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§862 The world hegemony from France to England through the Second Hundred Years’ War (1689–1815): X-98.

X-98 (§862):

The clear splendor of a merry maiden,
Shall shine no more for a long time, shall be unwise:
Odious with merchants, middlemen & wolves,
All pell-mell, a universal monster.

(La splendeur claire à pucelle joyeuse,
Ne luyra plus long temps sera sans sel:
Avec marchans, ruffiens loups odieuse,
Tous pesle mesle monstre universel.)

NOTES: La splendeur claire à pucelle joyeuse (The clear splendor of a merry maiden): In this phrase there are two distinctive expressions that refer to the two French characters, namely the French word ‘pucelle (maiden)’, the unique example in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, to Joan of Arc, la pucelle d’Orlénans (the Maid of Orléans), and ‘the clear splendor’ to the Sun-King Louis the Great (le Roy-Soleil Louis le Grand), called “Aematien, he who is of the solar light” in the quatrains IX-38, IX-64, IX-93, X-7 and X-58. The former is designating France and the latter the French glorious times of Louis XIV.

Sel (salt): « The symbol of the wisdom » (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.103). In fact, of 7 usages of the term “sel (salt)” 5 are of this sort (II-21, VIII-32, IX-49, X-7 and X-98) and the remaining 2 imply foodstuffs (V-34 and VII-34).

The clear splendor of a merry maiden, Shall shine no more for a long time, shall be unwise: This expression therefore tells the decline of the hegemonic France under Louis XIV and Napoleon I: « FRANCE and England were early competitors in the American seas. Their hereditary hatred, which had existed for centuries, had been deepened and intensified by repeated collisions. Differences of religion increased their animosity. They were rivals in the Old World and rivals in the New; rivals in the East Indies and rivals in the West; rivals in Africa and rivals in Europe; rivals in politics, in commerce, and the arts; rivals in ambition for conquest and supremacy. Each sought its own aggrandisement at the expense of the other; each claimed to be superior to the other in the elements of national glory and the appliances of national strength. The gayety of the former was in contrast with the gravity and sobriety of the latter. The impetuosity of the one was the counterpart to the coolness and cautiousness of the other. Time, instead of softening, had hardened their prejudices, and for a century and a half from the date of the establishment of the first French colony at the north, the two nations, with but slight interruptions, were constantly in the attitude of opposition and defiance. England, without doubt, preceded France in the career of discovery, and the voyage of the Cabots gave to the former her claims to the regions visited by their vessels. But the interval which elapsed between the voyage of the Cabots (1497) and the earliest authenticated voyage of the French (1504) was exceedingly brief, and the two nations, if not contemporaries, were equals in the race. France succeeded, even before England, in settling a colony to the north, and the foundations of Quebec were laid before the landing of the Pilgrims and before the settlement of Boston. In consequence of this rivalry of England and France, the colonies at the north were early involved in difficulties and contentions, and these difficulties increased as the conflict of interests brought them into collision. Hence before the confederacy of 1643, apprehensions of hostilities were entertained in Massachusetts, and from that date to the union of the colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts, in 1692, these apprehensions continued to disturb the people, and resulted, at length, in vigorous action on the part of the English to uproot their rivals and drive them from their possessions. If New England was the "key of America,” New France might, with equal propriety, claim to be the lock; for Canada, with the chain of freshwater lakes bordering upon its territory, opened a communication with the distant West; and the Jesuit missionaries, Marquette, Joliet, La Salle, and Hennepin, by their explorations on the Mississippi, the "Father of Waters,” brought the vast region watered by that stream and its tributaries under the dominion of the Bourbons, and backed all British America with a cordon of military posts, hovering upon the outskirts of the northern settlements with their savage allies, greatly to the alarm of the English, who were exposed to their depredations, and from whose incursions they could defend themselves only by an expenditure of money and strength which impoverished them in their weakness and imperilled their safety. Behold, then, the two nations, rivals for centuries, upon the eve of a fresh struggle upon the new field of action. The names of the "Palatinate War,” the "War of the Spanish Succession," the "War of the Austrian Succession," and the "Seven Years’ War" do not suggest American history, and many a reader, even though informed above the average, would say that these subjects have nothing American in them. Yet they are the true titles of great conflicts in which the New World was vitally concerned, though it calls them by other names. To the European historian, the colonial branches of these wars were mere reverberations in the distance, and of only the faintest importance. He dismisses them in a few lines. And the American historian is likely to return the compliment, magnify the importance of the frontier colonial skirmishes, and dismiss in a few lines the great continental wars. This in spite of the fact that peace was always made and broken at the European capitals, and the colonists were not consulted in the division of spoil. In 1688 France was the chief power in the world. Louis XIV had at that date absorbed into his own hands an absolute control never equalled, save perhaps by Napoleon. Like Napoleon, he terrorised all Europe by his projects of aggrandisement and provoked coalition after coalition against him [The clear splendor of a merry maiden]; like Napoleon, he carried his glory to the point of collapse, and at his death found a national decline noticeably under way. Louis XIV seems to have sincerely believed in that sublime egotism, the divine right of kings. He cried, "The state is myself " (L'etat, c'est moi), and proceeded to act upon the outrageous assumption that his whims and his selfish schemes were not merely the welfare of his people, but the desires and plans of an all-wise Deity. His intense Catholicism encouraged him in this bigotry and in his backward step, the renewal of the persecutions from which the Huguenots had been relieved by Henry of Navarre's Edict of Nantes in 1598. Louis had gradually succeeded in making France a great naval power, and Duquesne had defeated the combined Spanish and Dutch fleets. Now he found that William of Orange, doubly his enemy as an old warrior and as a Protestant, had been called to England by a presumptuous parliament as a substitute for the sacred and Catholic king James II, who was deposed. Three years before (1686) William had succeeded in forming the League of Augsburg against Louis, who now found that even the pope and Catholic Spain feared him still more than they feared Protestantism. Surrounded by the enemies he had accumulated, Louis decided on getting the advantage of beginning the inevitable war. For point of attack he chose not Holland, but that part of Germany called the Palatinate. It offered the feeblest resistance and suffered terrible devastation. But meanwhile this so-called "War of the Palatinate" gave William of Orange his chance to enter England, take up the sceptre, and bind Great Britain also into the League of Augsburg. As later, in the times of the Revolution and of Napoleon, France found herself encircled by enemies. Then, as later, she fought them all magnificently, though the final exhaustion of blood, money, and enthusiasm was unavoidable. France kept from four to six huge armies in the field, and a great fleet on the sea, a fleet which, under Tourville, defeated the English-Dutch fleet off Beachy Head, while Jean Bart preyed on English commerce. Louis set the fugitive James II down in Ireland, whence William drove him by his victory at the Boyne. Louis' general, Luxembourg, won a victory at Fleurus in the Netherlands, and another general, Catinat, defeated the League at Staffarda, in Italy; Louis himself took Mons and Namur by siege. But in 1692, trusting that half the English fleet would desert to James II, Louis sent Admiral Tourville into a great defeat at Cape La Hogue. This gave England the naval power again. From this moment France began to tire and to count the cost. Occasional victories could not revive her elan [Shall shine no more for a long time, shall be unwise].» (HH, XXIII, p.179-182).

Shall shine no more for a long time: « Anglo-French colonial conflicts: From the end of the 17th century England and France were confronted with each other in the colonies such as North America, India, the West Indies and Africa, which entailed the colonial wars in connection with those in the mainland of Europe lasting more than a hundred years till the fall of Napoleon (1689-1815), called the Second Hundred Years’ War.» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, 1984, p,276).

Ruffiens: = Middlemen of slaves: « RUFIAN ou RUFFIAN. Entremetteur (Procurer, pander; Middleman; Go-between).» (Petit Robert). « The convict shipments, much as they may have relieved the mother country of an overplus of vice, unloaded on the New World no more corruption than it could assimilate. In fact it may be said that the imported convicts had far less influence on the social and political life of the main body than the negroes who began at the same time to be unloaded by shipfuls on the colonies and to be treated almost exactly the same as the indentured white servants. It was by the free consent and co-operation of the colonists themselves that this still more objectionable species of population was introduced into Virginia, in August, 1619, not without enduring and disastrous effects upon the social condition of the United States. Twenty negroes, brought to Jamestown by a Dutch trading vessel, and purchased by the colonists, were held, not as indented servants for a term of years, but as slaves for life. Even so late as the first English migrations to America, there might have remained, in obscure corners of England, some few hereditary serfs attached to the soil, faint remnants of that system of villanage once universal throughout Europe, and later prevalent in Hungary and Russia. But villains in gross - slaves, that is, inherited from their parents the condition of servitude, and transferable from hand to hand had entirely disappeared from England, not by any formal legislative act, but as the joint result of private emancipations and the discouragement long given by the English courts to claims so contrary to natural right. It had come, indeed, to be an established opinion throughout western Europe that Christians could not be held as slaves - an immunity, however, not thought to extend to infidels or heathen. The practice of buying negroes on the coast of Africa, introduced by the Portuguese, had been adopted by the Spanish, English, and Dutch. There was little inducement to bring them to Europe, where hired labourers might be abundantly obtained; but in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in America, especially after the introduction of the sugar manufacture, the slave traders [ruffiens (middlemen)] found a ready market, and the cultivation of tobacco began now to open a like market in Virginia. In buying and holding negro slaves, the Virginians did not suppose themselves to be violating any law, human or divine. Whatever might be the case with the law of England, the law of Moses, in authorising the enslavement of "strangers,” seemed to give to the purchase of negro slaves an express sanction. The number of negroes in the colony, limited as it was to a few cargoes, brought at intervals by Dutch traders, was long too small to make the matter appear of much moment, and more than forty years elapsed before the colonists thought it necessary to strengthen the system of slavery by any express enactments.» (HH, XXII, p.584-585).

« Slavery appears to have been established in Maryland from its earliest colonisation; for an act of assembly describes "the people” to consist of all Christian inhabitants, "slaves only excepted." [ Up to the time of the Civil War the condition of the slave was the same in Maryland as in the other southern states. The first slaves imported into Maryland came from Bermuda (1634). The importation of the slave was encouraged, but there was too large an influx of the negro, and in 1695 a per capita tax was imposed on all slaves brought into the province. By the Treaty of Utrecht "Spain guaranteed to England the monopoly of supplying negro slaves from the Spanish-American provinces." Prior to the Revolution the negro population of Maryland was 20 per cent. that of the white. As far back as 1789 there was a strong anti-slavery sentiment in Maryland. - JAMES McSHERRY.].» (HH, XXII, p.601-602).

« An act was passed, the first statute of Virginia which attempts to give a legislative basis to the system of hereditary servitude. The Virginia assembly saw fit to adopt the rule of the civil law, so much more convenient for slaveholders, by enacting that children should be held bond or free, "according to the condition of the mother." The lawfulness of holding Africans as slaves was supposed to rest, in part at least, on the fact that they were heathen. But of the negroes brought to Virginia some had been converted and baptised, and this was the case to a still greater extent with those born in the colony. By what right were these Christians held as slaves? This question having been raised in Virginia, the assembly in 1667 came to the relief of the masters by enacting that negroes, though converted and baptised, should not thereby become free. At the same session, in remarkable deviation from the English law, it was also enacted that killing slaves by extremity of correction should not be esteemed felony, "since it cannot be presumed that prepense malice should induce any man to destroy his own estate." The prohibition against holding Indians as slaves was also relaxed as to those brought in by water, a new law having enacted “that all servants, not being Christians, imported by shipping, shall be slaves for life.” About this period, and afterwards, a considerable number of Indian slaves seem to have been imported into Virginia and New England from the West Indies and the Spanish Main.» (HH, XXIII, p.125).

Loups
(Wolves): = Troops.

Odieuse (Odious): = Odious are the colonialist countries such as Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, England and France, represented by the expression “la pucelle odieuse Avec marchans, ruffiens loups (the odious maiden with merchants, traders of slaves and troops”.

Odious with merchants, middlemen & wolves, All pell-mell, a universal monster: « Louis, after making a secret and advantageous alliance, found himself ready to accept the two treaties of Ryswick in 1697, by which, though he lost nothing but his pains, he had to restore all his conquests. While these colossal events were taking place, America was undergoing what is locally known as "King William's War" (1689-1697). The religious feuds between the French and English colonies were always bitter, and even in the times of 1776 many Americans were scandalised at taking the French as allies, preferring to risk independence rather than a heterodox combination. In King William's War, then, that bitterest of all enthusiasms, religious sectarianism, found a bloody vent. The Indians sided with the more friendly French, and the horrors of savagery were added to the evils of what we euphemistically call "civilised warfare." This conflict ended simultaneously with the continental war at the Treaty of Ryswick. By this treaty Louis XIV acknowledged William of Orange lawful king of England. Five years later William died (March 8th, 1702). The deposed James II had died seven months before. The question of succession now arose. The English, to continue Protestantism on the throne, had settled the crown on James II's second daughter, Anne. But Louis declared for the eldest son, Prince James, "the Pretender," as the English called him. The friction on this point was increased by the act of Louis in placing his own grandson, Philip of Aragon, on the Spanish throne, in spite of his previous renunciations of all claim to that crown. Thus, upon Louis' death, France and Spain would probably be united under one monarch. In 1701 Louis had declared the Ryswick treaty void. The Germans and Dutch had formed with William of England a "Grand Alliance" to curb the presumptions of the "Grand Monarch." War broke out at once, and in the midst of it the death of William emphasised the breach. This great war of eleven years' duration (1702-1713) was called "The War of the Spanish Succession." The Huguenots crippled Louis at home, and the duke of Marlborough built up fame by thunderous campaigns culminating in the Battle of Blenheim (1704), by which the French were driven out of Bavaria. Marlborough's success at Ramillies (1706) crushed French sway in the Netherlands. In 1704 the English fleet had taken Gibraltar, and in 1706 the allies took Italy. In 1708 the victory of Oudenarde and the taking of Lille by siege combined with famine to pluck down French pride. Louis asked for terms, but the allies tried to drive so hard a bargain that they woke the marvelous elasticity of the French spirit and the war raged anew; and while success was still with the allies, English politics and weariness began to weaken them. Marlborough lost favour at court and was withdrawn from command. Negotiations dragged along, and without England's aid the allies began, in 1712, to lose place after place. By 1713 all the allies, except the Austrian emperor, had signed the Treaty of Utrecht, and a year later he was coerced by defeats at French hands. By this treaty England gained her theory of succession, as well as Newfoundland, Acadia, and the Hudson Bay territory. France found herself about as she was before the war, though she squeezed out much better terms than those offered in 1706. In 1715 the Grand Monarch died, surrounded by evidences of toppling conquest, and with no nearer heir than a great-grandson. During all these complicated years the American colonies were in the throes of what they called, not the "War of the Spanish Succession,” which interested them little, but "Queen Anne's War,” because the question of the possession of the English throne by a Catholic or a Protestant monarch was of the utmost importance to them. It was also called "Governor Dudley's War,” from the activity of that man. Louis XIV was succeeded by the dissolute Louis XV, who left the government to his ministers, the first of whom, Fleury, was unwillingly dragged into many international broils. In 1740 the Austrian emperor, Charles VI, died, leaving no male issue. His daughter, Maria Theresa, being left in control of the great realm, the land-hungry nations about her looked for easy prey. The only trouble to be feared was internal wrangling. This came speedily enough in a chaos of claims and counter-claims. England wished Maria Theresa's inheritance left intact; the French saw an opportunity to dismember the Austrian power. Frederick the Great of Prussia agreed to this, but was eager for his share of the loot. He took Silesia, then signed a treaty with Maria Theresa, and joined the English in saying that the division had gone far enough. The French, under Marshal Saxe, fought desultorily against England and Germany. In 1744 the war blazed up furiously. France sent the "Young Pretender,” Charles Edward, into Scotland, where he failed miserably at Culloden. Marshal Saxe succeeded in the Netherlands, however, and defeated the English, Dutch, and Germans at Fontenoy. Success smiled on France also in Italy. But England ended her pretensions in the East Indies. At length, by 1748, the rivals were ready for the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. France and England returned each what each had taken, and Maria Theresa was firmly established. This four years' strife, known to Europe as the " War of the Austrian Succession" or the "First and Second Silesian Wars" (1740-1744, 1744-1748), is sometimes called in America " King George's War," for no particular reason except that George II was then on the English throne. In this war the colonists played a more or less independent part. The colonies organised a land force and besieged the important port of Louisburg. English troops and ships joined later, and in 1745 the fort surrendered. New England troops garrisoned the fort till the treaty of peace in 1748, when to their disgust it was restored to France. The colonists were given no share of the prize money, £600,000, from the capture of the port and shipping, and it was not until 1749 that the expenses of the troops were reimbursed. The colonists had, however, acquired two important bits of knowledge: first, that England did not seriously respect their feelings; second, that they could fight regular European soldiers as well as Indians. What Americans call the "French and Indian War" (1754-1763) was a genuine colonial struggle, with victory nodding now towards the Catholics and now towards the Protestants. The results were of final importance to American history, and continued the schooling that the colonies were to use for independence not many years later. In Europe the war did not break out till 1756. It was the time of Richelieu, and of that alliance of three empires, which the French called the "Alliance of the Three Petticoats,” from Maria Theresa of Austria, Elizabeth of Russia, and the French king's potent mistress Madame de Pompadour. Richelieu had raised a French navy, and it brilliantly defeated the English navy, whose overbearing pride of power had stung France to war, as in 1812 it drove the United States to desperation. It was the time when Frederick the Great of Prussia was humbled until his decisive stroke at Rossbach, in 1757, won him definite English support, leaving him free to fight Austria, while England, Hanover, and Brunswick assailed France. France now began to lose in all directions, and the combination of all the Bourbon monarchs of the Latin races into the "Family Compact" only involved them in the disaster. The Treaty of Paris, in 1763, ended the war and left France to the mercy of English cupidity [Shall shine no more for a long time, shall be unwise]. England's shears clipped from France in 1763 Nova Scotia, Canada, Cape Breton, the territory to the Mississippi, and many islands here and there. It was the acme of England's glory. Small wonder that such spoils should have fed presumption. The successes of the English led them to sneer at the colonists and their claims with disastrous results. Having thus sketched in the background of the series of colonial wars [Odious with merchants, middlemen & wolves, All pell-mell, a universal monster],...» (HH, XXIII, p.182-184).

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§861 350 years of the British Empire by colonization (1600-1947): X-100.

X-100 (§861):

The grand empire by England shall be,
The All-River of more than 300 years.
She shall dispatch grand troops by sea and land,
The Lusitans shall not be content with it.

(Le grand empire sera par Angleterre,
Le pempotam des ans plus de trois cens.
Grandes coppies passer par mer & terre,
Les Lusitains n'en seront pas contens.)

NOTES: Le grand empire sera par Angleterre, Le pempotam des ans plus de trois cens: The construction will be as follows: Le grand empire par Angleterre sera le pempotam des ans plus de trois cens = The grand empire by England shall be the All-River of more than 300 years.

The grand empire by England: = « the British Empire. Another name for England which has obtained territories abroad since the 16th century. Her territories in her prime attained one quarter of the globe.» (EH, VIII, p.1163); Her colonies (not always at a time): the West Indies, North America, Guyana, Ireland, India and its surroundings, the Southern, North-Eastern and South-Western Africa, Yemen, Australia, New Zealand, Malay, Borneo, New Guinea, the Falkland Islands and St. Helena (cf. EH, VIII, p.1163, Chart: Principal territories of the British Empire in 1775 and 1914); « British Empire. The colonies, protectorates, and territories brought under British sovereignty from as early as the sixteenth century. In the late nineteenth century, some in Britain still harboured dreams of expanding the Empire, such as Rhodes [Cecil John] and Milner [Alfred], who wanted to create a unified Cape-to-Cairo dominion in Africa. However, the South African (Boer) War (1899-1902) damaged Britain’s confidence in its Empire. In many areas, control had never advanced beyond indirect rule… » (Palmowski, p.88-89).

Pempotam: A neologism of Nostradamus consisting of the Greek πᾶν (pān, all; N of pān becoming M before P, and PAN and PEM are identical in pronunciation in French) and
ποταμός (potamos, river; POTAM is an apocope of POTAMOS), representing the British colonies all over the globe because of the existing rivers there. Though the Greek POTAMOS can signify also a SEA (cf. Bailly, s.v.; Leoni, 1982, p.442-443), a river always connotes the land where it runs, but a sea doesn’t. And naturally, this neologism also implies « la suprématie des mers (supremacy of the seas) » (Fontbrune, 1939, p.257) or « le roi des mers (the king of the seas) » (Le Pelletier, I, p.162), through which England obtains many river-flowing lands abroad. This double meaning fits in very nicely with the third line: « She shall dispatch grand troops by sea and land ».

Most of our predecessors simply follow Le Pelletier who says that the word Pempotam is composed of the Greek πᾶν and the Latin potens = tout-puissant (omnipotent) (Le Pelletier, id.). But the text of Nostradamus has another example of the word Pempotam meaning the Great Britain* and at the same time another word PEMPOTANS (§699, VIII-97), which may exclude Le Pelletier’s easy translation of PEMPOTAM into PANPOTENS.

* ... approchera de maison ce que paravant estoit & est grande cité comprenant le Pempotam la mesopotamie de l'Europe a quarante cinq, & autres de quaranteung, quarantedeux, & trentesept, & dans iceluy temps & en icelles contrees la puissance infernale mettra à l’encontre de l’eglise de Jesus Christ la puissance des adversaires de sa loy, qui sera le second antechrist, lequel persecutera icelle eglise & son vray vicaire par moyen de la puissance des Roys temporelz, (… what before was and is a grand city including the Pempotam and the Mesoptamia of Europe** [France’s centre Paris’ heart the island of Cité is between the two ramifications of the Seine] approaches a house in the years 37-45 [i.e., the political and military shrinking of the Great Britain and the Republic of France suffering from the Blitzkrieg of the Nazi Germany in the years immediately preceding the WWII and of the WWII], and in this time and in these districts the infernal power shall oppose against the Church of Jesus Christ the power of its law’s adversaries, who shall be a second Antichrist*****, who shall persecute this Church and its true Vicar by means of the power of the temporal Kings, (№3,
Adresse à Henri II, p.18).

** Cf.
§273, VIII-70; §474, VII-22 and §820, III-99; Another usage of Nostradamus: « la cité libre, constituee & assize dans une autre exigue mezopotamie (the free city, constituted and situated in another tiny Mesopotamia)» (№3, Adresse à Henri II, p.12).

And, though the word PEMPOTANS (VIII-97) may be considered to be composed of pan + potent as Le Pelletier will pretend so, its component POTANS alludes in reality to POTENCE (potency) = BÉQUILLE (crutch, stand) = GIBET (scaffold) (Bloch & Wartburg, s.v. POTENCE). In fact, the quatrain VIII-97 has a theme of Paris Commune in 1871 (cf. Vignois, 1910, p.329), resulting in the instant firing of almost all the Communards (17,000 only in Paris) (« tous au gibet » “all to the scaffold” = Pempotans ) (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p. 313).

The start of “more than 300 years”: = 1600; « Elisabeth, on the throne in 1558, reigned in 1588, when the Invincible Armada of Philip II, king of Spain, was destroyed by Drake, Vice-Admiral of England. It is from this epoch that dates the maritime preponderance of England.» (Le Pelletier, id., p.161-162). This interpretation of Le Pelletier most popular among the Nostradamus researchers is evidently based upon that of the term “pempotam” as “the supremacy of the seas”, but its original and true meaning is as it were a “global colonization”, whose real inception by England was in 1600, when the English East India Company was established with patent; « English Colonization Activities. Henry VII [1485-1509], having denied his aid to Columbus’ project, gave the patent to the Italian Cabot, father [1450-1498] and son [1477-1557], to make them explore the North-West passage [in 1497, 98], instigated by the discovery of Columbus. They discovered Nova Scotia and Labrador of the North America. Then, in the first half of the 16th century explorations by the North-East passage arrived in Russia to trade, but could not find the way to Asia. In the times of Elizabeth I, the English were accustomed to raid Spanish and Portuguese merchant fleets to plunder their cargoes. Hawkins [1532-1595] and Drake [c.1540-1596] represented these adventurous pirate-merchants, who founded the basis of the English marine preponderance. And in the later years of the Elizabethan reign, the English spread over every part of the world, Drake into the Pacific, Gilbert [Humphrey: 1539-1584] into the Northern Atlantic, some chasing Negroes in Africa and others travelling from the Russian steppes till Asia, trading with Turks and Greeks, working in this way up to the foundation of the East India Company and the North American colonies.» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, 1984, p.274).

« THE DISASTERS OF SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT While the queen and her adventurers were dazzled by the glittering prospects of mines of gold in the frozen regions of the remote north, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, with a sounder judgment and a better knowledge, watched the progress of the fisheries, and formed healthy plans for colonisation. It was not difficult for Gilbert to obtain a liberal patent (June 11th, 1578), formed according to the tenor of a previous precedent, and to be of perpetual efficacy, if a plantation should be established within six years. To the people who might belong to his colony, the rights of Englishmen were promised; to Gilbert, the possession for himself or his assigns of the soil which he might discover, and the sole jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, of the territory within two hundred leagues of his settlement, with supreme executive and legislative authority. Thus the attempts at colonisation, in which Cabot and Frobisher had failed, were renewed under a patent that conferred every immunity on the leader of the enterprise, and abandoned the colonists themselves to the mercy of an absolute proprietary. Under this patent, Gilbert began to collect a company of volunteer adventurers, contributing largely from his own fortune to the preparation. Jarrings and divisions ensued, before the voyage was begun; many abandoned what they had inconsiderately undertaken; the general and a few of his assured friends among them his step-brother, Walter Raleigh [in command of the Falcon] put to sea in 1579; one of his ships was lost; and misfortune compelled the remainder to return. The vagueness of the accounts of this expedition is ascribed to a conflict with a Spanish fleet, of which the issue was unfavourable to the little squadron of emigrants. Gilbert attempted to keep his patent alive by making grants of lands. None of his assigns succeeded in establishing a colony; and he was himself too much impoverished to renew his efforts. But the pupil of Coligny was possessed of an active genius, which delighted in hazardous adventure. To prosecute discoveries in the New World, lay the foundation of states, and acquire immense domains, appeared to the daring enterprise of Raleigh as easy designs, which would not interfere with the pursuit of favour and the career of glory in England. Before the limit of the charter had expired, Gilbert, assisted by his brother, equipped a new squadron. The fleet embarked under happy omens; the commander, on the eve of his departure, received from Elizabeth a golden anchor guided by a lady, a token of the queen's regard; a man of letters from Hungary accompanied the expedition; and some part of the United States would have then been colonised, had not the unhappy projector of the design been overwhelmed by a succession of disasters. Two days after leaving Plymouth (June 13th), the largest ship in the fleet, which had been furnished by Raleigh, who himself remained in England, deserted, under a pretence of infectious disease, and returned into harbour. Gilbert was incensed, but not intimidated. He sailed for Newfoundland; and, entering St. Johns, he summoned the Spaniards and Portuguese, and other strangers, to witness the feudal ceremonies by which he took possession of the country for his sovereign. A pillar, on which the arms of England were infixed, was raised as a monument; and lands were granted to the fishermen in fee, on condition of the payment of a quit-rent. The "mineral-man" of the expedition, an honest and religious Saxon, was especially diligent; it was generally agreed that " the mountains made a show of mineral substance”; as there were so many foreign vessels in the vicinity, the precious ore was carried on board the larger ship with such mystery that the dull Portuguese and Spaniards suspected nothing of the matter. The colony being thus apparently established, Sir Humphrey Gilbert embarked in his small frigate, the Squirrel, which was, in fact, a miserable bark of ten tons; and, taking with him two other ships, proceeded on a voyage of discovery to the southward. One of these vessels, the Delight, was soon after wrecked among the shoals near Sable Island; and of above one hundred men on board, only twelve escaped. Among those who perished were the historian and the mineralogist of the expedition; a circumstance which preyed upon the mind of Sir Humphrey, whose ardent temper fondly cherished the hope of fame and of inestimable riches. He now determined to return to England; but as his little frigate, as she is called, appeared wholly unfit to proceed on such a voyage, he was entreated not to venture in her, but to take his passage in the Golden Hinde. To these solicitations the gallant knight replied, " I will not forsake my little company going homeward, with whom I have passed so many storms and perils." When the two vessels had passed the Azores, Sir Humphrey's frigate was observed to be nearly overwhelmed by a great sea; she recovered, however, the stroke of the waves, and immediately afterwards the general was observed by those in the Hinde, sitting abaft with a book in his hand, and calling out, "Courage, my lads! we are as near heaven by sea as by land!" The same night this little bark, and all within her, were swallowed up in the sea, and never more heard of. Such was the unfortunate end of the brave Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who may be regarded as the father of western colonization, and who was one of the chief ornaments of the most chivalrous age of English history.» (HH, XXII, p.496-497).

« English Colonization Activities to East India. The activities toward Asia were submitted mainly to the East India Company established in 1600. It sent its first merchant fleet to Asia in 1601. But the trades with East Asia had been already nearly monopolized by the Portuguese and the Dutch, whom the English rivalled. In the end they featured the trades with the mainland of India, and gradually obtained their bases in the Western India (Surat), Persia (Hormuz) and the area about the Red Sea, and later in Madras (1640), Bombay (1661) and Calcutta (1686).» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, 1984, p.274).

« English Colonization Activities in North America. The activities in North America were performed by the enterprising companies with Royal patent, and in the beginning of the 17th century colonies were established in Newfoundland, Virginia (1607) and the Islands of Bermuda (1612). In particular many Puritans and Catholics immigrated into North America, fleeing from the Anglican coercion under the Stuarts in quest of freedom of faith. Above all, a group of Puritans called Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower landed on Plymouth in 1620 and established the colony of New England, and in 1630 a number of Puritans immigrated and built the colony of Massachusetts.» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, id.).

Of these first English colonizing enterprises and colonizations, the establishment of the East India Company in 1600 shall be the most remarkable opening of the English global colonization because the vast colonies of North America had become independent already in the second half of the 18th century, whereas the East India Company was succeeded by the British Crown itself through the India Act of 1858 after the Indian Mutiny (1857-8) and the independence of India (“known as the ‘Jewel in the Crown’ of the British Empire at the beginning of the twentieth century” [Palmowski, p.313]) in 1947 is considered to mark the real end of the British Empire. The time span 1600-1947 fits in just with the prediction of Nostradamus: more than 300 years of the pempotam, the concept of the term ‘pempotam (= all-rivers = all the lands = the global colonization)’ being different from that of the ‘world hegemony’, with which shall deal the quatrains X-98 (§862) and II-78 (§877).

The end of “more than 300 years”: = 1937-1945. This epoch is discovered in the paragraph above cited telling the shrinking of the Pempotam: « ... approchera de maison ce que paravant estoit & est grande cité comprenant le Pempotam la mesopotamie de l'Europe a quarante cinq, & autres de quaranteung, quarantedeux, & trentesept, & dans iceluy temps & en icelles contrees…, (… what before was and is a grand city including the Pempotam and the Mesoptamia of Europe approaches a house in 45, others of 41, 42, and 37, and in this time and in these districts,..) » (№3,
Adresse à Henri II, p.18), where the numbers 45, 41, 42 and 37 with a preposition « a » (à) [at, in] or « de » [of] « a quarante cinq, & autres de quaranteung, quarantedeux, & trentesept, » are considered to be designating the years because the next expression is clearly given as “in this time (dans iceluy temps)”. And these years are evidently 1937-1945, the context describing the WWII.

And by the expression « a grand city … approaches a house » is meant precisely the British Empire reduced to her own HOMELAND in losing almost all the colonies after the WWII.  This Decolonization, whose typical and greatest event is the independence of India in 1947, is the theme of the related quatrains (II-60, V-11 and X-99 [§874-§876]), whereas the quatrain X-98 (§862) treats the French hegemony and colonialism.


The Lusitans
: = The colonialists in general, the Portuguese having been the first of them; « VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION. Christopher Columbus’s voyage across the Atlantic in 1492 sparked an unprecedented opening-up of the world – first by the Portuguese and Spanish – then by the Dutch, English, and French. By 1700, European explorers and colonizers had established themselves globally.» (DKHistory, p.172); « … and the voyages of exploration soon became tidal waves of colonization, reaching most part of the globe… » (Parker, 2010, p.216).

The Lusitans shall not be content with it
: The colonialists are avaricious in general; « European explorers were motivated by glory, Christian zeal, and – above all – gold, spices, and slaves. The goal was the East, source of legendary riches. “I and my companions suffer from a disease of the heart which can be cured only by gold.” (Hernán Cortés, Spanish explorer, on his quest to defeat the Aztecs, 1519).» (DKHistory, id.).

Discussion:
V. Ionescu considers the line 4 as the beginning and the line 3 as the end of the British hegemony (Ionescu, 1987, p.73). But, the digital exhibition of the term of ‘global colonization’ (‘more than 300 years’) generously granted even with the proper name of ‘the grand empire by England’ by the Prophet needs, we think, no more additional information about its two boundaries, which is to be researched by the interpretative readers. Above all, his attribution of the phrase “Grandes coppies passer par mer & terre” to the USA entails a difficulty because the army of the UK was not defeated immediately by that of the USA (its factual event is probably the fall of Singapore in February 1942***, preceded by the sinking of Admiral Phillips’ Force Z including the Prince of Wales and the Repulse****). From the viewpoint of the theme (the British world colonization) of the quatrain, the line 3 tells its effective means (military strength), and the line 4 its real motive (colonization).

***
« Singapore, fall of (World War II) (8-15 Feb. 1942) The largest British army and naval base in Asia and Australia with around 80,000 British, Australian, and Indian troops under A. E. Percival in 1941, Singapore was equipped with strong coastal defences. However, no fortifications had been built against attack from its Malayan hinterland, which was also under British control. After swiftly overrunning Malaya, Japanese forces under General Yamashita massed opposite the island of Singapore at the beginning of February 1942. During the night of 7/8 February armoured landing craft crossed the Strait of Johore, followed by many swimming Japanese troops, surprising the garrison of Australian troops opposite. The defenders blew up the single causeway connecting Singapore with its hinterland and retreated. The causeway was quickly repaired by the Japanese who, supported by the superiority of their air force, moved on to the island. On 15 February, Percival surrendered. The fall of Singapore, long perceived as an invincible fortress of the British Empire, symbolized more than any other event the real weakness of Britain’s pretensions to defend and control her vast Empire. This provided an important stimulus to colonial independence movements after World war II, and foreshadowed the process of decolonization after 1945.» (Palmowski, p.619); « the Tridental taken (prins le Tridental) » (§805, V-62).

**** Cf. « Vessels sunk (Nefz parfondrées) » (§805, V-62); « A camp … gnats (Camp … cousins) » (§863, V-85).

***** Antichrist: « ANTÉCHRIST or rather ANTICHRIST. According to the Epistles of John, the Christians of the end of the 1st century did not wait for the return of the Christ before the arrival of an Anti-Christ [ἀντίχριστος], namely, following the Greek etymology, of a false replacement of the Christ. On the other hand, the second Epistle to the Thessalonians precedes Advent of the Christ by that of a “Man of lawlessness, Son of destruction” who shall be the instrument of Satan to provoke a general apostasy, ruin the religions and proclaim himself God (2Th 2, 3-9)... The Antichrist and the Man of lawlessness are not but a single figure upon which the posterior centuries have projected their successive fears.» (Monloubou, p.39-40); Un si faulx antechrist (§796, X-66): = « An Antechrist so deceitful and so unfaithful – Hitler.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.545); « Concerning our times, the Prophet considers three Antechrists: Stalin (quatrains VI-49 [§882], X-1 [§884] and X-65 [§883]), Hitler (X-66 [§796]) and Mao Tse-Tung (VIII-77 [§900]). These dictators have in common some distinctive traits: 1. They imposed a totalitarian regime with a great cruelty. 2. The number of their victims amounts to tens of millions (by wars, executions and prisons). 3. They made “cultural revolutions” in opposing the religion and the tradition of their country. 4. They provoked the hatred and the conflict among races and social classes. 5. They erected themselves as superhuman entities and encouraged the cult of their personality.» (Ionescu, 1987, p.451-452). There appears in the Dedication to Henry II (№3, pp.3-23; №10, pp.153-173) five examples of the word Antechrist/antechrist, whose two of the paragraphs 44-46 (following Le Pelletier’s paragraphing) refer to Stalin because the passage includes the name ‘Atila [Attila]’ and the event of ‘October Revolution’, another two of the paragraphs 93-95 to Hitler because the region of Europe and the supposed years 37-45 [WWII] are told there, and the remaining one of the paragraph 107-109 also to Hitler, there being exposed the Roman occupation by ‘the antechrist, the infernal prince’ in the hottest battle in the Christian countries probably after Mussolini’s fall.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§860 Collapse of the Ottoman Empire; Independent countries in the Middle East (1920-1948): III-97.

III-97 (§860):

The new law shall occupy the new territory,
Towards Syria, Judea, & Palestine:
The grand barbarous empire shall collapse,
Before Phebe shall have finished its age.

(Nouvelle loy terre neufve occuper
Vers la Syrie, Judee, & Palestine:
Le grand empire barbar corruer,
Avant que Phebés son siecle determine.)

NOTES: The new law shall occupy the new territory, Towards Syria, Judea, & Palestine: The grand barbarous empire shall collapse: « Out of the World War I came Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, etc., all carved out of the Turkish Empire.» (Lamont, 1944, p.133).

The new law: The administration of a territory through the conference and decision of the League of Nations.

The new territory: The ex-Ottoman districts, apart from the Republic of Turkey (1923): Syria as mandate of France (1920) and Judea and Palestine as mandate of Great Britain (1920).

The grand barbarous empire
: = The Ottoman Empire, “barbarous” signifying “not Christian”, i.e., “Moslem”. Cf. Ovason, 1997, p.127.

Corruer
: « Corruer, latinisme par plaisanterie. Tomber (Latinism by joke. To fall).» (Huguet); « cor-ruō, ruere, ruī. Intrans.: to fall in a heap or in ruins, collapse, sink to the ground.» (Smith-Lockwood).

The grand barbarous empire shall collapse
: « Ottoman Empire, Early history. … after the two Balkan Wars it had lost most of its European possessions by 1914. Collapse. Despite its unique track record of losing wars, the Ottoman Empire participated in World War I on the side of the Central Powers, whereupon it also lost its Arab empire. The severe terms of the Treaty of Sèvres, which determined the partition of the Turkish heartland of Anatolia, the creation of a separate state of Armenia, and the loss of further territory to Greece, aroused intense Turkish nationalism. This was translated into a liberation movement under Kemal (Atatürk), whose conquests were consolidated in the Treaty of Lausanne. He then destroyed the twin pillars of the Ottoman Empire by abolishing the Sultan, and the unity between the state and the Muslim religion. On 29 October 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed in its stead.» (Palmowski, p.519-520).

Syria: « Early history (up to 1970). A part of the Ottoman Empire from 1517, during World War I it was occupied by British troops, with active Arab help. Immediately after the Arab leader, Faisal (Faisal I), was rewarded for his support by being made King of Syria, he had to give up his throne, as the Treaty of Sèvres transformed it into a French League of Nations Mandate. French rule was relatively unpopular, leading to a number of uprisings. In World War II, its French colonial administration followed the Vichy government, so that in July 1941 British and Free French forces occupied the country. De Gaulle declared Syria’s independence for 28 September 1944, though effective autonomy was not achieved until the complete withdrawal of British and French forces on 17 April 1946.» (Palmowski, p.660-661).

Lebanon: « Before independence (1918-43). A part of the Ottoman Empire since 1516, it came under French control in 1918, and was declared a French League of Nations Mandate on 1 September 1920. This Mandate entailed a large increase in the country’s territory to its present size, which brought the number of Muslims to near parity with that of the Maronite Christians who dominated the country’s political and economic establishment. Its constitution of 1926, which shaped its political system for the rest of the century, was based on that of the French Third Republic. Political representation was awarded by religious group, to each according to its size. In the Chamber of Deputies, Maronite Christians were to be represented relative to Muslims at a ratio of six to five. The main offices of state were also reserved for different religions and sects, so that the President was to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim, the Speaker a Shi’ite Muslim. National compromise (1943-1960s). Released into independence in 1943, the new state still had an extremely underdeveloped sense of nationhood. By this time the Maronites, who had benefited considerably from French administration, looked to Western culture, while Muslims felt more Syrian than Lebanese. Upon independence, it was agreed that the current political system should be maintained, while each group should refrain from extremism, i.e. the Maronites accepted that Lebanon was an Arab country, while Muslims turned their attention away from other Arab states.» (Palmowski, p.397).

Israel: « Origins (up to 1947). The idea was propagated most successfully by Herzel, who argued that peaceful and harmonious coexistence between Jews and Gentiles had proved to be impossible, and that Jews could only be free from persecution and discrimination in their own state. In response, a number of Jews began to emigrate to Palestine to press for Jewish claims there, while the World Zionist Organization (WZO) was set up in 1897 in order to convince world opinion and political leaders the necessity of a Jewish state in Palestine. In 1917 the WZO persuaded the British government to set up a Jewish Legion which helped rid Palestine of Ottoman Turkish rule. Led by Weizmann, the WZO achieved a major diplomatic success with the Balfour Declaration, which for the first time accepted the legitimacy of a Jewish state in Palestine. When this failed to materialize after World War I, the WZO encouraged further Jewish emigration into Palestine, and won from the local British authorities important concessions relative to self-rule through the Jewish Agency. Initially, the Jewish settlers coexisted peacefully and harmoniously with the indigenous, partly nomadic Arab population. However, as both Arabs and Jews saw their hopes for early independence dashed, an increasing sense of Arab nationalism emerged, particularly as the Jewish influx continued. Sporadic attacks against Jewish settlements occurred from 1920, in response to which the Jews created their own defence organizations. Meanwhile, the Jews created their own administrative and political structures. Tensions between Arabs, Jews, and the British authorities mounted in the period 1940-8, when almost 100,000 new settlers arrived (illegally) in Palestine. Independence (1947). Ultimately, Britain was unable to resolve its contradictory promise of independence for Jews and Arabs, and in 1947 returned its Mandate to the UN, which recommended a partition of the country between Jews and Arabs. On the basis of this plan, Ben-Gurion declared Israel’s independence on 14 May 1948. The following day, the country was attacked by an Arab coalition consisting of the armies of Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. In its War of Independence, the young state managed to defend itself, and even to extend its borders.» (Palmowski, p.333).

Phebés
: = « Phebe = Phoebe [= Φοίβη]. [Greek myth.] Artemis (Diana) as Goddess of the Moon.» (Obunsha). The apparent form of Phebés seems to be masculine as « Phoebus. [Greek myth.] Surname of Apollo as God of the Sun.» (Obunsha), but the masculine term “Le Phybe [= ó Φοῖβος]” of Nostradamus in the quatrain X-55 (§72) contains the apparently feminine form of ‘Phybe’, which means that Noatradamus plays with the exchange of word gender in his Prophecies; « Roberts and Cheetham read Phebe as meaning the Sun, no doubt confusing the Phoebe with that of Phoebus ApolloPhebe is merely another name for Phoebe, the Moon.» (Ovason, 1997, p.127-128).

Before Phebe shall have finished its age
: = Before “Twenty years of the reign of the Moon past” (I-48, §941) = Before the year 2000 A.D. In this context, the year 1920 as beginning of mandate is too early, and the mandate is not independence, then the year 1946 of independence of Syria and Lebanon, that of 1948 of Israel may be more pertinent, and the new law may be more fitting in with the United Nations as to Israel. In order to determine the meaning of this phrase, Ovason relies first on the arcane theory of the Planetary Rulers, which delimits his sphere of search before 1879, the time of the end of the Moon’s rule and he concludes that “this quatrain III.97 is revealed as having nothing to do with the modern period, and nothing to do with Israel” (Ovason, id., p.127-128), but the essential hint for the answer to the phrase is already in another quatrain [I-48, §941] of Nostradamus himself, which is to be consulted in the first place.

In this perspective, also, the term “Jud.” (§874, II-60) and “Judee” (§860, III-97) can designate both “Israel, a newly founded country through the United Nations” and this terminology is integral because the ancient kingdom of Judea and the modern Israel occupy almost the same territory.


Discussion:
V. Ionescu (1976, p.670-671), too, correlates this quatrain solely with the foundation of Israel, but it excludes the existence of Syria and Palestine, and his interpretation of “the grand barbarous empire” as “the German Third Reich of Hitler” cannot explain its relation to the Middle East. The point of view that can converge into one unified event the four clauses: 1° the new law, 2° the new territory, 3° the grand barbarous empire and 4° Syria, Judea and Palestine would be the two step administrations of the international organizations of ours, and above all, without the premise of the British mandate the foundation of Israel would have been nearly impossible.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§859 The superpowers’ settlement of post-war nine countries; the Catholics persecuted in Eastern Europe (1943-1955): I-81.

I-81 (§859):

Nine of human troops shall be put aside
separated by judgment and council:
Their destiny shall be divided in percentage.
Kap. Thita lambda dead, banished astray.

(D'humain troupeau neuf seront mis à part
De jugement & conseil separés:
Leur sort sera divisé en depart
Καπ. Θ
hita λambda mors, bannis esgarés.)

NOTES: Nine of human troops shall be put aside separated by judgment and council: Their destiny shall be divided in percentage: The Allies’ conferences concerning the post-war settlement of nine countries (Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia, Greece, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Poland and Czechoslovakia) shall decide their destiny in proportion to the occupiers’ politico-military influences upon them;

« Accord of the occupying powers as to the administration of Germany. June 5 [1945]. Declaration of the four powers (USA, USSR, Great Britain and France) in Berlin. The European consultative Commission, which started its works on January 14, 1944, in London, envisaged without delay, at the instigation of the British, a division of Germany into occupation zones and not into several countries. On 12 September, 1944, the Big Three sign the protocol concerning the occupation zones in Germany in the frontiers of the Reich of December 31, 1937, as well as the administration of the Greater Berlin. These accords were ratified at Yalta. Stalin accepted, equally, on this occasion of the Big Three’s conference that France would be the fourth occupation power and seated at the Allied Control Council. He added there a condition: that the territory of the French occupation zone should be deducted from those of the British and American zones.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.517).

« The division of Germany (1945-9) Germany was divided into four zones by the Soviet Union in the east, Britain in the north, France in the west and the US in the south. All German territories east of the Rivers Oder and Neisse were placed under Polish and Soviet administration. Despite initial endeavours at cooperation, which only succeeded in a few circumstances such as the Nuremberg Trials, the Soviet zone became administered increasingly separately from the other three… East Germany (1949-90) The German Democratic Republic (GDR) was founded in the Soviet eastern zone on 7 October 1949, in response to the foundation of the FRG. Led by Ulbricht, who transformed it into a Communist satellite state of the Soviet Union, the GDR’s economy suffered from its transformation into a centrally planned economy, and from the dismantling of industries by the Soviet Union. Disenchantment with the dictatorial regime and the slow economic recovery compared to West Germany sparked off an uprising of over 300,000 workers on 17 June 1953, which was crushed by Soviet tanks. However, the country’s viability continued to be challenged by the exodus of hundreds of thousands of East Germans to West Berlin every year. To enable East Germany’s continued existence, the Berlin Wall was built on 13 August 1961 as a complement to the existing impenetrable border between East and West Germany... West Germany (since 1949) the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was founded on 23 May 1949, and after a narrow election victory Adenauer became its first Chancellor. Aided by a rapid economic recovery masterminded by Erhard, the new democracy won general acceptance and support. This stability was further strengthened by Adenauer’s policy of integration into the Western alliance, e.g. through European integration and the joining of NATO, which enabled the speedy gain of full sovereignty for the new state from the Western allies.» (
Palmowski, p.256).

« Austria at the end of the war. April 27, 1945. The former Federal Chancellor, a Social-Democrat, Karl Renner formed an Austrian government recognized by the Occidental powers on July 7, 1945. This government enjoyed a liberty of decision otherwise limited by the inter-Allied Control Council which ordains in unanimity. Austria has been finally shared in four occupation zones like Germany.» (Kaspi, id., p.502-505); « Austria: Allied occupation (1945-55) In 1945, Austria was occupied in four zones by the Allies (USSR, USA, UK, and France), who encouraged the readoption of the 1920 Constitution under the leadership of Renner, and the formation of political parties. Renner had persuaded the Allies to regard Austria not as a perpetrator, but as Nazism’s ‘first victim’, a perception that became a founding myth for post-war Austria. On 25 November 1945 the first parliament was elected, which resulted in an absolute majority for the conservative Austrian People’s Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP). Through large-scale nationalizations of heavy industries, banks, and energy suppliers, and through Marshal Aid, the economy was soon on the path to recovery… Austrian State Treaty (15 May 1955) The treaty, signed by the Soviet Union, the USA, Britain, and France, formally recognized the second Austrian republic and agreed that occupation forces would withdraw within five months. Unlike in Germany, whose eastern half the Soviet Union had integrated into its Communist sphere of influence, the USSR agreed to vacate its Austrian zone of occupation, in return for reparation payments, and Austrian adherence to a strict policy of neutrality.» (
Palmowski, p.42-43).

« Accompanied by Anthony Eden, General Sir Hastings Ismay, his chief-of staff, and Field-Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, the C.I.G.S., the Prime Minister travelled via Naples, Cairo, and Simferopol’ and arrived in Moscow on the evening of October 9 [1944]. At 2200 hours, he and Eden were conducted to Stalin’s office. Stalin, accompanied by Molotov, was waiting for him. And in the absence of Averell Harriman [US ambassador in Moscow], the four men lost no time in making a preliminary survey of the world situation. Doubtless Harriman would not have objected to their decision to invite the Polish government to send a delegation to Moscow. But perhaps he would have thought that Churchill was unduly compromising the future as well as the U.S.A. if he had heard him tell Stalin: “Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Roumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don’t let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Roumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty-fifty about Yugoslavia ?” And even more so if he had seen Churchill make in writing a proposal which had never ben agreed by London and Washington. Churchill in fact, while his words were being translated, scribbled on a half sheet of paper:
  Roumania
      Russia……….90 %
      The others…...10%
   Greece
      Great Britain...90 %
      (in accord with U.S.A.)
      Russia…….…10%
    Yugoslavia……..50-50 %
    Hungary………..50-50 %
    Bulgaria
      Russia……….75 %
      The others…...25%”
Stalin ticked the paper passed to him by Churchill, who wrote: “It was all settled in no more time than it takes to set down.”» (Bauer, 1979, p.586).

Poland: « On October 13, the Polish delegation of the government-in-exile, consisting of its Prime Minister, Stanislas Mikolajczyk, Professor Grabski, and Foreign Minister Tadeusz Romer started discussions with Stalin Molotov, Chuchill, Eden, and Harriman, who had been instructed to keep strictly to his rôle as observer. They intended to reach an agreement on two questions: firstly, the eastern frontier of Poland; and secondly, the formation of a unified Polish government, including the London government’s representatives and members of the Lublin “National Committee”. Although they expected to make some territorial sacrifices to the Soviet Union, Milolajczyk and his colleagues were aghast when they discovered that the Teheran agreement (which had been concluded behind their backs by the “Big Three”) had prescribed the Curzon Line as their country’s frontier; thus 48 per cent of Polish territory would be surrendered to the U.S.S.R. without the population involved being consulted about the transfer. The Polish prime minister’s protests against the acquiescence which was being demanded of him left Stalin cold and uncompromising. After this session, the British and Poles met. Churchill described to Mikolajczyk the advantage which would compensate Poland for the sacrifice he was calling upon her to make: “But think what you will get in exchange. You will have a country. I will see that a British ambassador is sent to you. And there will also be an ambassador from the United States, the greatest military power in the world… ” “If you accept the Curzon line, the United States will devote themselves most actively to the reconstruction of Poland and will doubtless give you large loans, perhaps even without your having to ask for them. We will help you too, but we will be poor after this war. You are obliged to accept the decision of the great powers.” Otherwise it would be the end of Poland… » (Bauer, id., p.587).

Czechoslovakia
: « December 12, 1943. The Soviet Union signs with Czechoslovakia a treaty of friendship, of mutual assistance and of cooperation for the post-war period. Under the impression of the traumatism suffered at Munich, Beneš [President of Czechoslovakia 1935-8, 1945-8] has deployed the greatest efforts in relation to the Occidentals and to the USSR from the beginning of his exile, in order to secure the continuity of the State of Czechoslovakia. In October 1939, in fact, a Czechoslovak National Committee was formed in London. In July 1941, immediately after Germany attacked the USSR on 22 June, the Soviet ambassador in London, Maïski, advises Beneš of the USSR’s desire of an independent Czechoslovakia and refusal of meddling with her internal affairs. On July 18, 1941, Maïski signs with the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister, Jan Masaryk, son of the father, founder of the first Czechoslovak Republic Tomáš Masaryk, a treaty recognizing Czechoslovakia as an independent and sovereign country in her frontiers before Munich. The British and American governments recognize soon after the Czechoslovak government.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.390-391).

 « Obviously, in October 1944, Churchill and Eden no longer had any illusions about the future direction of Marshal Tito7s policy, in spite of the Anglo-American arms deliveries which had saved him from defeat and death. Moreover, in this division of spheres of influence, it was clear that Churchill had completely forgotten Albania, on which Greece had some claims.» (Bauer, id., p.586).

Kap. Thita lambda
: « An anonymous contributor, writing in the number of November 1724 of the Mercure de France, is of opinion that these letters are the abbreviation of the name Καθολικ
οῖ : the quatrain may announce the persecution of the Catholics.» (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.162).

Kap. Thita lambda dead, banished astray: The Catholics in the Eastern Europe shall be persecuted under the communist regime; « This method is based upon the writing system of the ancient Hebraic language, where the vowels are missing. We named this method “anagram by syncope or permutation of vowels” [Ionescu, 1976, p.144]. In the present case, it is a syncope of vowels:
Κ, Θ, Λ are the consonants that form the ironwork of the word ΚαΘοΛιΚ(ός, , òν) ‘catholic’. The last verse tells therefore the persecutions suffered by the Christians beyond the Iron Curtain (dead, banished astray). In general, the term “Catholic” is used for the Roman Church. Equally, the Church of the East or Orthodox is – by its proper title – “Catholic”. For, since the Schism of the East, there have been the two Churches: Greco-Catholic and Romano-Catholic. In order to underline the equal reality of the one and the other of the two Churches, issuing from the original Christianity, Nostradamus employs the Greek letters. Thus, the implication of the Greek Church is evident.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.606-607).

« The Second World War had for its prelude the Conference of Munich where the Great Powers at the moment decided the future of Czechoslovakia even without consulting her government and imposed their solution upon her, which widely opened the doors of the Danubian world to Hitler. The Second World War was finished by the application of the decisions made in the course of another international Conference, that of Yalta, where the new Great Powers, the USA, the UK and the USSR, decided in the same voluntary ignorance of the vows of the population to place the countries of Eastern Europe in the sphere of Soviet influence. Thus was born at Yalta this Eastern Europe as we understand it today in our political jargon, an Europe of the East, to which belongs the totality of the Danubian and Balkan States, Poland as well as a part of the former territory of the Reich that had been attributed to the USSR as occupation zone and became in 1949 German Democratic Republic. Thereafter, Eastern Europe was going to live under the shadow of Moscow.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.374-375);

« The attitude of the Communist power in regard to the religion and the Church was different according to the countries. In Bulgaria and Rumania, where the population in large majority was orthodox, the new power immediately made rally to it the leaders of the Church in playing with their traditional hate against Rome and at the same time with the necessity of unity around the Patriarchate of Moscow, entirely devoted to the Soviet State. The Orthodox Church of Serbia adopted from the start the same attitude of submission in regard to Tito’s regime. Everywhere, the recalcitrant elements of the Orthodox clergy were removed from their parishes with the complicity of the hierarchy, relegated into monasteries, even imprisoned. In Rumania, the suppression of the Uniate Church in 1948 scarcely seemed appreciated by the faithful and the clergy who continued clandestinely their activity in suffering often persecutions.» (Bogdan, 1990, p.438-439).

« In the Catholic countries, the situation showed different. The Catholic Church, by virtue of its ties with Rome and its centralized structure, constituted a considerable force, which, if it was not neutralized or at least not controlled by the State, risked being the point of rallying of the opposers against the regime. As early as 1945-1946, a number of priests and monks as well as remarkable personalities of the Catholic world had been arrested and condemned for “collaboration” and “anti-Soviet activities”, as it was the case in Yugoslavia with Mgr. Stepinac. The repeated public protestations of the Catholic Church against the blows to the religious liberty, against the encroachments of the temporal upon the spiritual, against the abuses of the regime, triggered off from the end of 1948 physical persecutions of a certain number of prelates. Tens of thousands of Hungarians who hurried to hear the sermons of the cardinal Mindszenty and hundreds of thousands of Poles who gathered at the Marian sanctuary of Czestochowa could not but confirm the Communist leaders in their idea of striking hard and sharp. The arrest of the cardinal Mindszenty on December 26, 1948, under the inculpation of complot against the Republic, of espionage and trade of money, his trial, in the course of which he appeared physically broken and avowed his “crimes” not without reticences, his condemnation to a life imprisonment, aroused an intense emotion in the country. In order to avoid the worst, the Hungarian episcopate made a concession, and on April 30, 1950, the Archbishop Grösz resigned himself to signing with the government an accord which guaranteed officially the liberty of cult and the grant of financial aid to the Church in exchange of the recognition of the Socialist State by the Church secured by way of oath of fidelity. It was in fact a market of dupes. A week after the conclusion of this compromise, the Hungarian government pronounced the dissolution of almost all of the religious Orders; more than 10,000 monks and nuns were dispersed, a large number of them confined in the labour camps. At the beginning of the next year, the Archbishop Grösz was in his turn arrested and condemned to 15 year imprisonment. In the same year in Czechslovakia, those of bishops who had not been arrested in 1950 were arrested in their turn and especially the archbishop of Prague, Mgr. Beran was apprehended on March 10, 1951. In Poland, in the same year, the police arrested the bishop of Kiekce Mgr. Kaczmarek and the former archbishop of Lvov, Mgr. Baziak. Also in the same year, all the Catholic bishops of Rumania were imprisoned in their turn. The high clergy was not the only victim of these physical persecutions. The low clergy was submitted everywhere to these torments of every kind, the prelates were arrested, the seminaries were closed.» (Bogdan, id., p.439-441).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§858 The death of Roosevelt; Soviet Machinations (1943-): IV-6.

20th century:
§858 The death of Roosevelt; Soviet Machinations (1943-): IV-6.

IV-6 (§858):

Putting on new clothes after the truce was made,
There shall be malice, intrigue and machination:
He shall die first who shall have had proof of it.
The Venetian colour, insidiousness.

(D'habits nouveaux apres faicte la treuve,
Malice tramme & machination:
Premier mourra qui en fera la preuve
Couleur venise insidiation.)

NOTES: Treuve: « 1. Trouvaille (discovery); 2. v. Treve (see Treve); 3. Sorte de plante (a kind of plant).» (Huguet); « Treve. Unes trefves. Une trève (= une trêve, a truce).» (Huguet).

Tramme: = « trame. Plot, intrigue, conspiracy.» (Dubois).

Putting on new clothes after the truce was made, There shall be malice, intrigue and machination: « After the end of the war, the Soviet Union shall adopt a new tactics in relation to the Occidental Powers. They shall consist in defamation full of malice, intrigue and subversive actions including espionage.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.605).

He shall die the first who shall have made proof of it
: « Roosevelt – the first who shall die [April 12, 1945] among the three grand Allies – shall have an occasion of being convinced of it.» (Ionescu, id.). But this occasion was not one at Yalta in 1945 as Ionescu teaches so, but that immediately after Teheran in 1943; « For years Roosevelt had wanted to meet Stalin, and transform his Herculean duets with Churchill into three-power talks. Over a prolonged interval Stalin had delayed the climax of a meeting for several reasons, among them his own suspiciousness and basic hostility to the West and also the fact that he was the active military leader of the Russian forces and could not spare time out of Moscow during a period of supreme crisis. The route to Teheran was prepared by several other conferences, like Molotov’s visit to Washington, and Hull’s to Moscow; also FDR and the Russian dictator secretly exchanged longhand letters. It has been well said that this conference in Persia, bringing together for the first time the effective spokesmen of the United States, the Soviet Union, and the British Empire, represented a concentration of physical power and political authority unique in the whole history of mankind. FDR’s Russian policy had, from its inception, been on the basis of calculated risk. He was torn between twin fears (a) that Russia might be beaten; (b) that Russia might win too much and conquer Europe. ‘In all our dealings with Stalin,’ he once told the former Polish Prime Minister Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, ‘we must keep our fingers crossed.’ Roosevelt was, of course, meeting Stalin for the first time, whereas Churchill had encountered him before. The President made all-out efforts to win the Soviet dictator’s esteem; it pleased him that he and Stalin got along personally better than Churchill and Stalin did. But I have heard from some several participants at the conference that Stalin was seemingly perplexed by Roosevelt, though he treated him with great deference. Churchill he could grapple with. Stalin gave the impression that he understood Churchill perfectly, and that there was even a community between them, as between lusty fellow-rogues. But FDR was much more difficult, a new type of phenomenon puzzling to the glacierlike Russian’s mind, nervously elusive, too optimistic, strangely discursive, and perhaps naïve. This celebrated Teheran Conference about which so much nonsense has been written had the simplest kind of overriding aim – to consolidate the military efforts of the three powers, establish incontrovertibly the fact that the western allies would invade France the next year and thus inaugurate the Second Front, and make derivative preparation for the peace by settling, if possible, the German problem… It was at Teheran, not Yalta, that Stalin promised to enter the war against Japan as soon as the German war was over. Actually our chief worry at this time – the fact may seem incredible but survey of the relevant records will prove it – was that the Russians might become a belligerent against Japan too soon. Reason: Germany was by no means beaten at this time, neither was Japan, and if Russia was suddenly forced to fight on another front, the Germans might have recouped their Russian losses and together with Japan knocked the Soviet Union out of the war. But the chief issue at Teheran, which still sings around the very word ‘Teheran’, and its chief result, was
OVERLORD, the invasion of western Europe by Great Britain and America, the killer’s thrust against Germany straight through France. FDR’s motive for pushing OVERLORD was double: (1) He accepted the unanimous advise of his principal military advisers that this was incomparably the best of all possible ways to save countless thousands of American lives; (2) he wanted to work just as closely and amicably as possible with the Soviet Union in order to bring it wholeheartedly into the new international organization and a decent, lasting peace. Churchill’s point of view was much more subtle and complex. Instead of a single giant lunge across western Europe, he also favoured attack on Germany through the ‘soft underbelly’ – Italy, south-eastern Europe, and the Balkans. Of course he wanted to win the war quickly too, but also he was thinking in long-range terms of what would be the balance of power in those regions after the war. In part, at least, he stubbornly urged the underbelly campaign for political reasons. He wanted to keep Russia out of eastern Europe, or at least to check her influence there, and thus preserve the Continent from further infection by the Red Army and /or Communism. Stalin naturally wanted the overwhelming emphasis to be on Normandy, and he too had obvious political reasons. Churchill wanted Normandy plus the Mediterranean. FDR (though he was not averse to subordinate action in the south) cast the deciding vote, and took Stalin’s side. Of course, it was all but impossible for Churchill to overrule FDR; he always had to keep in mind the preponderance of American manpower and industrial potential. ‘Roosevelt,’ General Deane has said, ‘was thinking of winning the war; the others were thinking of their relative positions when the war was won.’» (Gunther, 1950, p.363-366); « Roosevelt (and Churchill) talked of what ‘grand allies’ the Russians were, but they were not duped or unwarrantably pro-Russian. FDR began to see how the Russians were playing their own deep game and were grabbing for every illicit advantage immediately after Teheran [He shall have made proof of it], when Soviet officials double-crossed him on the time of release of an important document. Perhaps, all in all, the best summary is to say that FDR was gambling at Yalta. His eyes were open, and he knew perfectly well the risks he was taking. What he was gambling for was permanent peace on a moral, idealistic, one-world basis. Unfortunately he lost.» (Gunther, id., p.387-388).

Insidious
: « Treacherous, crafty; proceeding secretly or subtly (insidious disease). [L (insidiae ambush].» (Sykes).

The Venetian colour, insidiousness
: « In order to make clear that it concerns the policy of the Communists, Nostradamus employs the expression “Venetian colour”, the Venetian red, the colour known among the painters since the Medieval Age, and which serves us here as designating “the Reds” by metonymy. The policy of the “Reds” shall be characterized by a subreptitious penetration, like an apparently benign disease and which one cannot already combat when one feels it.» (Ionescu, id.); « RED COLOURS. Reds are abundant in nature. Red clays, red stone, of many hues, remind us of the great variety of red coulours with which the oxides of iron decorate the face of Mother Earth. But by no means every red clay or stone makes a good pigment, or even a usable pigment. Many earths seem in nature to be strongly coloured which, if they are dried, have no useful colour left in them. A small amount of colouring material will tinge a clay strongly while it is damp, but will hardly show itself when the clay is dry. Many stones seem richly coloured which, if they were ground to powder, would prove colourless. If one were so extravagant as to powder up a ruby, even a ruby of the deepest dye, the result would be a pure white dust. (This fact can be demonstrated at less expense with a bit of coloured glass.) Ochres to be good must consist very largely of the coloured salts of iron and not, as most earths do, contain much feebly coloured clay. The best ochres for the painter are deposits formed by the weathering of iron ores; and they can be converted by washing, by levigation, into almost pure iron oxides. Deposits of pure iron oxide in the form of hematite were regarded as an important source of red colour in the Middle Ages. Sinopia. In classical antiquity the great source of red ochres was Pontus Euxinus, and the choicest red earth came from the Pontine city of Sinope. This red was a valuable monopoly, and ancient Greece and Rome looked to Sinope to maintain the quality of its product. To guard against substitutions the colour was sold under a seal (stamped into the cakes of colour, we may suppose), and was known as “sealed Sinope.” In the Middle Ages the name of Sinope came to be applied to others of less distinction, and the Latin and Italian word sinopia came to mean simply a red ochre. We have even an English word from the same source, “sinoper,” which means the same, an earth red. The Range of Ochres. Red ochres vary enormously in colour. Some are quite light and warm, like that which we now call Venetian red, and others are very dark and cold and purple, like our Indian red or caput mortuum. Some are clear and strong, others more or less tinged by admixture of other materials than iron oxides. There is a red, a terra rosa, from Pozzuoli, near Naples, which has a delightful salmon pink quality which we may think we recognize in some medieval Italian wall paintings. There is the deep maroon of ground hematite, which we may be quite sure we see on walls in Florence.» (Thompson, 1956, p.97-99).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§857 Hitler, Roosevelt and Stalin (1945): VI-15.

VI-15 (§857):

Under the tomb shall be found the prince,
Who shall have the prize all over Nuremberg:
The Spanish King weak in Capricorn,
Deceived by feint by the great Wittenberg.

(Dessoubz la tombe sera trouvé le prince,
Qu'aura le pris par dessus Nuremberg:
L'Espaignol Roy en Capricorne mince,
Fainct & trahy par le grand Witemberg.)

NOTES: Le pris: = le prix (the prize). In fact, of 9 usages of the word « pris » in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 5 are a variant of prix (price, prize: III-30, III-53, V-16, VI-8 and VI-15), 3 are the past participle of prendre (to take: I-10, II-53 and IX-41) and the remaining one is an anagram of pis and pire (worse: X-36).

Par dessus
: = par-dessus (above, over).

Under the tomb shall be found the prince: « Underneath the tomb (of desolation) will be found the prince (dictator) who… » (Lamont, 1944, p.167).

Under the tomb shall be found the prince, Who shall have the prize all over Nuremberg
: « The two first lines refer evidently to Hitler, for it is a known fact that the city of Nuremberg was the centre of the Nazism. It is also known that, when the Soviet armies arrived at the Reichstag, they could not find but a cremated body, under the ruins of concrete. “Dessoubz la tombe sera trouvé le prince”, says Nostradamus, employing the Latin sense of princeps (the first in rank, chief, leader, therefore “Führer”). The word “tombe (tomb)” hides (by anagram) “béton (concrete)”, which tells us under what kind of tomb Hitler was found. In general, a body is not put UNDER the tomb. It is just this particular way of expression that orients our attention to a possible anagram.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.603).

The Spanish King weak in Capricorn
: « Franklin Delano Roosevelt, different from other presidents, had one of his names as Spanish origin (Delano), the name inherited from his mother (Sara Delano Roosevelt). To say that someone is weak in Capricorn, it is to say that he is weak with his legs, for the sign of Capricorn governs the legs (area of the knees). Nostradamus alludes to the well known invalidism of this President.» (Ionescu, id., p.603-604).

As to the comment of Ionescu that the name Delano is of Spanish origin, it is not correct because the name Delano is of French origin, being a contraction of « Philippe De La Noye, who arrived in Plymouth in 1621; until FDR, only five other presidents had Pilgrim blood. But the Delanos go back much further than that; the family was of mixed French and Dutch descent, and traces its ancestry all the way to William the Conqueror.» (Gunther, 1950, p.170).

On the other hand, the origin of the Roosevelt family is genuinely Dutch:
« The Roosevelt family was founded by a certain Claes Martenszen Van Rosenvelt who set sail from Holland to Nieuw Amsterdam in the 1640’s. The name ‘Roosevelt derives from the locality where Claes lived, Rosen Velt (Field of Roses)’, on the island of Tholen, near Zeeland. Some Roosevelts still live in Holland to-day.» (Gunther, id., p.166).

In this way, the principal origin of Franklin Delano Roosevelt was Dutch or in Holland, the country under the Spanish suzerainty before her independence in 1581. Another example of this meaning of Spain is found in the quatrain IV-94 (§804): Deux grands freres seront chassés d’Espaigne (Two great brothers shall be chased from Spain). Spain was a neutral in WWII, then the term is metaphorical and represents probably the area of the ancient Spanish Netherlands, and the two great brothers thence chased are the governments in exile of the Netherlands and Belgium occupied by Nazis. Cf. X-83, §799: They will be obliged to leave the park. In its context of the WWII, ‘the Spanish King’ of the quatrain VI-15 related to Hitler and Stalin cannot be of Spain in neutrality, then may have a nuance of the former Spanish Netherlands like the quatrain IV-94. 


The great Wittenberg
: = Martin Luther by metonymy, himself a historical metaphor for Stalin, « who was a theologian like Luther, and became the Pontiff of the grand antichristian schism of the Communism.» (Ionescu, id., p.604).

The Spanish King weak in Capricorn, Deceived by feint by the great Wittenberg: « The tactics of Stalin was simple: He intended some objectives, knowing the good faith of the Allies – that was pure naivety toward a man having been experienced in occult and conspiratorial machinations. The situation of Germany is to be taken as an example. Germany had been divided into “zones of influence”. Before long we became able to confirm how “the American influence” helped the reconstruction of this country, while how “the Soviet influence” had been in reality a pure occupation and one of the most cruel ever seen. Another tactics of Stalin was to profit from the fact that the Allies seemed unconscious of their own power. It is known that the upsetting itself of the Soviet-German front and the deliverance of the Soviet Union had been made by means of American assistance (more than 10 billion dollars in armament and equipment). All the world, including the Americans, passed over this tiny detail in silence.» (Ionescu, id., p.602). Contrary to this last of Ionescu’s comments, there is a proof of Stalin’s thanks to Roosevelt at Teheran: « Never before had a President of the United States travelled so far while in office; never before had a President resided, so to speak, on foreign soil, because he [FDR] slept at the Russian Embassy, not our own. (Facilities for protection were better within the Russian compound, and to be Stalin’s guest saved him fatiguing travel within the city.) Not for thirty years or more had Stalin, on his side, ever set foot out of Russia, and one contemporary account states that he had never flown before. There were all manner of festivities. Churchill presented Stalin with a handsome sword, the gift of the King of England, as a memorial to Russian heroism at Stalingrad; Stalin toasted Roosevelt, saying that without American supplies and munitions the Russians could not have won their victories.» (Gunther, 1950, p.363-364).

« Roosevelt and Stalin: Roosevelt did not perceive fully that the Russians made no distinction between the military and the political and that the war they were fighting, defensive though it might be in immediate origin, was nothing more in their eyes than another round in the inevitable conflict between the ‘Communist’ and ‘imperialist’ halves of the world. Roosevelt and Stalin met only twice. Nevertheless, it was the American belief that fundamentally Americans and Russians were fighting for the same ends and looking forward to the same kind of post-war world while the British were interested in objectives which were alien or antipathetic to American opinion. The principal reasons why Roosevelt cherished such illusions could be found in three very abstract ideas which figured largely in Roosevelt’s thinking but which had quite a different meaning from the ones that the Russians attached to them. In the first place he believed that the British – and Churchill in particular – were ‘imperialist’ and that both the Russians and the Americans were ‘anti-imperialist’. He did not perceive that the Russians attached quite another meaning to anti-imperialism and were by no means averse to using their power to spread the bounds of the Communist empire. In the second place, Roosevelt believed that Americans and Russians both stood for ‘democratic’ government while the British hankered after preserving or restoring monarchies and other non-democratic forms of government. Finally, Roosevelt shared the antipathy of his former leader Woodrow Wilson for the notion of the balance of power, imagining that the post-war world could be managed by an amalgam of the wartime Grand Alliance with the principle of national self-determination and the equality of sates, the whole given institutional form in what became the United Nations Organization. [Max Beloff].» (Taylor,1974, p.215).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§856 Alfred Jodl at Reims; De Gaulle and Pétain in Paris (1945): VIII-90.

VIII-90 (§856):

When one of the crucifers of troubled sense found
In the place of consecration, a horned bull shall see
A pork via a virgin, his place then shall be full,
By the king the order shall be no longer sustained.

(Quand des croisez un trouvé de sens trouble
En lieu du sacre verra un bœuf cornu
Par vierge porc son lieu lors sera comble,
Par roy plus ordre ne sera soustenu.)

NOTES: Croisez: = Croisés (crossbearers, crucifers); « CROISÉ. adj. et n.m., (1559, « garni de croix ») (adj. and n., garnished with a cross).» (Petit Robert).

Quand des croisez un trouvé de sens trouble En lieu du sacre verra un bœuf cornu Par vierge porc son lieu lors sera comble, Par roy plus ordre ne sera soustenu: The construction will be as follows: Quand un de sens trouble des croisez [sera] trouvé en lieu du sacre, Un bœuf cornu verra porc par vierge; Son lieu lors sera comble; Ordre ne sera plus soustenu par roy.

When one of the crucifers of troubled sense [shall be] found In the place of consecration: « When among the crossed ones (Nazis) one will be found with troubled mind,.. » (Lamont, 1944, p.232); « VIII.90 1945: Jodle, général nazi et porteur de la croix gammée, viendra signer la reddition de la Wehrmacht à Reims [the place of consecration], alors que... (When Alfred Jodle, Nazi General bearing the swastika, shall come to sign the document of Wehrmacht’s surrender at Reims,…) » (Luni, 1998, p.335); « General Eisenhower kept to the same principle in the surrender document which put an end to the European war at 0241 hours on May 7, 1945. This merciless war had lasted a little over 68 months. When he received the German delegation in the Rheims school which housed Supreme Headquarters of Allied Expeditionary Forces, Lieutenant-General Walter Bedell Smith, Eisenhower’s chief-of-staff, read out the document decided by the Allies. It ordered the simultaneous cessation of hostilities on all fronts on May 8 at 2301 hours, confirmed the total defeat of the armed forces of the Third Reich, and settled the procedure for their surrender according to the principles governing the surrender on Lüneburg Heath. Colonel-General Jodl, General Admiral Friedeburg, and Major Oxenius of the Luftwaffe signed the surrender document in Germany’s name. After Bedell Smith, Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Morgan signed for Great Britain, General Sévez for France, and Major-General Susloparov for the U.S.S.R. Finally Lieutenant-General Carl A. Spaatz, Vice-Admiral Sir Harold M. Burrough, and Air Marshal Sir J. M. Robb signed for the U.S. Air Force, the Royal Navy, and the R.A.F. respectively.» (Bauer, 1979, p.616-617), the expression “of troubled sense” referring to the mind of a military character having suffered a total defeat.

A horned bull shall see A pork via a virgin: De Gaulle (a horned bull), President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic since June 3, 1944 (cf. Jouette, p.310), robust and hardworking like a bull, shall see Pétain (a pork) returning from Germany via Switzerland (a virgin) to be tried in Paris, “horned ” symbolizing the scepter of the supreme authority (presidency), “porc (a pork)” referring to a weak and shameless leader Pétain in reminding the Latin “procus (a wooer, suitor [for an armistice with Hitler])”, and “a virgin” representing Switzerland in her absolute neutrality in WWII; « Pétain was intent on returning home to try to clear his name. In a petition to Hitler, he noted, ‘I can answer for my actions only in France. At my age the only thing one fears is not having done one’s full duty: I wish to do mine.’ Asked at a lunch what he would do if the Marshal returned to France, de Gaulle replied: ‘What do you expect me to do with him? I’ll assign him a residence somewhere in the Midi and I’ll wait for death to come and take him.’ An opinion poll found that 58 per cent of those questioned thought the old soldier should not be tried. A decree of November 1944 had set up a High Court to try Vichy ministers, senior military men and officials. The first case ended with the jailing of Admiral Jean-Pierre Esteva, the Vichy resident governor in Tunisia who had allowed German troops to land there after Operation Torch. He was followed in the dock by General Dentz, who had fought the Free French in Syria and who was condemned to death. De Gaulle commuted the sentence. In March 1945, the court decided to try Pétain. The following month, having been allowed by the Germans to go to Switzerland [from Sigmaringen], the Marshal crossed into France. General Koenig met him at the frontier, refusing to shake the old man’s hand. As his train headed for Paris, it was pelted with stones by local people in the Jura. After arriving, Pétain was held in a fort in the suburb of Montrouge in a small cell furnished only with a bed, a cupboard and a bedside table. At 1 p.m. on 23 July 1945, he entered the court room at the Palais de Justice by the Seine in the centre of Paris, wearing a simple blue uniform adorned only with the country’s highest military honour, the Médaille Militaire.» (Fenby, 2011, p.292-293).

Bœuf (Bull): « BŒUF. « « Un gros garçon d’une douzaine d’années, fort comme un bœuf (A big boy of twelve years, strongt like a bull) » (DAUD.). – Travailler comme un bœuf, beaucoup et sans manifester de fatigue (To work like a bull, a lot and without showing fatigue).» (Petit Robert); « In October 1910, de Gaulle finished his stint in Arras and travelled in heavy rain to Versailles where Saint-Cyr was located. ‘When I entered the army, it was one of the greatest things in the world,’ he remembered. The daily routine was highly demanding. Reveille was at 6.30 a.m. and studies continued until 7.30 p.m. From the start, de Gaulle stood out from his comrades; his height gained him the nickname of ‘the big asparagus’. At a hazing initiation ceremony, he was called out by an older cadet wielding a billiard cue. Showing the self-assurance that already marked him, he stood up calmly and impressed everybody with a rendition of the celebrated ‘big nose’ speech of Cyrano de Bergerac in the play of the same name – although that did not save him from being knocked down on to the backs of other youths kneeling on the floor. Reports praised his conduct, manners, intelligence, character, attitude, zeal, military spirit and resistance to fatigue. His marching was rated highly. The only weak points were sport and shooting. He graduated thirteenth out of 210. A photograph showed him immaculate in a five-buttoned tunic and plumed helmet, with his sword. ‘A highly gifted cadet,’ his passing-out report noted. ‘Conscientious and earnest worker. Excellent state of mind. Will make an excellent officer.’ Supplementary notes by superior officers remarked on his calmness and powers of command and decision.» (Fenby, id., p.52-53).

As to the word “bœuf”, M. Luni invokes an elephant, therefore a “ Bull of Lucania ” for the Romans (Luni, 1998, p.335; cf. Landais, s.v. ‘LUCANIEN’), which may be another way of reasonable interpretation. In fact, de Gaulle was popularly nicknamed so: « Among the few who thought like Mandel was forty-nine-year-old Charles de Gaulle. Standing six foot three inches tall with long arms, he was physically awkward and rarely at ease. He had a little moustache, big ears and a face that bore a resemblance to that of an elephant.» (Fenby, id., p.15). But this is not the real choice of Nostradamus because he surnamed de Gaulle “grand myttee (a big cat)” in the quatrain X-41 (§830).

His place then shall be full
: The court of his trial shall be full: « In his left hand he held his kepi, which he put on a table in front of him as he sat down. The city was suffering from a heat-wave, with stormy skies. The court was packed [His place then shall be full]; some of the journalists in the press gallery had to sit on each other’s knees. It was not an event de Gaulle had particularly wanted. He would probably have preferred his one-time mentor, to whom he referred as ‘Le Maréchal’, never as ‘Pétain’, to have remained in Switzerland and to have been tried in his absence. The General looked gloomy when the Justice Minister, Pierre-Henri Teitgen, reported to him on the trial. ‘Do your duty, do your duty,’ he said while taking care that General Juin, who had served Vichy faithfully until 1942, went on a lengthy foreign mission so that he could not be called as a witness… » (Fenby, id., p.293).

By the king the order shall be no longer sustained
: President de Gaulle [the king] shall commute the sentence [the order] of a death penalty of Pétain to life imprisonment: « ‘Deal with me according to your conscience,’ the Marshal said in his final statement. ‘Mine brings me no reproach since during a life that is already long, and, having arrived at the threshold of death, I state that I have no ambition other than to serve France.’ The jurors repaired to a buffet set up in a side room where they ate and drank well, arguing into the night about the sentence. In the end, by 14 votes to 13, the Vichy leader was condemned under an article of the criminal code that meant the death penalty – the key vote came from a Communist. He was also sentenced to national indignity. Then a proposal that the penalty should not be carried out was adopted. Though the jurors did not know this, de Gaulle had decided to commute the death sentence [By the king the order shall be no longer sustained]. The verdict was announced at 4 a.m. [on August 15]; Pétain was summoned after celebrating mass and making his confession. The Prime Minister provided his own aircraft to fly him to a prison fortress in the Pyrenees where the Vichy regime had held Third Republic politicians. Three months later, he was moved to a desolate island off the coast of western France, where he was allocated two rooms in a fort and cared for himself in all ways except for cutting his toenails, an art he had forgotten when attended by a pedicure specialist at Vichy. He remained on the Île d’Yeu until he died in July 1951 at the age of ninety-five, growing increasingly depressed, physically infirm and mentally senile. In a verdict written fifteen years later, de Gaulle judged that his life had been ‘successively banal, then glorious, then deplorable, but never mediocre’.» (Fenby, id., p.295-296).

As for the quatrains concerning Pétain and Charles de Gaulle, cf. IV-32 (§828), III-47 (§829), X-41 (§830), III-100 (§855), III-14 (§906) and III-72 (§907).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§855 De Gaulle in the end victorious of Hitler (1940-1945): III-100.

III-100 (§855):

Among the French the last honoured,
Shall be victorious of a man of enmity:
His force and territory being for a while put to the test,
When the envious person shall die it shall be by a shot of dart.

(Entre Gaulois le dernier honoré,
D'homme ennemi sera victorieux:
Force & terroir en moment exploré,
D'un coup de trait quand mourra l'envieux.)

NOTES: Exploré: = Put to the test; « Exploro, are: mettre à l’épreuve (To explore, to put to the test).» (Fontbrune, 1939, p.191).

Trait: =A pistol; « trait. MILIT. Arrow, dart, javelin.» (Dubois).

Envieux: « envieux. Adj. Envious, jealous. – s. Envious person.» (Dubois)..

Among the French the last honoured: « The hundredth quatrain of the Third Centurie begins with a clearer allusion to General de Gaulle. General de Gaulle may be called fairly the last-honored among the Gauls (no pun intended). The day after the Germans broke through at Sedan, Colonel de Gaulle, commander of the 507th Regiment of combat cars, was made a general to lead a hastily assembled brigade. Between 1932 and 1936 he wrote Au Fil de l’Epée (translated as The Philosophy of Command), which called for individualized initiative by commanders instead of the French traditionalist method of fighting only according to previous plan, and Vers l’Armée de Métier (The Army of the Future), which broke completely with preconceived French tactics. He foresaw (1934) this army of the future moving on caterpillar treads and warned that the Maginot Line was limited in depth, leaving northern France exposed. He predicted France’s defeat through concentrating on “the supreme value of the defensive.” He discounted France’s stridently tooted morale – “neither bravery nor skill can any longer achieve anything except as functions of equipment.” Marshal Pétain sneered at “such witticisms” and General Weygand was provoked by the tank tactician’s “evil remarks.” While France was sitting out the war in January, 1940, Colonel de Gaulle again dared to speak. From his tank command in Lorraine, he sent a seventeen page report to General Gamelin, Premier Daladier, and twenty other higher-ups warning: “The Maginot Line, however reinforced, can be crossed. The defender who limits himself to resisting in a fixed position with antiquated weapons is doomed.” Germany was the first nation to honor Charles de Gaulle when it stole from his book the tank strategy which won the Battle of France. England and the remaining free nations have paid him homage. France gave him her last grudging honor when he received his general officer’s stars on the battle-field.» (Boswell, 1941, p.223-224).

Among the French the last honoured, Shall be victorious of a man of enmity: « DE GAULLE, Charles André Joseph Marie (1890-1970) One of the most extraordinary and controversial figures of World War II. Although long mistrusted (even despised) by many Frenchmen after Fall of France and frequently in bitter conflict with his Anglo-American allies, he yet succeeded in building Free French movement into formidable force, which played significant role in latter, victorious stages of the war. Became equally controversial President of France after war. Graduated from St. Cyr military college, 1914. Wounded three times during World War I. Captured at Verdun, 1916, but escaped and returned to duty on Western Front and in Macedonia. Advocated mechanization of French Army between the wars, but was cold-shouldered by conservative general staff. Led 4th Armoured Division n series of gallant, but ineffectual, counter-attacks against German salient in North France, May 1940. Under-secretary for National Defence, June 1940. Escaped to England and formed ‘French National Committee’. Adopted Cross of Lorraine – emblem of Joan of Arc – as his own. Sentenced to death in absentia for treason and desertion by Vichy military court, Aug.1940. Liberated most of the French colonial empire, 1940-42, despite defeat of British-Free French expedition to Dakar, West Africa (September 1940) and bitter fighting in Syria (May-June 1941), Morocco and Algeria (November 1942). Reluctantly shared control of Free French movement with General Giraud, December 1942-November 1943. Sole President from latter date. Supreme commander of armed forces from April 1944. Entered Paris with Free French armoured units, August 1944. Officially recognized as sole legal head of French government, October 1944. President of provisional government, 1945-46.» (Argyle, 1980, p.166); « The War in Europe came to an end officially at midnight on May 8, 1945, but in reality that was merely the final formal recognition of a finish which had taken place piecemeal during the previous week. On May 2 all fighting had ceased on the southern front in Italy, where the surrender document had actually been signed three days earlier still. On May 4 a similar surrender was signed, at Montgomery’s headquarters on Luneberg Heath, by the representatives of the German forces in North-west Europe. On May 7 a further surrender document, covering all the German forces, was signed at Eisenhower’s headquarters in Reims – a larger ceremonial finish carried out in the presence of Russian as well as American, British, and French representatives.» (Hart, 1971, p.680).

His force and territory being for a while put to the test
: « On 1 June 1940, as the German army and air force swept across France, an unusually tall one-star general went to see the Prime Minister of France. The politician Paul Reynaud, an elfin-faced conservative who had been in office for ten weeks, offered him a choice: he could take command of France’s tank forces or join the government as Deputy Defence Minister – Reynaud held the senior defence post. Charles de Gaulle took the second option. The historic career was launched that would parallel France’s fortunes for good and ill over three decades. As the two men talked, their country was undergoing its greatest humiliation of the twentieth century [His territory being put to the test]. Three weeks earlier, the German army had circumvented its main defences on the heavily fortified Maginot Line, and used the deadly combination of tanks and dive bombers to pulverise French forces [His force being put to the test], which retreated in disarray or found themselves surrounded by the advancing enemy. The rout was all the more humiliating because France’s tank force was 30 per cent larger than Germany’s and included the heaviest and most powerful fighting vehicle in the world, the Char B1. In the air, the Allies again had 30 per cent superiority in numbers, and the United States had just delivered five hundred American planes, including high-quality fighters. But the Luftwaffe was as dominant as the tanks on the ground. The failure lay with the men in charge and the defensive mentality which had held sway since 1918.» (Fenby, 2011, p.13).

When the envious person shall die it shall be by a shot of dart
: « Two divisions had crossed the Spree to seize the ministry of the interior, which they called ‘Himmler’s House’. At dawn on 30 April, they launched their attack on the Reichstag, which Stalin had chosen as the symbol for the capture of Berlin. The first soldier to raise the Soviet flag above it was promised the order of Hero of the Soviet Union. The Reichstag was defended by a mixture of SS, Hitler Youth and some of the sailors who had been crash-landed in the Junkers transport planes. The great danger for the attackers came from behind. The huge Zoo flak tower in the Tiergarten could fire at them as they crossed the vast expanse of the Königsplatz, where Speer [architect Albert Speer] had planned to build the Volkshalle, the centerpiece of the new capital, Germania. In the Führer bunker that morning, Hitler tested one of the cyanide ampoules on his adored Alsatian bitch Blondi. Satisfied that it worked, he began to make his own preparations. He had just heard of Mussolini’s death and that of his mistress Clara Petacci. Their bodies, riddled with bullets, had been strung up from the gantry of a petrol station in Milan. The details had been typed for him on one of the special typewriters with outsize script, to allow him to read without glasses. (The sheet is preserved in a Russian archive.) At around three in the afternoon, the Führer made his farewells to his entourage. The solemnity of the occasion was rather undermined by the sound of partying up in the Reichschancellery, and then by Magda Goebbels becoming hysterical at the idea of losing him. Hitler finally retired to his sitting room with his bride, who had been cheerful during lunch although she knew exactly what was about to happen. Nobody heard the sound of the shot, but just after 15.15 hours Linge his valet entered followed by others. Hitler had fired a bullet through his head, while Eva Hitler had taken cyanide. Their bodies were wrapped in grey Wehrmacht blankets and taken up to the Reichschancellery garden, where they were set alight with petrol according to Hitler’s instructions. Goebbels, Bormann and General Krebs snapped to attention and gave the Nazi salute.» (Beevor, 2012, p.753).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§854 The utmost disasters of WWII (1921-1945): II-75.

II-75 (§854):

The voice of an unusual bird heard,
On the spout of the ventilative story,
The bushel of wheat shall cost so high,
That men shall be anthropophagous of men.

(La voix ouye de l'insolit oyseau,
Sur le canon du respiral estaige,
Si haut viendra du froment le boisseau,
Que l'homme d'homme sera Antropophage.)

NOTES: Canon: = « TECHN. Spout, pipe, barrel.» (Dubois).

Respiral: Probably the adjective form coined by Nostradamus of « Respirail. Ouverture pour l’aération (An opening for ventilation).» (Huguet).

Le respiral estaige: = the ventilative story = « Söller, die Plattform des Hauses, wo man frische Luft schöpft (A loft, a story of the house, where fresh air is scooped).» (Centurio, 1953, p.62).

« Huy 1. Cri. – Suyvez le roy, et qu’il n’y ait celuy Qui près de luy ne face ung plaisant huy (A cry. – Follow the king, and be not anyone Who would not make a pleasant cry beside him). Anc. Poés. franç., VIII, 85; Huy 2. Aujourd’hui (Today).» (Huguet).

The voice of an unusual bird heard, On the spout of the ventilative story: This unaccustomed bird, whose voice is like that of some kind of bird on a chimney of a house, is not be able to be ‘aircraft or anti-aircraft’ (Centurio, id.) nor ‘a space flying machine’ (Ionescu, 1976, p.706) because these dynamic objects cannot stay on a chimney like a bird and their explosive roarings do not simulate voices of birds. The answer is in the following paragraph of Nostradamus’ Epistle to Henry II as Clébert remarks it (Clébert, 2003, p.309):

« ... encores par la derniere foy trembleront tous les Royaumes de Chrestienté & aussi des infidelles par l'espace de 25. ans, & seront plus grieves guerres & batailles, & seront villes citez chasteaux & tous autres edifices bruslez desolez destruictz, avec grande effusion de sang vestal, mariees, & vefves violees, enfans de laict contre les murs des villes allidez & brisez, & tant de maux se commettront par le moyen de Satan prince infernal, que presque le monde universel se trouvera defaict & desolé, & avant iceulx advenemens aucuns oyseaulx insolites crieront par l'air.
Huy, huy, & seront apres quelque temps esvanouys.» (№3, p.21-22; №10, p.171-172) [& again (for the last time) all the Kingdoms of Christianity and those of the infidels shall tremble for the space of twenty-five years, & there shall be even more terrible wars & battles, & towns, cities, castles & all the other buildings shall be burned, sacked, & destroyed with great shedding of virgin blood, wives & widows raped, suckling babes dashed & shattered against city walls, & so many evils shall be committed through the influence of Satan, Prince of Hell, that almost the entire world shall find itself undone & abandoned, & before these events a number of fabulous birds shall cry out Huy huy in midair & then swiftly vanish,…] (Sieburth, 2012, p.206).

This is almost the exact description of the Second World War, where by the phrase in question we can easily imagine the frequent siren whisling of air-raid alarms (the Nostradamic naming “an unusual bird” of the alarming siren is well founded because the original sense of the mythological Siren was probably ‘bird’ [cf. Skeat, s.v.]. Moreover, the two images in common prelude to a possible urgent death), except the comment of “
for the space of twenty-five years”. But, if we trace the WWII back to its remotest origin, we find ourselves in face of the Versailles Treaty seriously unpleasant with the Germans, whose critical resentments were to be personified in the character and policies of Adolf Hitler who will unleash, in power, the fatal war.

« 1921 Jan: 24th (-29th), Paris conference of the Allies fixes Germany’s reparation payments; Mar: 8th, French troops occupy Düsseldorf and other towns in Ruhr on grounds of Germany’s failure to make preliminary reparations payment; 23rd, Germany announces she will be unable to pay £600 mill. due as reparations on May 1st; Apr: 24th, Germany unsuccessfully asks U.S. to mediate in reparations controversy; 27th, Reparations Commission fixes Germany’s total liability at £6,650 mill.; May: 2nd, French troops are mobilised for occupation of Ruhr; 5th, Allied Supreme Council warns Germany that failure to pay reparations, by 12th, will lead to occupation of Ruhr; 10th, in German cabinet crisis Julius Wirth, Catholic Centre Party, becomes chancellor; 11th, Germany accepts Allies’ ultimatum on reparations.» (Williams, 1968, p.486-488);

« 1930 Sep: 14th (-29th), in German elections Socialists with 143 seats and Communists 77, but National Socialists (Nazis), denouncing Versailles Treaty, gain 107 seats from Moderates; 1933 Jan: 30th, Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor, forming a Nazi cabinet with Franz von Papen vice-chancellor; Mar: 5th, in German elections Nazis win 288 seats, Socialists, 120, Communists, 81, Centre, 74, and Nationalists, 52; 23rd, enabling law in Germany grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers until Apr. 1937; 1934 Aug: 19th, German plebiscite approves vesting of sole executing power in Adolf Hitler as Führer; 1935 Mar: 16th, Germany repudiates disarmament clauses of Versailles Treaty; 1936 Mar: 7th, Germany violates Treaty of Versailles by occupying demilitarized zone of Rhineland; Nov: 14th, Germany denounces clauses of Versailles Treaty about internationalization of her waterways.» (Williams, 1968, p.526-554); « What was it about the Nazis that made them so popular? (i) They offered national unity, prosperity and full employment by ridding Germany of what they claimed were the real causes of the troubles – Marxists, the ‘November criminals’ (those who had agreed to the armistice in November 1918 and later the Versailles Treaty), Jesuites, Freemasons and, above all, Jews. Great play was made in Nazi propaganda with the ‘stab in the back’ myth (In 1919, the view was widespread that the army had not been defeated: it had been betrayed – ‘stabbed in the back’ – by the democrats who had needlessly agreed to the Versailles Treaty. What most Germans did not realize was that it was Ludendorff who had asked for an armistice while the Kaiser was still in power. However, the ‘stab in the back’ legend was eagerly fostered by all enemies of the republic [Lowe, 1988, p.127]). (ii) They promised to overthrow the Versailles settlement, so unpopular with most Germans, and to build Germany into a great power again. This would include bringing all Germans (in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland) back into the Reich. (iii) The Nazi private army, the SA (Sturmabteilung – Storm Troopers), was attractive to young people out of work; it gave them a small wage and a uniform. (iv) Wealthy landowners and industrialists encouraged the Nazis because they feared a communist revolution and they approved of the Nazi policy of hostility to communists. (v) Hitler himself had extraordinary political abilities. He possessed tremendous energy and will power and a remarkable gift for public speaking which enabled him to put forward his ideas with great emotional force. (vi) The striking contrast between the governments of the Weimar Republic and the Nazi party impressed people: the former were cautious, respectable, dull and unable to maintain order, the latter promised strong, decisive government and the restoration of national pride – an irresistible combination. (vii) Without the economic crisis though, it is doubtful whether Hitler would have had much chance of attaining power; it was the widespread unemployment and social misery which gained the Nazis mass support, not only among the working classes but also among the lower-middle classes – office workers, shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers and small-scale farmers.» (Lowe,1988, p.133-134).

« 1939 Sep: 1st, Germany invades Poland and annexes Danzig; 1940 May: 10th, Germany invades Holland, Luxembourg and Belgium; 14th, German troops turn the line of the Albert Canal and pierce French defences near Sedan; Jun: 14th, Germans enter Paris; 1945 Apr: 23rd, junction of U.S. and U.S.S.R. forces at Torgau; 30th, death of Adolf Hitler in Berlin; May: 7th, General Jodle makes final capitulation of Germany to General Dwight Eisenhower near Reims.» (Williams, id., p.570-596).

The bushel of wheat shall cost so high, That men shall be anthropophagous of men
: This is a briefest summary of peoples’ need and a great number of war dead in WWII;
« European dwellings destroyed: (% of pre-war dwellings):
Poland, 21.5
Greece, 20.7
Netherlands, 7.8
France, 7.6
Great Britain, 6.5
Belgium, 6.2
Italy, 4.9
Hungary, 3.9
Norway, 3.6
Czechoslovakia, 3.4

The numbers of war dead
(thousands):
USSR, 20,000
Poland, 4,320
Germany, 4,200
China, 2,200
Japan, 1,219
France, 600
Romania, 460
Hungary, 420
Italy, 410
USA, 406
Great Britain, 388
Czechoslovakia, 365
Austria, 334
Netherlands, 210
Greece, 160
Belgium, 88
Finland, 84
Bulgaria, 20
Norway, 10
Luxembourg, 5
Denmark, 1
Total: 37,600 (Total WW1: 17,000)

(
Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 19, The Price of World War Two).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§853 The inhuman Hitler (1933-1945): X-10.

X-10 (§853):

The business of murder, enormous vices,
A great enemy of all the human race:
Who shall be worse than his ancestors, uncles and fathers,
Sanguinary and inhuman in iron, fire and water.

(Tasche de murdre enormes adulteres,
Grand ennemy de tout le genre humain
Que sera pire qu'ayeulx, oncles, ne peres
En fer, feu, eau, sanguin & inhumain.)

NOTES: « Peut désigner Hitler - ou l’Antéchrist à venir (This quatrain may designate Hitler – or the Antichrist to come).» (Hutin, 1972, p.299); « Années 1940. Hitler aura pour but d’exterminer et de faire naître artificiellement, dans les Lebensborns, une « race pure ». Il se montrera le grand ennemi du genre humain et sera pire que ses ancêtres, ses semblables, et que le « petit père des peuples », Staline. Il fera couler le sang, répandra la guerre et suscitera les troubles en manifestant un caractère sanguinaire et inhumain (Years 1940s. Hitler shall have an objective of exterminating and of making generate artificially, in the Fountains of Life, a “pure race”. He shall show himself a great enemy of the mankind and become worse than his ancestors and fellow creatures, and than “the uncle of the peoples”, Stalin. He shall make shed the blood, expand the war and arouse troubles by manifesting a sanguinary and inhuman character).» (Luni, 1998, p,383).

Tasche: = tâche (a task, a work).

Murdre: = meurtre (a murder, a homicide); « murdre, murtre, dialectal forms of meurdre, meurtre(Daele).

Tasche de murdre: = « son œuvre de mort (his work of death) » (Fontbrune, 1976, p.322) = « the mighty and powerful King: After conquests he shall murder innocents » (§790, IV-86).

Adulteres: = vices; « Adulteres: désigne des actions coupables n’ayant rien de commun avec le fait de tromper son conjoint (Adulteries designate guilty actions having nothing common to the fact of deceiving one’s spouse).» (Clébert, 2003, p.1072).

Que: = qui. The nominative relative pronoun “qui” is replaced frequently by “que” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus according to the exceptional usages of the XVIth century): « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70). Cf. ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4), Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96), Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98), L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché (§603, III-91) and also I-99, II-10, III-54, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VI-19, VIII-28, VIII-88, IX-29 and X-22.

Fer (iron): A metonymy for a weapon, a battle or a war; « FER, Métal ductile; Un instrument tranchant. Dans le style oratoire ou poétique, Poignard, épée et, en général, toute arme tranchante; Chaînes (IRON, Ductile metal [literal]; A sharp instrument. In the oratorical or poetic style, A dagger, sword and, in general, every sharp arm [figurative]; Chains).» (Littré). In fact, of 25 usages in all of the term fer in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 18 are figurative (I-71, I-97, II-5, II-6, II-34, II-46, III-30, III-84, IV-34, IV-35, IV-47, V-2, VI-49, VI-68, VIII-79, IX-51, X-10 and X-65), 5 literal (I-10, I-84, II-24, IX-44 and IX-95) and 2 for chains (I-86 and V-28).

Feu (Fire): Of 81 usages in all of the term feu in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 53 are figurative for warfare, combats, armed conflicts or military confrontations, 7 for bombs or explosives (II-91, II-92, V-8bis, V-34, VI-34 and VIII-10), 5 for light (I-42, IV-35, IX-9bis and X-6), 4 for fires (I-87, II-35, II-77 and VI-97), 4 for strong and feverish characters (IV-23, VIII-1, IX-29 and X-53), 3 for executions (III-80, IV-28 and IV-31), 2 for comets (II-46 and IV-67), 1 for radioactivity (V-98), furnaces (X-10) and an adj. late/deceased/defunt (XII-69) respectively.


Eau (Water): = mass mobilization; « The waters are peoples, the crowd, races and languages (Apoc., XVII, 15), namely the masses of ancient Rome blaspheming and persecuting the Christians. Thence the inundation, invasion, overflowing of the peoples).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.204; p.111. Cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.38-39), or « drowning by the revolutionaries » (id. 1861, p.94). Of 30 examples of the words eau, eaue, eaux and eaulx, 11 are in this sense: I-11, II-54, II-87, III-70, V-86, V-87, VI-10, VIII-7, IX-51, X-10 and X-60.

Sanguin: = sanguinaire (sanguinary).

The business of murder, enormous vices, A great enemy of all the human race: Who shall be worse than his ancestors, uncles and fathers, Sanguinary and inhuman in iron, fire and water
: « Hitler’s anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) policy was popular with many Germans to begin with. There were only just over half a million Jews in Germany, a tiny proportion of the population, but Hitler decided to use them as scapegoats for everything – the humiliation at Versailles, the depression, unemployment and communism – and claimed that there was a world Jewish plot. Lots of Germans were in such a desperate situation that they were prepared to accept the propaganda about the Jews and were not sorry to see thousands of them removed from their jobs as lawyers, doctors, teachers and journalists. The campaign was given legal status by the Nuremberg Laws (1935), which deprived Jews of their German citizenship, forbade them to marry non-Jews (to preserve the purity of the Aryan race) and ruled that even a person with only one Jewish grandparent must be classed as a Jew. Later the policy became more extreme. Jews were harassed in every possible way; their property was attacked and burnt, shops looted, synagogues destroyed, and they themselves herded into concentration camps. Eventually the terrible nature of what Hitler called his ‘final solution’ of the Jewish problem became clear: he intended to exterminate the entire Jewish race [The business of murder, enormous vices]. As the Germans occupied countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland and western Russia, he was able to lay his hands on non-German Jews as well. It is believed that by 1945, out of a total of nine million Jews living in Europe at the outbreak of the Second World War, six million had been murdered, most of them in the gas chambers of the Nazi extermination camps.» (Lowe, 1988, p.143).


The thoroughgoing Racism of the Nazi; « The race theory was that mankind could be divided into two groups, Aryans and non-Aryans. The Aryans were the Germans, ideally tall, blond and handsome; they were the master race destined to rule the world. All the rest, such as Slavs, coloured peoples and particularly Jews were inferior and were destined to become the slave races of the Germans [A great enemy of all the human race: Who shall be worse than his ancestors, uncles and fathers].» (Lowe, id., p.136).

« The CIA file on Heinrich Mueller, chief of Hitler's Gestapo and a major Nazi war criminal, sheds important new light on U.S. and international efforts to find Mueller after his disappearance in May 1945. As Gestapo chief, Mueller oversaw the implementation of Hitler's policies against Jews and other groups deemed a threat to the state. The notorious Adolf Eichmann, who headed the Gestapo's Office of Resettlement and then its Office of Jewish Affairs, was Mueller's immediate subordinate. Once World War II began, Mueller and Eichmann planned key components in the deportation and then extermination of Europe's Jews... The CIA file, by itself, does not permit definitive conclusions. Taking into account the currently available records of the War Room as well as other documents in the National Archives, the authors of this report conclude that Mueller most likely died in Berlin in early May 1945.» (Naftali, T. et al., 2016); « For the purposes of general supervision and repression the Gestapo modelled itself closely on the Soviet Secret Police. Himmler had at his command an extremely able police-officer, Heinrich Mueller, who became known as Gestapo Mueller, a close and devoted student of Soviet methods.» (Crankshaw, 1966, p.66).

« The final solution became fact from the spring of 1942. The first mass-gassings began at Belzec on 17 March 1942. This camp had the capacity to kill 15,000 a day. The next month came Sobibor (20,000 a day), Treblinka and Maidanek (25,000) and Auschwitz, which Hoess called ‘the greatest institution for human annihilation [A great enemy of all the human race] of all time’. The documentation on the genocide is enormous. The figures almost defy belief. By December 1941 Hitler had about 8,700,000 Jews under his rule. Of these he had by early 1945 murdered at least 5,800,000. At Auschwitz, where 2 million were murdered, the process was run like a large-scale industrial operation. German firms submitted competitive tenders for the ‘processing unit’, which had to possess ‘capacity to dispose of 2,000 bodies every twelve hours’. The five furnaces [Sanguinary and inhuman in fire] were supplied by the German firm of Topt & Co of Erfurt. The gas chambers, described as ‘corpse cellars’, were designed by German Armaments Incorporated, to a specification requiring ‘gas-proof doors with rubber surround and observation post of double 8-millimetre glass (Martin Gilbert, Final Journey: the Fate of the Jews in Nazi Europe, London, 1979, 69-70). The ground over the gassing-cellars was a well-kept lawn, broken by concrete mushrooms, covering shafts through which the ‘sanitary orderlies’ pushed the amethyst-blue crystals of Zyklon-B. The victims marched into the cellars, which they were told were baths, and did not at first notice the gas coming from perforations in metal columns:

Then they would feel the gas and crowd together away from the menacing columns and finally stampede towards the huge metal door with its little window, where they piled up in one blue clammy blood-spattered pyramid, clawing and mauling at each other even in death. Twenty-five minutes later the ‘exhauster’ electric pumps removed the gas-laden air, the great metal door slid open, and the men of the Jewish Sonderkommando entered, wearing gas-masks and gumboots and carrying hoses, for their first task was to remove the blood and defecations before dragging the clawing dead apart with nooses and hooks, the prelude to the ghastly search for gold and the removal of the teeth and hair which were regarded by the Germans as strategic materials. Then the journey by lift or rail-wagon to the furnaces, the mill that ground the clinker to fine ash, and the lorry that scattered the ashes in the stream of the Sola. (Quoted from Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution, London, 1953).

In fact, to save money inadequate quantities of the expensive gas were often used, so the healthy victims were merely stunned and were then burned alive (Gilbert, Final Journey, 77-8).» (Johnson, 1991, p.415-416).

Cf. “The maintainers (§793, X-31): Les soustenens (= les soutenants = the maintainers): This term specifies the defenders or partisans (souteneurs) of Hitler as his most reliable subordinates (his staff), its true meaning being « a person who maintains a thesis of doctorate.» (Petit Robert): 1° Reinhard Heydrich (1904-†4 June, 1942): « ... the key document in the genocide programmes appears to be an order issued (on the Führer’s authority) by Goering on 31 July 1941 to Himmler’s deputy and SD [Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service to watch Roehm’s SA] Chief, Reinhard Heydrich, whom Hitler called ‘the man with an iron heart’. This spoke of a total solution, Gesamtlösung, and a final solution, Endlösung, ‘to solve the Jewish problem’. Goering defined ‘final’ to Heydrich verbally, repeating Hitler’s own verbal orders: according to the evidence given at his trial in 1961 by Adolf Eichmann, whom Heydrich appointed his deputy, it meant ‘the planned biological destruction of the Jewish race in the Eastern territories’. The operative date for the programme was April 1942, to give time for preparation. The executive conference, which settled the details, was organized by Eichmann and chaired by Heydrich at Wannsee on 20 January 1942. By now much evidence had been accumulated about killing methods. Since June 1941, on Himmler’s instructions, Rudolf Hoess, commander of Camp ‘A’ at Auschwitz-Birkenau, had been experimenting. Shooting was too slow and messy. Carbon monoxide gas was found too slow also. Then in August 1941, using 500 Soviet POWs as guinea-pigs, Hoess conducted a mass-killing with Zyklon-B. This was made by a pest-control firm, Degesch, the vermin combatting corporation, a satellite of I.G.Farben. Discovering Zyklon-B, said Hoess, ‘set my mind at rest’. A huge SS order went out for the gas, with instructions to omit the ‘indicator’ component, which warned human beings of the danger. I.G.Farben’s dividends from Degesch doubled, 1942-4, at least one director knew of the use being made of the gas: the only protest from Degesch was that omitting the ‘indicator’ might endanger their patent...» (Johnson, 1991, p.414-415); 2° Joseph Goebbels (1897-†1 May, 1945): « From 1933 to 1945 he was Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda, his cynical understanding of mass psychology [mass mobilization] making him a formidable figure. In the last days of the war he committed suicide in Hitler’s bunker after killing his wife and children.» (Palmer, p.115); « Goebbels, the most socialist-minded of the leading Nazis, became Hitler’s closest adviser, and was allowed to radicalize the war effort, ordering total mobilization [mass mobilization], the conscription of women, the shutting of theatres and other long-resisted measures. Hitler clung to the image of Frederick the Great, surviving hopeless encirclement. He and Goebbels read together Carlyle’s weird, multi-volume biography of the King, thus dealing a stunning blow to the already shaky reputation of the old Scotch sage.» (Johnson, 1991, p.412); 3° Heinrich Himmler (1900-†23 May, 1945): « He was made commander of the unified German police forces in 1936, head of Reich Administration in 1939 and Minister of the Interior, 1943. His ruthless direction of the secret police (Gestapo) made him a sinister figure among the Nazi leaders, responsible for many atrocities. He was arrested in hiding by British troops on May 21st, 1945, and committed suicide two days later.» (Palmer, p.126); « Obersleutnant Ulrich de Maizière, a general staff officer who witnessed the emotional storms in the Führer bunker that day [on 22 April 1945], became convinced that Hitler’s ‘mental sickness consisted of a hypertrophic self-identification with the German people’. Hitler now felt that the population of Berlin should share his suicide. Magda Goebbels, who believed that a Germany without Hitler was a world not worth living in, brought her six children down into the bunker that night. Staff officers gazed in horror, sensing immediately the end in store for them.» (Beevor, 2012, p.746-747).

Cf. “The young Nero (§794, IX-53) = « Himmler.» (Centurio, 1953, p.202); (Ionescu, 1976, p.503); Cf. « l’inhumain Neron (the inhuman Nero)» (§515, IX-76): a historical metaphor for la Terreur (the Terror), as « le tiers premier pys que ne feit Neron (the Third Estate in power worse than Nero does)» (§382, IX-17) for the revolutionary Government in the French Revolution, and « un fils Agrippe (a son of Agrippina = Nero)» (§374, VI-91) for the National Convention.

« Everyone knew Hitler’s aims were ambitious. The German masses believed they could and would be attained without war, by assertive diplomacy, backed by armed strength. The generals were told that war would almost certainly be necessary, but that it would be limited and short. In fact Hitler’s real programme was far more extensive than the generals, let alone the masses, realized and necessarily involved not merely war but a series of war. Hitler meant what he said when he wrote Mein Kampf: ‘Germany must either be a world power or there will be no Germany.’ Hitler’s aims can be reconstructed not merely from Mein Kampf itself, with its stress on the ‘East Policy’, but from his early speeches and the so-called ‘Second’ or Secret Book of 1928. This material makes it clear that the ‘cleansing’ process – the elimination of the Jews – was essential to the whole long-term strategy. Being a race-socialist as opposed to a class-socialist, Hitler believed the dynamic of history was race. The dynamic was interrupted when race-poisoning took place. The poison came, above all, from the Jews. He admired Jews as ‘negative supermen’. In his Table-Talk he said that if 5,000 Jews emigrated to Sweden, in no time at all they would occupy all the key positions: this was because ‘blood purity’, as he put it in Mein Kampf, ‘is a thing the Jew preserves better than any other people on earth’. The Germans, on the other hand, had been ‘poisoned’. That was why they lost the First World War. Even he was poisoned: that was why he occasionally made mistakes – ‘all of us suffer from the sickness of mixed, corrupt blood’. Hitler calculated it would need a hundred years for his regime to eliminate racial poisoning in Germany: on the other hand, if Germany became the first nation-race to do so successfully, it would inevitably become ‘lord of the Earth’ (Mein Kampf).» (Johnson, 1991, p.342-343); « What distinguished Hitlerian race-theory was, first, this rooted belief that ‘cleansing’ could make Germany the first true superpower, and ultimately the first paramount power in the world [A great enemy of all the human race]; and, secondly, his absolute conviction that ‘Jewish race-poison’ and Bolshevism were one and the same phenomenon... Hitler’s full programme, therefore, was as follows. First, gain control of Germany itself, and begin the cleansing process at home. Second, destroy the Versailles settlement and establish Germany as the dominant power in Central Europe. All this could be achieved without war. Third, on this power base, destroy the Soviet Union (by war) to rid the ‘breeding-ground’ of the ‘bacillus’ and, by colonization, create a solid economic and strategic power-base from which to establish a continental empire, in which France and Italy would be mere satellites. In the fourth stage Germany would acquire a large colonial empire in Africa, plus a big ocean navy, to make her one of the four superpowers, in addition to Britain, Japan and the United States. Finally, in the generation after his death, Hitler envisaged a decisive struggle between Germany and the United States for world domination. No one since Napoleon had thought in such audacious terms. In its gigantic scope the concept was Alexandrine. Yet until he was engulfed by the war he made, Hitler was always pragmatic. Like Lenin he was a superb opportunist, always ready to seize openings and modify his theory accordingly. This has led some historians to conclude he had no master-programme. In fact, while always adjusting the tactics to suit the moment, he pursued his long term strategy with a brutal determination which has seldom been equalled in the history of human ambition. Unlike most tyrants, he was never tempted to relax by a surfeit of autocratic power. Quite the contrary. He was always raising the stakes on the table and seeking to hasten the pace of history. He feared his revolution would lose its dynamism...» (Johnson, id., p.343-344).

Sanguinary and inhuman in iron: « The pilotless guided aircraft (V1) appealed strongly to his [Hitler’s] highly developed sense of military economy. It was one of the most cost-effective weapons ever produced. For the price of one Lancaster bomber, crew-training, bombs and fuel, Hitler could fire well over three hundred V1s, each with a ton of high-explosive, a range of 200 miles and a better chance of reaching its target. In the period 12 June-1 September 1944, for an expenditure of £12,600,190, the V1 offensive cost the Allies £47,645,190 in loss of production, extra anti-aircraft and fighter defences, and aircraft crews in the bombing offensive against the sites. The Air Ministry reported (4 November 1944): ‘The results were greatly in the enemy’s favour, the estimated ratio of our costs to his being nearly four to one.’ Only 185 Germans lost their lives, against 7,810 Allies (including 1,950 trained airmen). The V1s were damaging 20,000 houses a day in July 1944 and the effect on London morale was very serious [Sanguinary and inhuman in iron].» (Johnson, 1991, p.405-406); « Hitler’s only prospect of achieving stalemate by a decisive technical advance lay in marrying the A10 [projected intercontinental] rocket to a nuclear payload. There was never much prospect of him achieving this within the time-scale of the war. Yet there was a continuing fear on the Allied side that Hitler would come into possession of atomic bombs [Sanguinary and inhuman in iron]… Hence the real father of the atomic bombs was Hitler and the spectres his horrifying will conjured up. In March 1940 Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls of Birmingham University produced an astonishing memorandum, of three typed pages, showing how to make a bomb of enriched uranium. The high-powered ‘Maud’ Committee (whimsically called after Maud Ray, a Kentish governess) was created to crash-develop the idea. In June it was joined by the French nuclear team, who brought with them the world’s entire stock of heavy water, which they had snatched from Norway: 185 kilograms in twenty-six cans, which was first temporarily housed in Wormwood Scrubs prison, ten put in the library at Windsor Castle. At Einstein’s request (he also feared an ‘anti-Semitic bomb’), Roosevelt had set up an ‘Uranium Committee’ in October 1939. It was jolted into activity in the autumn of 1940 when the two leaders of the British scientific war-effort, Sir Henry Tizard and Sir John Cockcroft, went to Washington taking with them a ‘black box’ containing, among other things, all the secrets of the British atomic programme. At that time Britain was several months ahead of any other nation, and moving faster. Plans for a separation plant were completed in December 1940 and by the following March the atomic bomb had ceased to be a matter of scientific speculation and was moving into the arena of industrial technology and engineering. The Maud Report became the basis for America’s ‘Manhattan’ project, with a bufget of $2 billion, which spent $1 billion in 1944 alone. In order to race Hitler to the bomb (as they thought), three completely different methods of producing bomb-material, two types of uranium enrichment plants (gaseous diffusion and electro-magnetic) and a set of plutonium reactors, were pursued simultaneously. Each involved building some of the largest factories ever conceived. The project was under the direction of an army engineer general, Leslie Groves, who shared to the full the giganticist philosophy of the new Forties phase of American capitalism. Given a clear and attainable objective, he was impervious to qualitative or quantitative difficulties. He took a fierce delight in prodigality. ‘We have so many PhDs now that we can’t keep track of them’, he boasted. He asked the American Treasury for thousands of tons of silver for electric wiring and was told: ‘In the Treasury we do not speak of tons of silver. Our unit is the troy ounce.’ But he got the silver. The effort to invent nuclear power involved creating a series of new technologies: the first fully automated factory, the first plant operated by remote control, the first wholly sterile industrial process – 6 million square feet of leak-proof machinery – and a variety of revolutionary gadgets. The waste was enormous, and much of it in retrospect seemed inexcusable. But the war is about waste; war is waste. The Americans were compressing perhaps three decades of scientific engineering progress into four years. There was no other way of being sure to get the bomb. There was no other country or system which could have produced this certainty. It was Hitler’s bomb; it was also and above all a capitalist bomb. In its colossal destructive power, it was an archetypal Hitler weapon: the destroyer-state incarnate.» (Johnson, id., p.406-409).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§852 Hitler’s birth in Austria, WWI and WWII (1889-1945): VIII-79.

VIII-79 (§852):

He who, born in Pannonia, shall lose his father by war,
Shall make her conceiving anew Gorgon’s blood,
In a foreign land shall do everything to hush,
Who shall burn himself and his graft.

(Qui par fer pere perdra nay de Nonnaire,
De Gorgon sur la fera sang perfetant
En terre estrange fera si tout de taire,
Qui bruslera luy mesme & son entant.)

NOTES: Here is a meaningful remark of interpretation: « Adolf Hitler, born in Austria, ruled Germany, and in the end perished in a bomb cellar in Berlin, probably burned to death.» (Roberts, 1969, p.260).

Nay de Nonnaire: = « born in Austria » (Roberts, id.) = Near the Rhine of the Austrian mountains Shall be born a great of the people having come too late (§800, III-58); Nonnaire [Nonnia/Nonniary], suggestive of a place-name of the birth of a person, is probably an apheresis of Pannonia (Austria). In fact in the quatrains concerning Adolf Hitler or Nazi Germany, the names Pannonia or Pannonians are employed: e.g., III-58 (§800), IX-90 (§810) and V-48 (§824).

Fer (iron): A metonymy for a weapon, a battle or a war; « FER, Métal ductile; Un instrument tranchant. Dans le style oratoire ou poétique, Poignard, épée et, en général, toute arme tranchante; Chaînes (IRON, Ductile metal [literal]; A sharp instrument. In the oratorical or poetic style, A dagger, sword and, in general, every sharp arm [figurative]; Chains).» (Littré). In fact, of 25 usages in all of the term fer in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 18 are figurative (I-71, I-97, II-5, II-6, II-34, II-46, III-30, III-84, IV-34, IV-35, IV-47, V-2, VI-49, VI-68, VIII-79, IX-51, X-10 and X-65), 5 literal (I-10, I-84, II-24, IX-44 and IX-95) and 2 for chains (I-86 and V-28).

He who, born in Pannonia, shall lose his father by war: Hitler’s fatherland shall lose in WWI (1914-1918), the term pere (father) being unable here to mean the real father of Hitler because he had not died of war but of desease in January 1903 (
HM, № 123, p.C-778); « Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945), born in Braunau-on-the-Inn, Upper Austria; at school in Linz; lived in Vienna 1909-13, absorbing anti-semitic prejudices and ekeing out a miserable existence as a third-rate commercial artist; crossed the frontier and enlisted in the Bavarian infantry, 1914, serving as a Corporal on the Somme and twice gaining the Iron Cross.» (Palmer, p.127); « The Collapse of Empires and the Armistices The end had come with dramatic suddenness, as empires collapsed under internal and external pressures. It took most of the Allied military leaders by surprise. Foch was preparing for a 1919 campaign, but the ever-optimistic Haig had perceived that Germany could be defeated in 1918, and so it proved. As far as the German, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires were concerned it was a true Götterdämmerung, a twilight of the gods, or in this case of the imperial demigods which headed these empires: Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Emperor Karl and the Sultan, and their whole, aristocratic and undemocratic systems. The age of populist nationalism and totalitarian dictatorship was about to begin. The Armistice on 11 November ended the fighting between the Allies and Germany, the other ‘Central Powers’ having capitulated earlier: Bulgaria on 29 September, the Ottoman Empire on 30 October and Austria-Hungary on 3 November.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.280-283).

Perfetant: = « conceiving anew » (Leoni, 1982, p.373).

Gorgon: Symbolizing the inhuman character of Hitler and the Nazis = Grand ennemy de tout le genre humain (the great enemy of all the human race) (§853, X-10); « The Gorgon was one of three snaky-haired sisters, whose ugliness turned the beholder to stone.» (Leoni, id., p.711).

Who Shall make her conceiving anew Gorgon’s blood, In a foreign land shall do everything to hush: « Hitler... In September 1919 he joined a small nationalist group which shortly took the name ‘National Socialist German Workers’ Party’ (N.S.D.A.P., soon derisively nicknamed ‘Nazi’) and discovered his power of demagogic oratory in open-air tirades in Munich against Jews and the Treaty of Versailles… After the successive failure of three Chancellors in as many years, Hindenburg appointed Hitler on January 30th, 1933, believing that the non-Nazi Vice-Chancellor, Franz von Papen, would curb excesses. Two months later, the Reichstag Fire provided Hitler with the opportunity of establishing a one-party régime, and on June 30th, 1934, he eliminated possible rivals by liquidating the Sturm Abteilungen group of Ernst Roehm and the supporters of Gregor Strasser, at the same time securing von Papen’s resignation. On Hindenburg’s death, Hitler was proclaimed ‘Fuehrer of the German Reich’ (August 2nd, 1934), to whom, as Head of State and Supreme Commander, all officers had to take an oath of loyalty [In a foreign land shall do everything to hush]. On November 5th, 1937, Hitler secretly instructed his commanders to prepare for an expansionist policy abroad, occupying Austria by the Anschluss [graft] of 1938 [Who Shall make her conceiving anew Gorgon’s blood (namely, the Nazi regime established in Austria in addition to Germany)] and Czechslovakia in October 1938 ans March 1939. His demands on Poland led to the Second World War (September 1939), which he considered he had won in the West when German troops entered Paris (June 1940). In 1941 he moved his troops eastward, but in attacking Russia he encountered heavy opposition and personally assumed command in the field on December 19th, 1941...» (Palmer, p.127-128).

Entant: = « greffe (transplant, graft), from the verb enter (to graft).» (Guinard, 2011, p.130).

Who shall burn himself and his graft: Hitler shall make Germany herself and its graft, Austria, burned and destroyed at the last stage of WWII:
« MARCH 23 [1945] Western FrontMONTGOMERY’S 21st ARMY GROUP CROSSES THE RHINE AT WESEL (Op. Plunder): Montgomery issues Order of the Day: ‘21st Army Group will now cross the Rhine. The enemy possibly thinks he is safe behind this great river obstacle… we will show him he is far from safe behind it.’ Monty also isuues ‘no fraternization’ order to his troops.
MARCH 30 Russian FrontDanzig stormed by Rokossovsky’s 2nd Byelorussian Front. Tolbukhin enters Austria. Western Front – Patton issues Order of the Day to US 3rd Army: claims that in 7 weeks it has occupied 14,484 sq km of Germany, taken 3,072 inhabited places, killed or wounded 99,000, taken 140,000 prisoners and eliminated 2 German armies.
APRIL 3 Russian Front – Tolbukhin captures Wiener Neustadt.
APRIL 13 Western Front – Patton captures Jena. Russian FrontVIENNA CAPTURED by Tolbukhin’s 3rd Ukrainian Front.
APRIL 14 Western FrontARNHEM CAPTURED BY BRITISH FORCES. Germans offer fierce resistance and demolish bridge before retreating. Patton captures Bayreuth.
APRIL 16 Russian FrontZHUKOV OPENS OFFENSIVE ON BERLIN. Western Front – Canadians take Gröningen; Americans enter Nuremberg.
APRIL 18 Western Front
– 370,000-strong Army Group B. surrenders in Ruhr ‘Pocket’.
APRIL 19 Russian Front – Russians secure bridgehead across R. Neisse and push towards Dresden. Western Front – US 1st Army captures Leipzig. 7th Army troops break through medieval walls of Nuremberg and eliminate fanatical SSgarrison.
APRIL 20 Western Front – ‘Stars and Stripes’ raised over rostrum of Nuremberg Stadium – scene of Nazi Party rallies.
APRIL 21 Russian Front
BATTLE OF BERLIN [the columns of wood a huge tremble]. ZHUKOV’S TROOPS ENTER SUBURBS. Konev attacks North of Dresden. Western Front – French occupy Stuttgart.
APRIL 22 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture Weissensee district. Hitler decides to remain in Berlin. Western Front – US 7th Army captures bridge over Danube at Dillingen. Patton drives towards Regensburg.
APRIL 23 Russian FrontFrankfurt-on-Oder captured by Zhukov.
APRIL 24 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Konev’s and Zhukov’s troops link up in South suburbs. Western Front – British reach Bremen.
APRIL 25 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Zhukov and Konev forces near Potsdam to complete their ‘iron ring’ around the city.
APRIL 26 Russian/Western FrontRUSSIAN AND AMERICAN FORCES LINK UP at Torgau on the Elbe. Western Front – Battle of Berlin: Dahlem and Siemensstadt districts captured. Port of Stettin falls.
APRIL 27 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture suburbs of Potsdam, Spandau and Rathenow; central districts of Neukölln and Tempelhof. Western FrontBremen captured by British forces.
APRIL 29 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Hitler marries Eva Braun and dictates ‘Political Testament’.
APRIL 30 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide in Führerbunker beneath Reichs Chancellery, Berlin, at 3.30 pm. Cremated with burning petrol in Chancellery Garden. Russian artillery bombards Chancellery; advancing infantry now only 2 blocks away. Western FrontMunich captured by US 7th Army.
MAY 1 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Goebbels and wife Magda poison their 6 children before committing suicide. Home Front: Germany DÖNITZ ANNOUNCES DEATH OF HITLER (‘fighting in Berlin’); becomes second Führer of the Reich.
MAY 2 Russian Front/ Western FrontSTALIN ANNOUNCES FALL OF BERLIN in Order of the Day No. 359: ‘Troops of the 1st Byelorussian Front, commanded by Marshal Zhukov... have today May 2 completely captured Berlin... hotbed of German aggressions.’ MAY 4 Western FrontSURRENDER OF ALL GERMAN FORCES IN NW. GERMANY, HOLLAND AND DENMARK to Field Marshal Montgomery at ceremony on Lüneberg Heath (surrender effective from 8 am, May 5).
MAY 7 DiplomacyUNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF GERMANY. General Jodle signs instrument of surrender at 2.41 am in schoolroom at Rheims.» (Argyle, 1980, p.180-185).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§851 Berlin desolated in WWII (1945): III-84.

III-84 (§851):

The big city shall be really desolated,
Even one of its habitants shall not remain:
Walls, ladies, temples, and virgins violated,
By tanks, guns, war damage, canon peoples shall die.

(La grand cité sera bien desolée
Des habitans un seul ny demeurra:
Mur, sexe, temple, & vierge violée
Par fer, feu, peste, canon peuple mourra.)

NOTES: Here is a compact interpretative commentary of the quatrain by Hogue: « … the final death agony of Hitler’s Nazi capital during the Battle of Berlin. By April of 1945 the city that had already been pulverized by a year of 1,000 Allied bomber raids was overwhelmed by a Soviet offensive of 1.2 million men. At the peak of the street battle 12,000 guns and 21,000multiple-rocket launchers bombarded Soviet and German soldiers alike in a chaotic maelstrom of street-to-street fighting. It is estimated that the month-long battle in Berlin and along the Oder Front cost 400,000 German and 500,000 Soviet military casualties, plus an extra 200,000 civilians killed and wounded. The victorious Soviet troops were known to have raped an excess of 50,000 German women, as revenge for the deaths of 21 million of their own people at the hands of the Nazis.» (Hogue, 1997, p.282); Cf. Sommerville, 2008, p.198-199: The Fall of Berlin.

Demeurra: = demeurera; Cf. « demorer (demorare), -ourer, -urer; retarder (to delay), rester (to rest), demeurer (to remain), habiter (to inhabit); Conjug. rad. demor, demeur; Fut.: je demorrai, -ourrai, etc.» (Daele).

Sexe: = the female sex as in the quatrain VII-8 (§680): Temple ne sexe ne sera pardonné; Cf.
« Sexe. Sexe féminin (Sex. The female sex).» (Huguet). But in the quatrains V-60 (tout sexe) and V-70 (tout sexe deu[x]) are meant all the sexes by the phrase in question. And the phrase: « gymnique sexe (the gymnastic sex) » (§909, IV-41) signifies “a division or genre of athletes” = « jeunes gens gymnastes (young gymnastic people) » (Ionescu, 1976, p.677) according to the original meaning of the Latin term: « secus, a division; hence sex.) » (Smith-Lockwood).

Peste (plague): = Disasters of war. This word, as well as the words pestilence, pestilent and pestifere (pestiferous), is figurative, non literal, for most of the expressions indicative of natural phenomena such as " earthquake, rain, tempest, dryness, inundation", etc. are not literal for Nostradamus, but figurative, describing metaphorically wars, revolts, social troubles, collective distress,
a sort of moral or mental and social disorder such as pernicious political ideology (Stalinism), inhuman collective mentality (Nazism), etc., conditioned principally by human comportments (cf. Introduction §5). In fact, of 38 usages of the words « peste », « pestilence », « pestilent» and « pestifere », 32 are figurative for the warlike and social disasters and menaces, only 5 literal (II-19, II-37, II-46, II-53 and II-65) and one for the real seism (VIII-84).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§850 Berlin & Germany, Vienna & Austria occupied by the Allies in WWII (1945): I-82.

I-82 (§850):

When the columns of wood a huge tremble,
Conducted by Auster, covered with red soil,
The great assembly shall settle so many outside of it,
Vienna and the country of Austria shall tremble.

(Quand les colomnes de bois grande tremblée
D'Auster conduicte couverte de rubriche
Tant vuïdera dehors grand assemblée,
Trembler Vienne & le païs d'Austriche.)

NOTES: The columns of wood: « The capital of Germany is represented here by “the columns of wood”, the trees, alluding to the Zoological Garden, or to the Street ‘Unter den Linden’.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.515).

Grande tremblée: For grand tremble in order to rhime with assemblée of the third line; « tremble, s.m., tremblement (a tremble).» (Godefroy).

Tremble, trembler: The phrase: The earth shall tremble, together with “A tremble of the earth”, is a manner of saying preferred by Nostradamus for expressing « A war/ a war to take place » (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.459). All of the 12 usages of this expression in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are in this sense without exception (I-20, I-46, I-93, II-52, III-3, VI-66, VI-88, VIII-29, IX-31, IX-83, X-60 and X-79). Moreover, of the other 24 phrases including the word “trembler (to tremble)”, 17 are yet in this sense (I-57, I-82bis, I-87, II-68, II-86, IV-54, IV-90, V-27, V-50, V-61, V-68, IX-33, IX-60bis, IX-94 and X-67) as well as the other 5 with an expression of ‘fear’ (III-88, IV-5, IV-36, V-23 and XII-65) and only the remaining 2 are allotted otherwise (II-64: enfeebling of laws; V-49: shake of the regime). In conclusion, 34 of 36 usages of the word “trembler (to tremble)” are designed to signify the war.

Auster: « Hitler is named here Auster, which is an allusion to his Austrian origin and also to his “austere” temperament.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.516).

Rubriche: = « RUBRIQUE. n.f. (Rubriche,
XIIIe; lat. rubrica « red soil, ocher »). » (Petit Robert).

Red soil: « An allusion either to the blood that shall have drenched the earth of this city or to the “Red Armies” that shall have covered the city with soil and ruins.» (Ionescu, id.). The reasonable option will be “Red Armies” because the preceding expression: “a huge tremble” with the meaning of terrible war can itself connote “blood-red soil”.

When the columns of wood a huge tremble, Conducted by Auster, covered with red soil,: = When the columns of wood [shall be] a huge tremble, conducted by Auster, and covered by red soil. The style of Nostradamus without a verb: « the columns of wood a huge tremble » is essentially analogous to the expression with a verb: « “I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.” Robert Oppenheimer, physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, quoting from the Bhagavid Gita on the first testing of the atomic bomb, 1945.» (Parker, 2010, p.357).

Vuïder: = « vider. To empty; To drain off; F
IG. To exhaust, to settle (a quarrel, a question).» (Dubois).

When the columns of wood a huge tremble, Conducted by Auster, covered with red soil,
The great assembly shall settle so many outside of it, Vienna and the country of Austria shall tremble
: When the city of Berlin conducted by Hitler shall be the huge battle, assailed by the Red Armies, outside of it the Allied Armies shall settle many other cities; Vienna and the whole Austria shall be warring. This is nothing but the last stage of the German and Austrian fronts in WWII: « The Soviet Invasion of Germany As millions of refugees fled in terror before the Soviet advance, the Red Army ground its way remorselessly from Warsaw to the Oder in the first months of 1945 and from March began attacks to conquer Czechoslovakia and Austria. By January 1945 the Soviets were ready to resume their main attacks into Germany. Some 4 million men and masses of tanks, guns and aircraft were set to advance all along the front, from southern Poland to the Baltic coast of Lithuania... PAUSE ON THE ELBE By February the Soviet spearheads seemed poised to drive on to Berlin, and probably could have done so relatively easily. However, for reasons that have never been clear, Stalin chose not to do this. Instead the Soviet forces spent several weeks taking control of Pomerania and southern Silesia. The best explanation seems to be that Stalin did not want the war to end before he had direct control of as much Polish and German territory as possible. And at this stage, with the Western Allies still fighting their way slowly to the Rhine, there seemed little prospect of them getting to Berlin first. The Soviet forces south of Poland did little attacking in the first months of 1945 but did finish off the siege of Budapest in February. Bizarrely there now followed Germany’s last significant offensive of the war. After the failure of the Battle of the Bulge, Hitler switched the elite Sixth SS Panzer Army to the Hungarian front and its attacks made limited gains in the Lake Balaton area in the first couple of weeks of March. These were retaken immediately the Soviet offensives resumed on 16 March. In April the Soviets conquered much of Austria [the country of Austria shall tremble] and by early May had moved well into Czechoslovakia. The successful Anglo-American Rhine crossing in March had by then brought a new urgency to the operations on the main fronts. At the end of March Stalin finally gave orders for the decisive attack on Berlin.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.184-185);

« MARCH 23 [1945] Western FrontMONTGOMERY’S 21st ARMY GROUP CROSSES THE RHINE AT WESEL (Op. Plunder): Montgomery issues Order of the Day: ‘21st Army Group will now cross the Rhine. The enemy possibly thinks he is safe behind this great river obstacle… we will show him he is far from safe behind it.’ Monty also isuues ‘no fraternization’ order to his troops.
MARCH 24 Russian Front – Russians capture Zoppot [Sopot], between Danzig [Gdańsk] and Gdynia []. Western Front – British Commandos occupy Wesel.
MARCH 25 Russian Front – Malinovsky breaks through W. of Budapest, crossing River Hron and capturing Esztergom. Western Front – Montgomery’s 4 bridgeheads over the Rhine merge into 48km-wide salient. 3rd Army captures Darmstadt.
MARCH 26 Western Front – Patton’s tanks cross Bavarian border. British troops capture Rees, near Wesel.
MARCH 27 Russian Front – Russians launch final attacks on Danzig and Gdynia. Western Front – Americans reach Limburg.
MARCH 28 Russian Front
– Rokossovsky captures Gdynia. Malinovsky takes Gyor (Hungary).
MARCH 29 Western Front
– US 7th Army captures Mannheim and Heidelberg.
MARCH 30 Russian FrontDanzig stormed by Rokossovsky’s 2nd Byelorussian Front. Tolbukhin enters Austria. Western Front – Patton issues Order of the Day to US 3rd Army: claims that in 7 weeks it has occupied 14,484 sq km of Germany, taken 3,072 inhabited places, killed or wounded 99,000, taken 140,000 prisoners and eliminated 2 German armies.
MARCH 31 Russian Front – Russians take Ratibor on Upper Oder.
APRIL 1 Russian Front – Russians take Sopron, SE. of Vienna. Koniev captures fortress of Glogow on the Oder.
APRIL 2 Western Front – Montgomery’s forces capture Rheine jet fighter base and Münster.
APRIL 3 Russian Front – Tolbukhin captures Wiener Neustadt.
APRIL 4 Russian FrontBratislava captured by Malinovsky. Western Front – Allied forces at Kassel, Gotha, Karlsruhe and Aschaffenburg.
APRIL 6 Russian Front – Russians enter suburbs of Vienna and launch final assault on Königsberg.
APRIL 8 Western Front – Americans enter Schweinfurt; French capture Pforzheim.
APRIL 9 Russian FrontFALL OF KÖNIGSBERG after 59-day siege. Tolbukhin’s troops smash their way into centre of Vienna. Western Front – Americans occupy Krupp’s Works at Essen.
APRIL 10 Western Front – Americans capture Hanover.
APRIL 12 Western Front – US 3rd Army takes Weimar.
APRIL 13 Western Front – Patton captures Jena. Russian FrontVIENNA CAPTURED [Vienna shall tremble] by Tolbukhin’s 3rd Ukrainian Front.
APRIL 14 Western FrontARNHEM CAPTURED BY BRITISH FORCES. Germans offer fierce resistance and demolish bridge before retreating. Patton captures Bayreuth.
APRIL 15 Western Front – US 1st Army captures Leuna. Colditz liberated.
APRIL 16 Russian FrontZHUKOV OPENS OFFENSIVE ON BERLIN. Western Front – Canadians take Gröningen; Americans enter Nuremberg.
APRIL 18 Western Front
– 370,000-strong Army Group B. surrenders in Ruhr ‘Pocket’.
APRIL 19 Russian Front – Russians secure bridgehead across R. Neisse and push towards Dresden. Western Front – US 1st Army captures Leipzig. 7th Army troops break through medieval walls of Nuremberg and eliminate fanatical SSgarrison.
APRIL 20 Western Front – ‘Stars and Stripes’ raised over rostrum of Nuremberg Stadium – scene of Nazi Party rallies.
APRIL 21 Russian Front
BATTLE OF BERLIN [the columns of wood a huge tremble]. ZHUKOV’S TROOPS ENTER SUBURBS. Konev attacks North of Dresden. Western Front – French occupy Stuttgart.
APRIL 22 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture Weissensee district. Hitler decides to remain in Berlin [the columns of wood… Conducted by Auster]. Western Front – US 7th Army captures bridge over Danube at Dillingen. Patton drives towards Regensburg.
APRIL 23 Russian FrontFrankfurt-on-Oder captured by Zhukov.
APRIL 24 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Konev’s and Zhukov’s troops link up in South suburbs. Western Front – British reach Bremen.
APRIL 25 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Zhukov and Konev forces near Potsdam to complete their ‘iron ring’ around the city.
APRIL 26 Russian/Western FrontRUSSIAN AND AMERICAN FORCES LINK UP at Torgau on the Elbe. Western Front – Battle of Berlin: Dahlem and Siemensstadt districts captured. Port of Stettin falls.
APRIL 27 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture suburbs of Potsdam, Spandau and Rathenow; central districts of Neukölln and Tempelhof. Western FrontBremen captured by British forces.
APRIL 29 Western Front – British capture Lauenburg, trapping German forces in Denmark. Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Hitler marries Eva Braun and dictates ‘Political Testament’; Russians capture Moabit power station and Anhalter railway terminal.
APRIL 30 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide in Führerbunker beneath Reichs Chancellery, Berlin, at 3.30 pm. Cremated with burning petrol in Chancellery Garden. Russian artillery bombards Chancellery; advancing infantry now only 2 blocks away. Western FrontMunich captured by US 7th Army.
MAY 1 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Goebbels and wife Magda poison their 6 children before committing suicide. Russians capture Charlottenburg and Schoeneburg districts. Home Front: Germany DÖNITZ ANNOUNCES DEATH OF HITLER (‘fighting in Berlin’); becomes second Führer of the Reich.
MAY 2 Russian Front/ Western FrontSTALIN ANNOUNCES FALL OF BERLIN in Order of the Day No. 359: ‘Troops of the 1st Byelorussian Front, commanded by Marshal Zhukov... have today May 2 completely captured Berlin... hotbed of German aggressions.’ Russians capture ports of Rostock and Warnemünde.
MAY 4 Western FrontSURRENDER OF ALL GERMAN FORCES IN NW. GERMANY, HOLLAND AND DENMARK to Field Marshal Montgomery at ceremony on Lüneberg Heath (surrender effective from 8 am, May 5).
MAY 7 DiplomacyUNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF GERMANY. General Jodle signs instrument of surrender at 2.41 am in schoolroom at Rheims. Western Front – Allied forces occupy Emden and Wilhelmshaven and move into E. Holland and Denmark. Russian Front –Siege of Breslau ends after 82 days. 400,000 Germans captured.
MAY 8 Russian FrontDresden occupied by Russian forces.» (Argyle, 1980, p.180-185).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§849 The difficult battle on the Roer; Destruction of Cologne (1944-1945): VI-4.

VI-4 (§849):

The Celtic river shall change its banks,
Shall no more hold the city of Agripine:
Everything transmuted except the old language,
Saturn, Lion, Mars, Cancer in plunder.

Le Celtiq fleuve changera de rivaige,
Plus ne tiendra la cité d'Agripine:
Tout transmué ormis le vieil langaige,
Saturne, Leo, Mars, Cancer en rapine.)

NOTES: The Celtic river shall change its banks, Shall no more hold the city of Agripine:
Everything transmuted except the old language
: « What we now call Cologne was originally Colonia Agrippina, the Roman colony named after Agrippina, the unfortunate mother of the mad Roman emperor, Nero. In ancient times, the ingabitants pf the colony were called Agrippinenses… the destruction of the city during the Second World War? All is changed, except the old language. During the Second World War, Cologne was subject to severe bombing by the Allies and was massively destroyed. Even the cathedral, miraculously not destroyed, needed drastic repairs. All was changed, except the old language – of the name. The Roman name, Cologne, survived… Now, since we may be sure that the location is Germany, and the time the end of the Second World War, we should note, in passing, that during the last days of the war (before Cologne was captured by the Allies, on 7 March 1945), another German river [than the Rhine] played an important and relevant role. When, by 11 February, the 1st US Army had fought it way to the upper section of the river Roer, the Germans breached the great dams. As a result the area was entirely flooded for over ten days, impeding further attacks. Could Nostradamus have foreseenin his vision this waterlogged country – the river-banks breached and hidden in the expanse of water – and should we therefore read the Celtique fleuve as being Roer? There is no necessary connection between the first and second line of the prophecy, so such a reading is entirely possible. The flooding of the Roer and the destruction of Cologne were two distinct events, though almost contempotaneous.» (Ovason, 1997, p.299-300).

Roer River Battles:
« Of the area’s seven dams, two possessed the greatest potential for large-scale flooding should they be manipulated or destroyed by the Germans. Both were created in the 1930s to provide hydroelectric power for D
üren and other cities downstream to the north. Normally the 62m high, 330m wide earthen Schwammenautel Dam near Schmidt held back a reservoir of around 22 billion gallons of water, while the concrete Urft Dam upstream created one about half that size. Throughout October [1944], the Germans had let these levels drop to nearly half capacity, but as the Allied offensive had been slowed to crawl the water was allowed rise once again. Within a few weeks, engineers from XIX Corps would make an official prediction based on those of Aachen’s Wasserwirtschaftsamt (water control agency) that should the primary dams (Urft and Schwammenautel) be destroyed in one stroke, a devastating flood would result. In the first two hours a 10m high wall of water would hit Düren, and Jülich, which would then fall to some 6m after another two hours. Beyond that, the Roer River Valley would be heavily flooded and virtually impassable for nearly two weeks.» (Higgins, 2010, p.79-80); « With the German salient in the Ardennes eliminated, the Allies prepared a strategic counterattack to achieve their long-standing goals of reaching the Rhine River, penetrating Germany in depth, and concluding the war. February [1945] was to be a month of considerable activity along the Western Front from Nijmegen in the north to the Saar area in the south. Initially, the primary offensive would be undertaken by the Canadian First Army, with attached British forces, in Operation Veritable. In concert, the US Ninth Army’s Operation Grenade would push northeast to act as the southern pincer designed to encircle, or drive out, German resistance between the Roer and Rhine Rivers. Once First Army secured the Roer dams it was to go largely over to the defensive, while elements of VII Corps advanced as protection for Ninth Army’s right flank. With the inability of the Americans to capture the dams in a coup de main, they would have to come up with an alternative plan. On February 2, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force’s plan for veritable and Grenade was accepted, after Eisenhower assured Montgomery that the principal effort would remain in the north, and that crossing the Rhine was not contingent on clearing the entire area west of the river. This eased Montgomery’s concern that the dual effort would dissipate his assault. Major General Clarence R. Huebner (now in command of V Corps after Gerow left for the newly created Fifteenth Army) ordered Major General Edwin P. Parker to have his rather inexperienced 78th Infantry Division capture Schmidt in the Hürtgen Forest as well as the Schwammenautel Dam. At 0300 on February 5, the 78th Infantry Division started out for Schmidt, while elements of the 82nd Airborne and US 7th Armored Divisions provided support. The next day, the 9th Infantry Division captured the Urft Dam intact, and it looked as if the one at Schwammenautel would follow suit. Parker’s efforts were hampered by the close combat environment that minimized artillery and armor support. In an effort to punch through German resistance, and appease the exhortations from his superiors, all tree of Infantry Division’s regiments were put on the front line. Parker had the 310th Infantry Regiment go all out for Schmidt, and it pushed through the 309th after the latter’s effort had stalled against determined resistance. Subsequently, all three regiments overwhelmed the 272nd Volksgrenadier Division, as Schmidt was attacked from three sides. Although the 309th Infantry Regiment had reached Kommerscheid the day before, Parker was still not achieving results to the degree required by Eisenhower and other senior Allied commanders. With Operation veritable set to commence on February 8, the dams needed to be secured as soon as possible. Parker responded by sending an regimental combat team from Louis Craig’s 9th Infantry Division to Schmidt to take over the 78th Infantry Division for another push for the Schwammenautel Dam. The 310th and 311th Infantry Regiments moved to clear the approaches, while the 309th teamed up with the US 82nd Airborne Division, rebuffed elements of 272nd Volksgrenadier Division around Schmidt, and finally took the town. Even with the new commander, 9th Infantry Division’s progress fared little better. Only during the night of February 9 was 1st Battalion, 309th Infantry Regiment able to approach the target. Two groups from the 1st Battalion were sent ahead, with one moving across the top of the dam and the other along the bottom. Under German small arms fire a quick check was made for demolitions, but none were found. Instead of blowing the dam up, the machinery that controlled the structure’s water flow had been destroyed. The Roer River Valley steadily flooded and effectively blocked the Allied advance to the Rhine. Although the Germans had not destroyed the dams to release a massive, yet shorter flood, the result was instead a steady flow of water that gradually inundated the Roer River Valley. What was normally between 30m and 300m width soon broadened threefold [the Celtic river shall change its banks], with a swift 3m per second current. At least First Army had finally extricated itself from the Hell that was the Hürtgen Forest. To the north, Simpson’s Ninth Army, under the operational control of the British 21st Army Group, made final preparations for Operation Grenade. When news of the damaged dams became apparent, however, the jump-off scheduled for 0530 on February 10 was understandably postponed until the water receded. During the nearly two-week wait for the inundated Roer River to recede, Ninth Army trained its soldiers for scenarios such as crossing rivers and destroying fortifications, and accumulated large amounts of supplies, including 46,000 tons of ammunition and 3,000,000 gallons of fuel. Unit commanders were also flying in light observation planes to observe and study the areas over which they were soon to attack.» (Higgins, id., p.217-222).

Saturn, Lion, Mars, Cancer in plunder
: According to ordinary interpretations (e.g. Brind’Amour, 1993, p.252; Ovason, 1997, p.95-96), these planets and zodiacal signs are to be literally accepted as stars; but, the phrase “in plunder (en rapine)”, which should mean the disasters of war in the context of the lines 1-3, suggests to us that “Saturn, Lion, Mars, Cancer” indicates some districts or countries subject to wartime disasters. Now, only the theory of Ptolemy that correlates the stars in the heaven with the districts on earth can solve the verse of the quatrain. It can be called a ‘stella-geography’ of Ptolemy.


The geographical interpretation of “Saturne, Leo, Mars, Cancer en rapine”:

According to Ptolemy (Tetrabiblos, p.83-87; 128-159), our inhabited world is divided roughly into four quarters by the two grand crossed lines: the north-west quarter, the south-east quarter, the north-east quarter and the south-west quarter, in other words, Europe, the South of Greater Asia, the North of Greater Asia and Libya (today Africa); the vertical line of demarcation passes the Red Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and the horizontal line of demarcation passes the Mediterranean and its eastern prolongation of moutainous terrain; the point of intersection is situated at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean in the south-eastern open sea off the island of Cyprus.

1° « The first quarter lies in the north-west of the whole inhabited world; it embraces Celtic Gaul and we give it the general name Europe. Opposite this is the south-eastern quarter; this includes eastern Ethiopia, which would be called the southern part of Greater Asia. Again, the north-eastern quarter of the whole inhabited world is that which contains Scythia, which likewise is the northern part of Greater Asia; and the quarter opposite this and toward the south-west wind, the quarter of western Ethiopia, is that which we call by the general term Libya.» (
id., p.131).

« Again, of each of the aforesaid quarters the parts which are placed closer to the centre of the inhabited world are placed in a contrary fashion with respect to the surrounding quarters, just as are the latter in comparison with the whole world; and since the European quarter lies in the north-west of the whole world, the parts about the centre, which are allied to the opposite angle, obviously are situated in the south-east part of the quarter. The same holds of the other quarters, so that each of them is related to two oppositely situated triangles; for while the other parts are in harmony with the general inclination of the quarter, the portions at the centre [of the world] share in familiarity with the opposite inclination.» (
id., p.131-133).

(a) « Under this arrangement, the remainder of the first quarter, by which I mean the European quarter, situated in the north-west of the inhabited world, is in familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and is governed, as one would expect, by the lords of the triangle, Jupiter and Mars. In terms of whole nations these parts consist of Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, Bastarnia (The south-western part of Russia and southern Poland), Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, Sicily, Tyrrhenia [Corsica and Sardinia], Celtica [Portugal], and Spain. The parts of this quarter which are situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria, Hellas, Achaia, Crete, and likewise the Cyclades, and the coastal regions of Asia Minor and Cyprus, which are in the south-east portion of the whole quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south-east triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and its co‑rulers Venus, Saturn, and Mercury.» (
id., p.133-137).
 
(b) « Of the second quarter, which embraces the southern part of greater Asia, the other parts, including India, Ariana (north of Gedrosia), Gedrosia (modern Beluchistan), Parthia, Media, Persia, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, which are situated in the south-east of the whole inhabited world, are, as we might presume, familiar to the south-eastern triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and are governed by Venus and Saturn. India, Ariana, and Gedrosia have familiarity with Capricorn and Saturn. The remaining parts of the quarter, situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Idumaea, Coelê Syria, Judaea, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, Orchinia, and Arabia Felix, which are situated toward the north-west of the whole quarter, have additional familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and furthermore, have as co‑rulers Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury.» (
id., p.139-143).

(c) « Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana, and the regions in the north-east of the inhabited world, are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter. The remaining parts of this quarter, which lie close to the centre of the inhabited world, Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchica, Syria, Commagenê, Cappadocia, Lydia, Lycia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia, since they are situated in the south-west of the quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south-western quarter, Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and their co-rulers are Mars, Venus, and Mercury.» (id., p.145-147).

(d) « Of the remaining quarter, which includes what is called by the common name Libya, the other parts, including Numidia, Carthage, Africa, Phazania, Nasamonitis, Garamantica, Mauritania, Gaetulia, Metagonitis, and the regions situated in the south-west of the inhabited world, are related by familiarity to the south-western triangle, Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and are accordingly ruled by Mars and Venus. The remaining parts of the quarter, which are situated near the centre of the inhabited world, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Egypt, Thebais, the Oasis, Troglodytica, Arabia, Azania, and Middle Ethiopia, which face the north-east of the whole quarter, have an additional familiarity with the north-eastern triangle Gemini, Libra and Aquarius, and therefore have as co-rulers Saturn and Jupiter and, further more, Mercury.» (
id., p.151-155).

And here is the list of the belligent countries against Germany, which is featured in the quatrain,  in WWII: Poland, Great Britain, Australia, India, New Zealand, France, South Africa, Canada, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia, Greece, USSR, China, USA, Cuba, Dominika, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Haiti, Honduras, El Salvador, Czechoslovakia, Panama, Mexico, Brazil, Ethiopia, Irak, Bolivia, Iran, Italy (Badoglio government), Colombia, Liberia, San Marino, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi-Arabia, Turkey, Finland and Argentina (Ploetz, 1998, p.757). These are the countries in some way damaged [in plunder] by Nazi Germany in WWII.

These are to be identified with the countries or the regional groups (a, b, c, d) enumerated in Ptolemy as follows:

Poland - Bastarnia (southern Poland).
Great Britain - Britain, Cyprus, Troglodytica.
Australia - b,
India - India.
New Zealand - b,
France - (Transalpine) Gaul, Tyrrhenia [Corsica], Mauritania, Metagonitis.Numidia, Carthage, Africa.
South Africa - d,
Canada- a,
Norway - a,
Denmark - a,
Netherlands - a,
Belgium - a,
Luxembourg - a,
Yugoslavia - Illyria.
Greece - Thrace, Macedonia, Hellas, Achaia, Crete, and likewise the Cyclades.
USSR - Bastarnia (The south-western part of Russia), Casperia, Sauromatica.
China - Serica.
USA - a,
Cuba - d,
Dominika - d,
Guatemala - d,
Nicaragua - d,
Haiti - d,
Honduras - d,
El Salvador - d,
Czechoslovakia - a,
Panama - d,
Mexico - d,
Brazil - d,
Ethiopia - Middle Ethiopia.
Irak - Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, Chaldaea.
Bolivia - d,
Iran - Parthia, Media, Persia, Hyrcania, Matiana, Bactriana, Sogdiana, Oxiana, Gedrosia (modern Beluchistan), Ariana (north of Gedrosia).
Italy (Badoglio government) - Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, Sicily, Tyrrhenia [Sardinia], Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Gaetulia, Garamantica, Phazania, Nasamonitis, Azania.
Colombia - d,
Liberia - d,
San Marino - a,
Rumania - a,
Bulgaria - a,
Hungary - a,
Ecuador - d,
Paraguay - d,
Peru - d,
Uruguay - d,
Venezuela - d,
Egypt - Egypt, Thebais, the Oasis, Judaea, Idumaea.
Syria - Syria, Coelê Syria, Phoenicia.
Lebanon - Phoenicia.
Saudi-Arabia - Arabia, Orchinia, Arabia Felix.
Turkey - the coastal regions of Asia Minor, Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchica, ..Commagenê, Cappadocia, Lydia, Lycia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Armenia.
Finland – a,
and Argentina - d.

In this way, the last phrase: “Saturn, Lion, Mars, Cancer in plunder” expresses in its simplicity the truly world-wide scale of the Second World War.

Discussion:
1° The astronomical interpretation of the last line of the quatrain by Brind’Amour is itself incomplete, because he simply ignores the last phrase ‘en rapine’: « The Rhine shall no more water Cologne, and excepting the language, nothing shall be no more the same when Saturn shall occupy the Lion and Mars the Cancer, in May 1594.» (Brind’Amour, 1993, p.252). Moreover, There were 21 cases of “Saturn in the Lion and Mars in the Cancer” during the period: 1555-2000 (1564, 1566, May-June 1594, 1652, 1654, 1682, 1684, 1712, 1740, 1742, 1770, 1771, 1801, 1831, 1859, 1887, 1889, 1917, 1919, 1947, 1977), whose one case of his option, May 1594, cannot be without reason alleged as the most pertinent.

2° Ovason’s interpretation is arbitrary because he treats the verse « Saturne, Leo, Mars, Cancer en rapine », that is to be integrated as [a in A and b in B], separately as [a in A] and [b in B] (cf. Ovason, 1997, p.95-96). Moreover, if we accept his ingenious supposition that the verse in question should be translated into “Saturn, Sun, Mars and Moon in Aries ”, such an astronomical configuration occurred four times during the period: 1555-2000 as follows:
21–23 March 1556,
4–6 April 1761,
2–4 April 1791,
27-29 March 1998,
none of which is relevant to his main theme of the WWII.
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§848 The Allied Liberation of Italy; Italian Republic (1943-1946): II-71.

II-71 (§848):

The exiles shall come into Sicily
In order to relieve the foreign peoples from famine:
At dawn they shall be in need of the Celts:
The life returns to reason: the king stands back.

(Les exilés en Secile viendront
Pour delivrer de faim la gent estrange:
Au point du jour les Celtes luy faudront:
La vie demeure a raison: roy se range.)

NOTES: « II-71. The American landing in Sicily. Victor-Emmanuel III signs an armistice (1943).» (Hutin, 1972, p.154).

The exiles: = The Allied expeditionary troops in Italy in 1943; « EXILÉ. adj. et n. Retiré très loin (remote far away). Les prêtres missionnaires exilés au bout du monde (the missionary priests exiled to the ends of the world).» (Petit Robert).

Famine
: This term in the Prophecies of Nostradamus is often a metaphor for the disasters of war. In fact, of 37 examples of the word faim or famine in all, 25 are figurative and only 12 literal.

The exiles shall come into Sicily In order to relieve the foreign peoples from famine: « Sicily and Italy, 1943-4. The Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 was followed by landings in mainland Italy in September: These knocked Italy out of the war; but the German Army’s continued stubborn defence meant that there would be no rapid Allied victory. The initial Allied landings in the south and south-east of Sicily were a success. The large Italian forces put up little resistance and many surrendered readily - however, the German troops were a different matter. They used the rugged terrain expertly in a series of delaying actions, while the Allied commanders quarrelled over how to conduct the campaign. Finally the Germans withdrew across the Straits of Messina in mid-August virtually unmolested by the superior Allied air and naval forces.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.134-135).

At dawn they shall be in need of the Celts: Mussolini had been deposed as head of the Italian government in July [At dawn] and the new regime began secret peace talks with the Allies. On 3 September Eighth Army crossed from Sicily to the toe of Italy and on the 8th the Italian surrender was announced. The Germans were ready, however, and had moved reinforcements into the country to take over [they shall be in need of the Celts]. On the 9th the main Allied landings, by General Mark Clark’s US Fifth Army, went in around Salerno, just south of Naples, and were nearly thrown back into the sea during the first few days. For the rest of the year the Germans fell back slowly from one well-defended river line to the next. Eighth Army pushed up the east side of Italy and Fifth Army to the west. By the turn of the year the Allied advance had reached the German’s Gustav Line, whose most famous bastion was centred on Monte Cassino, still well to the south of Rome. In an attempt to break the stalemate the Allied forces made an amphibious landing at Anzio, behind the German lines, on 22 January 1944. The troops there, timidly led, soon found themselves effectively besieged in their beachhead. Repeated attacks on the Gustav Line over the following months also failed. During May 1944 the Allies at last mounted a properly co-ordinated attack all along the Italian front, and this time they captured Cassino and broke the Gustav Line. By then, however, Montgomery and many veteran troops had left to prepare for D-Day and Italy had slipped down the Allied priority list. Rome fell on 4 June, but by autumn 1944 the Germans were again making a stand, this time on the Gothic Line just north of Florence.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.135); « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities. Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism began the civilian Resistance, a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans. The Resistance, on 25 April [1945], liberated by itself many cities of the north through the concerted uprising. Mussolini was trying to flee into Switzerland, but perceived and arrested by the partisans on the Lake of Como. The CNL of the northern Italy with their own authority of justice, sentenced Mussolini to death and fired him with another Fascist leaders on the 28th.» (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-508); « Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona...» (Starr, 1986, p.436).

Demeurer à: « (Choses). D
EMEURER À (qqn): rester la proprité de ( [Objects] To rest the property of [somebody]). Cette maison lui est demeurée de ses parents (This house is his property from his parents).» (Petit Robert).

The life returns to reason: = The life of the Italians returns to the property of reason thanks to the Allied victorious end of the war.

Se ranger: « To place oneself; To get (or) stand out of the way, to stand back (or) aside.» (Dubois).

The king stands back: The King is dethroned = « Florence, Imole pourchassés dans romaine » (§831, VI-77);
« romaine. Steelyard (balance).» (Dubois). This expression represents a ‘referendum’: « 1946 May: 9th, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicates and Umberto II proclaims himself king; Jun: 2nd, Italian referendum in favour of a republic; 3d, Umberto II leaves Italy and Alcide de Gasperi, the premier, becomes provisional head of state.» (Williams, 1968, p.600-602).
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§847 The Rise and Fall of Mussolini; Republic of Salo (1922-1943): VIII-66.

VIII-66 (§847):

When the scripture D. M. shall be found,
And the antique cave with a lamp discovered,
The Law, the King and Prince Ulpian tried,
The Army, the Country and the Duke shall be under shade.

(Quant l'escriture D.M. trouvée,
Et cave antique à lampe descouverte,
Loy, roy & prince Ulpian esprouvée,
Pavillon royne & duc soubz la couverte.)

NOTES: There are two preceding interpretations fully suggestive: « The initials D.M. apparently refer to the motto Deus in Me as applied to St. Peter. Prince Ulpian was Domitius Ulpianus, who held appointments under Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and Elagabalus, who banished him. After the assassination of Elagabalus, Ulpian became pretorian prefect under Emperor Alexander Severus, in 222 A.D. The severity he displayed toward the Pretorian Guards resulted in his assassination by them in 228. Commentators believe that Nostradamus has taken Ulpian as a prototype for Mussolini.» (Boswell, 1941, p.279); « When everywhere D. (Duce) M. (Mussolini) lies written on the walls and the Fascism believes to have found the bones of the ancient Romans, then the monarchy in Italy endures a severe trial, the flag of the King soon after that of the Duce shall be vanished.» (Centurio, 1953, p.183).

Quant
: = Quand as in the quatrains V-46, V-59, V-67, V-83, VI-19, VI-21, VI-31 and VI-32.

L'escriture D.M. ( the scripture D. M.): « In general, the epitaphs of the Romans began with these two letters [D. M.], deposited as an abbreviation for “Deo Maximo”, to the Supreme God, namely to Jupiter; or sometimes for “Diis Manibus”, to the Gods of the dead in the underground world. But let’s observe yet the ingenuity of Nostradamus. He evokes here these initials in order to allude to a D. M. of our times: il Duce Mussolini! The word DUC (Duke, Duce) is clearly given in the last line as in the quatrain[s] IX-80[, IX-96 and X-64].» (Ionescu, 1976, p.538).

When the scripture D. M. shall be found, And the antique cave with a lamp discovered, The Law, the King: When Benito Mussolini shall come into power inspired by « the dream of the glory of the ancient Rome » (Ionescu, id., p.539) in oblivion for a long time, the wills of the Duce shall become laws: « The Dictator 13 JUNE 1924 – 10 JUNE 1940 In the summer of 1923 Mussolini had drafted a Bill, afterwards known as the Acerbo Electoral Law, by which Italy was to be divided into fifteen constituencies, each elector being asked to vote for the party of his choice. The party which secured relatively the largest number of votes, provided it was at least a quarter of the total votes cast, was to be granted two-thirds of the seats in the Chamber, the remaining third being given to the other parties on a proportional basis… In April the following year the elections were held and 65.25 per cent of he votes, were cast in favour of him. Mussolini, immensely encouraged by his success, considered a return to normal political conditions and even some form of collaboration with the Socialists. On 7 June, after the newly elected Chamber had given the Government a vote of confidence of 361 to 107, Mussolini indicated that he was prepared to include two Socialists in his Cabinet. Three days later a Socialist deputy, Giacomo Matteotti, a rich – Mussolini called him ‘a millionaire’ – landowner from Rovigo, disappeared from Rome. He was one of Fascism’s mostspoken critics and was believed to be about to publish documents exposing the activities of its most irresponsible and ruthless henchmen. On 13 June his body was discovered buried in a shallow grave twenty kilometres outside the city… Amendola’s paper Il Mondo, published at the end of December a document which ended Italy’s six months of uneasy opposition to the Fascists. It was a statement by Cesare Rossi, the former head of the Fascist Press Office who had been arrested after the murder, accusing Mussolini of being implicated in the plot. Accepting the advice of Roberto Farinacci, a former railway clerk who had become a lawyer and one of Fascism’s most intransigent leaders, and of various former squadristi who had come from all over Italy to bolster up his apparently flagging confidence, he announced in the Chamber, five days after Rossi’s allegations had been published, that he had stayed his hand against his perfidious opponents only to calm his more impetuous followers. But now the time for action had come. ‘I declare here in front of this assembly,’ he said, ‘and in front of the Italian people that I and I alone assume the political, moral, and historic responsibility for everything that has happened. If misquoted words are enough to hang a man, then out with the noose and the gallows! If Fascism has been castor oil and club and not a proud passion of the best Italian youth, the blame is on me. If Fascism has been a criminal plot, if violence has resulted from a certain historic, political, and moral atmosphere, the responsibility is mine, because I have deliberately created this atmosphere… Italy wants peace and quiet, work and calm. I will give these things with love if possible and with force if necessary.’ The date was 3 January 1925. It was one of the fundamental dates in the history of Fascism. Thereafter there was no further thought of compromise, no turning back. Within five years Mussolini was able, with the help of Roberto Farinacci, the newly appointed Secretary of the Party, to achieve his declared object – the ‘complete Fascistization’ of Italy. Opposition parties were dissolved, and free elections came to an end. The Chamber of Deputies became little more than a means of clothing Fascist decrees with an aura of national approval; the Senate was filled with senatori prepared to wear black shirts when required and chant Fascist slogans; the Grand Council of Fascism, formed by Mussolini who became its president with full powers to decide its agenda and its membership, was grafted on to the Constitution as a check on any independence which might be displayed by individual members of the Cabinet… the Party was now taken to be synonymous with the State. As all union officials in the twenty-two different categories of trades and professions were eventually appointed by the Party, the Corporative System became in time a convenient mask for dictatorship.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.64-68).

Prince Ulpian: « Ulpian was a famous Roman jurisconsult of the third century. He had the title of ‘prætorian prefect’ under Emperor Alexander Severus. His authority was so great that his opinions became the laws of the Romans.» (Ionescu, id., p.539); « Berytus, “the Latin island in the sea of Oriental Hellenism”; there, in the Colonia Julia Augusta Felix, where the colonists were Roman legionaries, grew up the famous school of jurisprudence, where Ulpian, the great jurist of Syrian descent, may have had his training.» (HH, VI, p.4); « SEVERUS , 193-211 A.D. Severus now remained in Italy for a space of four years, actively engaged in the administration of justice, the regulation of the finances, and the correction of all kinds of abuses. He conferred the important post of prætorian prefect on Papinian, the most renowned of jurisconsults; and as it was now a part of this officer’s duty to try civil causes, Papinian appointed as his assessors Paulus and Ulpian--names nearly as distinguished as his own.» (id., p.389); « ALEXANDER SEVERUS, 222-235 A.D. Both the senate and the army joyfully concurred in the elevation of Alexander Severus; and the former body, lest any competitor should appear, hastened to confer on him all the imperial titles and powers. On account of his youth and his extremely amiable disposition he was entirely directed by his grandmother and mother, but Mæsa dying soon after his accession, the sole direction of her son fell to Mamæa. Nevertheless in her guidance of public affairs she exhibited a spirit of wisdom, justice, and moderation such as had not appeared in any preceding empress. Her enemies laid to her charge the love of power and the love of money, and blamed her son for deferring too much to her; but their accusations are vague, and no act of cruelty caused by avarice stains the annals of this reign. The first care of Mamæa was to form a wise and upright council for her son. Sixteen of the most respectable of the senate, with the learned Ulpian, the prætorian prefect, at their head, composed this council, and nothing was ever done without their consent and approbation….» (id., p.400).

The Law, the King and Prince Ulpian tried
: The dictator Mussolini shall be like the Roman Ulpian tried, namely deposed by the King of Italy in July 1943 and then lifted by Hitler to preside over the Republic of Salo next September: « Ulpianus, Domitius, c.170-228. One of the members of the Council of Emperor (L.S.) Severus (193/211). President of the Council of Emperor Caracalla (211/17). Expelled by Emperor Heliogabalus (218/22) and then called back in 222 by Emperor Alexander Severus (222/35).» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary, p.235); « We have already observed that a portion of the civil jurisdiction had fallen to the prætorian prefects. This imposed a necessity that one of them should be a civilian, and Mamæa had therefore caused this dignity to be conferred on Ulpian. From the love of law and order which distinguished this prefect, he naturally sought to bring back discipline in the prætorian camp; the consequence was that repeated attempts were made on his life, and the emperor more than once found it necessary to cast his purple over him to save him from the fury of the soldiers. At length (228) they fell on him in the night; he escaped from them to the palace, but they pursued and slaughtered him in the presence of the emperor and his mother.» (HH, VI, p.401). Ionescu tried to parallel Mussolini’s death with that of Ulpian (Ionescu, id., p.539), but the word “esprouver (to try)” does not mean in the context “to assassinate” but only “ to depose” as to their office, and the death of Mussolini was in fact a capital penalty by the Resistance contrary to the assassination of Ulpian;
« FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25 [1943]. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense… The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, 7 cons and one abstention. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.366-367).  

Pavillon
: = An army by metonymy; « PAVILLON, Tente militaire (a military tent) » (Petit Robert).

Royne
(Reine, Queen): = The country (Republic of Salo), a country being linguistically feminine and there having been no Queen in the republic. In fact, of 9 usages of the word Royne/royne, 6 refer to a Queen (I-86, VII-16, VIII-23, IX-77, X-17 and X-19) and 3 to a country or a government (III-89, IV-38 and VIII-66).

Soubz la couverte: = Under the shade; « couverte, s.f., couverture, tout ce qui sert à couvrir; faire la couverte d’une chose, la couvrir; à la couverte, sous l’ombrage (under the shade), à l’abri (sheltered, under cover).» (Godefroy). This expresson cannot have a meaning of « sous la couche de terre (under the cover of soil) » as Ionescu pretends to interpret so (Ionescu, id., p.539).

The Army, the Country and the Duke shall be under shade
: « 1943 September 23. Foundation of Italian Social Republic or Republic of Salo. After his liberation and his meeting with Hitler, Mussolini proclaims Italian Social Republic and settles in Salo, on the border of Lake Garda. On 15 November 1943, opens in Verona the first congress of the Republican Fascist Party. As regards the Duce, grown old, ill, emaciated, sharing his leisure between his family and his mistress Claretta Petacci, overburdening his surroundings with interminable monologues, he seems devoid of will and like broken by the trials (brisé par les épreuves) of the beginning of 1943. Hitler makes him supervised by a German aide-de-camp and guarded by the SS. With his strong protectors, Mussolini shows himself docile [the Duke under shade]. When he protests against the too flagrant abuses of the occupant, heavy requisitions, drawing of manpower, keeping of the prisoners in Germany, he does not obtain any accommodation [the Country under shade]… » (Kaspi, 1980, p.378-379); « … and Renano Ricci, who was appointed to command the Militia, into which, despite his determined efforts, he was never able to enlist more than a few worthwhile men… German soldiers followed him in lorries when he went out in his car and German agents listened in to his telephone calls, which had to be made through a German Army exchange. General Woff, the Ambassador Rahn, the doctor Zachariae, and Colonel Dollmann, who had received personally from Himmler orders never to go far from Mussolini’s side, were all regular visitors. ‘Wolff and Dollmann are my jailers,’ he grumbled, and whenever he looked from his window he saw a German helmet. ‘They are always there,’ he said, ‘like the spots of the leopard.’ To his Italian visitors he was always grumbling like this; but he did not do so to Hitler. Once he wrote to him to complain of the high-handed conduct of German troops, of their arrogant occupation of north-eastern Italy [The Army under shade], which amounted almost to annexation, and of the attitude of the German Government, which seemed to regard his own as completely servile.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.275-279).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§846 The failure of Mussolini to negotiate with the Resistance (1943-1945): VI-76.

VI-76 (§846):

The antique city founded by Antenor,
Being no more capable of enduring the tyrant:
The cripple shall have feigned to cut throat,
His company shall the people put to death.

(La cité antique d'antenoree forge,
Plus ne pouvant le tyran supporter:
Le manchet fainct au temple couper gorge,
Les siens le peuple à mort viendra bouter.)

NOTES: Antenoree: = « Ἀντήνωρ [Antēnōr], Anténor, chef troyen (Antenor, a Trojan principal).» (Bailly). The French irregular form: Antenoree is seemingly a frenchfying of the dative case of the word: Ἀντήνωρι [Antēnōri] which is to be claimed, if in Greek, by the preposition de (by); « Antenor [Gr. Myth.] A Trojan elder. He was forgiven by the Greeks on the occasion of the fall of Troy because he had advised the Trojans to return Helen [IL. VII, 345-353 (text by Balboa, 2018)] or because he betrayed his compatriots.» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary, p.106); « ANTENOR, One of the Trojan principals; he was the host of Ulysses during the ambassadorship of this prince [IL. III, 205-224 (text by Balboa, 2018)], and was accused of knowing the interests of the enemy of his fatherland… It is said that Antenor went out to settle himself at the bottom of the Adriatic Gulf near Padua.» (Landais); « PADUA, is amazingly ancient; its foundation is popularly attributed to the Greek Antenor.» (Bescherelle).

Forge
: = forgée. The form forge is to rhyme with gorge of the third line.

The antique city founded by Antenor, Being no more capable of enduring the tyrant: « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities. Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism [the tyrant] began the civilian Resistance [Being no more capable of enduring], a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans. The Resistance, on 25 April [1945], liberated by itself many cities of the north [whose the antique city] through the concerted uprising.» (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-507).

Le manchet: The cripple; « manchet, adj., estropié (crippled); manchot (one-armed, one-handed [person]).» (Godefroy). This term refers to Mussolini, deprived of the southern half of Italy.

Fainct: = Feint; « faindre, v. feindre.» (Daele); « feindre, feindre (to feign), simuler (to simulate).» (Daele).

Le manchet fainct couper gorge (The cripple feigned cut throat): = Le manchet [aura] fainct [de]couper gorge (the cripple [shall have] feigned [to] cut throat), the ellipsis of the auxiliary verb aura and of the preposition de being a figure of Nostradamus (a prophetical embroilment).

The cripple shall have feigned to cut throat: « 25 April [1945]. In Milan, a meeting of Mussolini with the leaders of the Resistance. Mussolini settles himself on 17 April 1945 in Milan where are assembled the most important fascist forces and where he thinks himself to have the greatest liberty of maneuver: either to negotiate with CLNAI (the Committee of Liberation of Upper Italy) or to attempt to refuge in Valteline or in Switzerland. A Milanese industrialist, Cella, member of CLNAI, anxious to avoid battles in the city, proposes to the fascists and resistants an assembly at the house of the archbishop, Cardinal Schuster [au temple]. The meeting takes place on 25 April. It assembles Mussolini, Graziani, several responsible persons of the Republic of Salo and, face to face, three leaders of CLNAI, General Cadorna, Lombardi and Marazzo. these latter persons demand an unconditional surrender [cut throat]. The Duce wants to reflect and withdraws [The cripple shall have feigned to cut throat]. He seems resolved to agitate in front of the Resistance the menace which the German army constitutes. But the latter decides to surrender. So Mussolini quits Milan and orients himself toward Como.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.501).

Bouter: = « mettre, placer (to put, to place).» (Godefroy).

His company shall the people put to death: = The people shall put his company to death: « 28 April [1945]. After the failure of his attempt of negotiation on 25 April 1945 in Milan, Mussolini, Clara Petacci and 15 leaders of the Republic of Salo join a German column which climbs up toward Valteline. On 27 April, the group is arrested by the partisans; these authorize the Germans to pursue their way, if they deliver the fascists who are with them. The officer commanding the column agrees to it. Before letting them depart, the resistants go thoroughly into the vehicles and discover Mussolini who tries to hide himself under the uniform of a German soldier. Thereafter, the destiny of Mussolini and his companions is sealed. In fact, the article 5 of the judicial code enacted by the Committee of Liberation stipulates that all the leaders of the fallen regime and all the fascists taken with arms are condemned to death. Moreover, the resistants do not want that the former master of the country should fall into the hands of the Allies: the punishment of the Duce concerns only the Italians. On 28 April, after Mussolini and Clara Petacci had passed the night at the village of Dongo [on the west bank of Lake Como, 75 km north of Milan], a communist officer, Colonel Valerio, by his true name Walter Audisio, makes the prisoners delivered to him and, with his own hands, executes Mussolini and his mistress. Then, he makes the other 15 fascist leaders fired [The people shall put his company to death], among them are 5 ministers of the government of Salo.» (Kaspi, id., p.505).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§845 Metaxas dictatorship and Damaskinos in Greece; End of Civil War under American relief (1936-1949): IV-38.

IV-38 (§845):

While the general shall occupy the king and the country,
The chief of the Byzantine Church captive in Samothrace:
Before the assault the one and the other shall resist the occupants:
The trass of blood shall follow the shoed contrary.

(Pendant que duc, roy, royne occupera
Chef Bizantin captif en Samothrace:
Avant l'assaut l'un l'autre mangera:
Rebours ferré suyvra du sang la trasse.)
(№6).

NOTES: Here is a summary of the facts in history that is essentially relevant to the quatrain: « Greece A republic was proclaimed in May 1924 but the monarchy [royne] restored in November 1935. In August 1936 King George II [the king] accepted the establishment of a fascist-type dictatorship by General Metaxas [the general], in power until his death in February 1941. The Italians invaded Greece in October 1940 but were defeated and thrown back into Albania. In April 1941 the Germans overran Greece. Rival monarchist and communist groups [the one and the other] maintained a guerilla war with the Germans [shall resist the occupants] from 1942 until the British liberated Athens in October 1944 when the two resistance groups started fighting [the assault] each other. Bitter civil war [the blood] lasted from May 1946 until October 1949, when the monarchists were successful [the trass of the blood].» (Palmer, p.119-120).

Duc: = General Metaxas, the French word duc being a leader, a commander, a duke or a general.

Roy: = King George II of Greece, having divorced in 1935; « [In 1920] Prince George became engaged to Princess Elisabeth of Roumania, eldest daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. » ( Kiste, 1994, p.121);« Crown Price George was betrothed to Carol’s sister, Elisabeth, and had been in Bucharest when his brother [Alexander] died. Both weddings [of George and Elisabeth, and Carol and Helen, George’s sister] were celebrated in March 1921. King Constantine and Queen Sophie did not attend their son’s wedding in Bucharest, but were present at Athens for the wedding of Carol and Helen at the Metropolitan Cathedral. After a honeymoon at Tatoi, they left for Roumania.» (Kiste, id., p.130); « Faced with a similar problem to that of his father fifteen months before, King George concluded that the interests of his country demanded the avoidance of further strife at all costs. He declined to abdicate, but agreed to leave the country, ostensibly on a visit to his wife’s parents in Roumania. On 19 december he, Queen Elisabeth and Crown Prince Paul were escorted to a waiting warship. They were seen off by the loyal Prime Minister and Madame Gonatas, the latter weeping profusely as she presented the Queen with a large bouquet of flowers. On their departure from Greece in December 1923, King George and Queen Elisabeth were offered a wing of the Cotroceni Palace in  Bucharest by King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. They were there when they received news from Athens of the abolition of the monarchy. The signs of strain in their marriage were becoming ever more evident. Elisabeth, confessed her mother, was ‘one of the griefs of my life’. She had never really cared for George, and found the humiliation of exile and lack of material possessions deeply galling. Embittered by her misfortune, she sought revenge on her younger, happily married sister, Queen Marie of Serbia, by taking advantage of her illness while on a visit to Belgrade to flirt with King Alexander, a faithful albeit unimaginative husband, who was too naïve to realize he was being used as a pawn by his sister-in-law. She idled most of her time away at gambling tables or gorging rich cakes – she cared nothing about her figure – and gloating over a magnificent collection of pearls which the sympathetic Queen Sophie, always ready to see the best in everybody wherever possible, had given her. After a few months of exile in Bucharest, at Cotroceni and later at a rented house on the Calea Vitoriei, King George was frustrated by this life of emptiness. The show and ceremony of the Roumanian court grated on him, as it had on his mother. He had a ready ally in Queen Marie, who felt guilty about the effect her daughter’s behavior was having on him. Years later, he told her: ‘You are the only one who made my life supportable.’ His journeys abroad, particularly to Florence to visit his mother, and to Britain, became longer and more frequent. For some time he followed the routine of staying with his wife in Bucharest for six monts of the year, but under duress. In 1932 he decided to live entirely in England, accompanied by his devoted friend and equerry, major Dimitri Levidis, and faithful manservant ‘Mitso’ Panteleos. Though he had little reason to love the country which had played a shameful role in undermining the position of his family, a love for the Emglish way of life was engrained in him. Like his exiled uncle, the former German Emperor William, he gave the impression that all he ever wanted was to live the peaceful life of an English country gentleman. He was certainly the most Anglicized of his family. While making many friends, he took care to avoid any political or other activity that would embarrass the British court or government, particularly as he was a regular visitor to the British royal family.» (Kiste, id., p.144-146);

« That same year [in 1932] King George separated completely from his wife, who made it evident that she was happier on her own in Bucharest. For both, the marriage had been a hollow one ever since they left Greece. Three years later Queen Elisabeth was advised to bring a divorce action against him on the grounds of desertion, as he had been absent from the country for so long. At a special court session in Bucharest on 6 July 1935, the marriage was dissolved. The Queen, who thenceforth resumed her Roumanian nationality, was represented by an advocate, while nobody represented the King. The first he knew of it, allegedly, was when he read the news in a London paper.» (Kiste, id., p.151). 

Royne (Reine, Queen): = The country of Greece, a country being linguistically feminine and there having been no Queen in Greece since the King George II’s divorce in 1935. In fact, of 9 usages of the word Royne/royne, 6 refer to a Queen (I-86, VII-16, VIII-23, IX-77, X-17 and X-19) and 3 to a country or a government (III-89, IV-38 and VIII-66).

Occuper: = « To bring something under control » (Ibuki).

Duc, roy, royne occupera: = « [Le] duc occupera [le] roy [et la] royne ».

Bizantin: = Byzantin (Byzantine).

Chef Bizantin
: The head of the Byzantine Chuch in Greece. On the other hand, the same expression « Chef Bizantin » of the quatrain X-62 (§307) refers, according to the contex, to another person (
Emeric Thököly).

Chef Bizantin captif en Samothrace
: Damaskinos, Archbishop of Athens, is demoted to a provincial monastery by the ultra-conservative Metaxas regime, who repudiates his republican disposition: « One of the forces which the King most heavily counted upon to guarantee his return to Greece was the support of the British Government. To assure this support, he decided to make a trip to England and there try to mend his political fences in person. Accordingly, in March 1944, he left Cairo and the Greek Government behind him and went to London. In the British capital, King George found sympathetic ears. The British Government, in the person of Mr. Churchill at least, had a sentimental regard for the institution of kingship, and liked to imagine Greece in the postwar world, a firm friend and grateful ally of Great Britain, securely ruled by a constitutional monarch. Furthermore, King George had nominally headed the Greek Government at the time when Greece came into the war as Britain’s only European ally, and Churchill no doubt felt an obligation to forward the King’s cause in return for the help he had given in the dark days of 1940. At lower levels, however, British official opinion was confused… The more sympathetic attitude of officials in London encouraged King George to make no further concessions to republican pressure from Cairo and Greece. He took up residence in the British capital, and a coterie of Greek royalists quickly formed round him… The republican movement continued to gain momentum in the King’s absence. In December 1943, Prime Minister Tsouderos sent a representative into Greece with the mission of sounding out political leaders within the country as to their opinions on the question of the postwar regime. What particularly he wanted was their reaction to the proposal that a regent be nominated secretly by the King in order to exercise the royal powers for an interim period immediately after liberation. The original suggestion for the establishment of a regency in Greece had come from individuals in the British Embassy near the Government of Greece which had been set up in Cairo in 1943. Tsouderos favored the idea of a regency, and the Athenian politicians, with whom his representatives discussed the matter, likewise approved of the proposal. All groups that were consulted, including the Communists, agreed that Damaskinos, Metropolitan of Athens and Archbishop of All Greece, should be the Regent. Throughout the occupation, Damaskinos had succeeded in keeping above party strife and was almost the only man in prominent position who could command the respect and confidence of both Left and Right. When news of the favorable reaction of Greek political figures to the proposed regency reached the Prime Minister, he, wrote a letter to King George urging him to sign a decree in secret, nominating Damaskinos as his temporary representative in Greece. The King refused, to consider the proposal. From that time on, he began to regard Tsouderos with suspicion, seeing him as no more than the agent of a republican conspiracy against him.» (McNeill, 1947, p.122-125).

« BEFORE the final military overthrow of ELAS [National People’s Liberation Army. By far the largest guerilla force in Greece, organized by EAM], two steps of the greatest importance had been taken toward the political pacification of Greece. On New Year’s Day, 1945, His Beatitude, Damaskinos, Metropolitan of Athens and Archbishop of All Greece, became Regent. Three days later, General Nicholas Plastiras was appointed Prime Minister. This change in regime undoubtedly attracted many of the EAM [National Liberation Front. Leftist political resistance organization.] moderates away from their Communist leaders, and made possible the early end of the civil war. From the point of view of the British, who had in large part engineered the transfer of power, the move was therefore a success. When Churchill returned from his Christmas visit to Athens, he promptly interviewed King George II. The Greek King still cherished a stubborn determination not to yield one jot or tittle of his rightful powers; but brief and forceful argument changed his mind. Churchill insisted, and the King unwillingly agreed to authorize Archbishop Damaskinos to become Regent. A telegram was despatched to Athens announcing King George’s decision. Accordingly a hasty ceremony was arranged in an upper room of the Foreign Office, at which the Archbishop-Regent took an oath to exercise the royal power in accordance with the Constitution.» (McNeill, 1947, p.191).

« The new Regent was a striking figure of a man. He stood well over six feet, and was broad in proportion. The flowing robes and high mitre, which he wore by virtue of his episcopal office, exaggerated his height, and assured that his mere physical presence dominated any ordinary gathering of men. His face was coarse featured but majestic. His nose, which had been broken and thickened at the root, served as visible reminder that Damaskinos’ early career and first fame came as a wrestler where his extraordinary size and strength served him well. While still a young man Damaskinos gave up the wrestling ring and became a monk, which, in the Orthodox Church, is the normal prelude to a prelate’s career. His imposing physical appearance, keen intelligence and general good sense assured him of preferment. In 1922 he was appointed Bishop of Corinth. Five years later, a great earthquake devastated the town, and Damaskinos undertook a trip to the United States to raise money from the Greeks of America for the rebuilding of the destroyed city. He was very successful, gathering several million dollars, which helped to rebuild Corinth on a new site some three miles from the old town. Damaskinos rapidly rose to a leading place in the Greek Church. In 1936 he again travelled to America, this time on a political mission in connection with the election to the patriarchate of Constantinople which occurred in that year. He went to drum up support among the Orthodox Church leaders of the United States for the candidate favored by the Greek bishops. In the same year, the incumbent Archbishop of All Greece died, and the council of bishops assembled to elect a successor. There were two candidates: Damaskinos and another bishop named Chrysanthos. The election was closely contested, but Damaskinos was finally elected by the margin of a single vote. This outcome displeased Dictator John Metaxas. Damaskinos was generally known to be republican. He was no great friend or supporter of the King, and openly disapproved of the reactionary and extra-legal acts of the dictatorial Government. Consequently, on the ground that one of the participating bishops had been unqualified to vote, the Government declared the election invalid. The bishops met again, and a new vote gave a majority for Chrysanthos. To remove a troublesome personality from the public eye, Metaxas thereupon sent Damaskinos into retirement in a provincial monastery.» (McNeill, 1947, p.191-193); « Wanting to avoid further humiliation, the Fourth Of August Regime passed a law demoting any metropolitan who remained away from his see for an extended period without synodal permission, which was used to remove Damaskinos as metropolitan of Corinth. On March 23 [1939], the synod decided to banish Metropolitan Damaskinos to the Phaneromene Monastery on the island of Salamis, an act approved by the king on April 11. Damaskinos’s two-year exile [May 1939-April 1941] affected him deeply, but he remained convinced of his legitimacy as archbishop of Athens and all Greece. During his exile, he remained under armed guard, forbidden from having any communication with friends and family [Chef Bizantin captif en Samothrace].» (Anastasakis, 2015, p.53-54).

« He remained there until after the Germans had occupied Athens. Thinking to gain a grateful supporter, the quisling Government in 1941 annulled the election of Chrysanthos and declared Damaskinos to be the rightful head of the Church. Chrysanthos in his turn retired, taking up private residence in Athens; and Damaskinos came to the capital and assumed the robes of office. Despite the circumstances of his accession to power, Archbishop Damaskinos never truckled to the quisling Governments. He busied himself with organizing relief for the people of Athens, and gathered around himself a group of earnest young men who conducted summer camps, helped suspects escape to the Middle East, carried blankets and other supplies to freshly burnt villages, and in other ways tried to reduce the hardships of the occupation for the people. During most of 1944 he was kept under house arrest by the Germans, but was not molested otherwise. Damaskinos was able to remain almost entirely above the strife of factions which tore Greece apart during the later years of occupation. He never denounced EAM, although strong pressure was brought to bear upon him to do so. EAM reciprocated by refraining from denouncing him, and indeed the majesty of his robes and sacred office held a strong power over the imaginations of most of the rank and file of the movement. Despite this, conservatives never accused the Archbishop of being a leftist, although some of them thought he was overly inclined to sympathize with republicanism. He was thus in a thoroughly unique position among prominent Greeks, and it was for this reason that he had been fixed upon by common consent as far back as 1943 as candidate for the office of Regent. The personal character of Damaskinos was kindly. He is said to have been ambitious and scheming as a young man; but, having arrived at so high a place, ambition no longer goaded him. His education, save in theology, was not extensive; but experience and native good sense have made him wise in the ways of men, a capable administrator and a practical politician. Such a man was surely well chosen to preside over the destiny of Greece in troubled times.» (McNeill, 1947, p.193-194).

Samothrace: This remote island is not the real place of his new mission but a symbol of exclusion from the capital and at the same time of the traits of deeply religious atmosphere, there having been in antiquity the famous cult of Cabires: « SAMOTHRACE, An Island on the coast of Thrace… It was famous above all by the cult of Cabires, which they named mysteries of Samothrace.» (Landais); « CABIRES, (from the Phoenician cabir, great, strong, powerful; thence les dieux cabires were also called greats gods), the divinities of the ancient people, originating from Egypt. They gave this name to the principal infernal divinities, Pluto, Proserpina and Mercury, also called the gods of the dead: Proserpina figured the earth that received them; Pluto, the hell where they were going to dwell; and Mercury, the divine power that made them enter there. Peoples of Italy invoked the cabires gods in their domestic misfortunes; sailors made wishes to them amid tempests and parents and friends, in the funerals of those of whom the death had deprived them.» (Landais).

Avant l'assaut l'un l'autre mangera: If l’assaut means the Greek civil war between rival monarchist and communist groups, the phrase: l'un l'autre mangera should no be understood as « They shall destroy one the other » as usually but as « L’un et l’autre mangeront [les occupants] (They shall together resist the enemy occupying their country) », the civil war starting after the Allied liberation of the country.
The verse: « l'un l'autre mangera » is a feigned prophetic transformation of the phrase: « l'un [et] l'autre mangeront [something] ».

Rebours: = « Le contre-pied, le contre de ce qu’il faut (the contrary, the contrary to what is to be).»
(Littré).

Ferré: « ferrer. To shoe (a horse); to tag (a lace); to iron (a movable).» (Dubois).

Rebours ferré: American military and economic aids to the ruling parties of Greece to repulse and to end the Greek tremendous revolutionary movement.

La rasse: = Le trass to rhyme with Samothrace: « TRASS, Espèce de tuf volcanique (a sort of volcanic tuff).» (Littré); « TRASS: pierre de trass, pierre volcanique, qui entre dans le ciment; pierre pour les constructions hydrauliques (tuff, volcanic stone, a component of cement; stone for the hydraulic constructions).» (Landais).

Du sang la trasse: = La trasse du sang: This expression figures the last and definitive end of continuous blood-shedding of the civil war.

Rebours ferré suyvra du sang la trasse: The end of the civil war comes after the American powerful intervention in favour of the royalists: « Bitter civil war lasted from May 1946 until October 1949, when the monarchists were successful.» (Palmer, p.119-120); « In the meantime, the British Government passed from the Conservative to the Labour, and its policy toward Greece also changed. The Government of Labour began to demand that the United States should shoulder the policy toward Greece, excusing the loss of reason of its expeditionary troops in Greece by the conclusion of the Peace Treaty of Paris. In accordance with it, the United States now intervened in the Greek Civil War. On 12 March [1946] President Truman asked the Congress to afford military and economic aids to Greece and to send there military personnel, and began the direct intervention into Greece… And, in August 1949, the leftist resistance was utterly routed by the Government Army.» (Sakurai, 2005, p.340-341).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§844 The comet 1941 II; End of Mussolini having ruled Rome, Greece and Salo (1940-1945): VI-6.

VI-6 (§844):

Near the Little Bear shall appear the comet,
Not far from Cancer the comet:
Susa, Sienna, Boeotia, Eretria,
Shall die the great of Rome, the night destroyed.

(Apparoistra vers le Septentrion,
Non loing de Cancer l'estoille chevelue:
Suze, Sienne, Boece, Eretrion,
Mourra de Rome grand, la nuict disperue:)

NOTES: Le Septentrion: = « 1° Le nord (the north); 2° Terme d’Astronomie. La Petite Ourse (An astronomical term. Ursa Minor [the Little Bear, the Little Dipper]).» (Littré). The expression le Septentrion with a definite article and a majuscule initial leads us to consider this as a proper name: Ursa Minor (the Little Bear, the Little Dipper) as Hogue does so (Hogue, 1997, p.442).

Vers
: = « Envers (toward, to). – Auprès de (near, near to, close to).» (Huguet).

L'estoille chevelue
: = « the bearded star, a comet » (Leoni, 1961, p.281).

Near the Little Bear shall appear the comet, Not far from Cancer the comet
(Apparoistra vers le Septentrion, Non loing de Cancer l'estoille chevelue): This sentence naturally means that the comet in question appears first near Ursa Minor, then moves near Cancer, a comet in general going fast and capriciously in the sky than ordinary planets and there can be no medial position in the sky that can be said to be near both Ursa Minor and Cancer fairly distant from each other. In this point, Brind’Amour’s interpretation is wrong because he recommends the same positions of the comet 1531 or 1539 “ being in Cancer [and at the same time] relatively septentrional” (Brind’Amour, 1993, p.240-241). He does not understand the natural astronomic meaning of the verses of Nostradamus, the characteristics of comets and the true sense of the term ‘le Septentrion’, not to mention the anti-propheticism of his studies. 

Now, we must research at first the political and international event the third and fourth lines describe in order to identify the comet in question because there appeared too many comets [1029 comets from 1556 to 1982 according to Marsden, 1983, p.8-29] during Nostradamus’ prophecies’ objective period of 1555-2000 to be definitely identified.

Boece
: = « Boeotia » (Leoni, 1961, p.281).

Suze, Sienne, Boece, Eretrion, Mourra de Rome grand
: The construction will be: [Le] grand de Rome, Suze, Sienne, Boece et Eretrion Mourra (The great of Rome, Susa, Sienna, Boeotia, Eretria shall die).

The great of Rome, Susa, Sienna, Boeotia, Eretria
: This means that a leader of Italy becomes also the leader of Greece which gained independence in 1830: « 1828 Nov: 16th, London Protocol, issued by France, Britain, and Russia, recognizes independence of Greece when Morea and Cyclades Isles are guaranteed by those powers.» (Williams, 1968, p.158); « 1829 Mar: 22nd, London Protocol on Greece modifies Protocol of Nov. 1828, extending guarantee of powers to include Continental Greece [Boeotia] and Island of Euboea [Eretria].» (Williams, id., p.160); « 1830 Feb: 3rd, at London Conference, Greece is declared independent under the protection of France, Russia and Britain.» (Williams, id., p.162). Now, only Mussolini in 1940 invaded Greece after her independence, and the presence of the name of Susa in northern Italy suggests Mussolini’s Republic of Salo after his fall in Rome in July 1943: « The War in the Balkans (1940-41) Personal (M
USSOLINI’s prestige), historical (the failed occupation of Corfu [in 1923]) and power-political motives (prevention of National Socialist domination of the Balkans) led to the launching, from Albania, of the 1940 Italian campaign against Greece (28 Oct.). In a counter-offensive, the Greeks occupied one-third of Albania, and the Italian fleet, attacked by British carrier aircraft at Taranto, was weakened (11/12 Nov.). In consequence of British guarantees, British military bases were established on Crete; later on, British forces (approximately 70,000 men) landed in Piraeus and Volos (from Mar. 1941).» (PenguinAtlas 2, p.203); « 1941 Mar: 28th, three Italian cruisers sunk in battle off Cape Matapan.» (Williams, id., p.576); « German Balkan policy: The Belgrade coup d’état (27 Mar. 1941) and the conclusion of a Treaty of Friendship of the new Yugoslav government with the U.S.S.R. (5 Apr. 1941) caused the broadening of the planned Balkan campaign. Turkey remained neutral. The Balkan Campaign (‘Marita’): because of the danger posed by the developing Allied Balkan front and the threat to the Rumanian oil-fields by British air-raids, HITLER decided on an offensive from Bulgaria to the Aegean Sea. Following the rejection of German attempts at mediation by Greece (Feb.) and the transfer of the 12th German Army to Bulgaria (Mar.), 1941 beginning of hostilities (6 Apr.). Yugoslavia: the war, opened by air-raid on Belgrade (6 Apr.), ended with the encirclement and capitulation of the Yugoslav army (17 Apr.). Italian, Hungarian (11 Apr.) and Bulgarian troops invaded Yugoslavia. Greece: following the breakthrough of the Metaxas Line, the capture of Thessaloniki (9 Apr.) and the advance across the Pindus mountains the Greek campaign, coinciding with the attack on Yugoslavia, was concluded by the capitulation at Thessaloniki (21 Apr., formally repeated – on the urging of MUSSOLINI, to include the Italians – on 23 Apr.). After the breakthrough of the British rearguard position at the Thermopylae Pass (24 Apr.), embarkation of the British troops (by 30 Apr.). Occupation of Athens (27 Apr.), the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands (by 11 may) by German forces. 20 May – 1 Jun. 1941 Successful German airborne occupation of Crete (‘Merkur’). Consequences of the Balkan Campaign: Britain was shut off from the Continent… Lubljana (Laibach), the Dalmatian coastal region and Montenegro (officially ‘independent’) came to Italy… Greece: establishment of a German, by mid 1941 of an Italian military administration (with German reservations). Flight of King GEORGE II [1922-4, 1935-47] to London and establishment of a Greek government in exile.» (PenguinAtlas 2, p.203); « In April 1941 the Germans overran Greece. Rival monarchist and communist groups maintained a guerilla war with the Germans from 1942 until the British liberated Athens in October 1944 when the two resistance groups started fighting each other. Bitter civil war lasted from May 1946 until October 1949, when the monarchists were successful.» (Palmer, p.119-120); « 1946 Sep. 1st, Greek plebiscite favours the monarchy (and, 28th, George II returns to Athens).» (Williams, 1968, p.602).

Disperue
: A neologism of Nostradamus for the past participle of the Latin
« dis-pereō, être détruit, périr (to be destroyed, to perish).» (Nimmo).

The great of Rome, Susa, Sienna, Boeotia, Eretria shall die, the night destroyed: « 28 April [1945]. After the failure of his attempt of negotiation on 25 April 1945 in Milan, Mussolini, Clara Petacci and 15 leaders of the Republic of Salo join a German column which climbs up toward Valteline. On 27 April, the group is arrested by the partisans; these authorize the Germans to pursue their way, if they deliver the fascists who are with them. The officer commanding the column agrees to it. Before letting them depart, the resistants go thoroughly into the vehicles and discover Mussolini who tries to hide himself under the uniform of a German soldier. Thereafter, the destiny of Mussolini and his companions is sealed. In fact, the article 5 of the judicial code enacted by the Committee of Liberation stipulates that all the leaders of the fallen regime and all the fascists taken with arms are condemned to death. Moreover, the resistants do not want that the former master of the country should fall into the hands of the Allies: the punishment of the Duce concerns only the Italians. On 28 April, after Mussolini and Clara Petacci had passed the night at the village of Dongo [on the west bank of Lake Como, 75 km north of Milan], a communist officer, Colonel Valerio, by his true name Walter Audisio, makes the prisoners delivered to him and, with his own hands, executes Mussolini [The great of Rome, Susa, Sienna, Boeotia, Eretria shall die] and his mistress. Then, he makes the other 15 fascist leaders fired, among them are 5 ministers of the government of Salo.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.505).

« The dismissal of Mussolini entails an explosion of joy all through Italy. Even one voice does not arise in favour of him [the night destroyed].» (Kaspi, id., p.367).

« 1946 May: 9th, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicates and Umberto II proclaims himself king; Jun: 2nd, Italian referendum in favour of a republic [the night destroyed]; 3d, Umberto II leaves Italy and Alcide de Gasperi, the premier, becomes provisional head of state.» (Williams, 1968, p.600-602).

Near the Little Bear shall appear the comet, Not far from Cancer the comet: Now, we can try to identify this comet among those that appeared during the interval between the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940 and Mussolini’s death on 28 April 1945:

1) There appeared 30 comets whose observational intervals share some segment of the span from 28 October 1940 to 28 April 1945:
1940 III (its initial position in the constellation of Leo, near Cnc),
1940 IV (Peg, α: 23h53m, δ: +20°15′, far from UMi),
1941 I (Cyg, near UMi),
1941 II (Cyg, near UMi),
1941 III (Aqr, far from UMi),
1941 IV (Lup, far from UMi),
1941 V (Psc, far from UMi),
1941 VI (Sgr, far from UMi),
1941 VII (Cap, far from UMi),
1941 VIII (CrA, far from UMi),
1942 I (Gem, near Cnc),
1942 II (Aql, far from UMi),
1942 III (Psc, far from UMi),
1942 IV (Com, far from UMi),
1942 V (Ori, far from UMI),
1942 VI (Cet, far from UMi),
1942 VII (Gem, near Cnc),
1942 VIII (Leo, near Cnc),
1942 IX (Tau, α: 4h11m, δ: +0°18′, far from UMi),
1943 I (Mon, far from UMi),
1943 II (Lyn, α: 7h42m, δ: +39°53′, closer to Cnc than to UMi),
1943 III (Sgr, far from UMi),
1943 IV (Ori, far from UMi),
1943 V (Oph, far from UMi),
1944 I (Pup, far from UMi),
1944 II (Cet, far from UMi),
1944 III (Oct, far from UMi),
1944 IV (Vel, far from UMi),
1945 I (Vir, far from UMi),
1945 II (Leo, near Cnc)
(Marsden, 1983, p.20-21; p.36 [astronomical calculations by means of StellaNavigator (ASCII Corp., 2010)]).

2) The trajectories of the two comets in candidacy [at Rome, LMT]:

1941 I (Observational interval: 25 August 1940-17 June 1941):
Cyg, α: 21h46m, δ: +53°41′, near UMi,
Cyg, α: 20h19m, δ: +52°48′,
Cyg, α: 19h32m, δ: +46°19′,
Lyr, α: 19h15m, δ: +37°50′,
Lyr, α: 19h17m, δ: +30°41′,
Aql, α: 19h35m, δ: +10°56′,
Sgr, α: 19h32m, δ: -12°7′,
Mic, α: 21h15m, δ: -42°48′,
Mic, α: 21h2m, δ: -44°37′,
Ind, α: 20h47m, δ: -45°47′,
Tel, α: 19h45m, δ: -47°33′, not near Cnc: Incompetent.

1941 II (Observational interval: 31 December 1940-3 March 1941):
Cyg, α: 21h50m, δ: +36°14′, near UMi,
Lac, α: 22h23m, δ: +44°2′, near UMi,
And, α: 23h10m, δ: +51°35′, near UMi,
Cas, α: 1h4m, δ: +59°54′, near UMi,
Cas, α: 2h52m, δ: +60°39′, near UMi,
Cam, α: 4h29m, δ: +56°15′, near UMi,
Aur, α: 6h10m, δ: +43°3′,
Gem, α: 7h9m, δ: +27°21′, near Cnc,
Cnc, α: 8h3m, δ: +7°17′, near Cnc,
Hya, α: 8h12m, δ: +3°31′, near Cnc: Competent.

In consequence, the only competent case is the comet 1941 II named “Friend-Reese-Honda” (Marsden, id., p.36), whose observational interval coincides fairly with the Italian invasion of Greece.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§843 The collapse of the German Reich (1943-1945): II-16.

II-16 (§843):

Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Syracuse,
New tyrants, lightnings celestial fires:
The force of London, Ghent, Brussels, and Susa,
Great hecatomb, triumph, to hold festivals.

(Naples, Palerme, Secille, Syracuses,
Nouveaux tyrans, fulgures feuz celestes:
Force de Londres, Gand, Brucelles, & Suses
Grand hecatombe, triumphe, faire festes.)

NOTES: « II-16: The Second World War and its aerial bombardments (lightnings celestial fires).» (Hutin, 1972, p.142).

Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Syracuse, New tyrants: « The Allied landings on Sicily and the Italian mainland, August 1943. Italy had a new tyrant in the shape of Germany after the fall of Mussolini a month earlier.» (Halley, 1999, p.165).

Lightnings celestial fires: = Firing, shellfire and bombing. « = bombings: After tyrannical German soldiers have taken over cities of Italy (such as now [in 1944]) there will be fierce aerial warfare.» (Lamont, 1944, p.273).

Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Syracuse, New tyrants, lightnings celestial fires: « Sicily and Italy, 1943-4 The Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 was followed by landings in mainland Italy in September: These knocked Italy out of the war; but the German Army’s continued stubborn defence meant that there would be no rapid Allied victory. Although many of the accompanying airborne troops landed in the sea and drowned because of poor pilot training and bad weather, the initial Allied landings in the south and south-east of Sicily were a success. The large Italian forces put up little resistance and many surrendered readily - however, the German troops were a different matter. They used the rugged terrain expertly in a series of delaying actions, while the Allied commanders quarrelled over how to conduct the campaign. Finally the Germans withdrew across the Straits of Messina in mid-August virtually unmolested by the superior Allied air and naval forces. Mussolini had been deposed as head of the Italian government in July and the new regime began secret peace talks with the Allies. On 3 September Eighth Army crossed from Sicily to the toe of Italy and on the 8th the Italian surrender was announced. The Germans were ready, however, and had moved reinforcements into the country to take over. On the 9th the main Allied landings, by General Mark Clark’s US Fifth Army, went in around Salerno, just south of Naples, and were nearly thrown back into the sea during the first few days. For the rest of the year the Germans fell back slowly from one well-defended river line to the next. Eighth Army pushed up the east side of Italy and Fifth Army to the west. By the turn of the year the Allied advance had reached the German’s Gustav Line, whose most famous bastion was centred on Monte Cassino, still well to the south of Rome. In an attempt to break the stalemate the Allied forces made an amphibious landing at Anzio, behind the German lines, on 22 January 1944. The troops there, timidly led, soon found themselves effectively besieged in their beachhead. Repeated attacks on the Gustav Line over the following months also failed. During May 1944 the Allies at last mounted a properly co-ordinated attack all along the Italian front, and this time they captured Cassino and broke the Gustav Line. By then, however, Montgomery and many veteran troops had left to prepare for D-Day and Italy had slipped down the Allied priority list. Rome fell on 4 June, but by autumn 1944 the Germans were again making a stand, this time on the Gothic Line just north of Florence.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.134-135).

The force of London, Ghent, Brussels: Namely, the Allied forces coming from England across the Channel through Normandy shall liberate Belgium: « In the event, when the break-out came at Avranches, on July 31 [1944], only a few scattered German battalions lay in the ninety-mile-wide corridor between that point and the Loire. So American spearheads could have driven eastward unopposed. But the Allied High Command threw away the best chance of exploiting this great opportunity by sticking to the outdated preinvasion programme, in which a westward move to capture the Brittany ports was to be the next step. It is evident that the German forces would have had ample time to pull back to the Seine, and form a strong defensive barrier-line there, except for Hitler’s stubbornly stupid orders that there should be ‘no withdrawal’. It was his folly that restored the Allies’ lost opportunities and enabled them to liberate France that autumn. The war could easily have been ended in September 1944. The bulk of the German forces in the West had been thrown into the Normandy battle, and kept there by Hitler’s ‘no withdrawal’ orders until they collapsed-and a large part were trapped. The fragments were incapable of further resistance for the time being, and their retreat-largely on foot-was soon outstripped by the British and American mechanized columns. When the Allies approached the German border at the beginning of September, after a sweeping drive from Normandy, there was no organized resistance to stop them driving on-into the heart of Germany. On September 3 one spearhead of the British Second Army, the Guard Armoured Division, swept into Brussels- after a seventy-five-mile drive through Belgium from its morning starting point in northern France. Next day the 11th Armoured Division, which had raced level with it, drove on to Antwerp and captured the vast docks undamaged before the surprised German base units there had a chance to carry out any demolitions. That same day the spearheads of the American First Army captured Namur, on the Meuse.» (Hart, 1971, p.557-558).

The force of London, … and Susa: Namely the Allied forces starting from England shall liberate northern Italy occupied by the Nazis: « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities. Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism began the civilian Resistance, a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans. The Resistance, on 25 April [1945], liberated by itself many cities of the north through the concerted uprising. Mussolini was trying to flee into Switzerland, but perceived and arrested by the partisans on the Lake of Como. The CNL of the northern Italy with their own authority of justice, sentenced Mussolini to death and fired him with another Fascist leaders on the 28th.» (
Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-508); « Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona...» (Starr, 1986, p.436).

Great hecatomb: « Battle of the Bulge Hitler aimed to repeat the triumph of 1940 in an attack through the Ardennes region to cut the Allied armies in two. Instead German’s last reserves were defeated in a series of desperate winter battles. By the late autumn of 1944 the German Army had recovered some of its strength after the disasters of both the summer in Normandy and the Eastern front. However, the American armies were pushing forward slowly in eastern France and Belgium, while the British had finally succeeded in clearing the Scheldt estuary, so that the great port facilities of Antwerp could at long last begin to alleviate the Allied supply problems. Hitler decided to use the assembling German reserve force in the west. The German attacked on 16 December and achieved complete surprise. They quickly broke through the Allied line all along the attack front, while small groups of special forces penetrated deeper into Allied territory, spreading confusion and panic. A few Allied reinforcements were quickly sent to the area and they, and the survivors of the original front-line force, established themselves especially around the towns of St-Vith and Bastogne. They were both important road junctions, particularly vital for movement in an area of steep and densely wooded hillsides. By the 19th the top Allied commanders were taking the situation in hand. Field Marshal Montgomery was put in charge of the Anglo-American forces north of the German advance, and General Omar Bradley of the US forces to the south. Part of Patton’s US Third Army changed front with astonishing speed and began attacking north to relieve Bastogne and reduce the bulge the Germans had now driven into the Allied line. Up to this point bad weather had kept Allied air support to a minimum, but on the 22nd it cleared. The German supply system was already stretched; now both it and the front-line forces came under continuous attack… After an epic defence, Bastogne was relieved by Patton’s advance on 26 December. Major attacks from the north of the bulge began on 3 January, and it had largely been recovered by the middle of the month. The Germans lost about 100,000 men and most of the tanks used in the operation. Allied losses were similar in number but theirs could be replaced. Germany’s could not.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.188-189).

Triumph, to hold festivals
: « On 2 May [1945] hostilities in Italy ceased in accordance with terms of unconditional surrender signed by representatives of General Vietinghoff, Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Southwest, at Caserta on 29 April… Victory parades were held by the partisans…» (Starr, id., p.438-440).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§842 The Allied victory in Italy (1944-1945): VIII-72.

VIII-72 (§842):

The Perugian field, oh, the enormous defeat
And the conflict very near Ravenna.
The sacred passage when they shall make a festival,
The conqueror conquered, horses shall eat bush.


(Champ Perusin o l’enorme deffaite
Et le conflit tout au pres de Ravenne,
Passage sacre lors qu'on fera la feste,
Vainqueur vaincu cheval manger la venne.) (№10)

NOTES: Champ Perusin: = « Perugian Field » (Garencières, 1672, p.142).

The Perugian field, oh, the enormous defeat: « By the 20th [of June 1944] the French [FEC: French Expeditionary Corps] had pulled up to the Orcia River, a tributary of the Ombrone behind which enemy resistance appeared to be stiffening. By 20 June Fifth Army had raced halfway up its zone between the Tiber and the Arno. A separate operation under the control of AFHQ [Allied Force Headquarters], using French troops, had taken the island of Elba off Piombino on 17-19 June, thus protecting the left flank of our further advance; on the right Eighth Army was roughly abreast of the FEC on the line Lake Trasimeno-Perugia… .» (Starr, 1986, p.279-280); « Undoubtedly the most severe fighting anywhere in the Fifth Army zone during the advance to Highway 68 had been that on the 25 mile French front during 21-26 June [1944]. On the 20th the 3rd Algerian and 2d Moroccan Divisions had been stopped south of the Orcia River, where the Germans had a naturally strong position extending on east into the Eighth Army zone beyond Lake Trasimeno. The enemy had dug pits for his machine guns and riflemen and backed them with a larger concentration of artillery than he had used thus far north of Rome. The center of this line along the Orcia was the strongest, for on the east the river line gave way to hills and on the west the upper Ombrone River Valley formed a by-pass running toward Siena. The Orcia itself was easily fordable. The enemy garrison, however, was formidable, with part of the 20th GAF [German Air Force] Field Division, all of the 4th Parachute Division, and all of the 356th Grenadier Division from west to east; elements of the 26th Panzer and 29th Panzer Grenadier Divisions were also present. Although the total number of infantry in positions near the river did not appear to be large, crossfire from well sited automatic weapons raked the stream. After very little advance on the 22d the FEC put its emphasis on outflanking the line from the west. While the troops below the Orcia kept up their pressure, the Guillaume Group [the 1st Group of Tabors (battalion of Moroccan tribesmen) and the 1st Moroccan Infantry under General Guillaume], reinforced by the light armor of the 4th Moroccan Spahis, pushed north along the west side of the Ombrone, fording the river on the 24th and keeping pace with the 1st Armored Division on its left. The advance of IV Corps and the Guillaume Group began to unhinge the enemy line, and at noon on the 25th the 8th Moroccan Infantry succeeded in crossing the Orcia just west of Highway 2. Later in the day the 3rd Algerian Division to the left also crossed the stream against lighter opposition than previously. By the 26th the FEC was completely over the river; in the five days 22-26 June its casualties had amounted to 972 killed, wounded, and missing. To the right Eighth Army had also broken the section of the line before it, likewise after considerable casualties and fierce fighting. Throughout the 27th the enemy continued to resist stubbornly before the French, but in the night he began a hasty withdrawal, leaving behind delaying parties and demolitions to slow our advance on Siena. By 2 July we were close to the town, which the enemy promptly evacuated; at 0630, 3 July, Siena was in the hands of French troops. The advance continued despite further reliefs in the FEC for movement to Naples. All units of the 3rd Algerian Division had left by the 4th, being replaced by the 4th Mountain Division under General Sevez; the Pursuit Corps was also disbanded, and General Juin took over direct supervision of the remaining operations. At Poggibonsi and Colle di Val d’Elsa, on Highway 68 southwest of Poggibonsi, enemy opposition stiffened once again, but by the morning of the 7th the latter town was taken by the 4th Mountain Division. By evening all of Highway 68 was behind the forward elements of the FEC. Fifth Army was now everywhere up to or past the highway. On the left the 34th Division was already engaged in heavy battling on the approaches to Leghorn. Reliefs were planned to increase our strength on the right of IV Corps. To the east the French were ready to exploit the fall of Colle di Val d’Elsa, which had cleared Highway 68. The past two weeks had seen stiffening enemy resistance, resulting in the hardest fighting [The Perugian field, oh, the enormous defeat] since the fall of Rome.» (Starr, id., p.285-286).

And the conflict very near Ravenna
: « 1944 OCTOBER 22 Italy – 8th Army crosses R. Savio, S. of Ravenna.» (Argyle, 1980, p.171). « On October 2 [1944], Mark Clark’s renewed offensive towards Bologna opened, this time along Route 65. All four divisions of his 2nd Corps were thrown in, but the defending Germans fought with such tenacity that during the next three weeks the American advance averaged no more than a mile a day, and on October 27 the offensive was abandoned. By the end of October, the Eighth Army advance had also petered out, after only five more rivers had been crossed, and the Po was still fifty miles distant. The Allied situation at the end of 1944 was very disappointing in comparison with the high hopes of the spring, and the summer. A final Allied offensive in 1944 sought to gain Bologna and Ravenna as winter bases. The Canadians, in the Eighth Army, succeeded in capturing Ravenna on December 4, and their success led the Germans to send three divisions to check the Eighth Army’s further progress. That seemed to offer the Fifth Army a better chance. But this was forestalled by an enemy counterattack in the Senio valley on December 26 – prompted by Mussolini with the idea of emulating Hitler’s counteroffensive in the Ardennes, and largely carried out by Italians who remained loyal to him. This attack was soon, and easily, stopped. But the Eighth Army was now exhausted, and very short of ammunitions, while the Germans were known to have strong reserves near Bologna. So Alexander decided that the Allied armies should go on the defensive, and prepare for a powerful spring offensive.» (Hart, 1971, p.541-542).

Passage sacre
: = Le passage sacré (the sacred passage), namely the Allied last and definitive crossing of the Po which leads to their victory: « 1-14 April 1945. Everywhere on the level plain, which is highly cultivated and crisscrossed by ditches, there are roads, paved or graveled. From our lines north Highway 65 and 64 ran into Bologna, where the former ends; Highway 64 continues on to Ferrara, a short distance south of the Po. The main north-south road across the valley in the Army zone was highway 12, which originates at Pisa in the Arno Valley, crosses the mountains, and strikes Highway 9 at Modena. From Modena this highway continues almost due north across the Po at Ostiglia to the cities of Verona, Trent, and Bolzano, into the Brenner Pass, and eventually on to Austria. On the main front the emphasis had by now been shifted from Highway 65 to Highway 64 so as to work around the strong enemy defenses south of Bologna. Both II and IV Corps would attack abreast, the chief effort initially astride Highway 64 until the valley of Setta Creek had been cleared and the road junction of Praduro, 15 miles north of Vergato, had been gained. At this time the bulk of the troops would be concentrated west of the highway, ready to break out into the Po Valley between the Reno and Panaro. A minor effort would be made down Highway 65, but positions along this route were expected to fall relatively easily after the dominating high ground west of the road had been taken. The Americans to the west would be pointed roughly at Modena; the South Africans to the east would drive to encircle Bologna and gain contact with Eighth Army at Bondeno. It was also assumed that considerable time would elapse between the capture of Bologna on the one hand and the actual crossing of the Po on the other. Once the city was reached Highway 9 was to be developed as the main supply route for IV Corps, moving to the northwest, and Highway 12 for II Corps elements advancing north from Modena and Bologna toward Verona. Areas north and northwest of Bologna were tentatively chosen as future dump sites. Long study of photographs and maps of the Po resulted in the decision that the best possible crossing sites in the projected Army zone of attack were along a 20-mile stretch of the river extending from Ostiglia on Highway 12 west to Borgoforte, where the highway connecting Mantua and Reggio crossed the Po. Within this section of the river likely sites for assault crossings, ferries, and bridges were selected, and the engineers made careful plans for throwing floating and permanent bridges over the stream. Special emphasis in this planning was laid on the area between San Benedetto Po and Borgoforte, where the marshy ricefields about Ostiglia could be avoided; but a subsequent crossing at this latter site would be necessary to open up Highway 12 to Verona.» (Starr, id., p.390-393); 

« On 21 April [1945] Fifth Army launched the pursuit to the Po with II and IV Corps abreast, each in the strength of one armored division and two infantry divisions. Since Combat Command A [of the 1st Armored Division] had come up to Guastalla and Luzzaro on the west of the 10th Mountain Division during the morning of the 23d, IV Corps now held all its stretch of the Po and even had one division over the stream. The left bank of this penetration was protected until the 23d by Combat Command B [of the 1st Armored Division], battling up Highway 9 and blocking the roads from the mountains as it progressed. The Germans haggled over Panaro crossings east of Modena on the 22d and again on the next day at the Secchia west of that city, where Combat Command B, driving nearly due west south of the highway, was stopped. Modena itself was largely by-passed and left to the partisans to clear. The 34th division came up from Bologna and relieved the armor on Highway 9 on the 24th. Still farther to the left the Brazilian 1st Division emerged into the plain late on the 23d at Marano and Vignola and moved northwest along the foothills south of Highway 9. An interesting action was soon to develop in this area as the main forces of the Army continued their push north to Verona. On 21 April, as Bologna was being cleared, II Corps struck north for the Po. The pattern of resistance before II Corps bore some resemblance to that before IV Corps to the west. Units toward the Army center ran into less difficulty than those moving up on the right. The Panaro River constituted an obstacle which was more strongly defended around Finale on the eastern boundary than it was in the direction of Camposanto. The 1st and 4th Parachute Divisions suffered heavy losses but successfully covered Tenth Army’s flank in the retreat across the Po; the junction of Fifth and Eighth Armies near Bondeno was effected too late for maximum success.» (Starr, id., p.419-424).

« By the end of 24 April Fifth Army, large parts of which had already crossed the Po, held the south bank of that river on a line extending about 60 miles from the Taro River to the Eighth Army boundary at Felonica, with the 1st Armoured, 10th Mountain, 85th, 88th, 91st, and 6 South African Armoured Divisions along the banks from west to east. Since the 21st these troops had covered 40 miles from the mountain to the river through the smashed center of the German armies. Driven to desperation, the Germans had taken to the roads in daylight and had thus laid themselves open to our far-ranging planes. By the end of the 22nd increasing numbers of abandoned vehicles and equipment began to tell the story of disorganization and panic in a retreat which had thus far remained orderly. When clearing weather on the 23rd once more gave our planes free rein, the enemy columns converging on the river crossings were blasted into shambles of wrecked and burning junk. The wreckage was accompanied by a prisoner bag which assumed fantastic proportions as our forces closed in on the Po; in the period 21-25 April Fifth Army took approximately 30,000 prisoners at a cost of 1,397 casualties. Even a superficial analysis of the personnel taken is sufficient to highlight the picture of confusion and breakdown in command existing behind the enemy lines; captured rear echelon personnel were a commonplace – hospitals, bakeries in which the bread was still warm, a paymaster with his payroll, and personnel units. Though the bulk of the German forces managed to get across the Po before our arrival, the loss in equipment augured ill for any extended stand on their part thereafter; already six divisions could be practically written off the books.» (Starr, id., p.426).

When they shall make a festival
: This festival refers to Easter week of the year 1945 A.D.: the first to the seventh of April 1945. The Allied triumphant crossings of the Po take place in April 1945.

The conqueror conquered
: « Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona... On 3 May the 85th and 88th Divisions sent task forces north over ice and snow three feet deep to seal the Austrian frontier and to gain contact with the American Seventh Army, driving southward from Germany. The 339th Infantry under Lt. Col. John T. English reached Austrian soil east of Dobbiaco at 0415, 4 May; the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon, 349th Infantry, met troops from VI Corps of Seventh Army at 1051 at Vipiteno, nine miles south of Brennero. The 338th Infantry came up Highway 12 later in the day and placed a frontier guard at Brennero on the Austro-Italian frontier. To the west the 10th Mountain Division reached Nauders beyond the Resia Pass on the 5th and made contact with German forces which were being pushed south by Seventh Army; here a status quo was maintained until the enemy headquarters involved had completed their surrender to Seventh Army.» (Starr, 1986, p.436-439).

Venne: = « venne, s.f., haie (hedge), clôture (enclosure), palissade (palisade), buisson (bush, thicket, shrub).» (Godefroy).

Horses shall eat bush: This expression describes one of post-war peaceful landscapes.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§841 The Gothic Line; The Resistance; Mussolini in the Republic of Salo (1943-1945): VI-36.

VI-36 (§841):

Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle,
Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia:
Pisa and Florence shall rebel and see in an evil plight,
The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth.

(Ne bien ne mal par bataille terrestre,
Ne parviendra aux confins de Perouse:
Rebeller Pise, Florence voir mal estre,
Roy nuict blessé sur mulet à noire house.)

NOTES: Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle, Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia: « When the Italian front shall arrive at the northern confines of the region of Perugia, the terrestrial battles shall not result in a defeat nor a victory, for the front shall be frozen anew along the “Gothic Line”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.533). « 1944 JUNE 3 Italy German forces evacuate Rome. JUNE 4 ALLIED 5TH ARMY ENTERS ROME. JUNE 15 8th Army breaks through at Arezzo and reaches R. Arno (July 15-16). 5th Army approaches R. from SW. Italian Govt. returns to Rome. JULY 17 8th Army crosses the Arno. JULY 18 Polish troops of 8th Army take Ancona. JULY 19 Leghorn captured by 5th Army. JULY 24 Americans reach Pisa. SEPTEMBER 2 5th Army captures Pisa. 8th Army breaks through Gothic Line near Rimini. SEPTEMBER 8 5th Army launches major attack on Gothic Line. SEPTEMBER 26 8th Army begins crossing R. Uso (ancient Rubicon). OCTOBER 22 8th Army crosses R. Savio, S. of Ravenna.» (Argyle, 1980, p.157-171). « On October 2 [1944], Mark Clark’s renewed offensive towards Bologna opened, this time along Route 65. All four divisions of his 2nd Corps were thrown in, but the defending Germans fought with such tenacity that during the next three weeks the American advance averaged no more than a mile a day, and on October 27 the offensive was abandoned. By the end of October, the Eighth Army advance had also petered out, after only five more rivers had been crossed, and the Po was still fifty miles distant. The Allied situation at the end of 1944 was very disappointing in comparison with the high hopes of the spring, and the summer. Although Alexander still showed optimism about an advance into Austria, the slow crawl up the Italian peninsula made such distant horizons appear increasingly unrealistic. Maitland Wilson himself admitted as much in his report of November 22 to the British Chiefs of Staff. The disbelief, and discontent, of the Allied troops was manifested in a growing rate of desertions. A final Allied offensive in 1944 sought to gain Bologna and Ravenna as winter bases. The Canadians, in the Eighth Army, succeeded in capturing Ravenna on December 4, and their success led the Germans to send three divisions to check the Eighth Army’s further progress. That seemed to offer the Fifth Army a better chance. But this was forestalled by an enemy counterattack in the Senio valley on December 26 – prompted by Mussolini with the idea of emulating Hitler’s counteroffensive in the Ardennes, and largely carried out by Italians who remained loyal to him. This attack was soon, and easily, stopped. But the Eighth Army was now exhausted, and very short of ammunitions, while the Germans were known to have strong reserves near Bologna. So Alexander decided that the Allied armies should go on the defensive [Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle, Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia], and prepare for a powerful spring offensive.» (Hart, 1971, p.541-542).

« The three months’ pause since the close of the Allies’ autumn offensive [Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle, Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia] had brought a great change in the spirit and outlook of their troops. They had seen the arrival of new weapons in abundance – amphibious tanks, ‘Kangaroo’ armoured personnel carriers, ‘Fantails’ (tracked landing vehicles), heavier-gunned Sherman and Churchill tanks, flame-throwing tanks, and ‘tank-dozers’. There was also plenty of new bridging equipment, and huge reserves of ammunition. In Mark Clark’s Army Group (entitled the 15th) the right wing, facing the German 10th Army, was formed by the Eighth Army under McCreery. The 6th Armoured Division was in Army reserve. To the west was the Fifth Army, now commanded by Truscott. The aim, and primary problem, of the Allied planners was to overrun and wipe out the German forces before they could escape over the River Po. The Allied offensive was to be launched on April 9 [1945]... All the Alpine passes were blocked by April 28 – the day on which Mussolini and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were caught and shot by a band of partisans near Lake Como. German troops were now surrendering everywhere, and the Allied pursuit met little opposition anywhere after April 25.» (Hart, 1971, p.671-674).

Pisa and Florence shall rebel: « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities, composed of the Liberal Party, the Christian Democrats, the Unified Proletarian Socialists, the Communists and the Action Party (plus the Labor Democrat Party south of Rome). Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism began the civilian Resistance, a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans… In August 1943, Florence was liberated thanks to the Resistance before the arrival of the Allies, and the CNL of the city had a function of local government. From the spring to the autumn of 1944, the Resistance in the north and the middle of Italy was vigorous and resulted in several liberated districts. The Resistance, having overcome the neglect of the Allies toward the armed struggle of the Resistance and the mop-up operations by the Germans and the Fascists in winter, recovered the offensive in the spring of 1945 and, on 25 April, liberated by itself many cities of the north through the concerted uprising. Mussolini [The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth] was trying to flee into Switzerland in disguise among the retreating German troops, but perceived and arrested by the partisans on the Lake of Como. The CNL of the northern Italy with their own authority of justice, sentenced Mussolini to death and fired him with another Fascist leaders on the 28th [The king in an evil plight].» (
Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-508).

House
: = A transformed housse (horse-cloth) for the rhyme with Perouse of the line 2.

And see in an evil plight, The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth
: = And see « the king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth » in an evil plight.

The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth: « The words “bruised at night” allude to the night of 24 -25 July [1943], when Mussolini was replaced by the King with Marshal Badoglio. Thereafter, the Duce shall not be able to ride a horse as a veritable “condottiere” he has been, but only a “mule”, for his powers have been reduced after having been rescued by Hitler and he is set as head of a phantom republic in the northern Italy. The term “mulet (mule, ass)”, in addition to its direct pejorative meaning, also makes an allusion to the Nazis because they themselves have saved Mussolini and made him their puppet in offering him the government of the ephemeral Fascist Republic in the north. In fact, Nostradamus reproduces here the word “asinus (an ass)”, which we have met already twice, in the quatrain VI-17 (§792) under the form of “les asiniers” and in the quatrain X-31 (§793) under the form of “Asnes”, both of these having the meaning of Nazi (anagram: ASIN = NASI).» (Ionescu, id., p.533).

A black horse-cloth: This black cover refers to the Black Shirt of the Nazi SS and of the Italian Fascists: « On 16 October 1922 Mussolini decided to force the issue, believing that if he waited, Giolitti [in premiership in May 1892 – Dec. 1893 and in May 1906 – Dec. 1909], the one man he feared, might steal his role. He arranged for a march on Rome for the end of the month, by four divisions totaling 40,000 blackshirted men.» (Johnson, 1991, p.99); « The Kroll Opera House (where the Reichstag had been meeting since the fire [on the night of 27 February 1933]) was surrounded by the black-shirted SS troops, and MPs had to push their way through solid ranks to get into the building. The 81 communist MPs were simply not allowed to pass (many were in jail already). Inside the building rows of brown-shirted SA troops lined the walls. It took courage to vote against the bill in such surroundings with the SS outside chanting ‘We want the bill, or fire and murder’. When the Catholic Centre Parry decided to vote in favour, the result was a foregone conclusion: it passed by 441 votes to 94 (all Social Democrats).» (Lowe, 1988, p.137).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§840 Italy occupied by the Nazis after the fall of Mussolini (1943): IV-35.

IV-35 (§840):

The fire extinguished, the virgins,
The greatest part of the new band shall betray it:
Lightning on iron, lances the celibates shall guard the king:
Etruria and Corsica, at night the gorge furnaces of coals.

(Le feu estaint les vierges trahiront
La plus grand part de la bande nouvelle:
Fouldre à fer, lance les seuls roy garderont:
Etrusque & Corse, de nuit gorge allumelle.)

NOTES: The fire extinguished, the virgins shall betray: « At first, as for the legendary virgins, we find that the Roman Vestals had a principal role of maintaining the sacred fire that should remain lighted all the time in the temple. It is what leads us to think that the question here is an ideology issuing from Italy with the base of feminine people or mass population. In regard of it, the Fascist doctrine of Mussolini is well inserted in this loophole because it is owing to the popular support that he arrived, in 1922, at identifying his party as a unique option possible for Italy then in the eve of revolution.» (Dufresne, 1994, p.125).

The virgins: = The supporters of Mussolini faithful as virgins. 

The new band
: = The Fascist National Party.

The fire extinguished, the virgins, The greatest part of the new band shall betray it:
« FALL OF MUSSOLINI [The fire extinguished] July 25. In the beginning of 1943, the situation of Italy appears catastrophic. The reverses have been accumulated in Greece and in North Africa. In the middle of August, Sicily is in the hands of the Allies. Murderous bombardments accumulate the ruins in the cities and industrial installations. The balance sheet of economy is very serious. Mussolini seems deeply struck by these difficulties. In these conditions, the spiritual unity of the country is strongly staggered. The loss of Sicily and the bombardment of Rome on 19 July 1943 [Lightning upon iron, lances] make firm the resolution of the adversaries of Mussolini… On 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes the power of him and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance… The dismissal of Mussolini entails an explosion of joy all through Italy. Even one voice does not arise in favour of him [the virgins, The greatest part of the new band shall betray it].» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

The king: = « Victor-Emmanuel III » (Dufresne, id.). Dufresne wrongly says that « On 10 [September 1943], the troops of Hitler invade Rome and the king is obliged to take refuge, in a rush, in the interior of the walls of the Vatican! » (Dufresne, id.). In reality, « when the Allies land on the soil of the Peninsula [on 9 September] and, according to the previous accords, the armistice is made public [on 8 September], the royal government is taken by surprise, and abandon Rome which it judges indefensible. The king, Badoglio and some dignitaries settle themselves in Brindisi, far from the Germans, and preserve thus a parcel of legality.» (Kaspi, id., p.375-376); « 1943 September 9 The king Victor-Emmanuel III and The Premier Badoglio leave Rome and install their government in Brindisi.» (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.48 Chronology); « 1943 September 9-10 The government of Badoglio translates itself to Brindisi.» (Aoyama et al., 1992, p.601).

The celibates shall guard the king: This means the Vatican connection of the multiple efforts of the King’s government replacing Mussolini to attain a peace with the Allies:
« 25 June-8 September [1943]. In the military domain, Badoglio tries to gain time and to reassure the Germans. But his public declaration of solidarity with the northern ally disappoints the population who suffers grave privations more and more and ­aspires to the peace. Hitler is not deceived by these assurances and reinforces the German military potential in Italy. On 6 August, in Tarvisio, at the time of a meeting between Guariglia and Ambrosio on the Italian side, and Ribbentrop and Keitel on the German side, the latter’s mistrust is very net. In fact, while Badoglio tries, in vain, to cheat his allies, he multiplies the contacts with the adversary camp. The secret conversations take place in Sicily since 5 August 1943, then at Vatican [The celibates shall guard the king], in Tangier, in Madrid where General Castellano meets the British ambassador Hoare on 15 August, in Lisbon where Castellano meets the American emissaries on 16-27 August.» (Kaspi, id., p.368-369).

The gorge: ­= The straits between Corsica and Etruria.

Allumelle: ­= « ALLUMELLE, s.f. Fourneau de charbon (furnace of coals).» (Littré); « ALUMELLE, s.f. Lame de couteau ou d’épée (blade of a knife or of a sword). – ETYM. Alumelle came from alemelle by a false assimilation with the verb allumer, which has nothing common with alumelle. Alemelle is composed of the preposition à (with), and of lamelle, small blade.» (Littré).

Furnaces of coals: ­= Vessels or aircraft, by metonymy, furnaces of coals themselves representing, by metaphor, their modern engines. The French word « allumelle » suggests that it concerns the Germans (les Allemands in French).

Etruria and Corsica, at night the gorge furnaces of coals: ­= Furnaces of coals [crossing] the gorge [between] Etruria and Corsica at night [in September 1943]: « SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy – SURRENDER of ITALY. Eisenhower makes public announcement in Algiers. Home Front: Italy – Op. Achse (‘Axis’): German forces seize all strategic points in Italy and forcibly disarm Italian forces. SEPTEMBER 9 Sea War: Med. – ALLIES LAND AT SALERNO. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. Sea War: Med.Evacuation of 25,000 German troops from Sardinia to Corsica (thence to Italy by air and sea) [Etruria and Corsica, at night the gorge furnaces of coals].» (Argyle, 1980, p.139-140).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§839 Desolation of Côte d’Azur and Italian coasts in WWII (1940-1945): II-4.

II-4 (§839):

From Monaco till near Sicily
All of the coasts shall be desolate,
There shall be no suburb, city, nor town
That shall
[not] be pillaged and bombed.

(Depuis Monech jusques au pres de Secile,
Toute la plage demourra desolée,
Il ny aura fauxbourg, cité, ne vile
Que par Barbares pillée soit & vollée.)

NOTES: This quatrain is just parallel to the preceding quatrain X-60 (§838), where it is said that « I deplore Nice, Monaco, Pisa, Genoa, Savona, Siena, Capua, Modena, Malta, The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples »; « II-40 (1940-1945) Die Kämpfe im zweiten Weltkrieg zwischen den Achsenmächten und den Vereinten Nationen brachten den Küsten Italiens schwerste Verheerungen (The battles in the Second World War between the Axis Powers and the Allied Nations devastated the Italian coasts heavily).» (Centurio, 1953, p.49).

Monech: = Monech (II-4, III-10, IV-37, IV-91, VI-62, VIII-4, X-23) = Monaco.

Secile: = Secile (II-71, III-25) = Secille (I-11, II-16, IX-42) = Sicile (VIII-81, VIII-84) = Sicille (V-43) = Sicily.

Barbares: = Combatants in general of war. The words: Barbare, barbare, barbarique, etc., signify principally in Nostradamus « what is not civilized, gives a shock, is contrary to the rules, to the taste, to the usage, has the cruelty of the barbarian » (Petit Robert). In fact, of their 25 examples in all, 17 (68%) are such, only 7 (28%) refer to « Islamic, Arab » (III-97, VI-21, VI-75, IX-42bis, IX-94, X-61) and only one to the particular Italian family: Barbarin (VIII-49).

Par Barbares pillée soit & vollée: ­= Par Barbares [ne] soit pillée & vollée, according to the context.

Vollée: Past participle in the feminine of « VOLER (To fly). II. V.tr. (XIIe, « chasser en volant (Transitive verb, to chase in flying) ». Vx. Poursuivre ou chasser (une proie) en volant [Archaic word, To pursue or to chase (a prey) in flying].» (Petit Robert), which represents modern air raids; « JULY 19 [1943] Air War: Europe FIRST ALLIED RAIDS ON ROME. 158 B-17s and 112 B-24s attack Lorenzo and Littorio marshalling yards. Marauders, Mitchells and Lightnings later hit Ciampino Airport. Only 5 planes lost. Sea War: Med. German and Italian minelayers begin intensive operations around Italian coast.» (Argyle, 1980, p.136);

« AUGUST 31 Nelson and Rodney shell Italian coast near Reggio di Calabria. SEPTEMBER 12 U-boats commence ops. off Salerno bridgeheads: but sink only 3 ships during numerous attacks.

«« Anzio 22 January-25 May 1944 Intended as a daring outflanking move that would open up the way to the capture of Rome, the Anzio landings degenerated into World War II deadlock: the Allies unable to drive forward from their bridgehead and the Germans without the means to push the invaders back into the sea… It was only the slow, relentless pressure applied on land and in the air throughout Italy that forced the Germans to give way.» (Grant, 2011, p.861).

Near Sicily
: = Reggio di Calabria; « AUGUST 17 [1943] Sicily END OF SICILIAN CAMPAIGN. Americans and British enter Messina. Axis forces evacuated: 39,569 Germans and 62,000 Italian troops, with all their equipment and supplies, transported across Strs. of Messina in small craft. AUGUST 31 Nelson and Rodney shell Italian coast near Reggio di Calabria. SEPTEMBER 3 Sea War Med. INVASION OF CALABRIA (S. Italy): 13th Corps (8th Army) crosses from Sicily to Reggio di Calabria preceded by 900-gun barrage (Op. Baytown).» (Argyle, 1980, p.138-139); « Italy’s terrain was ideally suited to defence against an invader moving northwards: narrow coastal plains in the east and west, cut by many rivers, flanked the central north-south Apennine Mountains up almost the whole spine of the country. Fighting the length of Italy against such natural obstacles, expertly exploited by the Germans, would be costly and slow. It was decided that the only way to overcome these defences was to outflank them in depth, landing troops as far up the coast as air cover would allow. On 3 September, the British XIII Corps crossed the straits of Messina (Operation ‘Baytown’), landing near Reggio Calabria… » (Brayley, 2002, p.20); « SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – British capture Salerno. Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. SEPTEMBER 12 U-boats commence ops. off Salerno bridgeheads: but sink only 3 ships during numerous attacks.» (Argyle, 1980, p.135-140).

Salerno: « Salerno 9-16 September 1943 The signing of the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 might have seemed to support Churchill’s claim that Italy was the “soft underbelly of Europe,” but the fierce and intelligent resistance displayed by the Germans at Salerno was a portent of things to come. While Field Marshal Montgomery’s British Eighth Army had an easy, unopposed landing at Reggio di Calabria, the Allied amphibious assault against mainland Italy in the Gulf of Salerno did not go as planned. Under the command of Lieutenant General Mark Clark’s U.S. Fifth Army, the landing force was drawn from the British X Corps, which would hit the beaches at Salerno, and the U.S. VI Corps, acting as a flank guard and landing farther to the south. The X Corps troops faced little resistance as they reached the beaches on 9 September 1943, but once ashore they came under sustained attack from the German XIV Panzer Corps. The U.S. VI Corps faced similar problems, unable to push forward from its beachhead. When, on 12 September, the Germans mounted a concerted counterattack, it seemed possible that the Allies might lose their tenuous hold on the Italian mainland. But the arrival of reinforcements-including a parachute drop by two battalions of the U.S. 82d Airborne Division-and the mass redeployment of Allied airpower to the Salerno front turned the tide. On 16 September the Germans disengaged from the battle and began to withdraw to a specially prepared defensive line farther north; meanwhile, U.S. troops on the right of the beachhead made contact with units from the Eighth Army advancing from the south. As the Germans fell back, the Allies occupied the key port of Naples.» (Grant, 2011, p.858).

« SEPTEMBER 17 Italy - Patrols of Allied 5th and 8th Armies link up near Agropoli, S. of Salerno. SEPTEMBER 18 5th Army captures Battipaglia. Germans retreat from Salerno bridgehead. SEPTEMBER 27 8th Army captures Foggia, with vital airfields and marshalling yards. SEPTEMBER 29 5th Army captures Castellamare and Pompeii (ancient ruins slightly damaged).» (Argyle, id., p.140-141).

Naples: « At nightfall on 30 September [1943] troops of 10 Corps were surrounding Mt. Vesuvius. Naples was within our grasp, and at 0930, 1 October, armored patrols of the King’s Dragoon Guards entered the city. Naples had paid a very heavy price. Allied air raids had destroyed most of the harbor installations, and the damage was augmented by German destruction. In an attempt to deny dock and harbor facilities to Fifth Army the enemy scuttled ships at the piers and sunk others in the harbor; the pipelines had been ripped up and the unloading machinery systematically destroyed. Between Allied bombings and German demolitions the docks and storehouses along the waterfront of Naples were left a mass of ruins, crumbled stones, and fire-twisted steel. In addition the Germans had done their utmost to wreck all public utilities, including electricity, transportation, and water. On 14 October unloading of American supplies was stopped at the Salerno beaches and was transferred to Naples; at this time 10 Corps was unloading at Naples, Torre Annunziata, Castellammare, and Salerno.» (Starr, 1986, p.36).

Cancello-ed-Arnone: « The capture of Naples gave us a much-needed port, but mere possession of the city itself did not constitute a fulfillment of the Fifth Army objective. The airfields at Capodichino and Pomigliano were not yet in Allied hands, and the enemy must be driven well away from Naples harbor. Troops of Fifth Army, accordingly, did not pause with the capture of the city. Though the usual delaying tactics of the Germans were in evidence along the entire front, Fifth Army drove to the Volturno River in the next five days. Advance elements of 10 corps reached the river on 5 October at Cancello-ed-Arnone, and on the following day the 56 Division occupied the town of Capua.» (Starr, id., p.36-37).

« OCTOBER 29 Italy – Port of Mondragone captured by 5th Army.» (Argyle, id., p.142-).

Anzio and Nettuno: « 1944 JANUARY 22 Sea War: Med.ANZIO LANDINGS. Allied 5 Corps lands near Anzio and Nettuno, S. of Rome (Op. Shingle) in bold attempt to outflank Germans at Cassino. Landing craft equipped with rocket launchers deluge the weak defences.» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-148); « By January, 1944, the most pessimistic American predictions seemed to have come true. The British Army, which had crossed from Sicily and fought up the toe of Italy was on the Adriatic side, and the American Army under Mark Clark, which had captured Naples, was on the Mediterranean side. These two armies were designated the 15th Army Group and were under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander. The opposing German army, under Field-Marshal Kesselring, had made maximum use of increasingly difficult mountainous countryside as it fought a series of bitter delaying actions back to the immensely strong Gustav Line – a line of massive steel and concrete fortifications and minefields ranging across Italy from the Mediterranean coast 40 miles north of Naples to Ortona on the Adriatic coast. Winter set in early in 1943. As the year declined, the soaring 6,000 foot mountain spine down Italy was thickly blanketed with snow, and the Allied advance became bogged down barely 70 miles north of Salerno, before the Gustav Line. The way out of this stalemate seemed fairly obvious – to make a landing in force farther up the coast. But the conquest of Italy was a low-priority operation, and there was a great shortage of landing craft to put the tanks, guns and men ashore. The inadequate fleet that had been allocated for Sicily and Salerno was anyway under orders to return to Britain for the Normandy invasion. By the year’s end Operation Overlord had also drawn away seven experienced British and American divisions and the great leaders whose names had featured prominently in the African and Sicilian victories – Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Air-Marshal Tedder and Admiral Cunningham. At this point Winston Churchill intervened. He insisted that a ‘wildcat’ should be flung ashore north of the Gustav Line ‘to tear out the heart of the Boche [German]’. And he got this way. A plan with the code name ‘Shingle’ was quickly developed. It prepared for a landing at Anzio, which lay some 60 miles behind the Gustav Line and gave easy access to Route 6. The Anzio invasion was mounted from an American base, although it had been Churchill’s original intention that his ‘wildcat’ should be an all-British animal. The two divisions selected for the landing were the American and the British. The special troops aiding these divisions were also half British (the 2nd Special Service Brigade of two Commandos) and half American (a formation of Rangers and a parachute regiment). Behind them, at Naples, waited the American 1st Armoured Division and 45th Infantry Division to follow up as soon as the landing had been consolidated.» (Maule, 1972, p.296-299); « The plan was straightforward: the British, American and French assailing the Gustav Line were to exert themselves to the utmost to break through and engage the enemy so heavily that any reserves would be drawn into the battle and thus diverted from Anzio. When the enemy was compelled to send back troops to seal off the Anzio force, the Allies expected to break through. The assault on the Gustav Line opened on January 17. That night the British 10th Corps launched a powerful attack across the lower Garigliano River, while the Free French Expeditionary Corps pushed into the mountains north of Cassino. The next day, the American 2nd Corps launched an attack upon the River Rapido. The Allies hoped to force a breach through the enemy fortifications within 48 hours, so that an armoured spearhead could thrust out along the road to Rome. If thing went right at Anzio, this spearhead would be met by the advanced guard of the landing force, surging up to the Alban Hills from the beachhead. The British wrested a small bridgehead from the enemy and after two days had enlarged it into a four-mile salient, but they could go no farther. The French managed to dent the line to a depth of several miles. The Americans, after suffering terrible losses, crossed the Rapido upstream from the planned bridgehead. But nowhere did the Allies seriously breach the Gustav Line or break into the Liri Valley. Thus, the Anzio force was on its own from the moment it landed. The invasion fleet of 253 vessels, carrying 36,000 men with their tanks, guns and supplies, put out from Naples during the afternoon of January 21, swinging southwards past Capri to confuse any enemy spies. At nightfall it turned to head for Anzio, and the first wave of landing craft surged in at 2 a.m. Complete surprise was achieved, and with the dawn the whole landing operation was in full swing...» (Maule, 1972, p.299-300).

« 1944 MAY 11 Italy 5TH AND 8TH ARMIES ATTACK GUSTAV LINE (Op. Diadem) on 48-km front. MAY 12 Germans launch fierce counterattacks along Gustav Line. MAY 14 French break through at Monti Aurunci, N. of Gaeta. MAY 15 Germans begin withdrawing from ‘Gustav’ Line to ‘Adolf Hitler’ (‘Dora’) Line, immediately S. of Rome. MAY 20 Allies attack ‘Dora’ Line; Canadians break through, May 22. MAY 30 5th Army breakthrough ‘Adolf Hitler’ Line at Valmontone. JUNE 3 German forces evacuate Rome. JUNE 4 ALLIED 5TH ARMY ENTERS ROME. JULY 19 Leghorn captured by 5th Army. JULY 24 Americans reach Pisa.» (Argyle, 1980, p.155-169).

Leghorn
and Pisa: « Now the 34th Division was ready to pivot to the left and take Leghorn. The 135th infantry had been pushing slowly northwest over hilly country toward the port; on the 18th [July 1944] the 363d Regimental Combat Team returned to the 34th Division as Task Force Williamson under Brig. Gen. Raymond Williamson to execute a double thrust at Leghorn with the 135th Infantry. The latter continued its attack toward the southeastern part of the city while the 363d Infantry came in from the east, reaching the outskirts before midnight. At 0200, 19 July, the 3d Battalion, 135th Infantry, entered Leghorn after a brief skirmish with an enemy rear guard outside the city. The 2d battalion and the 1st and 2d Battalions, 363d Infantry, arrived a little more than two hours later. There was little fighting in the city, but it was found to be heavily mined and booby-trapped; almost all the port facilities were destroyed, and the harbor was partially blocked by sunken ships. In compliance with a corps order to advance the line completely to the Arno the 34th Division, now under Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, moved forward again on the 22d. The engineers had thrown bridges over the numerous canals north of Leghorn, and the troops reached the Arno without trouble. While the 442d and 168th Infantry came up on the right, the 363d Infantry entered Pisa at 1330, 23 July. The enemy had destroyed all bridges over the Arno and was content to hold the north bank. The rest of IV Corps was by this time already on the river. The 91st Division immediately to the right of the 34th Division had met stubborn German resistance in the first few days of its advance up the Era River valley, by 0800, 18 July, the advance guard of the 361st Infantry had reached Pontedera on the Arno. The division had closed up to the river by the 23rd. The other division in the line, the 88th under General Sloan, had taken over from the left elements of the 1st Armored Division on the 8th and likewise met considerable opposition in the first few days. To obviate attacking the high-lying town of Volterra our artillery and chemical mortars smoked it, and the division encircled it on the 8th, thus forcing the enemy to withdraw. At Laiatico, a small hilltop town eight miles northwest of Volterra, the Germans elected to make a stand before the 351st Infantry on the 11th, but in a second attack we took the town by a double envelopment which netted approximately 400 prisoners. Enemy resistance then slackened , and the division reached the high ground overlooking the Arno on the 18th. Since the FEC was somewhat behind IV Corps, task Force Ramey patrolled the east flank of the corps after 9 July, at first only with armor and then with some additional infantry from the 88th Division. The enemy had apparently expected the 1st Armored Division to continue the advance in this zone and had mined and booby-trapped almost every trail, but by methodical sweeping the force had gained the Arno by the 23d.» (Starr, id., p.290-291).

La Spezia and Genoa: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).

Savona: « My next job was to prepare the preliminary groundwork for a defensive wall along the beach as well as defensive bunkers in the hills facing the Mediterranean coast. The work proceeded feverishly day and night while we played hide-and-seek games with the American fliers. They made a habit of coming over from Corsica at least seven times a day on their bombing runs to the Savona port area, which the Nazis used to supply troops in the south by way of motor barges travelling at night. Sometimes the Americans dropped a bomb on our job.» (Wygoda, 1998, p.95-96).

« A few weeks later [about the middle of March, 1944] I was approached by two armed men who introduced themselves as members of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (Committee of National Liberation). It was the first time I had ever heard that name, but I understood its meaning… I was to become known as “Enrico.”» (Wygoda, id., p.108-109).

« Although we were under the overall command of the Committee of National Liberation, we had plenty of latitude, and I had full freedom of action, including the power over life and death. No one ever questioned my authority in matters of command. Still, in cases dealing with the Fascists, I always saw to it that impartiality was the rule rather than the exception; for such cases we had a duly instituted court of law staffed by attorneys and some young students of law at the University of Genoa. But I reserved the exclusive right to deal with the Nazis myself. As far as the Nazis were concerned, I had not a shred of pity left. I knew only to do with Nazis what the Nazis had done to innocent people all over Europe for the last several years. I had witnessed many of their actions personally, and I knew there were important differences between us. I did not kill indiscriminately. I never tortured anyone.» (Wygoda, id., p.129).

« In March 1945, I received a message to meet with our Allied agent at my convenience, but as soon as possible, to receive some secret information that he had to turn over to me personally. Our contact man with the Allied authorities, Piero, was an employee of the British Military Mission in eastern Liguria. I met with him halfway down the mountain the following day. The information I received was that the Nazis had supposedly agreed to surrender on April 25, and my group was to be ready to march down to the cities on that date... On April 25, the signal to liberate Savona came as scheduled. The day I had long wished for was finally at hand. The Nazis showed sense in surrendering immediately to the partisan security units, which had orders not to harm those who surrendered. But the diehards of the decomposing establishment-such as the Fascists and the Blackshirts-attempted to resist. They were too slow to realize that it was all over for them, and they barricaded themselves in the upper floors of downtown office buildings. Such obstacles were quickly overcome, however, and soon the Fascists inside the city were securely under lock and key.» (Wygoda, id., p.133-136).

Monaco
: represents, by metonymy, Côte d’Azur: « Allied landing on Provence August 15. When the Allies have decided to accomplish well the Operation Overlord, namely a landing on the coasts of Normandy, they were anticipating a second operation, complementary to the first and less important, which would be the Operation Anvil (renamed Dragoon the 1st August 1944). It was planned to gain a foothold on the south coast of France, to take Toulon and Marseilles, to push on toward the north in order to link with the troops that should have landed Normandy. It is a classical manœuver of pincers. The American and British staffs fixed, cleared of the constraints of war in Italy since the fall of Rome (June 4), the day of landing on 15 of August. The total plan was to be executed by the VIIth American Army, which General Patch commands. The theater of operations was situated between Cavalaire and Agay, at the foot of the Maures and of the Esterel. In the midst of the Allied forces, the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny, occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels, among which were found the French units. They had a mission of fighting in the second echelon and of taking Toulon and Marseilles. The attack of August 15 was a success. The Germans had no more means of resisting at the same time the two invasion armies. The exploitation following the attack was equally an exceptional success. Toulon was liberated from 23 to 27 August, twelve days earlier than the Allied staff’s prevision; Marseilles during 28-29 August, twenty-six days earlier than scheduled.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443); « The invasion of southern France, Operation Dragoon... The landings of 151,000 Allied troops along the Côte d’Azur from Nice to Marseilles were practically unopposed, the major port of Marseilles was secured and the invasion provoked a rapid German withdrawal from central and south-western France.» (Beevor, 2010, p.445); « After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.444).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§838 Italy and her neighbors in WWII (1940-1945): X-60.

X-60 (§838):

I deplore Nice, Monaco, Pisa, Genoa,
Savona, Siena, Capua, Modena, Malta,
The top being blood and blade as gifts,
Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples.

(Je pleure Nisse, Monnego, Pize, Gennes,
Savone, Sienne, Capue, Modene, Malte,
Le dessus sang & glaive par estrennes,
Feu trembler terre, eau malheureuse nolte.)

NOTES: This quatrain is just the enlargement of the wartime of Italy and her neighbors in the quatrain IV-68 (§837), where it is said that « Crys, pleurs à Malte & costé ligustique (Cries, weeps in Malta and in the Ligurian direction) ». Nice, Monaco and Savona of this quatrain are included in the Ligurian direction, and Capua, Siena, Pisa and Modena are on the route of the Allied slow, but offensive and triumphant advance against the Axis retreating from the south toward the north of the Italian Peninsula in WWII, Capua being just before the Gustav Line, Siena and Pisa in front of the Gothic Line and Modena in the last decisive battlefield of Emilia-Romagna; « X-60 (1944) Die Heimsuchung Italiens vom Norden bis zum Süden im zweiten Weltkrieg als Folge eines bösen Geschenkes, nämlich der faschistischen Lehren und Maximen (The Italians’ disasters from the north to the south in WWII as a result of a vicious gift, namely of Fascist doctrine and maxim).» (Centurio, 1953, p.224).

Estrenne: = « ÉTRENNE. (1636; estreine, estraine « cadeau [a gift]» ).»
(Petit Robert).

Trembler terre (To shake the earth/the earth shall tremble): This phrase, together with “Tremblement de terre (tremble of the earth)”, is a manner of saying preferred by Nostradamus for expressing « A war/ a war to take place » (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.459). All of the 12 usages of this expression in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are in this sense without exception (I-20, I-46, I-93, II-52, III-3, VI-66, VI-88, VIII-29, IX-31, IX-83, X-60 and X-79). Moreover, of the other 24 phrases including the word “trembler (to tremble)”, 17 are yet in this sense (I-57, I-82bis, I-87, II-68, II-86, IV-54, IV-90, V-27, V-50, V-61, V-68, IX-33, IX-60bis, IX-94 and X-67) as well as the other 5 with an expression of ‘fear’ (III-88, IV-5, IV-36, V-23 and XII-65) and only the remaining 2 are allotted otherwise (II-64: enfeebling of laws; V-49: shake of the regime). In conclusion, 34 of 36 usages of the word “trembler (to tremble)” are designed to signify the war.

Eau, eaux, eaue, eaulx: « The waters are peoples, the crowd, races and languages (Apoc., XVII, 15), namely the masses of ancient Rome blaspheming and persecuting the Christians. Thence the inundation, invasion, overflowing of the peoples).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.204; p.111. Cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.38-39), or « drowning by the revolutionaries » (id. 1861, p.94). Of 30 examples of the words eau, eaue, eaux and eaulx, 11 are in this sense: I-11, II-54, II-87, III-70, V-86, V-87, VI-10, VIII-7, IX-51, X-10 and X-60.

Eau malheureuse
: = The unhappy peoples.


I deplore Malta… The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War: - 2 Italian raids on Malta; 35 civilians, 6 British soldiers killed.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « JANUARY 16 [1941] Air War: - Stukas escorted by Italian fighters raid Malta, inflicting further damage on carrier Illustrious and damaging cruiser Perth. (Illustrious again damaged by bombing Jan. 19).» (Argyle, id., p.55); « MARCH 23 [1941] Air War: - Stukas with fighter escort carry out major raid on Malta: 13 Stukas shot down (2 RAF fighters lost), but British decide on immediate withdrawal of all bombers and flying boats.» (Argyle, id., p.58); « MARCH 1 [1942] Air War: - Severe raids on Malta. RAF night raid on shipping at Tripoli.» (Argyle, id., p.87); « MARCH 4 [1942] Air War: - 394 raids on Malta, by day and night, over previous 2 months.» (Argyle, id., p.88); « MARCH 21 [1942] Air War – Heavy raids on Malta.» (Argyle, id., p.89); « APRIL 3 [1942] Air War: - Luftwaffe spokesman admits that the Luftwaffe has been unable to neutralize Malta because of its ‘tremendously strong’ anti-aircraft defences and subterranean storerooms.» (Argyle, id., p.90); « APRIL 16 [1942] Home Front: MaltaGEORGE CROSS AWARDED TO MALTA in recognition of untold heroism of entire civilian and military population during countless enemy raids.» (Argyle, id., p.91); « OCTOBER 11 [1942] Air War – Axis air forces launch final major air offensive against Malta – but Spitfires inflict heavy losses.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « NOVEMBER 8 [1942] Air War – Luftwaffe losses in Malta raids, Jan.1-Nov. 8, 1942: 172 bombers and 99 fighters.» (Argyle, id., p.111).

Nolte: = a transformed Nolle as a rhyme for Malte of the second line. Cf. « les malheureux de Nolle » (§475, III-74).

Nolle: = Néo-polis (a new city) = Naples par excellence, as Nolle followed by Florence, Favence and Imole (§475, III-74) and Nolle (§89, VIII-38) which represents Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. Nolle is analogous to pole (II-49, III-57, VIII-81) or polle (VI-5, VI-21) which traces from the Greek
πόλις (polis, city) or πόλεις (poleis, cities) or πόλος (polos, pole, circle). Cf. pollitique: = political (VI-5) and Antipolles: = Antipodes (X-87).

Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples
: « Thus threatened from east and west, the German forces all along the [Brit.] 10 Corps started a withdrawal, and the tempo of our advance speeded up. On the 29th [September 1943] the bridge at Scafati was seized intact, although it had been prepared for demolition. By this action we secured the only bridge over the Sarno not destroyed by the Germans. Even so the many vehicles of the armored division were impeded by a bottleneck until three more bridges were thrown across the Sarno; then the British armor was ready for the dramatic plunge on Naples. At nightfall on 30 September troops of 10 Corps were surrounding Mt. Vesuvius. Naples was within our grasp, and at 0930, 1 October, armored patrols of the King’s Dragoon Guards entered the city. Naples had paid a very heavy price. Allied air raids had destroyed most of the harbor installations, and the damage was augmented by German destruction. In an attempt to deny dock and harbor facilities to Fifth Army the enemy scuttled ships at the piers and sunk others in the harbor; the pipelines had been ripped up and the unloading machinery systematically destroyed. Between Allied bombings and German demolitions the docks and storehouses along the waterfront of Naples were left a mass of ruins, crumbled stones, and fire-twisted steel. In addition the Germans had done their utmost to wreck all public utilities, including electricity, transportation, and water. A normal port capacity of 8000 tons daily had been cut to 10 percent, but by the clearing away of debris and the use of expedients such as DUKWs to unload the Liberty ships, 35000 tons daily were coming in at the port only twelve days after its capture. On 14 October unloading of American supplies was stopped at the Salerno beaches and was transferred to Naples; at this time 10 Corps was unloading at Naples, Torre Annunziata, Castellammare, and Salerno.» (Starr, 1986, p.35-36).

I deplore Capua Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « The capture of Naples gave us a much-needed port, but mere possession of the city itself did not constitute a fulfillment of the Fifth Army objective. The airfields at Capodichino and Pomigliano were not yet in Allied hands, and the enemy must be driven well away from Naples harbor. Troops of Fifth Army, accordingly, did not pause with the capture of the city. Though the usual delaying tactics of the Germans were in evidence along the entire front, Fifth Army drove to the Volturno River in the next five days. Advance elements of 10 corps reached the river on 5 October at Cancello-ed-Arnone, and on the following day the 56 Division occupied the town of Capua. On the right VI Corps had slower going in the mountains, but by 6 October the 3rrdd Division had pushed through Cancello and Maddaloni into the mountains above Caserta… » (Starr, id., p.36-37).

I deplore SienaFire, warfare, unhappy people: « Undoubtedly the most severe fighting anywhere in the Fifth Army zone during the advance to Highway 68 had been that on the 25 mile French front during 21-26 June [1944]. On the 20th the 3rd Algerian and 2d Moroccan Divisions had been stopped south of the Orcia River, where the Germans had a naturally strong position extending on east into the Eighth Army zone beyond Lake Trasimeno. The enemy had dug pits for his machine guns and riflemen and backed them with a larger concentration of artillery than he had used thus far north of Rome. The center of this line along the Orcia was the strongest, for on the east the river line gave way to hills and on the west the upper Ombrone River Valley formed a by-pass running toward Siena. The Orcia itself was easily fordable. The enemy garrison, however, was formidable, with part of the 20th GAF [German Air Force] Field Division, all of the 4th Parachute Division, and all of the 356th Grenadier Division from west to east; elements of the 26th Panzer and 29th Panzer Grenadier Divisions were also present. Although the total number of infantry in positions near the river did not appear to be large, crossfire from well sited automatic weapons raked the stream. After very little advance on the 22d the FEC [French Expeditionary Corps] put its emphasis on outflanking the line from the west. While the troops below the Orcia kept up their pressure, the Guillaume Group [the 1st Group of Tabors (battalion of Moroccan tribesmen) and the 1st Moroccan Infantry under General Guillaume], reinforced by the light armor of the 4th Moroccan Spahis, pushed north along the west side of the Ombrone, fording the river on the 24th and keeping pace with the 1st Armored Division on its left. The advance of IV Corps and the Guillaume Group began to unhinge the enemy line, and at noon on the 25th the 8th Moroccan Infantry succeeded in crossing the Orcia just west of Highway 2. Later in the day the 3rd Algerian Division to the left also crossed the stream against lighter opposition than previously. By the 26th the FEC was completely over the river; in the five days 22-26 June its casualties had amounted to 972 killed, wounded, and missing. To the right Eighth Army had also broken the section of the line before it, likewise after considerable casualties and fierce fighting. Throughout the 27th the enemy continued to resist stubbornly before the French, but in the night he began a hasty withdrawal, leaving behind delaying parties and demolitions to slow our advance on Siena. By 2 July we were close to the town, which the enemy promptly evacuated; at 0630, 3 July, Siena was in the hands of French troops. The advance continued despite further reliefs in the FEC for movement to Naples. All units of the 3rd Algerian Division had left by the 4th, being replaced by the 4th Mountain Division under General Sevez; the Pursuit Corps was also disbanded, and General Juin took over direct supervision of the remaining operations. At Poggibonsi and Colle di Val d’Elsa, on Highway 68 southwest of Poggibonsi, enemy opposition stiffened once again, but by the morning of the 7th the latter town was taken by the 4th Mountain Division. By evening all of Highway 68 was behind the forward elements of the FEC. Fifth Army was now everywhere up to or past the highway. On the left the 34th Division was already engaged in heavy battling on the approaches to Leghorn. Reliefs were planned to increase our strength on the right of IV Corps. To the east the French were ready to exploit the fall of Colle di Val d’Elsa, which had cleared Highway 68. The past two weeks had seen stiffening enemy resistance, resulting in the hardest fighting since the fall of Rome.» (Starr, id., p.285-286).

I deplore Pisa Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « Now the 34th Division was ready to pivot to the left and take Leghorn. The 135th infantry had been pushing slowly northwest over hilly country toward the port; on the 18th [July 1944] the 363d Regimental Combat Team returned to the 34th Division as Task Force Williamson under Brig. Gen. Raymond Williamson to execute a double thrust at Leghorn with the 135th Infantry. The latter continued its attack toward the southeastern part of the city while the 363d Infantry came in from the east, reaching the outskirts before midnight. At 0200, 19 July, the 3d Battalion, 135th Infantry, entered Leghorn after a brief skirmish with an enemy rear guard outside the city. The 2d battalion and the 1st and 2d Battalions, 363d Infantry, arrived a little more than two hours later. There was little fighting in the city, but it was found to be heavily mined and booby-trapped; almost all the port facilities were destroyed, and the harbor was partially blocked by sunken ships. In compliance with a corps order to advance the line completely to the Arno the 34th Division, now under Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, moved forward again on the 22d. The engineers had thrown bridges over the numerous canals north of Leghorn, and the troops reached the Arno without trouble. While the 442d and 168th Infantry came up on the right, the 363d Infantry entered Pisa at 1330, 23 July. The enemy had destroyed all bridges over the Arno and was content to hold the north bank. The rest of IV Corps was by this time already on the river. The 91st Division immediately to the right of the 34th Division had met stubborn German resistance in the first few days of its advance up the Era River valley, by 0800, 18 July, the advance guard of the 361st Infantry had reached Pontedera on the Arno. The division had closed up to the river by the 23rd. The other division in the line, the 88th under General Sloan, had taken over from the left elements of the 1st Armored Division on the 8th and likewise met considerable opposition in the first few days. To obviate attacking the high-lying town of Volterra our artillery and chemical mortars smoked it, and the division encircled it on the 8th, thus forcing the enemy to withdraw. At Laiatico, a small hilltop town eight miles northwest of Volterra, the Germans elected to make a stand before the 351st Infantry on the 11th, but in a second attack we took the town by a double envelopment which netted approximately 400 prisoners. Enemy resistance then slackened , and the division reached the high ground overlooking the Arno on the 18th. Since the FEC was somewhat behind IV Corps, task Force Ramey patrolled the east flank of the corps after 9 July, at first only with armor and then with some additional infantry from the 88th Division. The enemy had apparently expected the 1st Armored Division to continue the advance in this zone and had mined and booby-trapped almost every trail, but by methodical sweeping the force had gained the Arno by the 23d.» (Starr, id., p.290-291).

I deplore Modena Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « 1-14 April 1945. Everywhere on the level plain, which is highly cultivated and crisscrossed by ditches, there are roads, paved or graveled. From our lines north Highway 65 and 64 ran into Bologna, where the former ends; Highway 64 continues on to Ferrara, a short distance south of the Po. The main north-south road across the valley in the Army zone was highway 12, which originates at Pisa in the Arno Valley, crosses the mountains, and strikes Highway 9 at Modena. From Modena this highway continues almost due north across the Po at Ostiglia to the cities of Verona, Trent, and Bolzano, into the Brenner Pass, and eventually on to Austria. On the main front the emphasis had by now been shifted from Highway 65 to Highway 64 so as to work around the strong enemy defenses south of Bologna. Both II and IV Corps would attack abreast, the chief effort initially astride Highway 64 until the valley of Setta Creek had been cleared and the road junction of Praduro, 15 miles north of Vergato, had been gained. At this time the bulk of the troops would be concentrated west of the highway, ready to break out into the Po Valley between the Reno and Panaro. A minor effort would be made down Highway 65, but positions along this route were expected to fall relatively easily after the dominating high ground west of the road had been taken. The Americans to the west would be pointed roughly at Modena; the South Africans to the east would drive to encircle Bologna and gain contact with Eighth Army at Bondeno. It was also assumed that considerable time would elapse between the capture of Bologna on the one hand and the actual crossing of the Po on the other. Once the city was reached Highway 9 was to be developed as the main supply route for IV Corps, moving to the northwest, and Highway 12 for II Corps elements advancing north from Modena and Bologna toward Verona. Areas north and northwest of Bologna were tentatively chosen as future dump sites. Long study of photographs and maps of the Po resulted in the decision that the best possible crossing sites in the projected Army zone of attack were along a 20-mile stretch of the river extending from Ostiglia on Highway 12 west to Borgoforte, where the highway connecting Mantua and Reggio crossed the Po. Within this section of the river likely sites for assault crossings, ferries, and bridges were selected, and the engineers made careful plans for throwing floating and permanent bridges over the stream. Special emphasis in this planning was laid on the area between San Benedetto Po and Borgoforte, where the marshy ricefields about Ostiglia could be avoided; but a subsequent crossing at this latter site would be necessary to open up Highway 12 to Verona.» (Starr, id., p.390-393); 

« On 21 April [1945] Fifth Army launched the pursuit to the Po with II and IV Corps abreast, each in the strength of one armored division and two infantry divisions. Since Combat Command A [of the 1st Armored Division] had come up to Guastalla and Luzzaro on the west of the 10th Mountain Division during the morning of the 23d, IV Corps now held all its stretch of the Po and even had one division over the stream. The left bank of this penetration was protected until the 23d by Combat Command B [of the 1st Armored Division], battling up Highway 9 and blocking the roads from the mountains as it progressed. The Germans haggled over Panaro crossings east of Modena on the 22d and again on the next day at the Secchia west of that city, where Combat Command B, driving nearly due west south of the highway, was stopped. Modena itself was largely by-passed and left to the partisans to clear. The 34th division came up from Bologna and relieved the armor on Highway 9 on the 24th. Still farther to the left the Brazilian 1st Division emerged into the plain late on the 23d at Marano and Vignola and moved northwest along the foothills south of Highway 9. An interesting action was soon to develop in this area as the main forces of the Army continued their push north to Verona. On 21 April, as Bologna was being cleared, II Corps struck north for the Po. The pattern of resistance before II Corps bore some resemblance to that before IV Corps to the west. Units toward the Army center ran into less difficulty than those moving up on the right. The Panaro River constituted an obstacle which was more strongly defended around Finale on the eastern boundary than it was in the direction of Camposanto. The 1st and 4th Parachute Divisions suffered heavy losses but successfully covered Tenth Army’s flank in the retreat across the Po; the junction of Fifth and Eighth Armies near Bondeno was effected too late for maximum success.»
(Starr, id., p.419-424).

Nisse: = Nisse (X-87) = Nice (III-14, III-82, V-64, VII-30, IX-26).

I deplore NiceThe top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: Nice as a French territory occupied by Italy, then by Germany in WWII (cf. §821, I-71): « November 11, 1942 The [Italian] invasion of the French free zone. On 8 November [1942] at 22:45, the staff ordered General Vercellino to prepare for “the West Exigency”. The next day, the staff invited the Commander of the 4th Army to utilize all available automobile means in order to transport the greatest number of units possible; Vercellino replied that the deductions having been made, the possibilities of intervention should be limited to the basin of Modane and the county of Nice… On 10 November at 22:55 the staff ordered Vercellino to execute the West Exigency the next day… About 15 o’clock [November 11], the first soldiers of the 4th Army penetrated Nice, following the Promenade des Anglais with infantrymen, batteries of the horse artillery and motorized units in progressing toward the mouth of the Var, Cagnes-sur-Mer and Cannes.» (Panicacci, 2010, p.103-106); « The retaliations against the cities and the persons. Since 27 November 1942, the Commander of the 4th Army has anticipated the apprehension of the individuals caught in the act of defeatist propaganda, sabotage or cornering of arms. Another directive of December 4 invites the commanders of the large units, in case of attempt, to take hostages chosen among the obviously anti-Italian personalities: three hostages for an attempt without damage, five in case of material damages, ten in case of injured military, twenty for a soldier killed and forty for an officer killed.» (Panicacci, id., p.220-221); « July 7, 1944. In Nice, hanging of the two members of the Francs-Tireurs and Partisans, Torrin and Grassi, exposition of their corpses hooked up to the two street-lamps [The top being blood and blade], following the attempt having costed a German his life.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.425); « 19 August–11 September, 1944. After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. The 1st French Army of General Lattre de Tassigny undertakes the mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles. These cities fall on 27 and on 28 August 1944 respectively. Montpellier is free on 29. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28 [Fire, warfare, unhappy people].» (Kaspi, id., p.444).

Monnego: = Monech (II-4, III-10, IV-37, IV-91, VI-62, VIII-4, X-23) = Monaco = Monégasque, its adjective being monégasque. « Monaco. Principality, western Europe. The small state, an enclave in southeastern France, has a name that is popularly derived from Greek Monoikos, “solitary.” This was a byname of the god Hercules, and the name is said to refer to a statue of Hercules Monoecus that stood here in the 7th or 6th century B.C. However, the name is more likely to be of Ligurian origin, from monegu, “rock,” a word reflected in the national adjective Monegasque.» (Room, p.239-240).

I deplore MonacoFire, warfare, unhappy people: « The WWII liberation of Monaco Although the Principality of Monaco remained neutral state during World War II, this does not mean that it was not involved. With Monaco being fiercely contested by both Germany and Italy, it came down to Louis II, the reigning Prince at the time, to try and keep his country safe. Louis II was the son of Prince Albert I and his first wife Lady Mary Hamilton. When his parents divorced, Louis moved to Germany with his mother, growing up at the court of the Grand Duke of Baden. Therefore he was fluent in German and well connected to the German Aristocracy. Little did he know how important these connections would become when war broke out less than 20 years after he succeeded his father in 1922. When the Germans occupied France in May 1940, they were careful to leave Monaco alone as they wanted Monaco to remain a centre for German international banking and commerce, something they first started building towards in 1933. Therefore when Mussolini and his troops declared war on France a month later and marched troops into Monaco, they were forced to retreat by the Germans. After the brief Italian invasion, Louis declared his support for the Vichy regime under Marshall Petain, an old colleague from when Louis was in the French army. He was put under extreme pressure by the Germans to register all Jews, a pressure to which he finally conceded when he passed a law to this effect on 3rd July 1941. Several German and Austrian Jews that had fled to Monaco were handed over to the Nazi regime. Although often seen as a collaboration, Louis II was left with little choice when caught between the two superpowers of Italy and Germany. In November 1942 Italian troops reoccupied Monaco until the fall of Mussolini, when German troops drove them out and occupied Monaco themselves. The Germans occupied for just under a year, between 8th September 1943 and 3rd September 1944. Although their main goal was to apprehend Jewish people, the local police service made it very difficult by risking their lives to warn people when a Gestapo visit was about to take place. Prince Rainier III succeeded the throne in May 1944 after his mother renounced her succession rights, a few months before German occupation ended in 3rd September that year. This day is now celebrated as Liberation Day despite the fact that the Allied troops only officially liberated Monaco on 6th September. After Monaco’s liberation, Prince Rainier III joined the French army and took part in the liberation of Alsace, receiving the American Bronze Star Medal for his actions.» (Riviera Insider, 2016, Sat, 09/03/2016 - 07:00); « The requisitions of immovables. Hotels, castles, villas, immovables were requisitioned to install the staffs there or lodge there officers from the banks of Lake Leman till those of the Mediterranean. It was the case…, in Principality of Monaco, for the Grand Hotel and the Hotel des Princes… The stadium and the SNCF [National Society of French Railway] Station of Monaco accommodated the units of the 4th Army.» (Panicacci, 2010, p.170-172).

I deplore Savona
Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « Hermann Wygoda was born in Offenbach, on November 18, 1906, the eldest of Maier and Chana Wygoda’s two sons. He and his younger brother, Leon, were raised in the traditions of Judaism. Chana saw to it that her sons acquired her native Polish language, and the summers that the boys spent in her hometown of Kossow with her blacksmith father, Samuel, ensured their fluency in both Polish and German. After Maier was killed in World War I, Chana was left to raise her boys alone. Eventually the family moved to Kossow, where Chana took work as a professional matchmaker and Leon made a living in cabinetmaking. Hermann obtained an engineering degree from Warsaw Polytechnic Institute, served as a lieutenant in the Polish Army, and worked as a civil engineer specializing in the construction of bridges. He moved to Berlin, the most vital city for the European intelligentsia of the 1930s, where he worked in industry until 1929. Hermann then returned to Poland, a country in which three million Jews would soon be annihilated. He married a woman whose name is now unknown, and in 1934, before separating, they had a son Samuel. While Hermann remained in Warsaw, his young son went to live in Kossow with Chana and Leon. Hermann’s memoirs begin on September 1, 1939, when the Nazis invaded Poland. With this first day of bombing and terror, World War II began. En route to Poland, trains carrying German soldiers bore the slogan “We’re going to Poland to beat up the Jews.” Unlike many Jews who were forced into hiding, Hermann moved with relative ease through the early years of the war by successfully masking his Jewish identity and posing as an ethnic German. His physical appearance, fluency in German, and bold nature saved his life several times on any given day. His travels during the war took him from Poland to Estonia, Finland, and Germany, before he escaped from an Italian prison and headed into the mountains of Northern Italy. From a solitary life in a cave, he became “Enrico,” the leader of a large partisan division fighting against the Nazis and the Fascists; he did this despite his nationality and religion, which differed from those of the hundreds of men and women under his Command… [Introduction by Deborah Klezmer] » (Wygoda, 1998, p.xvii-xviii).

« I was again in Berlin, and Leon and I began plotting our future course of action. We are reasonably sure that sooner or later we would be in danger of being unmasked and would end up before a firing squad or worse. The longer we stayed in Berlin, the greater the probability of discovery. We decided that we should be prepared to leave at a moments’s notice if the opportunity presented itself. I tried to take advantage of my position with the [Jonas Ferret and] company as much as I could… Leon and I had it in our minds to leave Berlin in the near future. Daily the situation in Berlin became more confusing. After an exhaustive debate, we finally narrowed our choice to two countries: Italy and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia appealed to us because of the partisan activity there, as well as the ease with which we could have adapted ourselves linguistically. Italy was attractive because of the latest happenings in that country; they had just thrown out Mussolini in a revolution and were trying to cut their hands of friendship with Nazi Germany. In such an atmosphere, we reasoned, we could eventually reach the Allied forces with the help of the local population. We decided on Italy. I knew from my activity in Berlin that a firm by the name of Lorentz and Company, with headquarters in Danzig, had recently sent some men to Italy in the general area of Genoa. The following day I went to my friends the beaurocrats in Grunewald and found out the exact location of the Lorentz company in Italy. The company field office was in the province of Savona. On December 15, 1943, I filled out the documents and the necessary travel orders. The destination: Lorentz and Company, Savona, Italy… We finally boarded the train for Italy. The trip through Austria was uneventful, except that whenever we stopped at a station, there was always a waiting train loaded with Italian prisoners of war. That was the first time Leon and I had ever seen any Italian military men… I awoke suddenly to Leon’s announcement that we were in Italy. I opened the window and read in large letters “Tarvisio,” the name of the station.» (Wygoda, id., p.83-88).

« We arrived in Milan early in the morning of December 20, 1943, and reported to the Lorentz company agent. It was a routine matter, and we were promptly processed for further travel to our final destination-the city of Savona. By afternoon we’d reached Genoa, but for administrative reasons we had to stop in Varazze and stay there overnight. At the main company office in Varazze, we were added to a roster and told to report to a man named Fichtner in Savona, where the engineering offices of the Lorentz company were located. The next morning we were taken by car to Savona, where we were promptly introduced to Fichtner, a civil engineer who managed the office. He was visibly elated to see us, particularly since he had expected no help from any quarter. He assigned us rooms in the military compound on Corso-Rici, the location of both the company offices and OT [Organization Todt] headquarters. Fichtner was in the organizational phase of a project he was to complete for the German military authorities. He outlined to us his assignment: to build a system of fortifications extending from Savona to Varazze. Fichtner consented to my request that I move out of the military compound and locate myself in an albergo, or inn in the town of Celle-Ligure, which was the center of my activity. After a couple of weeks, I managed to have Leon join me there. My next job was to prepare the preliminary groundwork for a defensive wall along the beach as well as defensive bunkers in the hills facing the Mediterranean coast. In the meantime, they extended my sector somewhat more south of Varazze. Still, the work thus far was preliminary, since the Lorentz company as yet had neither the materials nor the workers necessary for the job… The work proceeded feverishly day and night while we played hide-and-seek games with the American fliers. They made a habit of coming over from Corsica at least seven times a day on their bombing runs to the Savona port area, which the Nazis used to supply troops in the south by way of motor barges travelling at night. Sometimes the Americans dropped a bomb on our job.» (Wygoda, id., p.93-96).

« A few weeks later [about the middle of March, 1944] I was approached near the farm by two armed men who introduced themselves as members of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (Committee of National Liberation). It was the first time I had ever heard that name, but I understood its meaning. They wanted me to follow them to a certain place to meet a representative of the CLN, so I went with them to meet that mysterious person. After a short march we entered a house where I met a rather distinguished older gentleman. He introduced himself as Simon and his companion as Leone. Those were the only names they gave me. They claimed to be well-informed about me and wanted to know whether I would be interested in assuming command of a group of partisans who were already organized and active. Simon said they were all local men and almost all were formerly in the military, including a few who were former officers… I was to become known as “Enrico.”» (Wygoda, id., p.108-109).

« The document reads, “Committee for National Liberation Voluntary Liberation Corps. 2d Ligurian Zone Headquarters. Savona 17 May 1945. We certify that the Volunteer Enrico Vigoda joined the Voluntary Liberation Corps of the Committee for National Liberation in May 1944. Afterward he was given the command of the 20th Garibaldi Brigade, which was later named the 2d Brigade, located in the mountain area of the Savona province (Monte Sette Pani). He was then commander of the 4th Assault Brigade Daniele Manin, and in February 1945 he was appointed commander of the Garibaldi Assault Division “Gin Bevilacqua,” a command that he held until 25 April 1945. During this time he participated in all war actions against the Nazi fascists, resisted the enemy, and bravely withstood the rigid winter season, always behaving as a good partisan.”» (Wygoda, id.,
between pp.110-111 Document issued by the Committee of National Liberation certifying the author’s role in the Italian partisan movement).

I deplore Genoa
The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy – La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§837 The Germano-Italian Axis; Malta and Genoa (1940-1945): IV-68.

IV-68 (§837):

In the year at a point nearest Venus, at another not remote from Venus,
The two greatest of Asia and of Africa who
Shall have come, they’ll say, from the Rhine and Danube,
Cries, weeps in Malta and in the Ligurian direction.

(En l'an bien proche non esloigné de Venus,
Les deux plus grans de l'Asie & d'Affrique
Du Ryn & hister qu'on dira sont venus,
Crys, pleurs à Malte & costé ligustique.)

NOTES: About this extremely ambiguous quatrain, the various significant comments bequeathed to us by our predecessors may induce us to its clearer understanding: « Asia = Russia.» (Fontbrune, 1939, p.172); « In 1941... certainly, those who “have come from the Rhine and Danube” have traveled far this year. There are German armies on the march in Russia and Africa... Doubtless many Axis air raids upon Malta have evoked “cries and tears” and British battleships bombarded Genoa on February 9, 1941 [cf. Kaspi, p.117], pouring thundering broadsides into the hapless port. Lygustique is used for Genoa by poetic license, being derived from the old Roman and modern Italian province of Liguria, whereof Genoa is the capital. The Hitler-Mussolini alliance... » (Boswell, 1941, p.226-227); « Malta represents England... The great one of Africa is Mussolini.» (Lamont, 1944, p.185); « A clear prophecy for Hitler, the Axis Alliance, and early battles of World War II. The first [of the two greatest ones] is Italy represented here by her extensive African colonies.» (Hogue, 1997, p.351); « The translators who insist upon reading Hister as Hitler tend to ignore the disconcerting fact that Nostradamus used the same river name in another verses.» (Ovason, 1939, p.297).

In order to analyse right the most difficult verse of the first line, it is necessary for us to begin with relatively more understandable phrases of the second, and then the third:

The two greatest of Asia and of Africa: These qualifications seem to refer respectively to Hitler and Mussolini at the apogee of their aggressive expansionism in the middle of 1942 because:

1° Hitler has then occupied the south-western part of the USSR (cf.
Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 17-4 Barbarossa and back), anciently called “SAVROME” (§800, III-58): = « Sauromatae, See Sarmatae.» (Smith-Lockwood); « Sarmatae, pl. the Sarmatians; a barbarous people, who occupied the eastern parts of Europe; esp. portions of S.E. Russia; Sarmatia, their country.» (Smith-Lockwood); « SARMATIE (Sarmatia), A vast region which extended, in Europe and in Asia, between the Baltic Sea and the Caspian Sea, north of the Black Sea. It was divided into Occidental or European Sarmatia and Oriental or Asiatic Sarmatia. The first contained the countries now called Russia of Europe and Poland; the second included a part of the countries designated under the names of Siberia and Tartary and those situated between the Tanaïs [the Don], the Caucassus and the Caspian Sea.» (Landais).

According to Ptolemy (Tetrabiblos, p.128-159), our inhabited world is divided roughly into four quarters by the two grand crossed lines: the north-west quarter, the south-east quarter, the north-east quarter and the south-west quarter, in other words, Europe, the South of Greater Asia, the North of Greater Asia and Libya (today Africa); the vertical line of demarcation passes the Red Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and the horizontal line of demarcation passes the Mediterranean and its eastern prolongation of moutainous terrain; the point of intersection is situated at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean in the south-eastern open sea off the island of Cyprus.

« Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, embracing Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana,... [note by the translator: Of these Armenia lies south of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian; Matiana and Hyrcania are around the south end of the Caspian, the former to the east and the latter to the west; Bactriana, Oxiana, and Sogdiana are still further east, around the upper courses of the Oxus; by Casperia is probably meant the region around the northern part of the Caspian Sea; Serica is China, or its western portion, and Sauromatica (called Sarmatia by the Romans) is the general name of Russia, here used of its Asiatic part. In the Geography, vi. 12, Ptolemy treats Oxiana as but one part of Sogdiana (Boll, Studien, p.205).].» (Tetrabiblos, p.145).

2° Mussolini’s « Italy represented here by her extensive African colonies [i.e., Lybia, Italian East Africa and Ethiopia]» (Hogue, id.) (cf. Duby, p.263 Chart C. The Partition of Africa).

Venir (To come): « V
ENIR DE.(To come from). 1° (With a complement marking the start point of displacement, the origin of the movement, the provenance). 2° (With a complement of origin). To come from, to spring from.» (Petit Robert).

Du Ryn & hister qu'on dira sont venus (who shall have come, they’ll say, from the Rhine and Danube): These two greatest rivers of Occidental Europe figuratively represent the above mentioned “two greatest of Asia and Africa”, namely Hitler and Mussolini above all in their resemblance of characteristcs because the sources of their principal branches (the Julia of the Rhine and the Inn of the Danube) are situated respectively upon the opposite side of the same watershed which crosses the summit of the Julierpass (2,284m above sea level) in Albula Alpen, Switzerland (cf. RV Verlag, Euro Atlas Die Alpen, p.33, 34 and 52); « Mussolini agreed to sign a formal military alliance with Germany. He dubbed it the Pact of Steel, and Ciano signed it on May 22 in Berlin. The Pact of Steel put the official stamp on the Rome-Berlin Axis. But although it involved the fates of millions of Italians and Germans, the alliance was based almost exclusively on the personal relationship between the two dictators, many of whose own advisors expressed indifference or outright hostility over the new partnership. Hitler and Mussolini paid them no mind. Indeed, the two leaders found plenty of common ground. For one thing, they were both essentially self-educated men who had risen from humble beginnings. Having been underestimated by the opposition, they had skillfully exploited the explosive political atmosphere following World War I by playing on fears of communism, making deals with big business, and preaching a sermon of nationalism in which both men genuinely believed. Despite some public comments to the contrary, both reveled in the idea of aggressive war and sought to expand their power and prestige at the expense of other nations. Neither knew much about such practical affairs of state as economics. T varying degrees, Hitler and the Duce both employed violence for the purpose of silencing potential enemies and achieving their political ends. Both dictators also understood the value of propaganda and the importance of politics as theater. Both had studied and praised a book by Gustave Le Bon called The crowd, which discusses the nature of mass psychology, and compelling oratory was given a central place in their respective bids for power. They also believed that the very personality of a charismatic leader could be a crucial factor in the success of a political movement. Each man carried on a long-term affair with a much younger woman. Hitler enjoyed the company of the innocuous but steadfastly loyal Eva Braun. Mussolini, who was married and had fathered several children, carried on a stormy affair with the more flamboyant Claretta Petacci. Both men later died in the company of their mistresses, each of whom made a conscious decision to share the fate of her lover. Hitler and the Duce were solitary souls who lived almost exclusively for their exercise of their personal power and the goal of national greatness, as they defined it. Over time, Hitler succeeded in convincing himself that he was the human embodiment of the German state, the infallible Messiah without whom Germany could not achieve true greatness. In similar fashion, Mussolini was billed as a modern incarnation of the ancient Caesars, an all-knowing scholar-warrior who worked tirelessly to elevate Italy’s position in the world at the expense of his personal comforts... To Hitler, Mussolini was that rarest birds: a world leader on his own level. In other words, Hitler viewed the Duce as a fellow Nietzschean Superman. Yet there was always an intangible element in Hitler’s feelings toward the Duce – a depth of emotion – that exceeded political calculations. But Hitler was nonetheless aware that his alliance with Italy was more of a burden than an asset. “The Axis must face the fact that it is saddled with Italy,” Hitler admitted in May 1943, a few months before the Italian coup. Yet through it all, Hitler genuinely spoke of Mussolini with admiration and warmth. Mussolini’s feelings toward Hitler were more complicated. Over time, Mussolini became impressed with Germany’s military might and what he viewed as the powerful personality of the Fuerer. The Duce, who was wont to say that Italy had too many guitar players and not enough warriors, was instinctively drawn to strength, which Hitler exuded in spades. “Nothing about Hitler aroused his Italian co-dictator’s envy more than his soldiers,” observed Eugen Dollmann, who as an interpreter had observed the two men together on numerous occasions, “and this was the fatal origin of their curious friendship, which was based on a truly Freudian mixture of love and hatred. Everything the Fuerer had – Stukas, tanks, submarines, countless divisions, paratroops, elite corps – the Duce wanted too, heedless of his limited resources and the total lack of interest and enthusiasm evinced by the overwhelming majority of his people.” Once World War II had broken out, Mussolini was also fascinated by Hitler’s military successes, “the only successes that Mussolini really values and desires,” according to Ciano.» (Annussek, 2005, p.47-56).

Each of the two elements of the expression « Ryn & hister » are not to be allotted to either of the two dictators in such a way as the Rhine to Hitler and the Danube to Mussolini or the Rhine to Mussolini and the Danube to Hitler, which has no pertinent reason because in the text of the edition № 9 of the Prophecies of Nostradamus we can see the typography « hilter [a perfect anagram of Hitler] » in place of « Hister » found in the other editions and even if « hilter » is considered to be allotted to Hitler, then « Ryn » has no cause to be drawn to Mussolini. It is reasonable that the expression « Ryn & hister » is a single, indivisible unit with a meaning of the common characteristics of the two men.

Cries, weeps in Malta
: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War: - First RAF bombing raids on Italian airfields in Libya and E. Africa cause great damage (3 British aircraft lost). 2 Italian raids on Malta; 35 civilians, 6 British soldiers killed.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « JANUARY 16 [1941] Air War: - Stukas escorted by Italian fighters raid Malta, inflicting further damage on carrier Illustrious and damaging cruiser Perth. (Illustrious again damaged by bombing Jan. 19).» (Argyle, id., p.55); « MARCH 23 [1941] Air War: - Stukas with fighter escort carry out major raid on Malta: 13 Stukas shot down (2 RAF fighters lost), but British decide on immediate withdrawal of all bombers and flying boats.» (Argyle, id., p.58); « MARCH 1 [1942] Air War: - Severe raids on Malta. RAF night raid on shipping at Tripoli.» (Argyle, id., p.87); « MARCH 4 [1942] Air War: - 394 raids on Malta, by day and night, over previous 2 months.» (Argyle, id., p.88); « MARCH 21 [1942] Air War – Heavy raids on Malta.» (Argyle, id., p.89); « APRIL 3 [1942] Air War: - Luftwaffe spokesman admits that the Luftwaffe has been unable to neutrarize Malta because of its ‘tremendously strong’ anti-aircraft defences and subterranean storerooms.» (Argyle, id., p.90); « APRIL 16 [1942] Home Front: MaltaGEORGE CROSS AWARDED TO MALTA in recognition of untold heroism of entire civilian and military population during countless enemy raids.» (Argyle, id., p.91); « OCTOBER 11 [1942] Air War – Axis air forces launch final major air offensive against Malta – but Spitfires inflict heavy losses.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « NOVEMBER 8 [1942] Air War – Luftwaffe losses in Malta raids, Jan.1-Nov. 8, 1942: 172 bombers and 99 fighters.» (Argyle, id., p.111).

Cries, weeps in the Ligurian direction
: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy – La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).

En l'an bien proche non esloigné de Venus (Literally: In the year very near not remote from Venus): = In the year [at a date] very near [to Venus], [at another] not remote from Venus = [At a date] very near [to Venus], [at another] not remote from Venus in the year.

The seemingly incongruous expression: « bien proche non esloigné de Venus » is to be divided into the two different natural expressions: « bien proche de Venus » and « non esloigné de Venus », which are referring respectively to Hitler and Mussolini as to their date of birth which is situated at a certain temporal point in a year marked by a month and a day. And « Venus » as a zodiacal sign can designate a certain period of a year through its domiciles: Taurus (21 April-20 May) and Libra (23 September-21 October) (cf. Brind’Amour, 1993, p.322; Nagata, 1982, p.242).

Now the date of birth of Hitler is 20 April 1889 and that of Mussolini 29 July 1883: the former is very close to Taurus  (20-21 April) [bien proche de Venus] and the latter is not far from Libra (29 July-23 September) [non esloigné de Venus].

By the way, the birth-place of Hitler is predicted in the quatrain III-58 (§800) as « Near the Rhine of the Austrian mountains Shall be born a great of the people (Aupres du Rin des montaignes Noriques Naistra un grand de gents) », where « at first view, it seems strange to say that the Rhine is in the “mountains of Austria”, which is, with respect to this river, just on the opposite side of Germany. But in fact ‘Rin (the Rhine)’ is composed of R. and IN and will signify “the River INN” that in truth traverses “Noricum” and upon which is situated the town of Braunau, where Hitler shall be born. On the other hand, one can take the word Rin in its etymological sense, that will signify “river” and in this way we are shown the river that passes the “Austrian mountains”, which is not but the Inn.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.492). In this context, Hitler is said to be born upon the Inn which is a principal branch of the Danube. Therefore the Danube of the quatrain IV-68 may be allotted to him, while Mussolini, next to Hitler in politico-military strength of their state, is somehow worth the Rhine, the second longest river of the Occidental Europe next to the Danube. On the contrary, the longest river is naturally fitting to the senior Mussolini six years older than Hitler. And as a whole, the Rhine is situated mainly in Germany, Hitler’s own Reich, and the Danube is more adjacent to Italy of Mussolini. In conclusion, the two rivers are needless to be identified with them.

As to the birth-place of Mussolini, the quatrain IX-2 (§771) predicted in a roundabout way as follows: « Rome rejected by Rimini and Prato (D'Arimin Prato, Columna debotez) »: « Mussolini had begun to write his autobiography: I was born on July 29, 1883 at Varnano dei Costa, near the village of Dovia itself near that of Predappio. The village of Predappio is situated upon the axis Rimini-Prato, equally distant from the two cities, or about 50 km apart.» (Fontbrune, 1980, p.324); Columna: = « Colonne in Italy.» (Fontbrune, id., p.323) = Colonna, a small town near Rome to its east, representing the parties in opposition in the political centre Rome.

Thus, the place and the date of the two contemporary homogeneous dictators are completely set up in the Prophecies of Nostradamus.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§836 The Sun in Aquarius, 1944 (1944.1.22): VI-52.

VI-52 (§836):

At the place of the great who shall be condemned,
His friend in his place shall make him out of prison:
The Trojan hope in six months attained, shall be annihilated,
Shall be born with the Sun in Aquarius, the rivers in ice shall be breached.

(En lieu du grand qui sera condemné,
De prison hors son amy en sa place:
L'espoir Troyen en six moys joinct, mort nay,
Le Sol à l'urne seront prins fleuves en glace.)

NOTES: At the place of the great who shall be condemned, His friend in his place shall make him out of prison: = At the place [Gran Sasso] of the great [Benito Mussolini] who shall be condemned [who shall be arrested and prisoned], His friend [Adolf Hitler, his ally] in his place [Italy’s master occupying her] shall make him out of prison (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.531).

Troyen (Trojan): Of the 5 usages of the term: Troyen/Troien in all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 4 in the same expression "sang Troyen (the Trojan blood)" refer to the French King Henri IV (I-19, II-61, V-74 and V-87: "The French in the 16th century considered themselves issuing from a Trojan Francus" - Brind'Amour, 1993, p.36) and 1 to the city of Rome (VI-52). 

L'espoir Troyen (The Trojan hope): « According to the tradition, the Romans were the descendants of the Trojans who, after the destruction of Troy, settled themselves with Eneas in Latium. This city is therefore a metonymy of Rome. “The Trojan hope” is then the hope of the Allies to occupy Rome, in imitation of the hope of the ancient Greeks to occupy Troy.» (Ionescu, id.); « SEPTEMBER 3 Sea War Med. INVASION OF CALABRIA (S. Italy): 13th Corps (8th Army) crosses from Sicily to Reggio di Calabria preceded by 900-gun barrage (Op. Baytown). SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – British capture Salerno. Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. SEPTEMBER 11 British 8th Army capture Brindisi.» (Argyle, 1980, p.135-140); « SEPTEMBER 9 Sea War: Med. ALLIES LAND AT SALERNO: US 5th Army (Lt.-Gen. Mark Clark) and British 10th Corps land at Salermo, S. of Naples (Op. Avalanche).» (Argyle, 1980, p.139).

Joindre: « JOINDRE. Atteindre (To attain, to reach), rejoindre [qqn] (to rejoin [someone]).» (Petit Robert).

L’urne: « A metaphor for Aquarius (22 January – 22 February).» (Ionescu, id.).

L'espoir Troyen en six moys joinct, mort nay, Le Sol à l'urne: The duly punctuated construction will be as follows: L'espoir Troyen en six moys joinct [sera] mort [et sera] nay [quand] le Sol [sera] à l'urne = The Trojan hope in six months attained shall be annihilated, shall be born with the Sun in Aquarius.

The Trojan hope in six months attained: « The Allied invasion of mainland Italy in September 1943 had seemed a good idea at the same time, with the collapse of Fascism and the promise of airfields... Wishful thinking that the Allies would soon be in Rome [The Trojan hope in six months attained] had infected American commanders as well as Churchill. Mark Clark was absolutely determined to be crowned as its conqueror, and even Eisenhower believed that the Italian capital would fall by the end of October. Alexander [the commander of the Allied 15th Army Group in Italy including British Eighth Army and US Fifth Army] declared unwisely that they would be in Florence by Christmas.» (Beevor, 2012, p.528-529).

The Trojan hope in six months attained shall be annihilated: « But there were already clear indications that the Germans would fight ruthlessly in retreat and take their revenge on Italian troops and partisans, who were actively helping the Allies. Hitler’s fury against the Italians for having changed sides had filtered right down to the ordinary German soldier. Clark’s Fifth Army, advancing north-west from Naples, faced its first major obstacle at the River Volturno, thirty kilometres further on. In the early hours of 13 October, both divisional and corps artillery opened a massive barrage across the valley. The British 56th Division had a tough time near the coast, but the main stretch of the river, although broad, was fordable, and by the following day a large bridgehead had been secured. The Volturno was only a holding position for the Germans, for Kesselring had already identified their main line of defence south of Rome. Like Hitler, he wanted to hold the Allies as far down the peninsula as possible. Rommel, who commanded the German divisions in the north and argued for a withdrawal, had been sidelined. Both Allied armies discovered in the next stage of the advance that the mountainous terrain and the weather did not present the ‘sunny Italy’ which they had imagined from pre-war tourist posters. That autumn in Italy was like the Russian rasputitsa of constant rain and deep mud. Late autumn downpours turned the rivers to raging torrents and tracks to quagmires, ant the retreating Germans had blown every bridge and mined every route. The Germans conducted their withdrawal with defended roadblocks and mines, covered by well-camouflaged anti-tank guns. Narrow roads in narrow valleys, and well-defende hilltop villages, meant that the infantry had to take over point position. Less than thirty kilometres north of the Volturno, the advance came to a complete halt. The Gustav or Winter Line, selected by Kesselring, ran 140 kilometres from just below Ortona on the Adriatic to the Gulf of Gaeta on the Tyrrhenian side. This was the narrowest part of the Italian boot and well chosen for defence. The Gustav Line had the natural fortress of Monte Cassino as its main strongpoint. All the unguarded optimism of the Allied commanders evaporated... [The Trojan hope in six months attained shall be annihilated].» (Beevor, id., p.529-530).

The Trojan hope shall be born with the Sun in Aquarius: « It was decided to defeat the Gustav Line, anchored on Monte Cassino, by outflanking it in force: the Allies would land General Lukas’ US/British Vi Corps on the west coast at Anzio (Operation Shingle), only 30 miles south of Rome. The plan was to push rapidly inland to cut the enemy’s lines of communication between Rome and the Gustav Line, drawing forces north. The US 3rd and British 1st Infantry Divisions went ashore virtually unopposed on 22 January 1944 [the Sun in Aquarius]...» (Brayley, 2002, p.21).

The rivers in ice: « Le front restera glacé (The fronts shall remain stabilized).» (Ionescu, id., p.532).

The river in ice shall be breached:
« ... But General Lukas then dug in to wait for a build-up of resources, rather than dashing inland. The Germans quickly took advantage of this delay, sealing off the beachhead, where men and assets badly needed elsewhere were bottled up for four months, with damaging results. The British 5th & 56th Infantry Divisions from X Corps were shipped in to join the 1st Division during February and March. The Gustav Line, with its western strongpoint of Monte Cassino blocking any advance up the Liri Valley towards Rome, would have to be taken by frontal assault. Anzio had been intended to draw German forces away from Cassino: now it became essential to draw them away from beleaguered Anzio by pushing hard at Cassino. Between January and May 1944, in atrocious weather, some of the bitterest fighting of the war took place during four separate and costly battles to take Cassino. British divisions involved were 5th, 46th & 56th on the Garigliano in January/February; 2nd NZ & 4th Indian, mid-February and mid-March; 78th British, 3rd & 5th Polish Divisions, mid-May. The pulverised ruins of Cassino town and the infamous monastery eventually fell in mid-May 1944 [8 months after Reggio-Salerno landing], with 8th Army formations switched to the west flank to join the US 5th Army and the Free French Corps in the drive up the Liri (Operation ‘Diadem’ – 4th & 78th British, 8th Indian & 1st Canadian Infantry Divisions of XIII Corps). Simultaneously the defenders of the Anzio beachhead broke out. The Germans pulled back to their prepared ‘Hitler’ [cf. Beevor, 2012, p.490 Chart: Sicily and Italy
July 1943 – June 1944] and ‘Dora’ lines, but despite hard rearguard fighting General Alexander’s advance prevented them from consolidating and they were soon pushed north [The river in ice shall be breached]. The glory of taking Rome – an undefended ‘open city’ – proved too much of a lure for General Clark; he diverged from his agreed axis of advance, opening a gap between the US and British armies through which the retreating German 10th Army escaped. He achieved his ambition of liberating Rome on 5 June; but by a twist of fate he was denied much of the fame he had no doubt expected – the following day the Allied landings in Normandy reduced his parade to a side show in the world’s news media.» (Brayley, id., p.21-22.).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§835 Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia, dismissal and death (1934-1945): IX-95.

IX-95 (§835):

The new incident shall conduct the army
Near Apamea till close to the coast,
Bringing relief of Milanese elite,
The Duke deprived of his eyes iron of a cage in Milan.


(Le nouveau faict conduyra l'exercite,
Proche apamé jusques aupres du rivage,
Tendant secour de Milanoise eslite,
Duc yeulx privé à Milan fer de caige.)

NOTES: The theme will be found in the comments: « The French duc literally is the English “duke” and easily becomes the Italian duce (“leader”) if imaginative semantics are brought into play.» (Boswell, 1941, p.274-275); « A mob of rebellious soldiers aided by civilians captured and lynched Mussolini and his paramour at Milan in April 1945.» (Roberts, 1969, p.301).

The new incident shall conduct the army Near Apamea till close to the coast
: These verses seem to express the invasion of Ethiopia by the Fascists’ army in 1935. Before the operation, Italian grand troops [the army], equipment, ammunitions and supplies had been transported by sea from Italy to Italian East Africa (Somaliland and Eritrea) to invade Ethiopia [till close to the coast] via the Suez Canal [near Apamea in Syria] and the Red Sea [the coast].

Exercite: « s.m., armée (an army).» (Godefroy).

Apamé: = Apamea in Syria; « 
Ἀπάμεια [Apameia], Apamée, vv. de Syrie, de Parthie et de Bithynie (Apamea, cities of Syria, of Parthia [in Iran] and of Bithynia [in Turkey]).» (Pillon). Of these three, Syrian Apamea, being the nearest to the Suez Canal, is the most fitting to the context of the quatrain.

Le nouveau faict: = The new incident: « Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Italian colonial expansion in Eritrea led in 1895 to a full-scale war since the Abyssinians considered Eritrea to be their natural littoral. The Abyssinians, under Emperor Menelek (reigned 1889-1913), decisively defeated the Italians at Adowa (March 1st, 1896) and were thus the one independent people in Africa after the era of imperial partition. The country remained backward until the accession of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930, when a programme of reform was undertaken. Friction with the Italians on the Eritrean and Somali frontiers increased with the advent of Mussolini’s forward policy and his obvious desire to ‘avenge Adowa’. Although a treaty of friendship was signed between Italy and Abyssinia in 1928 frontier incidents continued, culminating in a serious clash at the oasis of Walwal (December 5th, 1934) in which 100 Ethiopians and 30 Italian colonial troops were killed [the new incident]. The dispute was referred to the League of Nations but the Italians were determined to secure a military success and invaded Abyssinia, without a declaration of war, on October 3rd, 1935. Despite a declaration by the League branding Italy as an aggressor and imposing limited sanctions, the Italians captured Addis Ababa on May 5th, 1936, with the help of air power, mechanized equipment and poison gas. King Victor Emmanuel of Italy was thereupon proclaimed Emperor while Haile Selassie went into exile. Five years later Ethiopian levies helped the British reconquer the country and expel the Italians and Haile Selassie returned to his throne (May 5th, 1941).» (Palmer, p.2-3).

The new incident shall conduct the army Near Apamea till close to the coast
: « In January, 1934 Italy began her military preparations against Abyssinia; this work went on through the whole of the year. In October an attack was made against the Italian consulate at Gondar; the Italians had become increasingly unpopular in Ethiopia. On December 5th some Italians were murdered at Ual-Ual in Abyssinia and the justification for the war was found. On January 7th, 1935, France signed a treaty with Italy recognising her right to occupy Abyssinia. This treaty sealed the fate of the Njegus and his country; it also put France in a difficult position when her traditional ally, Great Britain, objected so strongly to the Italian plans. In the same month the first troops were sent off to Ethiopia. General De Bono took over the governorship of Italian East Africa. During the year Italy sent half a million men, fifty thousand pack-horses and mules, ten thousand motor-cars and an immense amount of armaments to East Africa. In April the General Command was formed. It sounds almost tragi-comic to remember that as late as May 25th, 1935, Abyssinia concluded an agreement with Egypt about the building of locks on Lake Tana. War began ‘officially’ on October 2nd.» (Campanelli, 1939, p.117-118).

« Why didn’t Britain attempt to hinder Italy’s 1935 invasion of Abyssinia by preventing the Italian fleet from using the Suez Canal? - Answered by Roger Moorhouse, author of Berlin at War. April 11, 2011 at 11:08 am: With the benefit of hindsight, it seems quite sensible to suggest that the British could have hindered the Italian invasion of Abyssinia by blocking a passage through the Suez Canal. The Italians were, after all, entirely dependent on the canal for access to east Africa and the Royal Navy was more than able to undertake such an operation. However, from the perspective of 1935, there were a number of factors that conspired to stay Britain’s hand. Firstly, and most importantly, Britain was extremely wary of alienating Mussolini, who was still seen as an important counterweight to the greater threat posed by Hitler’s Germany, and indeed had only recently been brought into the ‘Stresa Front’ with Britain and France, which sought to contain Hitler. Moreover, the public mood in Britain was still largely pacifist in 1935. The principle of collective security had not yet been shown to have failed, and consequently there was a widespread desire to defer to the League of Nations in dealing with Mussolini’s aggression. Sanctions did, of course, follow, but these were largely ineffectual. There was also the issue of logistics. Given that Italy had two other colonies in east Africa – Eritrea and Somaliland – and that much of the build up of troops and materiel began well before the invasion itself, it would have been very difficult for the British to second-guess Italian intentions, let alone act in such a precipitate and aggressive manner. The Italian invasion of Abyssinia would carry profound strategic consequences: undermining the ideals of collective security and ultimately propelling Mussolini into an ever-closer relationship with Hitler. Yet, Britain had little desire to hinder Italy’s actions by closing the Suez Canal. In the face of the more serious and immediate threat posed by Hitler, few were willing to alienate Mussolini by frustrating his ambitions in far-off east Africa.» (Historyextra, April 11, 2011).

Milanese elite: « On December 1st, 1912, Benito Mussolini became managing editor of Avanti ! Just before he left Forli for his new office, he lost his father. Alessandro Mussolini was only fifty-seven at the time of his death. Mussolini paid tribute to him in his autobiography just as he did to his mother. “The Romagna,” he writes, “a spirited district with traditions of struggle for freedom against foreign oppressions, knew my father’s merit. He wrestled year in and year out with endless difficulties, and he had lost the small family patrimony by helping friends who had gone beyond their depth in the political struggle.” His father’s death marked the end of the unity of the Mussolini family. Benito “plunged forward into big politics” when he settled in Milan... » (Campanelli, id., p.52); « The death of his father freed him from all ties with his native province. In December the young agitator was entrusted with the editorship of the Avanti ! the official organ of the [Socialist] Party, and in France, Georges Sorel commented on him with the now well-known words: ‘Your Mussolini is no ordinary Socialist. Believe me, one day perhaps you will see him at the head of a sacred battalion, saluting with his sword the Italian flag. He is an Italian of the fifteenth century, a condottiero [leader, commander]. We do not yet know, but he is the only man of energy capable of repairing the weaknesses of the Government.’ The new editor of the Avanti ! was not yet thirty years of age when he came to live in the great industrial city of Milan with its masses of working men.» (Pini, 1939, p.62); « Mussolini is a leader. Hitler defined him as “one of those solitary men who are not protagonists” in history, but who make history themselves.» (Pini, id., p.190).

Bringing relief of Milanese elite
: « By this time [15 September 1943], German intelligence had discovered Mussolini’s whereabouts. After holding him first on the island of Ponza and then on La Maddalena, Marshal Badoglio had him moved secretly to a ski resort north of Rome in the Apennines, known as Gran Sasso. Hitler, horrified by this humiliation of his ally [Milanese elite], ordered a rescue attempt [Bringing relief]. On 12 September, Hauptsturmführer Otto Skorzeny, with a force of Waffen-SS special troops in eight gliders, crash-landed on the mountain. The Carabinieri guarding him did not resist. Mussolini embraced Skorzeny, saying that he knew his friend Adolf Hitler would not abandon him. He was flown out and brought to the Wolfsschanze [or Wolf’s Lair, Führer headquarters near Rastenburg].» (Beevor, 2012, p.503-504).

Duc yeulx privé (Duke eyes deprived): = Duc privé [des] yeulx (The Duke deprived of his eyes), the preposition “de (of)” being omitted for the prophetic embroilment of the quatrain.

Yeulx (Eyes): « ŒIL (Eye), plur. YEUX. – Fam. Avoir, tenir qqn à l’œil: sous une surveillance qui ne se relâche pas (Familiar usage. To have, to hold someone with the eye: to have, to hold... under the unrelaxed surveillance). – Avoir l’œil à tout: veiller à tout (To have the eye on all: to watch for everything).» (Petit Robert). Sometimes in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, “eye” is a metaphor for another thing, for example, for a female spouse of a man (I-6, §661), for the capital of a country (III-92, §809), for a watch on sea (IV-15, §254), for a King (VII-11, §154) and the Sun in the sky (X-70, §897). Here, it is a metaphor for ‘an administration of state, a reigning power, a governmental authority’.

The Duke deprived of his eyes: « Privé du pouvoir, le Duce sera exécuté et son corps transporté à Milan... (Deprived of the power, the Duce shall be executed and his body transported to Milan...) » (Luni, 1998, p.377); Mussolini loses twice [eyes] his administration of state, first that of the Kingdom of Italy in July 1943 and secondly that of the Republic of Salo in April 1945: « JULY 25 [1943] Home Front: ItalyMUSSOLINI RESIGNS and is arrested on the orders of King Victor Emmanuel(Argyle, 1980, p.136); « 25 April [1945]. In Milan, a meeting of Mussolini with the leaders of the Resistance. Mussolini settles himself on 17 April 1945 in Milan where are assembled the most important fascist forces and where he thinks himself to have the greatest liberty of maneuver: either to negotiate with CLNAI (the Committee of Liberation of Upper Italy) or to attempt to refuge in Valteline or in Switzerland. A Milanese industrialist, Cella, member of CLNAI, anxious to avoid battles in the city, proposes to the fascists and resistants an assembly at the house of the archbishop, Cardinal Schuster. The meeting takes place on 25 April. It assembles Mussolini, Graziani, several responsible persons of the Republic of Salo and, face to face, three leaders of CLNAI, General Cadorna, Lombardi and Marazzo. these latter persons demand an unconditional surrender. The Duce wants to reflect and withdraws. He seems resolved to agitate in front of the Resistance the menace which the German army constitutes. But the latter decides to surrender. So Mussolini quits Milan and orients himself toward Como.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.501); « 28 April [1945]. After the failure of his attempt of negotiation on 25 April 1945 in Milan, Mussolini, Clara Petacci and 15 leaders of the Republic of Salo join a German column which climbs up toward Valteline. On 27 April, the group is arrested by the partisans; these authorize the Germans to pursue their way, if they deliver the fascists who are with them. The officer commanding the column agrees to it. Before letting them depart, the resistants go thoroughly into the vehicles and discover Mussolini who tries to hide himself under the uniform of a German soldier. Thereafter, the destiny of Mussolini and his companions is sealed. In fact, the article 5 of the judicial code enacted by the Committee of Liberation stipulates that all the leaders of the fallen regime and all the fascists taken with arms are condemned to death. Moreover, the resistants do not want that the former master of the country should fall into the hands of the Allies: the punishment of the Duce concerns only the Italians. On 28 April, after Mussolini and Clara Petacci had passed the night at the village of Dongo [on the west bank of Lake Como, 75 km north of Milan], a communist officer, Colonel Valerio, by his true name Walter Audisio, makes the prisoners delivered to him and, with his own hands, executes Mussolini [The Duke deprived of his eyes] and his mistress. Then, he makes the other 15 fascist leaders fired, among them are 5 ministers of the government of Salo.» (Kaspi, id., p.505).

The expression: « 
The Duke deprived of his eyes » does not imply that physically and really Mussolini had been deprived of his eyes: « ... Claretta’s face was not that of a doll. Men were struck by its beauty beneath the dirt and the smears of blood. Her eyes, which were open when sha was first tied up, had closed slowly. She looked gentle and at peace. She seemed even to be smiling. Mussolini’s tortured features expressed no such contentment. Some men thought they saw in the line of his swollen mouth and in the sightless, staring eyes a look of hopeless despair, but most of them could see no more than the ghastly travesty of a mudsplashed face.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.371-372).

à Milan fer de caige (in Milan iron of a cage): = fer de caige à Milan (iron of a cage in Milan), the phrase “à Milan (in Milan)” being more fitting to the noun “fer de caige (iron of a cage) than to “Duc yeulx privé (Duke eyes deprived)” because of the concerned historical facts: « On 29 April [1945], the corpses are transferred to Milan [in Milan] and exposed at Loreto Place, where, on 14 August 1944, the Nazis had fired 15 hostages. The crowd, unchained, hang them by the legs from the facade of a garage [iron of a cage].» (Kaspi, id., p.505). « The bodies of Mussolini and Claretta were put in the back of the car, which then drove away in the rain to the main road at Azzano. Here the removal van was waiting to take them on to Milan, and they were thrown into it on top of the other corpses. In the early morning of 29 April 1945 the removal van, having passed through several American road-blocks, stopped infront of a half-built garage in Piazzale Loreto. It was a Sunday, The corpses were tipped out and lay in a tumbled confusion until dawn, when a passer-by arranged them in some sort of order. Mussolini was laid out a little way apart from the others with' his head and shoulders on Claretta’s breasts. By nine o’clock a large crowd had gathered and the people in it were shouting and jumping up and down to get a closer view. ‘Who is it you want to see?’ an immense partisan, his bare arms covered with blood, called out to the screaming people. ‘Pavolini’, a man called back. Then another voice shouted ‘Bombacci’, and others ‘Mussolini’, ‘Petacci’, ‘Buffarini-Guidi’. The partisan lifted each up in turn, gripping them under the armpits, holding them high above his head. ‘Higher!’ the crowd shouted. ‘Higher! Higher! We can’t see.’ ‘String them up!’ a loud voice called authoritatively. Ropes were found and tied round the corpses’ ankles. Mussolini was pulled up first, the soles of his split boots pointing upwards towards the overwhelming girders of the garage roof [iron of a cage], his head about six feet from the ground. His face was the colour of putty and splashed with red stains, and his mouth was open still. The crowd cheered wildly, and those in the front row spat at him and threw what filth they could find. Claretta Petacci was drawn up next...» (Hibbert, 1965, p.369-371).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§834 Mussolini deposed by the King executes, in the Republic of Salo, his former traitors (1943-1944): VI-31.

VI-31 (§834):

The King shall find what he wanted so much,
When the Principal shall be reproached with his fault:
The response to the duke shall make him discontent,
Who in Milan shall put several to death.

(Roy trouvera ce qu'il desiroit tant,
Quant le Prelat sera reprins à tort:
Responce au duc le rendra mal content,
Qui dans Milan mettra plusieurs à mort.)

NOTES: Prelat: = A principal person of a Church or a State, prelat (prelature and preture, too) being in Latin « prælatus, being brought forward.» ((Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.52; Vignois, 1910, p.356). The usages in the Prophecies of Nostradamus in an ecclesiastical sense: VI-93 and X-56); in a political one: VI-31, VI-53, VI-86 bis, VIII-93 bis and IX-15; and in a common sense of forward: III-41, IX-21 bis, IX-87 and X-47.

The King shall find what he wanted so much, When the Principal shall be reproached with his fault: « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. In the beginning of 1943, the situation of Italy appears catastrophic. The reverses have been accumulated in Greece and in North Africa. In the middle of August, Sicily is in the hands of the Allies. Murderous bombardments accumulate the ruins in the cities and industrial installations. The balance sheet of economy is very serious. Mussolini seems deeply struck by these difficulties. He has a personal association with a young lady, Claretta Petacci, afflicted with a rapacious family. In these conditions, the spiritual unity of the country is strongly staggered. Someone, such as Dino Grandi [former minister of justice], seek a means of eliminating Mussolini. Many superior officials turn to the king Victor-Emmanuel III, head of the state and of the army, who holds his prestige. The king Victor-Emmanuel, after having for a long time supported the Fascist regime, measures the danger Italy and the dynasty of Savoy run. He is determined to separate from Mussolini, which is constitutionally possible for him. But the old monarch, clever, prudent and secret, does not want to act without the greatest chances of success. ­The loss of Sicily and the bombardment of Rome on 19 July 1943 make firm the resolution of the adversaries of Mussolini. Two conspiracies, independent of each other, are hatched by the Fascist leaders and in the royal palace. The Fascist leaders obtain of Mussolini a meeting of the Grand Council of the Party which has not been held since December 7, 1939. They expect from it the solution of the general uneasiness. The most reserved of the Fascists toward Mussolini gathering around Dino Grandi prepare the text of an order of the day criticizing the policy followed till then. The second complot comes from the Palace. Victor-Emmanuel sends to [Marshal] Badoglio the emissaries who ask him to take the lead of the next government and then to read a proclamation written by Orlando [one of the old personalities of parliamentary Italy before the Fascism], which the Marshal accepts. Thus the King, intending to make use of the explication that shall take place beforehand at the Fascist Grand Council, prepares the succession of the chief of the state.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-366).

The response to the duke shall make him discontent: « Mussolini is acquainted with the affair through various leaks, but, walled in a blind optimism, he believes himself under shelter from the attempts of some plotters he disdains. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense. First Mussolini speaks in front of 28 dignitaries, all in their best and conscious of the gravity of the moment. Some of them anticipate being arrested and are armed. The Duce renders the military responsible to the failures and defends Germany. Grandi replies with force and eloquence. He accuses the dictatorship [the Principal shall be reproached with his fault], but not the Fascism. He nearly comes to question the Duce himself who has accumulated too much responsibilities and is not competent to wage the war. Finally, he reads his order of the day that demands the reinstatement of the ancient constitution, the Statuto, and the restitution to the King of all the responsibilities this text entrusts to him. The Duce will remain only in charge of the direction of the party. The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, especially those of Ciano [former foreign minister], Bottai [former minister of national education], Federzoni, De Vecchi, De Bono, Rossoni, Bastianini..., 7 cons and one abstention [sic]. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. However, he declares in retiring: “You have opened the crisis of the regime” and he refuses the traditional “Salute to the Duce”. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes the power of him and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio [The King shall find what he wanted so much, When the Principal shall be reproached with his fault]. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso, at the altitude of 2,172 meters, in the heart of the Apennines [The response to the duke shall make him discontent].» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

Milan
: Milan represents, by synecdoche, the Republic of Salo.

Who in Milan shall put several to death
:
« January 8-10 [1944]. Trial of Verona against the “traitors ” of 25 July 1943. The Republic of Salo needs to find the traitors to explain the dismissal of Mussolini. The special tribunal of Verona, installed in the old castle of Scaliger, begins the suit of the 19 signatories of the text written by Grandi. Only 6 of them have been able to be discovered: Marshal De Bono, Marinelli, Pareschi, Gottardi, Cianetti and the proper son-in-law of the Duce, Count Ciano who, very imprudently, has taken refuge in Germany and has been delivered by this country on 3 November 1943. The sentence is obtained in advance: on 10, all are condemned to death, except Cianetti who had withdrawn his signature after the vote and is afflicted with 30 years’ forced labours. The Duce does not accord any pardon, even to Ciano notwithstanding his daughter’s prayers. On 11 January 1944, the condemned ones, from the oldest, De Bono, aged 78 years, to the youngest, Ciano at age 40, are shot from the rear, tied to a chair, according to the procedure reserved to the traitors in Italy [Who in Milan shall put several to death].» (Kaspi, id., p.401).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§833 Mussolini founding the Republic of Salo condemns his former traitors to death (1943-1944): VIII-47.

VIII-47 (§833):

Lake Trasimene shall give testimony
Of the conspirators confined within Perugia,
The despoiled one shall feign to be a sage
Killing the rude persons with rash ones and small particles.

(Lac Thrasmien portera tesmoignage,
Des conjurez sarez dedans Perouse,
Un despolle contrefera le sage
Tuant Tedesq de sterne & minuse.)

NOTES: A simple comment of Hutin is significant: « VIII-47 Mussolini.» (Hutin, 1972, p.266).

Lac Thrasmien: = « Lac Trasmenien » (№10) = « Lake Trasimene » (Cheetham, 1973, p.325) = « The Lake of Perugia » (Leoni, 1982, p.363).

Porter tesmoignage de
: = « To bear witness to.» (Dubois).


Sarez
: = « serrés (confined).» (Clébert, 2003, p.893).

Depoller: = « despoiller: dépouiller (to despoil, to rob).» (Daele).

Un depolle: = Un depollé = Un dépouillé (he who is despoiled).

Tedesq: = « tedesco in Italy; tudesque [in French], the name given to the Germans. The name has taken, since the 16th century, a pejorative nuance of “rude, coarse, barbarous”.» (Clébert, id.).

Sterne
: = « Étourneau.» (Huguet); « étourneau. A starling; a careless one, a rash person, a hasty youth.» (Suzuki).

Minuse: « minuse, du latin minutia, petite parcelle (a small parcel or fragment or particle).»
(Clébert, id.); « minūtia, smallness, fineness.» (Huguet).

Lake Trasimene shall give testimony Of the conspirators confined within Perugia
: The personified Lake Trasimene is considered to reflect (see) some event above in the sky concerning Mussolini: « By this time [15 September 1943], German intelligence had discovered Mussolini’s whereabouts. After holding him first on the island of Ponza and then on La Maddalena, Marshal Badoglio had him moved secretly to a ski resort north of Rome in the Apennines, known as Gran Sasso. Hitler, horrified by this humiliation of his ally, ordered a rescue attempt. On 12 September, Hauptsturmführer Otto Skorzeny, with a force of Waffen-SS special troops in eight gliders, crash-landed on the mountain. The Carabinieri guarding him did not resist. Mussolini embraced Skorzeny, saying that he knew his friend Adolf Hitler would not abandon him. He was flown out and brought to the Wolfsschanze [or Wolf’s Lair, Führer headquarters near Rastenburg].» (Beevor, 2012, p.503-504); « September 12. Mussolini, confined in Gran Sasso, is liberarted by an airborne operation, commanded by the SS captain Skorzeny. The Duce is conducted in Munich, then, on 14 September, in the headquarters of Hitler.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.377); « 1943 SEPTEMBER 12 – MUSSOLINI RESCUED by Skorzeny and SS detachment from Gran Sasso in Abruzzi Mts. Ex-Duce flown out in Storchaircraft.» (Argyle, 1980, p.140).
 
« General Student decided that twelve gliders should be brought from the South of France to Rome and while Skorzeny’s force landed in these, the lower station of the funicular should simultaneously be seized by a battalions of parachutists. The operation was to be carried out at dawn on 6 September. While discussing the details of the operation with Skorzeny, his second-in-command, Karl Radl, made a suggestion which he hoped would increase the effect of surprise, an essential prerequisite to the success of the plan. He proposed that they take with them an Italian officer, whose presence would mislead the carabinieri and help to prevent them from carrying out any orders they might have received to kill Mussolini rather than let him fall into German hands. The officer chosen was General Soleti. He was told by General Student that Hitler had personally requested that he should take part in the operation in order to prevent unnecessary bloodshed. General Soleti immediately accepted the invitation, which Skorzeny thought had greatly flattered him. Owing to a delay in the arrival of the gliders the date fixed for the opeartion had tobe postponed. It was eventually fixed for two o’clock in the afternoon of Sunday, 12 September. At one o’clock that day the gliders of Skorzeny’s force were circling above the Pratica di Mare airfield, slowly gaining height.A few minutes before two o’clock Skorzeny, looking through a hole he had cut in the canvas of the glider, saw beyond the edge of a cloud below him the roof of the hotel. ‘Hemets on!’ he shouted, and then, ‘Slip the tow ropes!’ The gliders fell towards the earth in a sudden silence. Bothe the pilot and Skorzeny could see the triangular space behind the Albergo-Rifugio, but as they dropped down towards it they saw that it was not the flat ground that they had supposed but a very steep hillside. A landing there was impossible. They would have to crash-land on the rough ground in front of the hotel. Hearing the roar of the aircraft Mussolini, sitting with his arms folded by the open window of his sitting-room, looked up into the cloud-filled sky and saw the gliders swooping
down on to the rock immediately in front of the hotel. As the nearest glider came to gound with a crash of tearing canvas and splintering wood, he saw several men fall out of the wrecked fuselage, pick themselves up, and run towards him. At first, although they were less than thirty yards from the hotel door, he could not see who they were; but then he saw that one of them was an Italian officer, who was shouting at the top of his voice to the stupefied carabinieri, ‘Don’t shoot! Don’t shoot!’ ‘Don’t fire!’ Mussolini himself shouted through the oprn window. ‘There’s an Italian general there, Everything’s all right!’ ‘Excellency! Excellency!’ Lieutenant Faiola [warder of Mussolini] called out breathlessly as he ran up the stairs to Mussolini’s room. ‘Excellency! The Germans!’ He burst into the room, and at the sight of his prisoner leaning out of the open window he screamed, close to hysteria, ‘Shut the window and don’t move.’ Below them Skorzeny had dashed across the rough ground in front of the hotel and through the first open door he had seen. Kicking the cahir from beneath a wireless operator, he smashed the set and looked around for a way out of the room into the hotel. But there was none. He ran outside again nad raced along the side of the building until he came to a terrace about nine feet above the ground. Jumping on to the back of one of his men he leapt to the top of the terrace and looked anxiously upwards at the curved wall of the building with its rows of small square windows. At one of these on the first floor he saw the face of Mussolini gazing down towards him. ‘Get away from the window,’ he shouted and ran on into the entrance hall of the hotel... Facing him, in the middle of the room, stood Mussolini. With him was Lieutenant Faiola and another Italian officer, who were both taken out into the corridor by a young Untersturmführer. Below the windows outside, the other gliders had now crashed on to the rock and more SS men were streaming across the rocks towards the hotel. So far not a shot had been fired. Skorzeny put his head out into the corridor and shouted for the officer in command of the hotel. An Italian colonel apperared and was summoned to surrender. He asked for time to consider the summons, and Skorzeny gave him a minute. In less time than that he returned with a goblet of red wine. Bowing politely he held it out towards Skorzeny and said solemnly, ‘To the victor.’ In the somewhat formal atmosphere that had now been created Skorzeny turned round to introduce himself to Mussolini. ‘Duce!’ he announced, standing stiffly to attention. ‘The Führer has sent me! You are free!’ He was sweating heavily, Mussolini noticed, and ‘seemed deeply moved’. The Duce put out his arms and for a moment held Skorzeny to his breast. ‘I knew,’ he said, ‘that my friend Adolf Hitler would not desert me.’» (Hibbert, 1965, p.261-264).

« By mid-afternoon, Skorzeny and the paratroopers on the Gran Sasso were congratulating themselves on the success of their mission, which was practically finished. All that remained was to transport Mussolini back to Pratica di Mare airfield and put him on a plane bound for Germany. Before the raid, General Student had decided that Mussolini was to be flown back to Pratica di Mare in a Fieseler 156 Storch (Stork) aircraft. The Stork was a lightweight (one-ton), slow-moving two-seater that could take off and land in tight spaces. Its long, stalk-like landing gear featured heavy-duty shock absorbers that allowed the plane to hit the ground fairly hard during touchdown. The Stork was also known to have some unusual properties. Under the right wind conditions, this gragity-defying aircraft could almost hover in mid-air like a helicopter. Captain Heinrich Gerlach, General Student’s personal pilot, was given the job of chauffeuring Mussolini. (Gerlach was the pilot who flew Student and Skorzeny from the Wolf’s Lair to Rome on the morning of July 27, two days after the Italian coup). On the day of the raid, while Skorzeny was bounding into the [Hotel] Campo Imperatore and the gliders were diving through the clouds, Gerlach was flying circles over the mountaintop. Once the Duce had been freed and the hotel secured – the Germans hung sheets out of the windows to signal their success – Gerlach was faced with a decision: He could attempt to land his Stork on the plateau near the hotel as the gliders had done, or he could land in the valley below. A skilled pilot, Gerlach chose the former option “in spite of the obvious difficulties” (as Student put it). To everyone’s anazement, the thirty-year-old Gerlach landed the Stork almost perfectly, making use of a headwind and bringing the plane down on an incline to help decelerate the craft... Skorzeny had orders to take ex-dictator straight to Germany after a brief layover at Pratica, where the two men would change planes. Skorzeny sweetened the pill by informing him that his wife and their two teenage children were already en route to Munich. They had been “liberated” from Rocca delle Caminate that same afternoon by Skorzeny’s SS commandos. At 3:00 P.M. or so they were ready to depart. It was to be an aircraft-carrier-style takeoff: the improvised “runway” was just a downward slope about two hundred yards long, and at the end of it was a deep chasm... After flying for about an hour, Gerlach made a neat two-point landing at Pratica di Mare, the left wheel having been damaged during takeoff. Skorzeny and the Duce promptly boarded a Heinkel 111 and set off for Austria. Stormy weather near Vienna caused the pilot some difficulties in locating the city, but he finally managed to touch down at Aspern airport at about 11:00 P.M. The two men then proceeded to the Hotel Imperial, where they had arranged to spend the night; the next day, they planned to fly on to Munich, where Mussolini would be reunited with his wife.» (Annussek, 2005, p.230-235).

His flight route from Rome to Vienna may have traversed, as it were, ‘a large range of sight’ of the grand Lake: therefore, the testimony of the Lake seems to be the resolution of Mussolini to avenge his dismissal on his traitors, who are to be sentenced to death in Verona, for Perugia is not the place of their confinement after arrest, but something indicative of their fatal destiny through its etymological meaning: « Perugia. City, central Italy. The name of the city may be Etruscan in origin, and perhaps represents phaersu, the name of a devil that led the souls of the dead to the underworld, with this name itself indirectly related to Latin persona, “mask”. The Roman name of Perugia was Perusia.» (Room, p.281). This is why Nostradamus nominates “Perouse” and personifies Lake Trasimene or Lake Perugia.


The despoiled one
: « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense... The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, 7 cons and one abstention... On the next day, 25 July 1943, at 17:00, he visits the King. The King announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

The despoiled one shall feign to be a sage
: « 1943 September 23. Foundation of Italian Social Republic or Republic of Salo. After his liberation and his meeting with Hitler, Mussolini proclaims Italian Social Republic and settles in Salo, on the bord of Lake Garda.» (Kaspi, id., p.378); « 1944 January 8-10. Trial of Verona against the “traitors ” of 25 July 1943. The Republic of Salo needs to find the traitors to explain the dismissal of Mussolini [The despoiled one shall feign to be a sage]. The special tribunal of Verona, installed in the old castle of Scaliger, begins the suit of the 19 signatories of the text written by Grandi. Only 6 of them have been able to be discovered: Marshal De Bono, Marinelli, Pareschi, Gottardi, Cianetti and the proper son-in-law of the Duce, Count Ciano who, very imprudently, has taken refuge in Germany and has been delivered by this country on 3 November 1943. The sentence is obtained in advance: on 10, all are condemned to death, except Cianetti who had withdrawn his signature after the vote and is afflicted with 30 years’ forced labours. The Duce does not accord any pardon, even to Ciano notwithstanding his daughter’s prayers.» (Kaspi, id., p.401).

Killing the rude ones with rash persons and small particles
: « On 11 January 1944, the condemned ones [the rude ones], from the oldest, De Bono, aged 78 years, to the youngest, Ciano at age 40, are shot [Killing with small particles] from the rear, tied to a chair [with rash persons], according to the procedure reserved to the traitors in Italy.» (Kaspi, id., p.401).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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