacle. The government, though weak, had a Rome garrison of 28,000 under a reliable commander and it agreed to proclaim a state of emergency. But Rome buzzed with rumours and misinformation. The little King Victor Emmanuel, tucked up in the Quirinale Palace, was told only 6,000 ill-disciplined troops faced a horde of 100,000 determined fascists. He panicked and refused to sign the decree, which had to be torn down from the walls where it had just been posted. At that point the government lost heart. Mussolini, for an impatient man, played his cards skilfully. When he was telephoned in Milan by the King’s
ADC, General Cittadini, and offered partial power in a new ministry, he simply replaced the receiver. The next day, 29 October, he graciously consented to form his own government, provide the invitation by phone was confirmed by telegram. The wire duly came, and that evening he went to Milan Station in state, wearing his black shirt, to catch the night-sleeper to Rome. As it happened, the wife of the British ambassador, Lady Sybil Graham, was also on the train. She saw Mussolini, who was surrounded by officials, impatiently consult his watch, and turn fiercely on the station-master. ‘I want the train to leave exactly on time,’ he said. ‘From now on, everything has got to function perfectly.’ Thus a regime, and a legend, were born. In the last decade of his life Mussolini became an increasingly tragic, even grotesque. figure. Looking back from this later perspective it is hard to grasp that, from the end of 1922 to the mid-1930s, he appeared to everyone as a formidable piece [Who is reliable] on the European chess-board. Once installed, he did not make any of Lenin’s obvious mistakes. He did not create a secret police [until 1926 when the Director General of police A. Bocchini created one] (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.492), or abolish parliament. The press remained free, opposition leaders at liberty. There were some murders, but fewer than before the coup. The Fascist Grand Council was made an organ of state and the Blackshirts were legalized, giving an air of menace to the April 1924 elections, which returned a large fascist majority. But Mussolini saw himself as a national rather than a party leader. He said he ruled by consent as well as force. He seems to have possessed not so much the will to power as the will to office. He wanted to remain there and become respectable; he wished to be loved.» (Johnson, id., p.99-100).

Exhaust Faenza, Florence
: = « épuiser l’Italie (to exhaust Italy).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.529).

Shall exhaust Faenza, Florence, wealth and the nation: « From the Corfu Incident of 1924 [sic; (1923)] to the attack on Abyssinia of 1935, [Mussolini] indulged in an aggressive foreign policy. Although at first hostile to Hitler’s Germany because of its ambitions in Austria (Italy’s neighbour), the similarity between the Fascist and Nazi systems and the international ostracism imposed on Italy because of the Abyssinian War led Mussolini to bring the two countries together in what he called the ‘Axis’ of 1936. At Easter 1939 he annexed Albania. He declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940, when France was already defeated. On the following October 28th his troops invaded Greece but were repulsed and, soon after, suffered reverses in Libya and East Africa. These defeats weakened Mussolini’s prestige, especially as the Fascists had always sought to inculcate admiration for the glories of war. By the summer of 1941 Mussolini had become virtually a German pensionary but it was not until July 25th, 1943, that a coup by King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal Badoglio forced him to resign. He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Appennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy.» (Palmer, p.194-195).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§769 Wall Street Crash (1929.10): VIII-28.

VIII-28 (§769):

The simulacra of gold and of silver so inflated,
That after the kidnapping in a lake shall have been thrown.
In debt all extinct and troubled,
Among the inscribed marbles the before-inscribed ones interjected.

(Les simulachres d'or & d'argent enflez,
Qu'apres le rapt au lac furent gettez
Au descouvert estaincts tous & troublez.
Au marbre escript prescripz intergetez. [№10])

NOTES: The simulacra of gold and of silver: = Securities. Many of interpreters of Nostradamus used to see in this phrase ‘paper money, paper currency’ (e.g., Laver, 1942, p.222; Cheetham, 1973, p.317; Hogue, 1997, p.640; Halley, 1999, p.143), but in principle and above all under the gold standard, paper currency is equivalent to gold, and even under a ‘managed currency’ it is given a legal and public guarantee, while securities are essentially private and most imitative. Moreover, ‘vouchers’ such as paper money, postage stamps, revenue stamps, etc. do not belong to the category of ‘securities’, each being fundamentally different from the other in character. The most characteristic difference is that vouchers never become worthless, while securities are liable to be eventually zero in value in case of bankruptcy, etc. Therefore, If the phrase of the second line: « in a lake shall have been thrown » does mean ‘will be worthless’ (Lamont, 1942, p.142), it is not valid for paper money, but only for securities. The only one who has interpreted this not as paper money but as securities (papiers et valeurs) is Dr. Fontbrune (Fontbrune, 1939, p.135).

Le rapt: = Literally kidnapping. But in the context of the sudden rise and fall of securities, it may mean ‘loss of the monetary value of securities’, namely their ‘crash’ (loss of nest eggs).

Getter: = Jeter; « geter, getter, getray, etc. V. jeter (See throw).» (Daele)
.

Furent gettez (were thrown): = Auront été jetées (shall have been thrown), this type of substitution sometimes seen in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (e.g., VIII-53, X-20 and X-57).

Qu'apres le rapt au lac furent gettez (That after the kidnapping in a lake shall have been thrown): The nominative relative pronoun “qui” is replaced frequently by “que” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus according to the exceptional usages of the XVIth century: « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70). Cf. ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4), Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96), Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98), L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché (§603, III-91) et aussi I-99, II-10, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VI-19, VIII-88 et IX-29.

Descouvert: = Default of obligations. « descouvert. n. deficit, shortage.» (Dubois); « descouvert. la dette (the debt).» (Fontbrune, id.).

Estainct
: = estaint = éteint (extinct): Reasonably meaning a suicide in a great depression in the context of the ‘gravestones’ (marbles) of the fourth line.

Marbre (marble): = « tombeau (tomb).» (Fontbrune, id.).  

Le marbre escript
: = the inscribed marbles: = the gravestones newly built in contrast with the before-inscribed existing ones.


[Les marbres] prescripz: = the before-inscribed existing gravestones.

Au marbre escript prescripz intergetez
: = ‘Among the new gravestones the old ones interjected’, which is an ironical, but logical reversed expression of a fact. The regular style is as follows: Au marbre prescripz intergetez le marbre escript, namely ‘The new gravestones are interjected among the old ones’.

Now, this custom of building an individual gravestone for burying a new individual deceased is properly Western and far from that in Japan where peoples have in general their own family grave to bury in common each member when died. Therefore, this quatrain is judged to refer not to 1990s’ depression in Japan, but to that of USA in autumn 1929 to the beginning of 1930. In fact, at that time the USA adopted the gold standard and it was only in March 1933 that she suspended it. Then paper money was not an imitative of gold or silver but truly a convertible currency, though in practice the conversion itself having been in a malfunction. Thence we can conclude that in this quatrain it concerns ‘securities’ excluding paper money. And in reality the U.S. dollar did not suffer such a sudden rise and fall.

« A fortnight before this scene [on Friday 3 October 1929], Winston Churchill, who until earlier that year had been Britain’s Chancellor of the Exchequer for five years, wrote to his wife from America:

Now my darling I must tell you that vy gt & extraordinary good fortune has attended me lately in finances. Sir Harry McGowan asked me rather earnestly before I sailed whether he might if an opportunity came buy shares on my account without previous consultation. I replied that I could always find 2 or 3,000 £. I meant this as an investment limit i.e. buying the shares outright. He evidently took it as the limit to wh I was prepared to go in a speculative purchase on margin. Thus he operated on about ten times my usual scale... So here we have recovered in a few weeks a small fortune... It is a relief to me to feel something behind me and behind you all.

It is interesting that Churchill should have been speculating on margin right up to the brink of the crash. He was one of about 600, 000 trading on margin of the 1,548,707 customers who, in 1929, had accounts with firms belonging to America’s twenty-nine stock-exchanges. At the peak of the craze there were about a million active speculators, and out of an American population of 120 million about 29-30 million families had an active association with the market. Churchill, despite his experience and world-wide contacts, was no better informed than the merest street-corner speculator. The American economy had ceased to expand in June. It took some time for the effects to work their way through but the bull market in stocks [The simulacra of gold and of silver so inflated] really came to an end on 3 September, a fortnight before Churchill wrote his joyful letter. The later rises were merely hiccups in a steady downward trend. On Monday 21 October, for the first time, the ticker-tape could not keep pace with the news of falls and never caught up; in the confusion the panic intensified and speculators began to realize they might lose their savings and even their homes [In debt troubled]. On Thursday 24 October shares dropped vertically with no one buying [the kidnapping], speculators were sold out as they failed to respond to margin calls, crowds gathered in Broad Street outside the New York Stock Exchange, and by the end of the day eleven men well known on Wall Street had committed suicide [In debt extinct]. One of the visitors in the gallery that day was Churchill himself, watching his faerie gold vanish. Next week came Black Tuesday, the 29th, and the first selling of sound stocks in order to raise desperately needed liquidity. Great stock-exchange crises, with their spectacular reversals of fortune and human dramas, make the dry bones of economic history live...» (Johnson, 1991, p.230-231).


« The credit inflation petered out at the end of 1928. The economy went into decline, in consequence, six months later. The market collapse followed after a three-month delay. As we have seen, the Stock Exchange fall began in September and became panic in October. On 13 November, at the end of the panic, the index was at 224, down from 452. There was nothing wrong in that. It had been only 245 in December 1928 after a year of steep rises. The panic merely knocked out the speculative element, leaving sound stocks at about their right value in relation to their earnings. If the recession had been allowed to adjust itself, as it would have done by the end of 1930 on any earlier analogy, confidence would have returned and the world slump need never have occurred. Instead, the market went on down, slowly but inexorably, ceasing to reflect economic realities – its true function – and instead becoming an engine of doom, carrying to destruction the entire nation and, in its wake, the world. By 8 July 1933 New York Times industrials had fallen from 224 at the end of the panic to 58 [The simulacra of gold and of silver after the kidnapping in a lake shall have been thrown]. US Steel, selling at 262 before the market broke in 1929, was now only 22. GM, already one of the best-run and most successful manufacturing groups in the world, had fallen from 73 to 8. By this time the entire outlook for the world had changed – infinitely for the worse.» (Johnson, id., p.240-241).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§768 The discovery of radioactivity and nuclear chain-reaction (1896-1939): I-27.

I-27 (§768):

The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak Gyes struck by Heaven,
Not far from there is hidden the treasure,
That had been clustered for long centuries,
Who shall have found it shall die: the eye burst by a spring.

(Dessoubz de chaine Guien du ciel frappe,
Non loing de la est caché le tresor,
Qui par longs siecles avoit este grappé,
Trouve moura: l'oeil crevé de ressort.)

NOTES: Dessoubz: = « dessousn. Underpart, underside, lower part, bottom; Wrong side (envers [verso, back]); Pl. Underclothing, underclothes; Fig. Mystery, the seamy side.» (Dubois); « dessousn. the face (overt side) of cards [the side with images and characters]; [the cards being put down face down]; [forestry] lower branches (of a tree).» (Ibuki).

Chaine: This word as well as chaisne in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (I-27, I-65, II-21, III-79bis, IV-84, VII-24 and IX-56) has always the meaning of chain (chaîne), and in this quatrain also that of oak (chêne).

Dessoubz de chaine: = The lower branches, the surface and the inner parts (underclothes and mystery) of an oak, namely all of its branches and leaves in a chainwork.

Guien: = the Greek « Γύης, Gyès, un des Géants aux cent bras (Gyes, one of the Giants with a hundred arms).» (Bailly); = the Latin « Gyās, a giant with a hundred arms.» (Smith-Lockwood). This is a prophetical and ingenious way of designating a nucleus of uranium having around it a large number of electrons corresponding to its many protons. The tree of an oak already on the scene suggests through its acorns this smallest globe of an atom, amazingly represented by a Giant who « symbolizes a telluric energy of great amplitude... We are therefore entitled to conclude that Nostradamus wishes to indicate by the name ‘Guien’ a gigantic force born of a matter, a nuclear energy.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.751-752). And the element of uranium has been introduced by the word ‘le ciel (Uranus, the heaven)’ as V. Ionescu used to explain so (Ionescu, 1976, p.752; 1993, p.153); « uranium n. [< Gk. ouranos heaven]» (Obunsha).

Dessoubz de chaine Guien (The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak Gyes): The phrase ‘The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak’ and the word ‘Gyes’ are in apposition, Gyes being imagined in this context as an oak of the sort, a truly gigantic figure.

Guien du ciel frappe: = Guien du ciel frappé = the atom of uranium struck by Heaven. This phrase supposes a story in mythology: « Nor were the heights of heaven more secure: Giants, it’s said, to win the gods’ domain, Mountain on mountain reared and reached the stars. Then the Almighty Father [Jupiter] hurled his bolt And shattered great Olympus and struck down High Pelion piled on Ossa. There they lay, Grim broken bodies crushed in huge collapse, And Earth, drenched in her children’s weltering blood, Gave life to that warm gore; and to preserve Memorial of her sons refashioned it In human form. But that new stock no less Despised the gods and relished cruelty, Bloodshed and outrage – born beyond doubt of blood.» (Ovid, 1986, I, 151-162.).  

The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak Gyes struck by Heaven: The verse in totality means the nuclear chain reaction, the meaning of the key word Gyes being at the same time a singular atom (an acorn) and the whole network of numberless atoms (an oak tree) of uranium.

There: = In the atom of uranium.

Not far from there is hidden the treasure: This treasure is physically the nuclear energy (E) emitted in the process of fission of a large nucleus with a certain mass (m1) into two smaller nuclei with a smaller sum of mass (m2), expressed in the formula: E = (m1-m2)c2, based upon Einstein’s theory of equivalence of mass and energy: E = mc2, where (m1-m2) is called ‘a mass defect’ and (m1-m2)c2 ‘a binding energy’. And this energy is not straightway in a large nucleus though not without it, disclosing itself only in the fission of the large nucleus into two smaller ones, namely in the transubstantiating process of the former’s collapse and the latter’s generation.

That had been clustered for long centuries: The heavier elements like gold, silver, uranium, etc. are said to be created in the explosion of a supernova, the last stage of evolution of massive stars, of which the greatest being with a shortest lifetime of about 2.7 million years (Nomoto and Williams, 1997, p.154 and p.131), which is to be the least of the said ‘long centuries’.

Trouve moura
: = Trouvé mourra = Qui l’aura trouvé mourra (who shall have found it shall die).

l'oeil (the eye): The white of the eye suggesting the leukocyte of blood.

Ressort (spring): = Radioactive rays.

Trouve moura: l'oeil crevé de ressort (who shall have found it shall die: the eye burst by a spring): A Polish scientist in France Marie Curie (1867-1934) who had studied deeper, after the discovery of radiation of uranium by Becquerel in 1896, and confirmed more the phenomena of radioactivity of uranium, thorium, polonium and radium (the new term radioactivity was her creation) shall die of leukemia, her leukocytes had been damaged because of her quotidian exposition to radioactive rays in her lifetime study in laboratory (cf.
Trémolières III, p.309).

Nuclear fission and chain reaction: « 1939Nuclear Fission was discovered by a German physico-chemist Otto Hahn (1879-1968) and Nuclear Chain Reaction by a Hungarian physicist in USA Leo Szilard (1898-1964).» (Asimov, 1996, pp.352, 404-405); « Szilard drafted (1939) a letter of Einstein recommending the President of USA to exploit atomic bombs.» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary).

The first nuclear reactor (Chicago Pile 1): « 1942. The idea of Szilard about the nuclear chain reaction had not been put into practice, while, in 1941, it started the Manhattan Project – exploitation of atomic bombs, and Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) was charged with the Project aiming at the realization of such a chain reaction... On December 2, 1942, 3:45 p.m., in the squash court at the University of Chicago, the chain reaction became self-sustaining and was stopped. It has just started the atomic age. This reactor was the first nuclear one.» (Asimov, id., p.412).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§767 The discovery of Pluto (1930.2.18): I-84.

I-84 (§767):

The Moon obscured in the profound darkness,
Her brother having passed from the ferruginous colour:
The great hidden for a long time in its seclusion,
Shall make fade the iron in the sanguinary wound.

(Lune obscurcie aux profondes tenebres,
Son frere passe de couleur ferrugine:
Le grand caché long temps sous les latebres,
Tiedera fer dans la plaie sanguine.)

NOTES: Son frere (her brother): = « le Soleil (the Sun).» (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.165).

Passe: = passé (having passed) (Ionescu, 1983, p.230). Ionescu’s interpretation of the phrase ‘Son frere passe de couleur ferrugine’ as the Sun’s advancing beyond Mars in the longitude (id., p.233) is not literally pertinent because the astronomic situation he tells is inferred only from his horoscope (planetary configuration) devised upon the date of Pluto’s discovery (id., p.229) and a simple phrase denoting an attribute ‘couleur ferrugine (the ferruginous colour)’ cannot exclusively designate the planet Mars rather than the colour of the Sun itself, and moreover the planet Mars is evidently and substantially referred to in the fourth line as ‘fer dans la plaie sanguine (the iron in the sanguinary wound)’.

The ferruginous colour: = the colour of the Sun in sunset. Ionescu’s identification of this phrase with Mars (id. p.233) is not pertinent.

Latebre: « latebre, s.m., lieu retiré (a secluded place), secret (a secret), cachette (a hiding-place); adj., caché (hidden).» (Godefroy).

Tiedera: = « tiédira, rendra tiède (shall fade, shall make fade).» (Brind’Amour, id.).

The iron in the sanguinary wound: = the planet Mars, Mars in alchemy corresponding to the metal iron and symbolizing in mythology wars and weapons (the French fer [the English iron also] having the sense of a sword).

V. Ionescu ingeniously disclosed the theme of the quatrain as the discovery of Pluto in 1930 (Ionescu, 1983, p.228-241), but his interpretation seems a priori starting from the horoscope (planetary configuration) of January 23, 1930, when Pluto’s move had been photographed compared with the photo six days later (January 29), but in detail he does not always follow faithfully the literal expressions of the quatrain, which we should explain at first.

In the beginning, the theme of the quatrain is to be identified as ‘a starry matter in the night without moonlight’ because the first hemistich describes the invisibility of the Moon [The Moon obscured in the profound darkness] and the aftertime of the sunset [Her brother having passed from the ferruginous colour], the two indispensable conditions for a starry observation**.

In the second place, the question is as to a planetary star because the fourth line stages the planet Mars [the iron in the sanguinary wound] as its lesser rival.

Now, the planet in question is the most recently discovered after a long time hiding [hidden for a long time in its seclusion] to be compared with Mars in the quatrain.

It is not but Pluto, discovered on February 18, 1930 at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, after Uranus in 1781 (cf. §341, VIII-69) and Neptune in 1846 (cf. §613, IV-33) and named as such in its publicity on March 13, 1930. In fact in mythology, Pluto is the King of Hades, far superior in its omni-negative potency to Mars, only a dominator of arms and wars, a sector of the approaches to Hades; « HADES. In the classical Greek mythology, Hades – or Pluto – as well as Zeus [Jupiter] and Poseidon [Neptune], is a son of Cronus and of Rhea. After the victory of the Gods over the Titans, he received as his share the underground empire of the dead, the hells, whilst Zeus obtained the Heaven and Poseidon the Sea. The name of this divinity became that of his residence by extension: the Hades, in common Greek, designates hells, the abode of the dead.» (Monloubou).

** The times of the sunset and the rise (the set) of the Moon of the days concerned: February 23 – 29, 1930 in Flagstaff, Arizona (35° 12′ N, 111° 38′ W, 2106m H, GMT-07:00), were as follows: The sunset: 17:53 – 17:59; The rise (the set) of the Moon: 02:30 (13:00) – 07:41 (17:57).

« New Horizons NASA's Mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt
Discovery of Pluto
Percival Lowell, Search for Planet X: The story of Pluto's discovery begins with Percival Lowell, the founder of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Lowell was obsessed with the notion of a "trans-Neptunian" planet, which he believed could be detected from the effect it would have on Neptune's orbit. After all, the planet Neptune had been discovered in 1846 by examining irregularities in the orbit of Uranus. Astronomers reasoned that the mystery planet's apparent gravitational influence on Uranus and Neptune could be used to calculate where in the sky it should be found. Lowell was one of several people (William H. Pickering was another) who hunted for Planet X by computing orbits and carefully searching the sky where they concluded the new planet ought to be. Lowell founded an observatory and funded three separate searches for Planet X. He died in 1916 without discovering it, but the search continued at the observatory. In 1929, a special camera-equipped telescope with a 13-inch objective lens was built specifically for this search.

Clyde Tombaugh, The Discoverer of Pluto: Observatory director Vesto Slipher hired a young man from Kansas to conduct the third search — a move that led to Clyde Tombaugh becoming the first American to discover a planet. Amateur astronomer Tombaugh was hired to expose photographic plates with this new camera by night, and to carefully compare the plates by day using an instrument called a blink comparator. On February 18, 1930, Tombaugh finally found what he was looking for: a tiny spot of light moving slowly against the fixed pattern of stars in the constellation Gemini****. Tombaugh set about to search the ecliptic plane for a new planet. As it turns out, Lowell's calculations were based on flawed data about the perturbations of Uranus' orbit. Despite that, one of the two locations predicted by Lowell's calculation (the favored one, in fact) happened to be right where Pluto was found. Tombaugh was fortunate to find Pluto after only searching for a few months. According to Tombaugh and Moore's 1980 book, "Out of the Darkness: The Planet Pluto," he took pictures in pairs, a few days apart, and looked for anything that moved. Any planets would appear to shift against the backdrop of stars because Earth had moved to a new viewing angle over the intervening days. The discovery plates were taken only six days apart, on January 23 and 29, 1930. After Pluto's discovery, Tombaugh began a laborious search of the entire ecliptic and turned up no additional objects in the outer solar system.

Pluto Gets a Name: Planet X was subsequently christened Pluto in 1930, a name suggested by Venetia Burney, an 11-year-old girl in Oxford, England. This name was favored by the astronomers of Lowell Observatory because its first two letters were the initials of Percival Lowell. In hindsight, the discovery had nothing to do with Lowell's calculations based on perceived perturbations to the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. We now know that those perturbations were not real, and that Pluto's mass is much too small to have produced such perturbations in any case. The discovery owes more to the remarkable persistence and diligence of Clyde Tombaugh in his careful search of the sky. The New Horizons Science Operations Center is named for Clyde Tombaugh.

© 2016 The Johns Hopkins University/ Applied Physics Laboratory LLC. All rights reserved. [
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/Participate/learn/What-We-Know.php?link=Discovery-of-Pluto ] »

« The Space Review in association with SpaceNews
Pluto at 75: a uniquely American anniversary by S. Alan Stern  Monday, February 14, 2005

Seventy-five years ago this month, in February of 1930, our solar system’s ninth planet, Pluto, was discovered. The discovery of Pluto—2,500 kilometers wide and fully a billion kilometers beyond Neptune—was made by Clyde Tombaugh (1906–1997), a plucky, twenty-four-year-old American astronomer working at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona when he made the landmark find. News of the long-anticipated discovery of “Planet X” rocketed around the world in the spring of 1930, making Tombaugh instantly famous, and garnering a high-profile scientific achievement for what was by then routinely called the “the American Century.” Diminutive Pluto, lying beyond both the rocky inner planet and outer gas giant planet zones of our solar system, was for many years an apparent misfit among the planets. Even after its large satellite, Charon, was discovered in 1978, Pluto’s classification and scientific value seemed problematic. Today, in 2005, that is no longer the case. The ninth planet is the biggest, the brightest, and the first-discovered member of the solar system’s third major architectural zone—the distant and icy Kuiper Belt... The discovery of the Kuiper Belt has fueled a revolution in our understanding of the origin, architecture, and richness of the deep outer solar system. Together, Pluto-Charon and the Kuiper Belt constitute an exciting frontier for scientific exploration, rich with possibilities for illuminating the origin of the planets, the formation of planetary satellites and double planet pairs, the interior properties and surface evolution of icy worlds, and the physics of tenuous atmospheres. In fact, so valuable are the Pluto-Charon system and its Kuiper Belt companions, that their exploration was ranked as the highest priority new mission to launch in this decade by the National Academy of Sciences in its Planetary Decadal Survey report to NASA... the scientific wonderland of Pluto, its giant moon Charon, and the Kuiper Belt is the destination for NASA’s New Horizons mission, which plans to launch in early 2006. If all goes as planned, New Horizons will cross the entire span of the solar system in record time and conduct flyby reconnaissance studies of the Pluto-Charon system in 2015 and then one or more Kuiper Belt objects before 2020. In accomplishing this historic feat, America will complete the reconnaissance of all the known planets, and provide a new and vivid demonstration of the historic kinds of space exploration that only it has the technical prowess to achieve.

A planetary scientist, Dr. Alan Stern is the Principal Investigator of the New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt mission and director of the Department of Space Studies at the Southwest Research Institute.
[
http://www.thespacereview.com/article/319/1 ] »

**** « In 1915, Lowell drastically revised the preferred region of search to longitudes of around 85 degrees in the extreme eastern portion of the constellation Taurus. This region is right in the heart of the Milky Way, and the plates taken were extremely rich with star images. Pluto was in this region then. In the examination of these plates, the Pluto images were missed. After the discovery of Pluto in 1930, the better orbit computations gave close approximations of where to retrieve the Pluto images on old plates. Lampland [C.O.Lampland shared with Percival Lowell the 1914-16 trans-Neptunian search.] found the images of Pluto on one-hour exposure plates taken by Gill [Dr. Lampland supervised the new search. The plates were taken by T.B.Gill and E.A.Edwards. From April 1914 to July 1916, nearly one thousand plates were taken over a considerable sky area.] on 19 March and 7 April 1915. The images were quite weak, which was to be expected.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], 1980, p.89-90).

« When the photographing began in April [1929], my instructions from Dr. V.M.Slipher were, ‘Do the regions in Gemini and proceed eastward along the Ecliptic as rapidly as possible.’ The Gemini region was already about 90 degrees west of the opposition point [of the Sun]. It was not until the end of the June lunation that I succeeded in catching up to the opposition point, which sweeps eastward through the constellations at a rate of 30 degrees each month. This is caused by the Earth’s motion of revolution around the Sun... Now in September, the constellation of Capricornus was too far west of opposition. This break would have to be retrieved next year. As the skies cleared in September, I started photographing in the constellations of Aquarius and Pisces. These were lovely regions with hundreds of spiral galaxies to view and not so populous in stars, only about 50,000 per plate. The regions were 60 degrees from the equator of the Milky Way. I could blink a pair of plates in three days of work. I knew that Uranus was in Pisces, but I did not want to know exactly from its listed position in the American Ephemeris. I wanted to test myself on the surprise of encounter. When the Moon stopped my night work, I started blinking these new plates in daytime, field by field, strip by strip, panel by panel. Suddenly, upon turning to the next eyepiece field (1-by-2-centimeters), there was Uranus. being of the sixth magnitude, it was a real wallop. I almost ducked my head. I stopped and measured its shift in position with a millimeter scale. It was exactly as I had calculated it would be on those plates. Now my confidence was complete. From now on, for the next several years, I was obsessed with the planet search... Each succeeding month, I was getting closer and closer to the constellation of Gemini. It was also the region where Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781. In November, I was going through the star fields in western Taurus. The stars thickened in number. The search was approaching the Milky Way. By the end of November, I had blinked about ten pairs of plates. The last two contained as many stars as all of the other eight together. I had sifted through about one million stars.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], id., p.115-123).

« In the January 1930 lunation, I rephotographed the entire Gemini region. On 21 January 1930, I set the 13-inch (33-centimeter) telescope on Delta Geminorum again. A good night seemed to be in prospect. The sky was very clear. Within ten minutes after the shutter was opened to begin the exposure, a strong northeast wind sprang up. In another ten minutes, it was a howling gale. The guide star, Delta Gem, began to fuzz up badly into a diffuse patch, making it hard to guide. Then terrific gusts swept up the east side of Mars Hill [where is Lowell Observatory]. The star image would swell up to several apparent diameters of Jupiter. With succeeding gusts, the image would swell up so badly that it became invisible. I muttered, ‘I can’t see anything to guide on.’ It was a most helpless situation. After the gust had passed, the guide star became visible again, but it was still swollen and in violent, agitated motion. I had never seen such terrible seeing, nor have I seen such in the years since. I thought of terminating the exposure and closing the dome. I was getting worried about the gusts snapping the ropes that held the doors of the slit open, although the ropes were strong and new. With that kind of seeing, the plate was spoiled anyway but I decided to finish out the exposure just to see how bad the images would be after I developed the plate. I had more plates to take, but to do so would be futile, so I closed the dome. After developing the plate the next day, I viewed the dripping plate with a magnifier. The images were swollen to several times their normal diameter. Also, the dilution resulted in a loss of about 1.5 magnitudes. Nevertheless, that horrible plate did record the image of Pluto, but I did not know it then. Some astronomical textbooks state that Pluto was discovered on 21 January 1930. Nonsense! Only on the date that the images are recognized as those of a planet does it constitute a discovery. I have written many letters to authors (many astronomers) to get them to correct the error for their next book edition.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], id., p.123-124).

« On 23 January, I photographed the Delta Gem region again. It was a good plate. I was unable to photograph the region again until 29 January. This six-day interval was twice as long as I preferred. This was the pair that I would blink later. During that lunation, I photographed the western regions of Gemini again... On the morning of 18 February, I placed the 23 January and 29 January Gem plates on the Blink-Comparator, starting on the eastern half. This was a most fortunate decision. Had it been otherwise, Pluto might not have been discovered in 1930... A terrific thrill came over me. I switched the shutter back and forth, studying the images. Oh! I had better look at my watch and note the time. This would be a historic discovery. Estimating my delay at about three minutes, it would place the moment of discovery very close to four o’clock [in the afternoon]. For the next forty-five minutes or so, I was in the most excited state of mind in my life. I had to check further to be absolutely sure. I measured the shift with a metric rule to be 3.5 millimeters. Then I replaced one of the plates with the 21 January plate. Almost instantly I found the image 1.2 millimeters east of the 23 January position, perfectly consistent with the shift on the six-day interval of the discovery pair. Now I felt 100 percent sure.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], id., p.124-127).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§766 The Communist Russia in a long misery (1917-1991): VI-5.

VI-5 (§766):

It shall be so great a famine along the Arctic Circle,
By a pestiferous wave and a long rainfall:
All the regions of the Russian hemisphere
Shall live without law, except politics.

(Si grand famine par unde pestifere,
Par pluye longue le long du polle arctique:
Samarobryn cent lieux de l'hemispere,
Vivront sans loy, exempt de pollitique.)

NOTES: Le polle: = the Greek « πόλος (polos), pivot sur lequel tourne une chose, d’où axe du monde, pôle, p. suite, étoile polaire; cercle décrit autour de cet axe (par un astre, par le soleil), d’où le ciel, la voûte céleste. [Pivot on which turns something, thence pivot of the universe, pole, consequently, the polar star, circle described round this pivot (by a star, by the Sun), thence the heaven, the celestial vault.]» (Bailly).

Le polle arctique
: = the Arctic Circle.

Famine
: Frequently the word famine (famine), with its analogous faim (hunger), is in the Prophecies of Nostradamus a metaphor for the collective sufferings of war or warlike disasters. In fact, of 37 usages of the words famine or faim in his Prophecies, 25 are figurative and 12 literal. In this case, the word seems to mean double as Ionescu interpreted it: « Very great shall be the poverty and the dearth (famine) brought about by the communist revolution (unde pestifere).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.431).

Unde
(wave): The words unde, onde, undant, inundation, inunder, inonder are from the Latin UNDA: débordant, troublant; cf.« Onder, v.a., inonder (to overflow).» (Godefroy). Cf. « L’ONDE. – This word is for invasion, overflowing of inimical armies. Holy Scripture designates equally the invading peoples by this expression: the waters.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.81). In fact, of 18 usages of the words: onde, unde, undant, inundation, inunder and inonder, 11 figurative for revolution, invasion, social revolt or trouble (I-69, II-43, II-93, III-6, III-70, IV-71, IV-77, V-31, VI-5, VII-36 et IX-33), and only 7 literal (I-2, I-63, II-86, V-27, V-95, VI-79 et VIII-16).

Pestifere (pestiferous): The word peste (plague), as well as the words pestilence, pestilent and pestifere (pestiferous), is figurative, non literal, for most of the expressions indicative of natural phenomena such as " earthquake, rain, tempest, dryness, inundation", etc. are not literal for Nostradamus, but figurative, describing metaphorically wars, revolts, social troubles, collective distress, etc., conditioned principally by human comportments (cf. Introduction §5). In fact, of 38 usages of the words « peste », « pestilence », « pestilent » and « pestifere », 32 are figurative for the warlike and social disasters and menaces, only 5 literal (II-19, II-37, II-46, II-53 and II-65) and one for the real seism (VIII-84); the term plague in this quatrain signifies a sort of moral or mental and social disorder such as pernicious political ideology (Stalinism), inhuman collective mentality (Nazism).

Pluye
(rainfall): Eaux (waters) and pluie (rainfall) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus symbolize mostly the tumultuous, revolutionary or belligerent facts (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.111; p.204. 1862, p.38-39). In fact, of 12 usages of the word PLUIE/PLUYE, 9 are figurative in this sense (I-70, II-1, II-18, II-31, III-42, III-52, VI-5, VI-44 and IX-99), 2 are in the sense of abundance (II-46 et III-18) and only l is literal (IV-67).

It shall be so great a famine along the Arctic Circle, By a pestiferous wave and a long rainfall
: « For Stalin, industrialization was the key to the future. The road to it lay [in] forcing the peasant to pay for it just as he had paid for it through taxation in tsarist days. A violent new departure in Soviet policy was probably detonated by a grain crisis in 1927. From 1928 onwards, two ‘Five Year Plans’ announced and carried out an industrialization programme whose roots lay in what was in effect a war against the peasants, who were to be dragooned into providing food at less than cost to the cities. The party now at last conquered the countryside though by means which in practice, though not in theory or presentation, ignored the Plans. To make the peasants give up their grain, land in all the main grain-growing regions was brought into huge collective farms. There was tenacious resistance, sometimes far from passive. The crushing of it was undertaken by the secret police and army. Millions of poorer peasants- as well as the better-off smallholders, the Kulaks, who were now vigorously denounced – were killed or starved to death in what was virtually a second civil war [By a pestiferous wave and a long rainfall] while their grain was carried off to feed the industrial cities, where bread rationing was introduced in 1929. Famine, particularly in the Ukraine, followed massacres and massive deportations [It shall be so great a famine]. In seven years, 5 million families disappeared from European Russia. It seems likely that the huge round-ups of the collectivizations also launched what was to become a very distinctive feature of Soviet society, its development of the old tsarist system of forced labour on an unprecedented scale. In 1929 the term ‘labour camps’ began to be used, and the mass arrests of the next few years appear to have provided a population of 2.5 million prisoners in labour camps and other special settlements by 1933. This total was to rise even higher. It provided a labour force under the direct management of the security services that carried out huge construction tasks; on the eve of the Second World War whole industrial areas (often in particularly unpleasant environments) depended on slave labour while new industrial cities had been constructed by it, and the security service is said to have been responsible for about a quarter of the building work of the whole Soviet Union.» (Roberts, 1999, p.298-299);

« Stalin was soon blaming his henchmen for going too far (a few years later he was to tell a British prime minister that collectivization had been a trial as harsh as the Second World War). Even official Soviet figures admitted that in every year down to 1940 gross agricultural output was lower than it had been in 1928. The livestock population had been virtually halved as angry peasants slaughtered their animals rather than give them up to the authorities. But the aim of getting food from the land at less than the true cost of production by holding down the peasant’s consumption was achieved. Although grain production fell, violence assured that deliveries to the state organs went up in the 1930s, and the towns were fed. The police apparatus kept consumption down to the minimum in them. A fall in real wages pressed heavily on all Soviet citizens [so great a famine along the Arctic Circle; All the regions of the Russian hemisphere], but by 1937, 80 per cent of the industrial output of the USSR came from plant built since 1928. The urban labour force tripled in about the same time... Whatever the true figures, for everyone except the party bureaucrats and directing élite, whose privileges increased, consumer goods remained in short supply and housing was woefully inadequate [so great a famine along the Arctic Circle; All the regions of the Russian hemisphere]. This was only partially offset by improvements in educational and social services. Above all, industrialization confirmed the authoritarian and, indeed, totalitarian aspect of the regime. Very little space was left for private life in the USSR. Methods of government even more brutal but also more effective than those of the old autocracy make Stalin a somewhat paradoxical claimant to Marxist orthodoxy, which taught that the economic sub-structure of society determined its policies. The Soviet Union he created precisely inverted this; Stalin showed that if the will to use political power was there [without law, except politics], the economic sub-structure might be revolutionized by force.» (Roberts, id., p.299-300);

« It now seems odd that for a time there was a fashion to say that the United States and the USSR were growing more and more alike. The once-popular theory of ‘convergence’ gave undue emphasis to one undoubted truth: that the Soviet Union was a developed economy. In the 1960s many people in many other countries still thought socialism a plausible road to modernization because of that. It was overlooked that the Soviet economy was also by many standards inefficient. Soviet industrial growth, though in the 1950s supposedly faster than that of the United States, had been most evident in heavy industry. The individual consumer in the Soviet Union remained poor by comparison with his American (or, increasingly, Western European) counterpart, and would have been even more visibly so but for a costly and inefficient system of subsidies for basic commodities. Russian agriculture, which had once fed the cities of Central Europe and paid for the industrialization of the tsarist area, was a continuing failure; paradoxically, the USSR often had to buy American grain... ... the basic fact that the per capita GDP of the Soviet Union in the 1970s still lagged far behind that of the United States.» (Roberts, id., p.663-664).

A long rainfall: = §756, V-52: « long under such an ensign ». The quatrain VI-74 (§924) exactly predicts the end of the Russian Soviet Regime after 73 years of lasting (or 73 years and 9 months, i.e. November 7, 1917: The November Revolution - August 24, 1991: The Dissolution of the Soviet Communist Party).

Samarobryn
: = Probably, in the context of ‘along the Arctic Circle, an arbitrary composition of « Samara » and « Britvin » in the USSR, symbolizing by synecdoche the entire country along the Arctic Circle; « Samara, river of Russia (Ekaterinoslav), which sources from the point 3 leagues south of the city of Britvin, and joins the Dnieper, almost opposite Ekaterinoslav (modern Dnipropetrovsk), after about 65 leagues of course.» (MacCarthy). This neologism may mislead some of the interpreters of Nostradamus (e.g., Le Pelletier, II, p.464; Boswell, 1941, p.313; Fontbrune, 1996, p.233) because of his orthographic ingenuity to liken it to the real Samarobriva, an old name for Amiens, in France, but this line « does not fit the context.» (Leoni, 1982, p.280).

Cent lieux
: = All the places, the number 100 having a nuance of complete fullness.

Hemispere
: « Hemispere. Hémisphère (hemisphere.» (Huguet).

Samarobryn cent lieux de l'hemispere
: = All the regions of the Russian hemisphere.

All the regions of the Russian hemisphere Shall live without law, except politics
: « The huge industrial investments, the researches in the nuclear and spatial domain, the support given to the countries of the Third World for the purpose of imposing them a communist regime, and in general the propagandist and subversive actions in the Occidental countries have been done to the detriment of the material welfare of the people. Nostradamus remarks with a tone of bitter irony that the people shall suffer too much from the politics in the absence of legality. In all the institutions, in the education, in the cities and villages, in the factories and in the sectors of cultural life, everywhere it is obligatory to learn the Dialectic Marxism, the political economy, and all of creations are to bear a political impress, to express ‘a new humanity’ and to serve the noble cause of ‘the one-hour advanced construction of the Communism’.» (Ionescu, id., p.432).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§765 The Great Terror of Stalin (1924-1938): III-59.

III-59 (§765):

The barbarous empire usurped by the third estate,
Which shall put to death the greatest part of its blood:
By the aged death by him a quarter stricken,
For fear that the blood should not be dead by the blood.

(Barbare empire par le tiers usurpé
La plus grand part de son sang metra à mort:
Par mort senile par luy le quart frapé,
Pour peur que sang par le sang ne soit mort.)

NOTES: Barbarous empire: = the Imperial Russia = « une autre [loy] beaucoup plus seductive (another much more seductive law » (§763, III-95).

Le tiers
: = « The third estate; the proletariat.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.470-471).

The barbarous empire usurped by the third estate: The Russian Revolution of October by the Bolsheviki. 

Mort senile
: The aged death of Nikolai Lenin aged fifty-four in 1924, the term ‘aged’ indicating the two things: 1° Lenin really aged compared with his real successor Joseph Stalin aged forty-five in 1924 (cf. §764, III-60: a young king); 2° Lenin in incapacitation in his last days: « Certainly, Lenin never showed the slightest regrets about his lifework, though in the last two-and-a-half years of his existence he was a sick, angry, frustrated and ultimately impotent creature. It is argued that, towards the end, he recognized Stalin as the emergent monster he undoubtedly was, and sought desperately to build up Trotsky’s influence as a countervailing force. There is however one suggestive and sinister element. As part of his dehumanizing process, Lenin had insisted from the beginning of his rule that the party organs take an interest in the health of senior party men, and issue them (on medical advice) with orders about leave, hospitalization and rest. In mid-1921 Lenin began to experience severe headaches. On 4 June the Orgburo ordered him to take leave; he disobeyed it. He took a month’s leave in July, and began to work less thereafter; there were further orders, from the Politburo, in August. He resumed normal work on 13 September for nearly three months, but in early December his health got worse and he spent more time at his country house at Gorky outside Moscow. In the early weeks of 1922 there were more orders to do little or no work, and he was supposed to visit Moscow only with the permission of the Party Secretariat. His impress was on the tenth Party Congress throughout but ostensibly he only chaired a few committees. He had just left Moscow for a further rest when he had his first stroke on 25 May 1922. He was then completely out of action for months, and when he returned to work on 2 October, the Secretariat, in the name of the Central Committee, enforced a strict regime and prevented him from getting access to papers. There is no doubt at all that Stalin was the most active agent of this medical restriction, and on 18 December he had himself formally appointed supervisor of Lenin’s health. This led directly to the Lenin-Stalin breach... On 4 January 1923 Lenin dictated a postscript to his ‘testament’: ‘Stalin is too rude... intolerable in a Secretary-General’. I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post’. On the night of 5 March Lenin wrote to Stalin, rebuking him for abusing his wife on the phone and telling him to apologize or face ‘the rupture of relations between us’. Four days later came the second, debilitating stroke which robbed Lenin of speech, movement and mind. A final stroke killed him in January 1924 but by then he had long since ceased to count.» (Johnson, 1991, p.86-88). 

Him
(luy): = Stalin, Lenin’s successor = a young king (§764, III-60).

Which shall put to death the greatest part of its blood By the aged death by him a quarter stricken For fear that the blood should not be dead by the blood
: Under the Bolshevik Regime after Lenin’s death, his successor Stalin shall be led to the Policy of Great Terror for fear that his terror should not be annihilated by eventual counter-terrors: « The decision to collectivize by force was taken suddenly, without any kind of public debate, in the last weeks of 1929. It was typical of the way in which the pursuit of Utopia leads the tiny handful of men in power abruptly to assault a society many centuries in the making, to treat men like ants and stamp on their nest. Without warning, Stalin called for an ‘all-out offensive against the kulak... We must smash the kulaks, eliminate them as a class... We must strike at the kulaks so hard as to prevent them from rising to their feet again... We must break down the resistance of that class in open battle.’ On 27 December1929, the Feast of the St John the Apostle, he declared war with the slogan ‘Liquidate the kulaks as a class!’ It was the green light for a policy of extermination, more than three years before Hitler came to power, twelve years before the ordering of the ‘Final Solution’. Collectivization was a calamity such as no peasantry had known since the Thirty Years’ War in Germany... The result was what the great Marxist scholar Leszek Kolakowski has called ‘probably the most massive warlike operation ever conducted by a state against its own citizens’. The number of peasants actually shot by the regime is not yet known and may not be discoverable even when, and if, scholars ever get at the Soviet archives. Churchill said that, in Moscow in 1942, Stalin told him coolly that ‘ten millions’ of peasants had been ‘dealt with’. According to one scholarly estimate, in addition to those peasants executed by the
OGPU or killed in battle, between 10 and 11 million were transported to north European Russia, to Siberia and Central Asia; of these one-third went into concentration camps, a third into internal exile and a third were executed or died in transit [Which shall put to death the greatest part of its blood, by him a quarter stricken].» (Johnson, id., p.270-271);

« Hitler learnt from Lenin and Stalin how to set up a large-scale terror regime. But he had much to teach too. The regime he set up in January 1933 had one major anomaly: the
SA [storm trooper]. Hitler did not fully control it, and Roehm [its creator] had visions which did not fit into Hitler’s plan. The SA, already very large before the take-over, expanded rapidly after it. By the autumn of 1933 it had a million active, paid members, and reserves of 3.5 million more. Roehm’s object was to make the SA the future German army, which would overthrow the Versailles settlement and secure Germany’s expansionist aims. The old army, with its professional officer class, would be a mere training organization for a radical, revolutionary army which he himself would take on a voyage of conquest. Hitler was determined to reject this Napoleonic scheme. He had a high opinion of the regular army and believed it would put through rearmament quickly and with sufficient secrecy to carry the country through the period of acute danger when the French and their allies were still in a position to invade Germany and destroy his regime. Even more important, he had not the slightest intention of sharing power with Roehm, let alone surrendering it to him. From March 1933, when he began to assist the rise of Himmler, he had a secret phone-link to him, it is clear that Hitler had a gigantic crime in mind to resolve the dilemma which Roehm’s SA presented to him. By spring 1934 the aged Hindenburg was clearly nearing the end. Hitler wished to succeed him, uniting presidency and chancellorship in one. The army and navy commanders agreed that he should do this, provided he emasculated the SA and destroyed its pretensions, and it is typical of the naïvety they always showed in negotiating with Hitler that they gave him something vital in return for a ‘concession’ which he needed to make anyway, and in which army co-operation was essential. Hitler went ahead with his purge, an act of pure gangsterism, as soon as Himmler had achieved monopoly of the political police. He determined to murder all his immediate political enemies at once, so that the ‘evidence’ of conspiracy, manufactured by Heydrich’s intelligence bureau, produced unlikely conjunctions worthy of a Stalin show-trial. Himmler and Heydrich prepared the final list, Hitler simply underlining in pencil those to be shot; Heydrich signed the warrants, which read simply: ‘By order of the Führer and Reich Chancellor – is condemned to death by shooting for high treason’... Early on 30 June 1934 Hitler himself shook Roehm awake at the sanatorium of the Tegernsee, and then retired to the Munich Brownhouse. The Barvarian Justice Minister was not prepared to order mass shooting on the basis of a mere typed list, and Roehm and his associates were not actually murdered until 2 July, the political police carrying it out... a law was passed on 3 July, authorizing the deeds ex post facto. Not the least significant aspect of this turning point was the presentation, to the SS [Schutzstaffel] men who had carried out the murders, of daggers of honour. The SS was thus launched upon its monstrous career of legalized killing. The Roehm affair, with the state openly engaged in mass murder, with the connivance of its old military élite and the endorsement of the electorate, directly foreshadowed the extermination programs to come.» (Johnson, id., p.296-299);

« It was the sheer audacity of the Roehm purge, and the way in which Hitler got away with it, which encouraged Stalin to consolidate his personal dictatorship by similar means. Hitherto, the party élite had permitted him [Stalin] to murder only ordinary Russians. Even to expel a senior party member required elaborate preparations. In 1930, Stalin had been openly criticized by Syrtsov, a Politburo candidate, and Lominadze, a Central Committee member. He had wanted both of them shot but the most he managed was their expulsion from the
CC. Two years later he had called for the shooting of Ryutin, who had circulated privately a two-hundred-page document criticizing his dictatorship. Sergei Kirov, who had succeeded Zinoviev as boss of Leningrad, had insisted that Ryutin be spared and sent to an ‘isolator’, or special prison for top party men. By summer 1934, Kirov’s influence was still growing, and he appeared to be the man most likely to succeed Stalin – or oust him. The success of the Roehm purge inspired Stalin to do away with internal party restraints once and for all, and in the most ingenious manner: by having Kirov murdered, and using the crime as an excuse to strike at all his other enemies. Kirov was shot in mysterious circumstances on 1 December 1934, in the middle of the Smolny Institute, the former girls’ school from which Lenin had launched his putsch and which had remained party HQ in Leningrad ever since. It was a heavily guarded place and it was never explained how the assassin, Leonid Nikolaev, got through the security cordon. What is even more suspicious is that, a few days before, Kirov’s bodyguard had been removed on the orders of Yagoda, the NKVD head. In 1956 and again in 1961 Khrushtchev hinted strongly that Stalin was responsible, and the circumstantial evidence seems overwhelming... From the end of 1936 to the second half of 1938, Stalin struck at every group in the regime. In 1937 alone he killed 3,000 senior secret police officers and 90 per cent of the public prosecutors in the provinces. Stalin’s first military victim was a cavalry general, Dmitry Shmidt. [Marshal] Tukhashevsky and seven other senior generals followed on 11 June 1937, and thereafter 30,000 officers, about half the total, including 80 per cent of colonels and generals. The purge of the party itself was the most prolonged and severe. In Leningrad, only two out of its 150 delegates to the seventeenth Party Congress were allowed to live. The losses in the Moscow party were as great. About one million party members were killed in all.» (Johnson, id., p.299-301);

« An
NKVD man who had been in Stalin’s bodyguard testified that Yezhov came to Stalin almost daily in the years 1937-9, with a thick file of papers; Stalin would give orders for arrests, the use of torture, and sentences (the last before the trial). Stalin carried out some interrogations himself. He annotated documents ‘arrest’; ‘arrest everyone’; ‘no need to check: arrest them’, Stalin’s signature is appended to over 400 lists from 1937 to 1939, bearing the names of 44,000 people, senior party leaders, officials of the government, officers and cultural figures. During these years something like 10 per cent of Russia’s vast population passed through Stalin’s penitential machinery. Famous Tsarist prisons, such as the Lefortovskaia, which had been turned into museums and peopled with waxwork figures, were put into service again, the wax replaced by flesh and blood. Churches, hotels, even bathhouses and stables were turned into gaols; and dozens of new ones built. Within these establishments, torture was used on a scale which even the Nazis were later to find it difficult to match. According to Medvedev [Roy, the independent Soviet Marxist historian], NKVD recruits, aged eighteen, ‘were taken to torture-chambers, like medical students to laboratories to watch dissections’. In these circumstances, the death-rate was almost beyond the imagining of civilized men. Medvedev puts the figure of the great terror victims summarily about at 4-500,000. He thinks the total number of victims in the years 1936-9 was about 4.5 million. Men and women died in the camps at the rate of about a million a year during this and later periods, and the total of deaths caused by Stalin’s policy was in the region of 10 million.» (Johnson, id., p.302-305).

« The victims of the Stalinism: In the Stalinist Russia, the detentions in the concentration camps and the deportations were so massive that they concern about one citizen per eight [12.5%]. It adds to these 15 million interned Soviet people about 1,500,000 kulaks and 3 million persons belonging to the deported during the World War II. Several hundred thousand people were dead at the time of the Great Terror (1937-1938), and nearly two millions in their deportation to the concentration camps. Moreover, the number of the Ukrainian victims of the programmed famine of the years 1932-1933 is estimated to be nearly five millions. [by him a quarter stricken]» (
Trémolières IV, p.57).

Discussion:
The interpretation of the quatrain by Ionescu (1976, p.469-470), though correct as to its general theme: the Great Purge, does not succeed in explaining all the points in detail, losing himself in his alleged anagrams.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§764 Sanguinary dictator Stalin; reformist dictator Ataturc (1923-1938): III-60.

III-60 (§764):

All over Asia great proscription,
Even in Mysia, Lysia and Pamphylia:
Blood to shed by absolution:
By a young king full of felony.

(Par toute Asie grande proscription,
Mesmes en Mysie, Lysie & Pamphylie:
Sang versera par absolution
D'un jeune noir rempli de felonnie.)

NOTES: Proscription: = « Hist. rom. Mise hors la loi, condamnation prononcée sans jugement contre des adversaires politiques; Mesure de banissement prise à l’encontre de certaines personnes, en période d’agitation civile ou de dictature (Rom. Hist. Outlawry, condemnation pronounced without judgment against political adversaries; Measure of banishment taken against certain persons, at the period of civil agitation or dictatorship).» (Petit Robert).

Absolution
: = « Effassement d’une faute par pardon; Cathol. Rémission des péchés accordée par le prêtre après la confession (Effacement of a fault by forgiveness; Cathol.
Remission of the sins accorded by the priest after the confession).» (Petit Robert).,

Mysia, Lysia and Pamphylia: = « The three provinces of the western and the south-western Turkey.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.470).

Noir: An anagram of Roi, King (Torné-Chavigny,1861,p.13). In fact, of 27 examples of this word, 21 (= 77.8%) are for king as Philippe II (3 times ), François II, Charles IX, Henri IV, Louis XVI, Napoléon Ier (6 times), Louis XVIII, Charles X, Napoléon III, François-Joseph Ier et al., and only 6 are for the color black (I-77, VI-10, VI-36, VII-14, IX-60, X-91). The character ‘N’ of ‘noir’ does not have a meaning of ‘negation’ as Ionescu does wish so, but the nuance in totality of the word ‘noir (black)’ has a certain earthly negativity of all the kings on earth as Torné-Chavigny explains so.

A young king: = Stalin (1879-1953) aged forty-five, yet young compared with his predecessor Lenin (1870-1924) aged fifty-four when he was dead in 1924. Lenin, too, is said to be “un Roy, a King” (§756, V-52) and his death “mort senile, aged death” (§765, III-59). By the way, in the quatrain I-35 (§13), Henry II of France (March 1519 - July 1559) aged 40 is called ‘the old lion’ compared with his rival of jousting on 30 June 1559 Gabriel de Lorges, the Count of Montgommery aged 27, called ‘the young lion’.

All over Asia great proscription, Even in Mysia, Lysia and Pamphylia: Blood to shed by absolution: By a young king full of felony: V. Ionescu (1976, p.470-473) gives us a fully developed solution of the quatrain, whose brief conclusion is here: « In the Asian countries they shall effect great proscriptions. Even in Turkey, they shall carry out anti-religious and anti-monarchical reforms, when Kemal Ataturc shall have appeared as a dictator. In Russia, the largest country in Asia, because of Stalin, the new dictator, full of astuteness of feline beasts, they shall hold profane ceremonies, where “the absolution” by sanguinary sacrifices shall be given after the “confessions”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.473).
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§763 Fall of Russian Empire; End of Ottoman Empire (1917-1928): III-95.

III-95 (§763):

The Moorish law shall be seen to fail:
After another much more seductive law shall have failed,
The Dnieper shall be the first to fail:
Pardon and the language shall become more attractive.

(La loy Moricque on verra defaillir:
Apres une autre beaucoup plus seductive,
Boristhenes premier viendra faillir:
Pardons & langue une plus attractive.)

NOTES: Moricque: = « Morisque. Moresque.» (Huguet); The French word Moricque is the adjective of the French noun « More (= the Moor).» (§602, IV-85); « MORE. V. MAURE. » (Petit Robert); « MAURE, MAURESQUE ou MORE, MORESQUE. n. et adj. (du lat. maurus; esp. Moro). Hist. De l’ancienne Mauretania, région du nord de l’Afrique. Maures islamisés; Maures d’Espagne (From the ancient Mauretania, region of the northern Africa. Islamized Moors; Moors of Spain).» (Petit Robert).

La loy Moricque: = la loy moresque = « The Moorish law.» (Ovason, 1997, p.306) = the Ottoman Empire. The word ‘loy (law)’ in this case can be more comprehensive than usually, meaning a ‘regime’ as is the case of the second line: ‘une autre [loy] beaucoup plus seductive’ (another much more seductive [law], i.e. the Russian Empire).

Boristhenes: = The river of Dnieper in the Russian Empire till 1917; « Βορυσθένης, Borysthène, fl. de la Sarmatie européenne (auj. Dniéper).» (Pillon). Cf. Edmonds, 2000, p.39.

Pardon: Forgiveness, pardon. This word evokes, on the other hand, punishment or penalty, thence one may infer the penal code.

David Ovason (1997, p.306-308) gives us a sufficiently reasonable solution of the quatrain, except about the text « Pardons (Forgiveness, pardon) », which he replaces wrongly by « Par dons (By gifts) ».

The Moorish law shall be seen to fail: After another much more seductive law shall have failed, The Dnieper shall be the first to fail: Pardon and the language shall become more attractive: « The quatrain deals with a period of a few years when both the Russian Imperium and the old Ottoman Empire came to an abrupt and perhaps unexpected end. The weakened Ottoman Empire could be said to have fallen in October 1923, when the republic of Turkey was proclaimed in Ankara [The Moorish law shall be seen to fail]. The Sultanate, upon which the old Ottoman Empire had depended, had been abolished almost a year later, but the ratification by the national assembly seems to have been the final nail in the coffin of the Ottomans. In 1928, a short while after the Ottoman Empire had become technically defunct, the Turkish state was declared secular. This move had required that the Shariya law, the loi Moricque (Muslim Law) should be abandoned, in favour of one more attractive to the aspirations of the Turkish nation. This occurred in 1926, when Muslim religious law was put aside in favour of a civil code based on a number of European laws [Pardon shall become more attractive]. This farsighted decision was the first stage in a progressive attempt to both secularize the state and establish firm communication with the Western world, at the expense of the old Ottoman ties to the Arabic East. This is probably why Nostradamus could visualize the replacement model (the Roman alphabet). In 1928, the Roman alphabet was adopted to replace the Arabic script, and attempts were made to revitalize old Turkish words to take the place of the Arabic and Persian which had crept into the Ottoman language [the language shall become more attractive].» (Ovason, id., p.307-308).

« The word Boristhenes was the old name for the river Dnieper, which arises in the hills of Valdai, to the west of Moscow, and flows through Smolensk and Kiev, to fall into the Black Sea near Nikolaev, at the top of the huge peninsula that is the Crimea. The name was, therefore, a convenient symbol for Nostradamus to indicate what had to fall before the decline in the Moorish law could take place. The thing which had to fall was the arch-enemy of the Ottomans – Imperial Russia. We may suggest that Russian Imperium fell in 1914 [sic][1917], with the Revolution [another much more seductive law shall have failed, The Dnieper shall be the first to fail].» (Ovason, id.).
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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