19th - 20th Century.

19th century after Napoléon Bonaparte: 143 quatrains (§588-§730).

20th century: 219 quatrains /(1901-2000) = 219/100 = 2.2: the age of the world-wide unheard-of catastrophes (§731-§949).
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§896

20th century:
§896 Meteorological mechanism of snowing and raining (1945-1960): X-70.

X-70:
The eye by an object shall make such an excrescence,
And so ardent that snow shall fall,
The watered field shall be decreasing,
So that the prime shall fall down to Reggio.


(L'œil par object fera telle excroissance,
Tant & ardante que tumbera la neige,
Champ arrousé viendra en decroissance,
Que le primat succumbera à Rege.)

NOTES: This seemingly awkward quatrain explains from the modern scientific point of view the meteorological mechanism of snowing and raining.

Here is a meteorological explanation in brief of snowing and raining: « Water in the atmosphere. WATER-VAPOUR is an ever-present, though minor constituent of the atmosphere. Unlike the major components oxygen and nitrogen, its concentration varies greatly in space and time; it is added to the lowest layers by evaporation from the oceans and land surfaces, and removed from the mid-troposhere by the formation of rain and snow which falls to the surface. [by P. Squires].» (Fletcher, 1962, p.1).

This most compact explanation provides us with sufficient interpretation of the greater part of the verses concerned as follows: « WATER-VAPOUR is an ever-present, though minor constituent of the atmosphere. Unlike the major components oxygen and nitrogen, its concentration varies greatly in space and time; it is added to the lowest layers by evaporation from the oceans and land surfaces [The watered field shall be decreasing], and removed from the mid-troposhere by the formation of rain and snow [ ... shall make such an excrescence ] which falls to the surface [that snow shall fall, that the prime shall fall down to Reggio ].»

Now, it remains to make explicit the phrases: The eye by an object ... and And so ardent ..., where the eye refers to the Sun, so ardent to the heat from the Sun, and an object to foreign particles in suspension in the air as indispensable substrata for the condensation of water-vapour to form snow and rain. In fact, the evaporation in question is to be caused principally by the heat from the Sun upon the Earth and there is no homogeneous condensation, i.e. the condensation without foreign particles in the concrete event of snowing and raining.

The eye (l'œil): « The eye is here the Sun, commonly considered as “the eye of God” in the Hermetic books.» (Clébert, 2003, p.1136).

By an object: « Condensation. The existence of clouds in the atmosphere is due to the fact that when moist air is expanded adiabatically its relative humidity is increased. The relative humidity may be expected to exceed saturation. And once saturation is exceeded by an almost negligible amount condensation begins. Condensation is a process which does not occur easily in a pure environment. For pure water-vapour at room temperature the vapour-pressure must be about four times its saturation value before appreciable condensation occurs. However, the atmosphere is not a pure environment but contains numerous small dust-paticles which may be neutral or electrically charged, droplets of various solutions and soluble crystals. Upon this suspended material condensation occurs easily at supersaturations ranging from a few hundreds of one per cent up to some tens of per cent.» (Fletcher, id., p.32).

« Sublimation and Freezing. As a cloud rises through the atmosphere it is cooled by its nearly adiabatic expansion and its summit temperature may often fall below the freezing-point. Just as a pure vapour when made supersaturated does not condense spontaneously until a very large supersaturation is reached, so a pure liquid will not freeze spontaneously until supercooled well below its equilibrium freezing temperature. In the case of water the supercooling required for such homogeneous freezing is in the neighbourhood of 40° C. Again, as in the case of condensation, suspended particles may act as nuclei for the freezing process and if such nuclei are present freezing may occur with only a few degrees of supercooling. Ice-forming nuclei (leaving aside the question of whether they act by sublimation or freezing) occur naturally in the atmosphere, but in comparison with condensation nuclei which exist in hundreds per cubic centimetre they are rare, and nuclei producing ice-crystals at temperatures warmer than – 20° C typically occur only in concentrations of the order of one per litre. For this reason ice-crystals do not usually occur in appreciable numbers in cloud-tops until their temperature has fallen to about – 20° C.» (Fletcher, id., p.33-34).

An excrescence: « Stability of clouds. A cloud, as formed, is an assembly of tiny droplets numbering perhaps one hundred or so per cubic centimetre and having radii of about 10 μ. This structure is remarkably stable as a rule, the droplets showing little tendency to come together or to change their sizes except by a general growth of the whole population. There are two different mechanisms by which the microstructure of a cloud may become unstable. The first mechanism involves the direct collision and coalescence of water droplets and may be important in any cloud. The second involves the interaction between water droplets and ice-crystals and is confined to those clouds whose tops penetrate above the freezing-level. Very small droplets are unable to collide with each other, no matter what their original trajectories. However, when the radius of one droplet exceeds about 18 μ, collisions with a limited range of smaller droplets become possible; for larger drops the collision efficiency increases sharply. It is thus to be expected that clouds containing negligible numbers of droplets larger than 18 μ will prove stable as far as coalescence is concerned, whilst clouds containing appreciable numbers of large droplets may develop precipitation. This critical radius lies within the range of normal large cloud drop sizes and clouds belonging to both categories exist.» (Fletcher, id., p.34-35).

Precipitaion: « When an ice-crystal exists in the presence of a large number of supercooled water droplets the situation is immediately unstable. The vapour-pressure over ice is less than that over water (by about one per cent for every degree below freezing) and as a consequence the water droplets tend to evaporate whilst the ice-crystal grows. This direct vapour transfer is most efficient at temperatures near – 15° C, where the absolute vapour-pressure difference is greatest. Growth is most rapid when the ice-crystal is small because the diffusion gradient is then very sharp; as growth continues the growth-rate decreases. Once the ice-crystal has grown appreciably larger than the water droplets, however, it begins to fall relative to them and collisions become possible. If these collisions are primarily with other ice-crystals then snowflakes form, whilst if water droplets are collected graupel (sleet) or hail may result. Once the ice-structure falls below the freezing-level melting may occur, and upon emerging from the cloud base the raindrop may be indistinguishable from one formed by coalescence. In cold weather on the other hand, or when large hailstones are involved, the precipitation may reach the ground unmelted.» (Fletcher, id., p.35).

Ardante: = Ardent (ardent) in the feminine in agreement with the precedent «excroissance», it being in reality an attribute to the eye. Here is an extravagant wordplay by Nostradamus, for « ardant » as a noun in ancient French has a meaning of « the fire of hell (feu d’enfer)» (Godefroy).

Tumber: = Tomber (to fall). « TOMBER. Often tumber in the Middle Ages and still in many speeches, following tumer: “gambader (to leap, to gambol), danser (to dance)”.» (Bloch & Wartburg).

The watered field: A field as any extensive surface in general. « Thus, tropical regions are on the whole a source-region for water-vapour, and polar regions a sink; the oceans as a whole are a source-region, and obviously the continents, or at least those part of them which drain to the oceans, must be sinks.» (Fletcher, id., p.1).

The prime: = The first precipitation; « primat [prima] m. Primate; Primacy.» (Dubois).

Succumber: = Succomber. « SUCCOMBER, from the Latin succumbere (to lay onself or fall or sink under).» (Bloch & Wartburg; Smith-Lockwood).

Rege: = Reggio as an arbitrarily mentioned place: « The identification of Rege with Reggio nell’Emilia seems to be confirmed by the two citations of Montaige who, in speaking about this city, writes in succession Rege and Regge.» (Clébert, id., p.1137).

« The study of cloud physics has been a comparatively neglected branch of meteorology, and an understanding of the relatively simple physics of the precipitation process has come very late in that particular science. The main reason for this seems to have been the difficulty of measuring, in cloud, many of the quantities involved. However, in the past ten or fifteen years [i.e., since 1945 or 1950], some of these difficulties have been overcome and a vast extension has taken place in our knowledge of the subject. [Foreword by E.G.Bowen, January 1961]» (Fletcher, id., p.v).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§730

19th century:

§730 Incandescent bulbs; Hydroelectricity (1831-1913): IX-9.

 

IX-9:

When the ardent lamp of inextinguishable fire

Shall be discovered at the temple of the Vestals,

A child finds the fire, water passing through sieves:

Water of Nimes shall perish, the markets of Toulouse shall decline.

 

(Quand lampe ardente de feu inextinguible

Sera trouvé au temple des Vestales,

Enfant trouve feu, eau passant par trible:

Perir eau Nymes, Tholose cheoir les halles.)

 

NOTES: Here is a remarkable solution by Centurio (1953, p.193), with some obstacles unconquered: « When the burning lamp with the inextinguishable fire Shall be discovered in the temple of Vestals, A child shall be found to let the fire and water run through a sieve [durch ein Sieb]: The water fails in Nimes, the market falls in Toulouse. When the electric light, which does not extinguish, shall be discovered “in the temple of Vestals”, then each child can switch on the light and procure water through a pipe of supply. The last line is unclear.»

The ardent lamp of inextinguishable fire: = The incandescent bulb lit with an alternating current constantly supplied by a hydroelectric power plant.

The Vestals: A metaphor for the modern scientists and engineers serving Vesta, a divine symbol of discoveries and inventions of our electro-magnetic civilization: e.g., Generator (dynamo) by Michael Faraday and Motor by Joseph Henry in 1831; Maxwell’s equations about the electro-magnetic field by James Maxwell in 1865; Electric bulbs with carbon filaments by Thomas Edison in 1879; Induced motor for an alternating current by Nikola Tesla in 1883; Mathematical expression of alternating current circuits by Charles Steinmetz in 1893; Tungsten filaments by William Coolidge in 1909; Incandescent bulbs filled with nitrogen gas by Irving Langmuir in 1913, later Argon replacing Nitrogen (cf. Asimov, 1996, s.v.).

The temple of the Vestals: The intelligent world of those servants.

A child finds the fire: = Even a child can get the electric fire by switching on.

Trible: « * trible, s.m., crible (a sieve).» (Godefroy).

Water passing through sieves: This phrase expresses the generation of electricity in a hydroelectric power plant, sieves referring to the indispensable equipments of filtering the natural water taken from a river off foreign objects to secure water wheels of a generator. A recent news of this winter (December 2014) says that one of the sieves of the water channel of a hydroelectric power plant of TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated) in Tsunan, Niigata, caused, having been blocked up by masses of snow because of failed procedures, an unexpected flood which brought about a landslide with traffic hindrance resulting in the isolation of a village.

Cf. Water Screening equipments of power plants: 

plant a [http://www.suiryoku.com/gallery/niigata/sinanoga/sinanoga.html ];

plant b [ http://www.suiryoku.com/gallery/niigata/nakatgw2/nakatgw2.html ].

Water of Nimes shall perish: Even if the famous fountain of Nimes welling up out of the ground might dry up, the electric fire shall be eternal as long as power plants can be favoured by natural rivers. « The site [of Nimes] juxtaposes the whole of carcareous hills into contact of a source with deep and fresh waters, ... » (Dupont,1956, p.3; cf. p.2 and p.41-43, too).  

The markets of Toulouse shall decline: The electrification of our daily lighting will expel from the great markets of large cities like Toulouse much of the conveniences such as oil, lamps, candles, etc.

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§728-§729

19th century:

§728 - §729 Heinrich Schliemann at Troy, at Mycenae and at Tiryns, John Evans at Knossos: V-91 and IX-84.

These two quatrains seem to refer in couples to the archeological discoveries of the ancient Greek civilization by H. Schliemann (1822-1890) and A. J. Evans (1851-1941). In the first place we have a list of relevant histories:

History 1°: Elgin marbles (1801-1805).
« The embassy of Lord Elgin [1766-1841] at Constantinople... Some say that it is the English government that took the initiative of his parallel mission in Greece, with the intention of acquiring works of art and preventing France from cornering the market of antiquities. Others see there on the contrary Elgin’s personal project. In July 1801 begins the pillage of Parthenon and, more broadly, of the Acropolis; it will continue till 1805, the date when every removing and every digging is forbidden.» (Etienne, R. et F., 1990, p.67-68)

History 1°b: Elgin marbles at British Museum (1816).
« Elgin marbles... Immediately after their arrival at London, all the artists, connoisseurs and Maecenas of the city crowd to see them. The result is striking in the artistic world: « The Elgin marbles are by far superior to all the treasuries of Italy.» In Autumn 1816, the sculptures becoming properties of the British nation are transported into the British Museum. As soon as they are installed, drawings, moldings and engravings spread in England and abroad.» (Etienne, R. et F., id., p.73-75)

History 2°: The German Schliemann and the Englishman Evans.
« ... The humanities progress, too; the past steps back and grows richer. The German Schliemann discovers Troy, the Englishman Evans resurrects Crete. » (Grousset et Léonard, 1958, p.591)

History 3°: Priam’s treasury at the site of Hissarlik identified with Troy (1872-1873).
« Schliemann has a merit of pursuing a coherent plan of researches which leads him to Ithaca in 1868, then in Turkey to the site of Hissarlik in 1872-1873. He proves that it concerns probably the city of Troy, and discloses a fabulous treasury of jewels, surnamed at once Priam’s treasury or jewelry of Helen the beauty.» (Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 110)

History 4°: Preliminary travels and two leading theories of Schliemann (1864-1869).
« The lawsuit was decided in his favour in December 1863, when he finally wound up his business, to which he never returned. In the spring of 1864 Dr. Schliemann travelled to Carthage and India, and remained for several months in China and Japan. His first book, La Chine et le Japon, was written during the fifty days' voyage from Japan to America. It was published next year in Paris, where Dr. Schliemann now settled, devoting himself chiefly to the study of archaeology. He visited for the first time the classical spots which were later to become the sources of his world-wide fame in the summer of 1868. He published an account of these travels in German and French in 1869, under the title of Ithaca, the Peloponnesus, and Troy. In this book he first announced the two leading theories which guided him in his later excavations, and which led to his remarkable success. In the first place, the description of the traveller Pausanias led him to conclude that the graves of the Atreidae at Mycenae had lain inside, and not outside, the citadel wall; secondly, he placed Troy on the site of the new historic Ilion, on the hill now called Hissarlik, near the coast. The most distinguished scholars and travellers of the day, if they granted its real existence at all, held it to have stood far inland on the summit of the Balidagh, near Bunárbashi. This book and a treatise written in Greek gained at once for Schliemann his doctor's degree at Rostock. Then he went travelling again, and spent almost the whole of 1869 in the United States.» (Schuchhardt, 1891, p.6)

History 5°: Excavations of Hissarlik resulting in Trojan Antiquities (1870-1874).
« Next year he began the great work of his life, the excavation of Troy. The first sod was turned on Hissarlik in April 1870. Permission had first to be obtained from the Turkish Government, but, owing to the disturbed state of foreign affairs at that time, it was long delayed. The permission only arrived in September 1871. On the 27th of the month, Schliemann set off for the Dardanelles, with his young wife Sophia, a Greek, whom he had married two years before in Athens. When the work ceased for the winter on November 24, there was nothing to show it. Dr. Schliemann resumed the work much more thoroughly in March 1872. The excavations were carried on well into the hot summer, and only stopped on August 14. In spite of this, they had led to no satisfactory result. In the following year [1873] Dr. Schliemann with too much zeal returned to Hissarlik on February 1, and had therefore to endure six weeks of bitter cold. The wind, which at that season blows up from the Hellespont, is no less severe than in our northern climate. Through the chinks in the thin wooden shed the north wind blew so hard that, in spite of a constant fire, the water in the room was frozen. The cold was just bearable during the day, while they were busy with the excavations, " but of an evening," says Dr. Schliemann, " we had nothing to keep us warm except our enthusiasm for the great work of discovering Troy." This year, however, brought the first real success. The town walls appeared more and more distinctly. To the south-west, too, a great gate was uncovered, and quite close to it, over the foundation of the town wall, was found the famous " great treasury," consisting of countless golden ornaments and many silver and copper vessels, weapons, etc. It was about mid-day when Dr. Schliemann observed the first signs of the treasury, and during the workmen's dinner-hour he lifted and concealed the whole mass, with the assistance of his wife, whose shawl served as a basket. He thus managed to keep together the whole find, of which, by agreement, the half should have been given over to the Turkish Government. After this third campaign, Dr. Schliemann described the results of his excavations in the work Trojan Antiquities. It was published in German with an atlas of 218 maps in 1874, and a French translation by M. Rangabé appeared at the same time. The book did much to shake the deep-rooted Troy-Bunárbashi theory.» (Schuchhardt, 1891, p.6-8)

History 6°: Circle of tombs and royal funeral masks of gold at Mycenae (1874-1876).
« Passing then to Mycenae in 1874, an error in the text of Pausanias made him discover a circle of tombs in the interior of the acropolis [cf: “ the description of the traveller Pausanias led him to conclude that the graves of the Atreidae at Mycenae had lain inside, and not outside, the citadel wall.”(Schuchhardt, id.)]. He reveals to the learned society and to the general public the extraordinary treasuries of a civilization unknown till then: funeral masks of gold, cups of gold and of bronze, diadems, damascene daggers, gravestones bearing the most ancient sculptured reliefs. All is exposed and published rapidly in German and in English. These masks are made from a gold foil shaped to a figure of sculptured wood. Any equivalent to this first attempt of royal portrait is not known in the Aegean world.» ( Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 111-112)

History 6°b: « By an article of the Greek constitution, everything found in the country must remain there and become the property of the Government, so these treasures were taken to Athens. They are exhibited in the great hall of the Polytechnicon, and form one of the most interesting and imposing collections in the world. The excavations at Mycenae went on to the end of 1876. In 1877 Dr. Schliemann published the results in his book Mycenae. An English edition appeared simultaneously in London and New York, and in 1878 a French one was issued in Paris. The preface was written by Mr. Gladstone, whose keen interest in Homeric studies is well known.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.10)

History 7°: At Orchomenos (1880-1881).
« At Orchomenos, in 1880 and 1881, he excavated the so-called treasury of Minyas, a great bee-hive tomb exactly like those of Mycenae.» (Schuchhardt, id, p.12)

History 7°b: « Schliemann sets out again to Troy and excavates then at Orchomenos of Boeotia, and opens in 1884 the site of Tiryns.» ( Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 110)

History 8°: Schliemann at Tiryns which is proved of the same period as those of Troy and Mycenae whose memory has survived in Homer (1884).
« On March 1, 1882, Dr. Schliemann resumed work at Hissarlik. This time he had the co-operation of Dr. W. Dörpfeld, now chief secretary to the German Archaeological Institute at Athens, who, for several years previous to his work with Dr. Schliemann, had taken a leading part in the German excavations at Olympia. They now gained important results by uncovering several great complex buildings in the most important stratum, the second from the native rock. Dr. Schliemann and Dr. Dörpfeld at that time held that the extensive buildings with vestibules in front, and a great round hearth in the centre, were temples. Two years later [1884], however, the ground-plan of the palace at Tiryns was discovered almost intact. It had the same long central hall, with a vestibule and a great round hearth, and thus it was proved that the analogous buildings in Troy were not temples, but the chief apartments of the king's palace. The same apartment, with exactly the same ground-plan, has recently been also found at Mycenae, in the centre of the palace. Consequently, it is now perfectly certain, even if it was not so in 1882, that Dr. Schliemann has discovered the Pergamos [citadel] of Troy in the chief stratum of Hissarlik. This city, like Tiryns and Mycenae, belongs to that same great and flourishing period of Graeco-Asiatic culture which is obviously pre-Homeric. We can unhesitatingly recognise in it the Troy whose memory survived in the poems of Homer. The devout and childlike faith with which Dr. Schliemann, in spite of all ridicule, clung to an actual historic foundation for the Homeric poems and the Trojan War, has been victorious over all the acuteness and erudition expended on the opposite side.» (Schuchhardt, 1891,

History 8°b: « From March till June 1884 Dr. Schliemann worked at Tiryns. Here he made a splendid discovery, which threw light on all sides. He came on the foundations of a palace in excellent preservation, dating from the heroic age.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.14)

History 9°: Schliemann's dreams coming true.
« At the time when Dr. Schliemman began his excavations in Troy, the Homeric poems, ---then the main source of our knowledge of prehistoric Greece --- had already been subjected to keen and searching criticism by F. A. Wolf, Wilhelm Müller, and Lachmann, and the results of this criticism were known not only to specialists, but to the educated public in general. The main contention that the Iliad and the Odyssey were really a collection of songs composed at different times, and of very unequal value, and like the German Niebelungen Lied, they could be resolved to shorter lays, each celebrating the deeds of individual heroes. The most famous of these heroes, Achilles for example, like Siegfried, had, it was maintained, their ultimate origin in mythological personages, once worshipped as divine. English scholars, it is true, in the face of the Wolfian doctrine, maintained intact their peculiar Homeric orthodoxy. They remained faithful on the whole to the old catholic belief. Grote considered that the Odyssey, though not the Iliad, was originally one complete whole: he farther placed Troy exactly on the spot where Dr. Schliemann afterwards excavated it. In Germany, however, the conviction daily gained ground that it was impossible to decide how much the ancient Epos was truth and how much poetic fiction. Every influential scholar and traveller --- and among them we find Moltke, Welcker, Kiepert, and Curtius --- favoured the view that disregards the leading traits of the Homeric picture, and bids us recognise the ancient capital of the Troad in a small mountain fastness near Bunárbashi, situated at a considerable distance from the sea. This, they held, had been transformed by the imaginative descriptions of a Homer into a royal city, capital of a broad domain. The question is now decided for ever. On the hill of Hissarlik Dr. Schliemann has uncovered the ancient palaces of Troy, has laid bare its colossal fortifications, and brought to light its treasures of gold and silver. Moreover, in the country round about, his unwearying exertions have proved the accuracy of many details, which show a coincidence, astonishing even to the most credulous, between the picture unfolded in Homer and the one preserved to this day. In order to be able rightly to estimate the significance of these results, we must first take a rapid survey of what ancient tradition has handed down to us concerning Troy and the Trojan plain. Our knowledge of the " Ilios " of the Trojan War is solely derived from the Homeric poems. The Greeks of historic times themselves knew nothing beyond what these poems tell us. Their assertions about remote antiquity either have Homer for their source or are pure inventions. In Homer Troy is a wealthy capital, situated in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont, and facing the little island of Tenedos. Its horizon is bounded on the one side by Samothrake, the high snow-capped peak whence Poseidon watched the battle, on the other by wooded " many-fountained " Ida, the seat of Zeus. The Trojan princes dwelt originally farther inland on Mount Ida; later on they came down from this lofty position, and founded the present citadel "upon the plain." So wonderful are the walls and towers of this citadel, that their building was ascribed to no mortal hand but to Poseidon and Apollo. On the summit of the Acropolis were situated the palaces --- the palace of Priam, and next to it those of Hector and of Paris. There also Zeus was worshipped, and Athena and Apollo had their temples. The only exit from the city mentioned in the poems is the Skaian Gate, through which the road led to the battle-field on the plain.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.17-18)

History 9°b: « Most of the Trojan treasures are now in the " Völker Museum " at Berlin. A new book on the new excavations was promptly written and entitled Troja. It appeared, with a preface by Professor Sayce, at the end of 1884, in English and German. As no French translation of Ilios had yet appeared, this work was revised and enlarged in accordance with the new discoveries, and in this form it was published in Paris in 1885, under the title of Ilios, Ville et Pays des Troyens.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.14)

History 10°: Evans at Minos’s (1899).
« Evans traveled in Greece in 1893 and rediscovered at the antiquaries of Athens graved ancient stones originating from Crete and bearing hieroglyphic signs. It is the first revelation of the Minoan script. He decided to excavate at Knossos and payed out of his pocket for the grounds and broke up the ground in 1899. It was the extraordinary discovery of the palace of Minos.» (Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 113)

History 10°b: Evans at Minos’s (1900).
« Evans' attention was called to Cretan antiquities in 1893 by a study of jewelry belonging to the prehistoric Mycenaean civilization recently discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in excavations at Mycenae and Orchomenos. Evans began to collect the engraved seal stones. In 1894 he explored Crete in search of further seals; at this time he determined to excavate ancient Cnossus and began to negotiate for the site near Candia where walls and Mycenaean pottery had been found in 1878. The Turkish officials of the island had prevented archaeological excavation as long as they were in power, but in March 1900 (Crete had gained autonomy within the Ottoman Empire in 1898) Evans was able to begin digging.» (Collier's Encyclopedia, IX, p.467)

History 10°c: Evans at Minos’s (1900-1905-1935).
« Excavations conducted with brilliant success by Sir Arthur Evans were begun in 1900, continued annually until 1905, and pursued intermittently during the succeeding thirty years. They revealed an enormous palace covering nearly six acres of ground and surrounded by a town in which there were many large and luxurious detached houses.» (Collier's Encyclopedia, VI, p.640)

History 10°d: Evans at Minos’s (1921-1936).
« Reports of this and following archaeological diggings were promptly published and brought immediate recognition of the importance of Evans' discovery. The first volume of his chief and truly monumental work, The Palace of Minos at Knossos, appeared in 1921, the last in 1936. It is not only an account of the palace Evans excavated but an encyclopedic survey of all aspects of the Minoan civilization of Crete.» (Collier's Encyclopedia, IX, p.467-468)

History 11°: The Orthodox Greeks as Romans under the Turkish reign (15th - 18th century).
« Among the peoples whose majority is Christian in Turkey, the most important is that of the Greeks, who inhabited not only the Balkans, but also the greater part of Anatolia. The greatest number of them spoke the modern Greek. But the Ottomans called them " Romans (Rumlar) ", considering that they were Orthodox of the Byzantine Empire in truth. They understand by the appellation "Romans" above all "Orthodox Greeks". In parallel, the Greeks identified themselves with the Romans who kept their identity in the Orthodox Church. It is from the second half of the 18th century that the Greeks began to consider the ancient heretic Greeks as their immediate ancestors and to establish the origin of their identity in the Greek nationality.» (Suzuki, 1992, p.96-97)

§728 Elgin marbles; Excavations of Troy and Mycenae (1801-1936): V-91.

V-91:
At the great market of the so-called liars,
By little and little Torrent and the Athenian camp:
Shall be surprised by the tiny horses,
By those of Albion Mars Leo, Sat. alone versien.


(Au grand marché qu'on dict des mensongiers,
Du bout Torrent & camp Athenien:
Seront surprins par les chevaulx legiers,
Par Albanoys Mars Leo, Sat. un versien.)

NOTES:
The great market of the so-called liars: The market of antiquities where they trade on a large scale and sometimes by fraud.

Du bout: A locution invented by Nostradamus signifying, probably, « by little and little, little by little ». This adverbial qualification accords with a slow and careful process of archeologic excavation in contrast with the locution « du tout » (utterly) [cf. the edition № 10].

Torrent: The key word which can be found only in these two quatrains of the Prophecies of Nostradamus except le torrent (the torrent) in the proper sense of the quatrain II-33, and seems to indicate an anagrammatic enigma derived from the composition or superposition of the characters T, o, r, r, e, n, t of Troie (Troy) and Tirynthe (Tiryns), the two archeological sites in Greece excavated in succession by Heinrich Schliemann (Histories 3°-5° and 8°-8°b).

And the Athenian camp: The Latin etymology campus of the French camp (a camp) and champ (a field) signifying « plaine (a plain), terrain plat (a plain ground); terrain d'exercise ou de bataille (a field of exercise or of combat)» (Ernout et Meillet), the phrase « and the Athenian camp » can indicate other sites in Greece than Torrent (Troy and Tiryns), such as Mycenae (History 6°), Ithaque (History 3°), Orchomenos (History 7°) and the Acropolis of Athens itself, where camped the Turkish garrison during the reign of the Sultans (cf. Etienne, R. et F., id., p.36-37) and whose antique monuments in part have been removed by Lord Elgin for London in the beginning of the 19th century (Histories 1°-1°b).

Shall be surprised by the tiny horses: The archeologic sites in Greece are excavated by teams of workers supported by tiny horses (cf. Etienne, R. et F., id., gravure in frontispiece).

By those of Albion (Par Albanoys): = By the Englishmen. Albanois in the Prophecies of Nostradamus has three distinct senses, whose one is for the light cavalry from Albania serving France, Spain or Venice, which is confused with the second for « the subordinates of the duke of Albe, General of the army of Philip II » (V-46 and IV-98), all the examples of the term Albe in the Prophecies (VI-68, VII-29 and IX-22 bis) seeming to indicate the same personage. And thirdly, all the other two examples of Albanois in the Prophecies (V-91 et VIII-94) with its cognate Albanins (VIII-40) are for the English, Albania, 'the soil of white' in English with an out-of-date sense representing Scottland and Albion, 'the white soil' in English symbolizing Great-Britain or England because of the white coasts of chalk of the Channel (cf. HH, XIX, p.292). Therefore, in this quatrain, the word Albanois is understood as the Englishmen who excavated the archeologic sites in Greece or traded the Greek antiquities, among whom are Lord Elgin and John Evans (Histories 10°-10°d).

Mars Leo, Sat. un versien: The planetary configuration of Mars in Leo and Saturn alone (un) in retrogradation (versien = verso) in Aquarius (versien = Verseau) gives us the following distinct years within the period 1555-2000: 1609, 1639, 1669, 1697, 1699, 1726, 1727, 1756, 1757, 1816, 1874, 1904, 1934, 1964 et 1991, among which the four consecutive years: 1816, 1874, 1904 and 1934 are pertinent for the theme of the quatrains in couples.

Dating according to the planetary configuration « Mars Leo, Sat. un versien »:
By « Mars Leo », one can understand that « Mars is in the sign of the Lion », « Leo » being an adjective or adverbial locution without preposition as usual (cf. A l'Entrée des Prophéties, §5) and, likewise, by « Sat. un versien » one can understand that « Saturn in retrogradation is alone in the sign of Aquarius », « Sat. un » signifying « Saturn alone » and « versien » suggesting at the same time « the sign Aquarius » and « returning » (verso in Latin signifies to return) (cf. Centurio, 1953, p.126). Therefore, to obtain the dating of this planetary configuration within the period of 1555 to 2000, it is necessary to get the convergence of the following four cumulative conditions:

1° The periods of Saturn in the sign of Aquarius (of the longitude of 300°-330°).
2° The periods of Mars in the sign of Lion (of the longitude of 120°-150°) under the condition 1°.
3° The periods of Saturn in retrogradation under the condition 2°.
4° The periods of the absence of the other planets than Saturn in the sign of Aquarius under the condition 3°. (For this we search preliminarily the periods of the presence of the other planets (Uranus, Pluto and Neptune included **) than Saturn in the sign of Aquarius under the condition 3° = The condition 4p°).

** As to the prediction of the discovery of Uranus, of Pluto and of Neptune by Nostradamus, cf. Ionescu, Nostradamus et les planètes trans-saturniennes (1983) et Guinard, Nostradamus connaissait-il les planètes trans-saturniennes ? (CN84, 2000; 2008).

According to the results of the astronomic calculations concerning the four conditions of the planets in question by means of my program (AstroArts Inc.,1993), if one marks the distinct years, it figures those of 1609, 1639, 1669, 1697, 1699, 1726, 1727, 1756, 1757, 1816, 1874, 1904, 1934, 1964 et 1991, among which the four consecutive years: 1816, 1874, 1904 et 1934 are pertinent to our subjet, for the year 1816 sees the Elgin marbles transported into the British Museum (History 1°b), and the year 1874 accords exactly with the year when Schliemann installed himself at Mycenae (Histories 6° and 6°b) after having excavated the site of Hissarlik in 1873. And the year 1874, it is also that of the publication of his principal work Trojan Antiquities in Gremany and in French (History 5°), which shook the traditional academic opinion about Troy assimilated with Bunárbashi. And moreover, the years 1904 and 1934 can serve as landmarks for the development of excavating the palace of Minos at Knossos and of their scientific analyses during a long term by Arthur John Evans, who had discovered the greatest part of the site in 1905 (History 10°c) and achieved the publication of the exhaustive and careful reports: The palace of Minos at Knossos in 4 volumes in 1936 (History 10°d). Otherwise, Crete was restored to Greece in 1908, which justifies the conception of the island as an « Athenian camp ».

Discussion:
P. Brind'Amour (1993, p.278) understands « Mars, Leo, Sat. un versien » as follows: « When Mars occupies the Lion and Saturn the first degree of Aquarius », which leads us exclusively to the beginning of December 1520. In fact, during the 500 years of 1501 to 2000, Saturn is found 25 times at the first degree of Aquarius, all the cases of which except that of 1520 being with Mars outside the sign of the Lion. Another next chance for his interpretation is barely the year 2167. This interpretative bias is peculiar to a classicist Brind'Amour who seeks for the supposed past data of the prophecies of Nostradamus, even if « the precedent historical events to be paralleled with » are « failing » to him.

We would adopt another alternative rather than his, if the authentic Prophet will not give us impossible dates for our future as to one of his prophetic quatrains. Then, the most probable convergence in question of the conditions given by the quatrain containing the possible astronomic data and the other historical events to be taken in consideration will offer us a most probable solution.

Otherwise, if we suppress our condition 3° and simply follow Brind'Amour’s opinion that « Versien = le Verseau accommodé pour la rime (Versien is Verseau accomodated for the rhyme) », we get the years 1609, 1639, 1669, 1697, 1699, 1726, 1727, 1756, 1757, 1816, 1874, 1904, 1934, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1991 and 1993. The conclusion remains the same.

§729 Schliemann at Troy and at Mycenae (1872-1874): IX-84.

IX-84:
The exposed King shall finish the hecatomb,
After having discovered its origin,
Torrent shall open the tomb of marble and lead
Of a great Roman with a sign of Medusa.


(Roy exposé parfaira Lhecatombe,
Apres avoir trouvé son origine,
Torrent ouvrir de marbre & plomb la tombe
D'un grand Romain d'enseigne Medusine.)

NOTES:
Having discovered its origin: Schliemann identified the site of Hissarlik in Turkey with the antique city of Troy (Histories 2°-5° et 9°).

Lhecatombe: = L’hécatombe = the hecatomb, figuring a modern archeologic excavation that resembles an antique rite of sacrificing a hundred oxen in its large scale apparently ritual and mindful.
The exposed King shall finish the hecatomb: The five funeral masks Schliemann discovered at the final stage of his excavation at Mycenae and imagined proper to kings (History 6°) and his effort to make publish and expose the results of his excavations to the entire world (Histories 5°, 6°, 6°b et 9°b) finished his lifework (Histories 4° et 9°).

A great Roman with a sign of Medusa: The great antique poet Homer (History 9°), the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire being called Romans (History 11°; cf. also Grecs (Greeks) of  §5, I-83  signifying the Ottomans in general) and an adjective locution: "with a sign of Medusa" moreover indicating that it concerns a Greek in reality by reference to a Greek mythic being "Medusa".

The tomb of marble and lead Of a great Roman: Here we understand by the term : the tomb not that of Homer historically unidentified, but the stone monuments including real tombs significative of what his epic poetry tells, in other words, the royal palaces of Hissarlik and of Tiryns proved by Schliemann with the same ground-plan of the same pre-Homeric civilization whose memory survived in Homer.

Torrent shall open the tomb: Torrend, that is, the archeologic sites of Hissarlik (Troy) and of Tiryns revealed to Schliemann the royal palaces (la tombe de marbre & plomb) with the same ground-plan as that of Mycenae, whose memory survived in the Homeric poetry (History 8°).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2010-2015. All rights reserved.

§727

19th century:

§727 The congregation of the fathers of Assumption (1879-1900): III-61.

 

III-61:

The great band and sect of crucifers

Shall be founded in Montpellier:

Its light company of the near river,

Which a certain law shall regard as an enemy.

(La grande bande & secte crucigere,

Se dressera en Mesopotamie:

Du proche fleuve compaignie legere,

Que telle loy tiendra pour ennemie.)

 

NOTES: The great band and sect of crucifers Shall be founded in Montpellier: « The Congregation of the Fathers of Assumption, founded in Montpellier by the Father d’Alzon.» (Vignois, 1910, p.448).

Mesopotamie: = The city of Montpellier, situated between the two rivers: the Lez in the east and the Mosson in the west.

Its light company [its branch] of the near river [ the city of Paris near the Seine], Which a certain law shall regard as an enemy: « The Congregation constructed its siege in Paris and created there, toward 1879, a daily political journal, soon very spread, carrying the name and the image of La Croix (The Cross). The government made search, on November 13th 1899, the premises of these religious, prelude to a judicial action in virtue of the article 291 of the penal Code, about to be abrogated, forbidding the associations of more than 20 persons. The public prosecutor having read before the audience the seized letters, in which the religious congratulated themselves on the election of several deputies, Mr. Motte protested against a proceeding that scattered the names of thirty-one deputies supposed to be elected by the Assumptionists as food to the press; the discussion made disclosed how great was the animosity that animated the majority of the members of the Chamber against The Cross. On January 24th 1900, the court of petty sessions of the Seine condemned each of the sued Fathers to a penalty of sixteen francs and pronounced the dissolution of the Congregation. The journal passed into the hand of a great industrial of Lille, Mr. Paul Féron-Vrau.»
(Vignois, id.).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§726

19th century:

§726 President Carnot stabbed to death (1894.6.24): V-17.

 

V-17:

By night the king passing near a tortuous throng,

One of Cypress and principal waylays:

The king having scarcely escaped the blow along the Rhone,

The conspirators are going to put him to death.

(De nuict passant le roy pres d'une Andronne,

Celuy de Cipres & principal guette:

Le roy failli la main fuict long du Rosne,

Les conjurés l'iron à mort mettre.)

 

NOTES: Andronne: « Romance: a tortuous road, a way that winds » (Vignois, 1910, p.428), with another sense of « Greek: ἀνδρῶν (andrōn, of men, of the people) ». Therefore, it could mean in entirety « the tortuous throng », which fully suits to the expression: “ the king passing near a tortuous way ”, namely, “ the king passing near the tortuous crowd”: « The President of the Republic Carnot stayed in Lyons to inaugurate the festivals of the exposition; passing by night in car through the crowd, he was killed with a blow of knife by an Italian anarchist… » (Seignobos, 1921c, p.179).

Cypress: « a funeral tree.» (Vignois, id.).

One of Cypress: An assassin.

Principal: An assassin as a principal.

Here is a full interpretation by Vignois (id.): « A little after nine o’clock in the evening, at the close of a banquet offered to Mr. Carnot by the city of Lyons, the presidential procession was formed to go to the gala representation of the Grand-Theatre and advanced slowly amidst the enormous crowd. Mr. Carnot was in the first vehicle. All of a sudden they saw him pale and weigh down: an individual, approaching the landau, had just struck him with a dagger. A cry sprang out of the crowd:“ The President is assassinated ! ” They rushed upon the murderer whose action had been so rapid that none hadn’t intervened. Without the energetic attitude of the police, they would have lynched him. Mr. Carnot was immediately brought back, in traversing and running along the Rhone, to the Prefecture: the liver was perforated and all of hope lost. At thirty-eight past midnight, he breathed his last.»

The conspirators are going to put him to death: « The French anarchists were only a few, but, in attacking the public powers, they played in the political life a role disproportionate to their number. The anarchist Vaillant threw from the heights of the galleries of the Chamber of Deputies a reversal bomb that caused only insignificant wounds (December 9 [1892])… Vaillant, condemned to death, was executed; the anarchists were menacing to revenge him if President Carnot would not pardon him. » (Seignobos, id., p.175-176). 

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§725

19th century:

§725 Sadi Carnot elected President of the Republic of France (1887.12.3): VIII-67.

 

VIII-67:

By Sadi Carnot the great discord brought to ruin,

Neither the one nor the other shall not be elected,

Carnot shall have the love and concord of the people

His minister of war being his great protection.

(PAR. CAR. NERSAF, a ruine grand discorde,

Ne l'un ne l'autre n'aura election,

Nersaf du peuple aura amour & concorde

Ferrare, Collonne grande protection.)

 

NOTES: PAR.: = Par (By), « a preposition.» (Vignois, 1910, p.400)

CAR. NERSAF: A vague anagram of SADI CARNOT, CAR. NERSAF being for CARNER SAF.= CARNOT SADI (cf. id.).

PAR. CAR. NERSAF, a ruine grand discorde: = Grand discorde à ruine par CAR. NERSAF (The great discord to ruin by CAR. NERSAF).

By Sadi Carnot the great discord brought to ruin, Neither the one nor the other shall not be elected, Carnot shall have the love and concord of the people: « … Grévy resigned. In this critical situation, when Freycinet and Floquet, aiming for the radical vote, are said to have had a secret agreement to restore Boulanger [the one] to power; when the monarchists were planning to vote for Ferry [the other] in the hope that his impopularity would provoke one of those mob disturbances which had so often brought back the monarchy, Clémenceau skilfully secured the nomination and election of an unexpected figure - Sadi Carnot [ CAR. NERSAF], a man of unassailed reputation, whose grandfather was the great Carnot to whom France had owed her magnificent military organisation during the revolution. Sadi Carnot, though perhaps not a great man, displayed as president of the republic the same qualities of conscientiousness, diligence, and modesty for which he had been noted in those more humble days when he built bridges at Annecy [Carnot shall have the love and concord of the people].» (HH, XIII, p.194). 

Ferrare, Collonne: = Freycinet, minister of war, Ferrare hinting Freycinet in a remote way and Collonne (= colonne, column) signifying militarily a corps of troops in files.

By Sadi Carnot the great discord being ruined, His minister of war being his great protection: « These years were unexampled in France for the virulence of political passion and the acrimonious license of the press. The decoration scandal, the Boulangist movement, and the Panama affair filled this period with opprobrious accusations and counter-charges [the great discord]. Carnot chose Tirard for his premier; under him Wilson was sentenced to two years for fraud, and Boulanger was deprived of command for absenting himself from his post without leave. Wilson appealed, and the higher courts reversed the decision against him. As he was a relative of Grévy, this provoked public suspicion, which was aggravated when Boulanger was elected a deputy by an overwhelming majority and was immediately expelled from the army. Tirard's ministry fell and Floquet succeeded, with Freycinet as minister of war [His minister of war being his great protection]. A duel ensued between Floquet and Boulanger, in which, singularly, the civilian, who was also of advanced age, wounded the doughty general in the throat. None the less, Boulangism increased rapidly and was enlarged by the royalist vote. The time was ripe for a coup d’état, but the general did not move; indeed, he denied in his speeches any ambition for dictatorship and actually withdrew to Brussels, April, 1889, when he heard that Tirard, who had been recalled as premier, was about to arrest him. He was now found guilty of high treason and the senate sentenced him to life imprisonment. He went to Jersey and lived there quietly, while Boulangism died of inanition. In July, 1890, his mistress, Mme. de Bonnemain, died, and September 30th, 1891, he blew out his own brains on her grave. This last act was consistent with his whole career, both in its strong emotionalism and in its weakness. He was a man idolised by his soldiers, whom he treated with great democracy and even tenderness; he was thrilled with a passion to revenge France on Prussia, a passion bound to be popular then in France; he was a smart soldier and on his black horse made a picturesque figure; a popular tune added to his vogue - " C’est Boulanger qu'il nous faut ''; and it might have proved a “ Ça ira ” of insurrection, but he lacked the courage - or shall we not more mercifully and justly say, he lacked the villainy ? - to lead a revolution. While he missed the glory of a Napoleon, he also escaped the bloody crimes of that despot. Boulangism having committed suicide, it suffered disgrace from the monarchic coalition, and reform went on peacefully. In 1890 Freycinet added the premiership to the war ministry [His minister of war being his great protection], and 1891 saw no change of cabinet. Conciliation with Rome was the policy of both France and the Church; and in February, 1892, Leo XIII recognised the republic in an encyclical. Freycinet resigned the premiership and Émile Loubet became premier. Now the Panama scandal came to shock all the world with the revelations of official corruption, of wholesale blackmail, and of the abuse of funds largely subscribed by the poorer masses. The trials were peacefully conducted, and while only one former minister was convicted and a sentence was passed on De Lesseps, the engineer of the Suez Canal and also of the Panama venture, the deep disgust of the public did not take the usual recourse to riotous expression [the great discord being ruined, Carnot shall have the love and concord of the people]. Loubet was followed in December, 1892, by Ribot and he later by Dupuy. Casimir-Périer, grandson of the famous statesman, succeeded for a time, to be followed again by Dupuy. June 24th, 1894, President Carnot was stabbed to death by an Italian anarchist named Caserio.» (HH, XIII, p.194-195). 

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§724

19th century:

§724 The question of General Boulanger (1885-1891): I-66.

 

I-66:

He who shall then bring the news,

A little later he shall come to repose.

Viviers, Tournon, Montferrant and Pradelles,

Hail and tempests shall make them sigh.

(Celui qui lors portera les nouvelles,

Apres un peu il viendra respirer.

Viviers, Tournon, Montferrant & Pradelles,

Gresle & tempestes les fera souspirer.)

 

NOTES: He who shall then bring the news: «A reaction now grew against the republican administration, and the elections of 1885 were forty-five per cent. monarchical. The alarm over this dangerous weakness put a momentary end to republican internal factions, and Grévy was re-elected president December 28th, for a second septennate. Freycinet formed a new ministry, his third, giving the portfolio of war to General Boulanger - a curious figure neither whose past nor whose future justified the remarkable prominence he acquired. His first acts were sensational in that he erased from the army list all the princes of royal families and exiled his first patron, the duke d'Aumale; he also repressed all the army officers of reactionist sympathies. The populace showered on Boulanger the favour it withdrew from the president, and he became powerful enough to unseat Freycinet, who was succeeded by Goblet. Boulanger took a spectacular position on the arrest by the Germans of a French officer named Schnaebele, and showed great energy in preparing for a war with Prussia. Goblet resigned.» (HH, XIII, p.193). 

A little later he shall come to repose: « Goblet resigned. Rouvier followed, and sent Boulanger to an army post. In 1887 scandals arose concerning the sale of Legion of Honour decorations, in which a deputy named Daniel Wilson was implicated and in which it was shown that he used the president's residence as a sort of office. This provoked an outcry before which Grévy resigned. In this critical situation, Clémenceau skilfully secured the nomination and election of an unexpected figure - Sadi Carnot, a man of unassailed reputation. These years were unexampled in France for the virulence of political passion and the acrimonious license of the press. The decoration scandal, the Boulangist movement, and the Panama affair filled this period with opprobrious accusations and counter-charges. Carnot chose Tirard for his premier; under him Wilson was sentenced to two years for fraud, and Boulanger was deprived of command for absenting himself from his post without leave [he shall come to repose].» (HH, XIII, p.193-194).

Hail and tempests shall make them [Boulanger and his followers] sigh: « Wilson appealed, and the higher courts reversed the decision against him. As he was a relative of Grévy, this provoked public suspicion, which was aggravated when Boulanger was elected a deputy by an overwhelming majority and was immediately expelled from the army. Tirard's ministry fell and Floquet succeeded, with Freycinet as minister of war. A duel ensued between Floquet and Boulanger, in which, singularly, the civilian, who was also of advanced age, wounded the doughty general in the throat. None the less, Boulangism increased rapidly and was enlarged by the royalist vote. The time was ripe for a coup d’état, but the general did not move; indeed, he denied in his speeches any ambition for dictatorship and actually withdrew to Brussels, April, 1889, when he heard that Tirard, who had been recalled as premier, was about to arrest him. He was now found guilty of high treason and the senate sentenced him to life imprisonment. He went to Jersey and lived there quietly, while Boulangism died of inanition. In July, 1890, his mistress, Mme. de Bonnemain, died, and September 30th, 1891, he blew out his own brains on her grave. This last act was consistent with his whole career, both in its strong emotionalism and in its weakness. He was a man idolised by his soldiers, whom he treated with great democracy and even tenderness; he was thrilled with a passion to revenge France on Prussia, a passion bound to be popular then in France; he was a smart soldier and on his black horse made a picturesque figure; a popular tune added to his vogue - " C’est Boulanger qu'il nous faut ''; and it might have proved a “ Ça ira ” of insurrection, but he lacked the courage - or shall we not more mercifully and justly say, he lacked the villainy ? - to lead a revolution. While he missed the glory of a Napoleon, he also escaped the bloody crimes of that despot. Boulangism having committed suicide, it suffered disgrace from the monarchic coalition, and reform went on peacefully.» (HH, XIII, p.193-195). 

Viviers, Tournon and Pradelles: These proper names of place refer, through their implication of common usages, to each phase of the career of General Boulanger as follows:

Viviers: « Viviers recalls “ Vive ! ” (Long live !) to us.» (Vignois, 1910, p.399): « At the review of July 14th [1887] in Paris, the mass welcomed the minister of war [General Ferry] with whistles and the cries: “ Long live Boulanger ! Down with Ferry ! ”» (Seignobos, 1921c, p.127). 

Tournon: « Tournon recalls “ tourner ” (to turn).» (Vignois, id.): « His first acts were sensational in that he erased from the army list all the princes of royal families and exiled his first patron, the duke d'Aumale; he also repressed all the army officers of reactionist sympathies.» (HH, XIII, p.193). 

Pradelles: « Pradelles, depending on the 13th commandment of General Boulanger, recalls “ prassô ” (to practice).» (Vignois, id.).  

Montferrant: represents Clermont-Ferrant, siege of his commandment: « The ministry, to keep him away from Paris, nominated him commander of the army in Clermont: Rochefort wrote that “ they deported him ”, to guard him “ in the mountains”.» (Seignobos, 1921c, p.127). 

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§723

19th century:

§723 The fall of Bismarck against William II (1890): V-64.

 

V-64:

The assemblies for the rest of the great number,

Domestically and abroad his counsel revoked:

Near the Autumn Gennes, Nice of the shadow

In the countries and towns the contraband chief.

 

(Les assemblés par repoz du grand nombre,

Par terre & mer conseil contremandé:

Pres de l'Antomne Gennes, Nice de l'ombre

Par champs & villes le chef contrebandé.)

 

NOTES: 

The assemblies for the rest [welfare] of the great number [= the working men], Domestically and abroad: « William II and the fall of Bismarck. Frederick died on the 15th of June, 1888, and his eldest son, Emperor William II (born 27th January, 1859), ascended the throne. The first year of the new reign was uneventful. He spent much time on journeys, visiting the chief courts of Europe, and he seemed to desire to preserve close friendship with other nations, especially with Russia and Great Britain. Changes were made in the higher posts of the army and civil service, and Moltke resigned the office of chief of the staff, which for thirty years he had held with such great distinction. The beginning of the year 1890 brought a decisive event. The period of the Reichstag elected in 1887 expired, and the new elections, the first for a quinquennial period, would take place. The chief matter for decision was the fate of the socialist law; this expired September 30th, 1890. The government at the end of 1889 introduced a new law, which was altered in some minor matters and which was to be permanent. The conservatives were prepared to vote for it; the radicals and Centre opposed it; the decision rested with the national liberals and they were willing to accept it on condition that the clause was omitted which allowed the state governments to exclude individuals from districts in which the state of siege had been proclaimed. The final division took place on February 25th, 1890. An amendment had been carried omitting this clause, and the national liberals therefore voted for the bill in its amended form. The conservatives were ready to vote as the government wished; if Bismarck was content with the amended bill, they would vote for it, and it would be carried; no instructions were sent to the party; they therefore voted against the bill and it was lost. The house was immediately dissolved. It was to have been expected that, as in 1878, the government would appeal to the country to return a conservative majority willing to vote for a strong law against the socialists. Instead of this, the emperor, who was much interested in social reform, published two proclamations. In one addressed to the chancellor he declared his intention, as emperor, of bettering the lot of the working classes; for this purpose he proposed to call an international congress to consider the possibility of meeting the requirements and wishes of the working men [The assemblies for the rest of the great number, abroad]; in the other, which he issued as king of Prussia, he declared that the regulation of the time and conditions of labour was the duty of the state, and the council of state was to be summoned to discuss this and kindred questions [The assemblies for the rest of the great number, Domestically]. Bismarck, who was less hopeful than the emperor and did not approve of this policy, was thereby prevented from influencing the elections as he would have wished to do [his counsel revoked]; the coalition parties, in consequence, suffered severe loss; socialists, Centre, and radicals gained numerous seats.» (HH, XV, p.543-545)

Near the Autumn Gennes [Embarrassment (Gennes = gêne = trouble) of Bismarck in his later years (aged 74 in 1890: near the Autumn)], Nice [Victory] of the shadow [the Emperor thus far under his omnipotent chancellor]: « A few days after the election Bismarck was dismissed from office. The difference of opinion between him and the emperor was not confined to social reform; beyond this was the more serious question as to whether the chancellor or the emperor was to direct the course of the government. The emperor, who, as Bismarck said, intended to be his own chancellor, required Bismarck to draw up a decree reversing a cabinet order of Frederick William IV, which gave the Prussian minister-president the right of being the sole means of communication between the other ministers and the king. This Bismarck refused to do, and he was therefore ordered to send in his resignation.» (HH, XV, p.545)

In the countries and towns the contraband chief: « Bismarck in retirement. After his retirement he resided at Friedrichsruh, near Hamburg, a house on his Lauenburg estates [In the countries and towns]. His criticisms of the government, given sometimes in conversation, sometimes in the columns of the Hamburger Nachrichten, caused an open breach between him and the emperor; and Caprivi, in a circular despatch, which was afterwards published, warned all German envoys that no real importance must be attached to what he said. A short time after his fall, Bismarck illustrated his absorbing interest in politics by a pretty parable. One of his guests at breakfast having asked him why he, the prince, had so entirely given up his passionate love for the chase, he replied: “ As to passions, they resemble the trout in my pond: one eats up the other, until there remains only one fat old trout. Thus gradually my passionate love for politics has devoured all other passions.” Just as on this occasion, and as he had done in the Hamburger Nachrichten after the issue of the Caprivi order, so Bismarck also expressed himself to the delegations which from all parts of Germany came to Friedrichsruh to do him homage. Thus, for instance, on the 14th of June, to a deputation of the united moderate parties of Düsseldorf which presented him with an address, he said that, though retired from public life after a career of forty years in office, he was not able to forego his interest in politics, to which he had sacrificed all other inclinations and connections. At the same time nothing was further from his thoughts than the wish to influence anew the march of politics. Much more bitterly did he express himself on the 22nd of July, 1890, to a correspondent of the Novoya Vremya: " They are bestowing upon me in my lifetime the honours due to the dead. They are burying me like Marlborough. They desire not merely that Marlborough should not come back, but also that he may actually die or at least remain silent for the rest of his days. I must admit that to this end they give me every assistance, and none either of my political friends or of my numerous acquaintances puts temptation in my way by his visits. They cry ‘ Halt! ’ to me, they shun me like one infected with the plague, afraid as they are to compromise themselves by visiting me; and only my wife from time to time receives visits from her acquaintances. They cannot prevent me from thinking, but they would like me not to give expression to my thoughts, and were such a thing possible, they would long ago have put a muzzle on me.''… He died on the 3lst of July, 1898.» (HH, XV, p.545-546)

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§722

19th century:

§722 The great sculpin into the Rhine (1866-1890): VI-40.

 

VI-40:

The great of Mainz shall be deprived of his great

Dignity to put out his great thirst:

Those of Cologne shall come to pity him so much

That the great sculpin shall be thrown into the Rhine.

(Grand de Magonce pour grande soif estaindre,

Sera privé de sa grand dignité:

Ceux de Cologne si fort le viendront plaindre,

Que le grand groppe au Ryn sera getté.)

 

NOTES: The great of Mainz: = Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of the German Empire represented by Mainz by synecdoche.

The great of Mainz shall be deprived of his great dignity [for the one ] to put out his great thirst [in satisfying it]: “ The one ” is nothing but the Emperor William II, for only he has the authority of dismissing Bismarck from Imperial Chancellery.

Those of Cologne: = The people of Germany represented by Cologne by synecdoche.

Sculpin (groppe): « Groppe, Angehörige einer Familie der Panzerwangen, keulenförmiger Fisch mit einem mit starken Stacheln besetzten Kopf: Cottidae.» (Wahrig) (Groppe, member of a family of sculpins with a strong-spined head: Cottidae.)

« sculpin, also called BULLHEAD or SEA SCORPION, any of the numerous, usually small fish of the family Cottidae (order Scorpaeniformes), found in both salt water and freshwater, principally in northern regions of the world. Sculpins are elongated, tapered fish and characterisitically have wide, heavy heads. The gill covers are armed with one or more spines, the pectoral fins are large and fanlike, and the skin is either naked or provided with small spines. The dorsal fins contain both a spiny and a soft-rayed section; these may be either separate or united.» (NEB,1988)

This is a metaphor for Bismarck, for he has a kind of physignomy like a sculpin’s head in its most characteristic impression, and he diligently militarized Germany, the German word ‘Panzer’ having the meaning of ‘armature’.

Cf: Rheingroppe: http://www.fishbase.org/Photos/PicturesSummary.php?ID=62357&what=species ; Otto von Bismarck: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/DBP_150._Geburtstag_Otto_von_Bismarck_20_Pfennig_1965.jpg?uselang=fr

Bismarck in youth: « In 1832 he entered the University of Göttingen, where he spent two years, followed by one at the University of Berlin. Instinct and tradition suggested the army as a profession, but his mother apparently desired a civil career for this passionate, self-willed and robust son; whether because she feared the life of an officer, or divined the power in her beloved Otto, is uncertain; but she had her way, and after passing the necessary examinations he entered the civil service on its judicial side, and was attached for duty at the fashionable Aix-la-Chapelle and at Berlin. One year had to be given to military service, and this he spent with the Rifles of the Guard (Garde-Jäger). Until 1839, when he lost his mother, abruptly teminated his State employment and, owing to financial difficulties of his family, took over with his brother Bernhard the management of the family properties, his life had shown little indication either of ambitions or exceptional abilities. As a university student, though not as idle as legend subsequently pictured, he had failed to find in academic studies either intellectual inspiration or practical utility. Then, as throughout his career, Bismarck revolted against discipleship or subordination of any kind. Life was the only teacher from whom he was willing to learn, and the lessons of life he hammered out for himself, and he refused to take them ready-made. He joined a famous duelling corps, the Hanoverana. Duelling, beer-drinking, and the riotous escapades of undergraduate youth, provided an outlet for his exuberant physical powers. In the punishment book of the university his name figures more than once. Friends he made in plenty, three in particular Moritz von Blanckenburg, Motley, the American historian, and Roon, twelve years his senior. Little did either guess what the latter friendship would signify for the history of Prussia. There is a story that in 1832 he made a bet with an American student that Germany would be unified in twenty years; but if he made the bet, he lost it. Forty, not twenty, years hence he could have asked from the Wilhelmstrasse for repayment. He detested and neglected his duties as a civil servant. The career of ' the animal armed with a pen ' behind closed 'windows and under the orders of domineering, exacting, or ill-bred superiors, stirred his Junker pride and independence to mutiny. At Aix-la-Chapelle, crowded with fashionable pleasure-seekers of all nations, he plunged into gambling, debt, and dissipation. For four months he broke away altogether, travelled to Wiesbaden and Switzerland, fell in love with a pretty English girl, but whether he broke with her or she with him is uncertain. The sap was running strongly upwards, and in the dawn of superb physical vigour Bismarck, like many, sought in physical satisfaction an anodyne for an incurable unrest.» (Robertson, 1919, p.52-54).

The great sculpin shall be thrown into the Rhine: This expression means that Bismarck (the great sculpin) shall retire into his home country (Friedrichruhe) which he rules as a Junker, a river [the Rhine] being one of the elements of sculpins.  

« The plain truth was that after June 1888 the conditions which had made the Bismarckian system workable and possible were suddenly reversed. Bismarck and Germany had grown accustomed to the rule of an emperor never fitted by his gifts to be a great master either of administration or of policy, who in 1871 was in his seventy-fourth year, and with every year was obliged to surrender more and more of power and control to the adviser whose genius, amazing capacity for work, and complete accord with his sovereign in the general principles of government inspired a deep confidence. Bismarck had thus syndicated in himself both the formidable powers of the Imperial Chancellorship and the still more formidable powers of the Emperor and Prussian King. The new Emperor [William II] was young, versatile, and fired by a devouring activity. Had he been a constitutional sovereign he would not have been prepared to step on to the shelf during the best years of his life. But he was not a constitutional sovereign. William II. had been born and bred in the militarist atmosphere of the Hohenzollern Court, and he had been trained in the theory, sedulously enforced since 1847 by no one more than by Bismarck himself, that the Prussian monarch personally governed, and that the Prussian Crown was not the idle ornament of a constitutional building, but the living and operative force in the mechanism of the State. ‘If a lion knew its own strength’, Wolsey remarked of the young Henry VIII., ‘hard it were to rule him.’ There were, in fact, practically no limits to what the Emperor, with the help of the Prussian Crown, could do, if he chose to exercise to its full all the latent power in the prerogative, prestige, and influence of the Imperial and Prussian Monarchy. William II. took some months to discover what an unexplored and inexhaustible heritage had fallen to him — a heritage enriched by Bismarck's efforts for a quarter of a century. Therein lay the irony of the situation. Had Bismarck been the Parliament-made minister of a constitutional sovereign, whose ministerial position rested on a national mandate expressed through a representative assembly to which he was responsible, it would have been William II., not Bismarck who must have given way. Bismarck had indeed the confidence of the nation. A plebiscite in 1890 would have retained him in office till death came. But the nation could not save him in 1890, nor could it bring him back. Once he had lost the support of the Crown he was powerless. He could not appeal to the Reichstag nor to the Federal Council, still less to the nation by a general election. He must either resign or be dismissed. He could not even advise his Imperial Majesty whom the Crown should invite to be its chief adviser in his place. And it is in the record that the man who all his life had fought against the conception of an electro-plated royalism, and against a kingship emasculated by English Liberalism, should later denounce this subservience to a personal monarchy as ' Byzantinism and Cæsar worship.'

There was also more even than this in the situation that was bitter. William II. was young. He could toil and travel as only the young can. Age has its compensations and its rewards, but not all its maturity of wisdom and experience can find a substitute for the recuperative vigour of manhood and womanhood in their prime. Bismarck could recall the felicity of the time when after a day at his desk he could swim in the moonlit waters of the Rhine [the great sculpin in the Rhine], snatch a couple of hours of sleep, and then fling himself into work again or wear out a fiery horse in the exultant freshness of youth and the joy of life. He could do it no longer. He told the Reichstag in 1889 that he was obliged severely to limit his efforts and concentrate on the important and the essential. He now fought a losing battle with the Emperor — ebbing forces on the one side against vitality on the other. For all that, he was not prepared to let go. The more his grip slackened, the more fiercely did he demand submissive obedience to his autocratic will. It is a characteristic that history can exemplify fifty times over that the strongwilled who have long held unquestioned sway may lose, as the chariot of time drives remorselessly on, everything but the strength of their will. The appetite for domination waxes precisely as the capacity to gratify it wanes. The bitterest punishment indeed that the years can bring to some men and women is the fear and the resentment of rivals in power. A new epoch had arrived in Germany which knew and reverenced Bismarck, but Bismarck neither knew nor reverenced it. William II. was a child of the new epoch. Bismarck had taught Germany to be strong and how to be strong. He had placed the Empire on the pinnacle of Continental power, and new worlds had swum into its ken. The young Imperial Germany of 1888 desired to prove that it was as strong, as great, as ambitious, and as saturated with the realism of life as the Germany that had overthrown Vienna and the Babylon of France. It was  grateful for Bismarck's achievements; Bismarck summed up for it all that was mighty in Germanism; the ends that Bismarck defined must pass with Bismarck himself; but Bismarckian methods and the Bismarckian gospel were imperishable and could not be superseded. The profoundest homage that could be paid to the master was to apply the principles and methods of Bismarckian statecraft to the problems of the future. The Bismarckian Empire that was the State, incarnating Continental Power, must be transformed into the World-Empire that incarnated World-Power. Nothing must happen in the world within or without Europe in which Germany had not the deciding voice. Bismarckianism not Bismarck was the model. In the magician's magic more than in the magician himself lay the essential secret of success. Round the Emperor collected the new Germany. Fear, jealousy, ambition, revenge — the human appetites and carnal forces that find their most nourishing environment in the court of a militarist personal monarchy added their unlovely stimulus. Bismarck had made many enemies, whose enmity was all the stronger because it had been so impotent. The Chancellor was not popular at the Federated Courts — neither at Stuttgart, Munich, Dresden, nor Karlsruhe — the soldier ‘demi-gods,’ the Clericals, the anti-Semites, the Lutheran Conservatives, the great industrials were quite ready to salute as they saw the Chancellor depart; the Liberals and Radicals and Socialists had no reason to love the Minister-President, for fate and Bismarck had killed Liberalism. The German people alone was Bismarck's most loyal ally, and the German people through its representatives had been the accomplice in the blunder by which the German people was excluded from deciding in hours of crisis who should govern in their name. In the confidential circles of the monarchy and of the official civil and military bureaucracy — the men who governed and whom Bismarck had taught to regard the Reichstag as the House of Phrases, a statutory but useless appendage to the machinery of Power — it became clear  that the iron Titan of Friedrichsruhe planned for the perpetuity of the Bismarckian autocracy. The House of Bismarck was to hold an unbroken mayoralty of the palace over, rather than under, the House of Hohenzollern. Count Herbert Bismarck, carefully trained in affairs of State, and since 1886 Foreign Secretary under the Chancellor, was obviously destined to sit in the Wilhelmstrasse in his father's chair. Herbert Bismarck had capacity and considerable powers of work. He modelled himself on his father as capable sons of great men are entitled to do. But he endeavoured to prove, not that he was a chip of the old block, but the old block itself by imitating and exaggerating with repellent fidelity all the worst defects in his father's character — his brutality, coarseness, dictatorial insolence, and unscrupulous disregard of the conventions of decent existence. His manners were insufferable and a byword. Men were prepared to endure much from the Chancellor who had genius and achieved miracles. They were not prepared to endure the intolerable from one who was not a genius and had done nothing remarkable (except be outwitted in colonial negotiations by Lords Granville and Rosebery).

During 1888 and 1889 Bismarck was very little in Berlin. Most of his time was spent at Varzin and Friedrichsruhe, and it was at his country seats that the unending visitors found the Chancellor and did their business. His absence from the capital was not wholly the result of old age. In Herbert Bismarck at the Chancery the father had a devoted representative, and the Empire could be governed on Bismarckian lines almost as easily from Friedrichsruhe as from the Wilhelmstrasse. The Chancellor, however, did not realise that under a young  Emperor, bent on probing into every department of State, and leaving an Imperial imprint upon it, the loss of touch with the personalities, the ministers and the forces of politics was a grave disadvantage. Nor did he appreciate the significance of the growing volume of criticism that found in these prolonged absences a substantial reason for a change. Thus by the autumn of 1889 the whole Bismarckian system was being challenged — and by the Emperor. For William II. had inaugurated his reign by a series of travels. He was indefatigable in visiting all parts of Germany and learned much thereby. He went to Petersburg, Vienna, London, Athens, and most remarkable of all, to Constantinople, the first European sovereign to be received as a guest by an Ottoman Sultan. And in these visits what he learned about foreign policy caused him to think and think again. Bismarck resented these continuous journeys, and expressed his resentment in remarks that travelled to the travelling sovereign. They made the Emperor more important than Bismarck, and they did not assist the peculiar methods by which Bismarckian foreign policy was maintained. The old Emperor had been told just as much as the Chancellor thought fit; the young Emperor was insisting on knowing what he thought fit — and he made discoveries, had ideas, and ' interfered.'» (Robertson, 1919, p.478-483).

« ... and the anti-Socialist law was rejected by 169 to 98 votes. All Berlin now knew that it was confronted with a real ‘ Chancellor Crisis.’ Foreign policy, however, was the main cause of the collision. The explicit reports of Russian armaments and movements of troops perturbed Vienna and the German General Staff. The Emperor was determined to convince Austria that Germany was on her side — Bismarck stubbornly resisted any steps to support Austria and thereby alienate Russia: and the Emperor accused him of suppressing information in the Foreign Office. The quarrel over home policy could have been settled, but the conflict over foreign policy cut down to fundamentals. A compromise was impossible. Bismarck's system was in issue. The general election, however, turned on the new Social and Labour policy. Bismarck declined to organise a governmental campaign; he had quarrelled both with the Emperor and his colleagues, and the results were a rout for the cartel. The Conservatives lost 36, the National Liberals, 52 seats; the Liberals gained 30, the Socialists, 24 seats. The cartel of 1887 was dissolved, although the Clerical Centre returned in undiminished strength. Bismarck now made a subtle move. Recognising that the Crown was undermining his presidential pre-eminence by uniting the ministers against him, he demanded that the Cabinet order of September 8, 1852, should be vigorously enforced. This order, requiring all ministers to submit their departmental business to the Minister-President before submitting it to the Crown, practically forbade all independent relations between the ministers and the Crown, and made the Minister-President the sole constitutional avenue of communication with the sovereign. Bismarck had always acted on it, though in the last ten years his frequent absences had required its  relaxation. But such had been his prestige that the relaxation had not involved any real diminution of his authority in all essentials of governmental action. It was different now, when Bismarck realised that the King-Emperor aimed at uniting the ministerial cabinet against its constitutional chief. To the Emperor the order was an odious restriction on his prerogative. It meant that he could only confer with his ministers by and through a Minister-President, hostile to his policy and his ideas, alike in home and foreign affairs. Accordingly he demanded that the Minister-President should advise him to rescind the order. The dispute was a forcible illustration of Bismarck’s warning to the Progressive Party in 1862: ‘ Questions of right (Rechtfragen) in the long run become questions of might (Machtfragen).’ The Emperor told Hohenlohe that February and March were for him ‘ a beastly time,' and that it had become ' a question whether the Bismarck dynasty or the Hohenzollern dynasty should rule.' For Bismarck the issues were simple, but fundamental. His whole system was challenged. As Minister-President he was to be reduced to a position of equality with colleagues placed in complete independence in their relations with himself and with the Crown; a policy in home affairs was to be carried out through the ministers of the Interior and Finance which reversed all his principles; as Chancellor he was expected to carry out a foreign policy in flat contradiction to his convictions and ideas. The close connection between home and foreign policy — the keystone of his system and his success — was to be snapped; alike in the Prussian Landtag and the Imperial Reichstag he would speak without any control over parties or any security that the votes would not be influenced by Imperial intrigues or ministerial pressure, unfavourable to himself. In the daily intercourse with the representatives of foreign governments he could no longer invite their confidence or express his own. Moltke had resigned his post as Chief of the General Staff. The new chief, Waldersee, in Bismarck's judgment was a second-rate soldier and an intriguing politician in the hands of a ‘military ring’ bent on controlling the civil authority. In a word, the Chancellor and Minister-President would have lost all his rights to co-ordinate strategy and policy. The Emperor, he told more than one confidant, ‘ now wishes to reign alone - to be his own Chancellor and Minister-President’ [to put out his great thirst [in satisfying it]]. It was impossible that Bismarck could accept after twenty-seven years of power a position that was a personal humiliation, a reversal of his policy, and a reduction to impotence. ‘ I cannot serve,’ he said, ‘ on my knees ‘ (Ich kann nicht mit Proskynesis dienen). The final touch was given on March 14. Windthorst who wished to consult the Chancellor about the forthcoming session was received ‘ in audience ’ by Bismarck. What passed between them — whether Bismarck suggested a coalition between the shattered Conservatives and the Clericals, cemented by a final repeal of the May Laws — is uncertain and matters little. ' I come,' Windthorst observed, ‘ from the political deathbed of a great man.' The next day the Emperor in person demanded an explanation of what had passed, and Bismarck was dragged from his sleep to wait upon the unexpected visitor. ‘ It was all that Bismarck could do,' the Emperor subsequently related, ' to refrain from throwing the inkpot at my head.' Bismarck was no less certain that the Emperor lost his temper even more completely than he did himself. He refused to give the information demanded. The discussions with Windthorst or other leaders of parties were personal and confidential, and could not be controlled by the Crown, not even if the Crown commanded. According to one source, Bismarck drawing himself up to his full height asserted that he had received Windthorst as a gentleman had the right to receive his friends in his own house, and then he added that ' the orders of the Sovereign stopped at the door of the Princess's drawing-room.' The phrase may be an invention, but it exactly expressed Bismarck's attitude. The memorable conversation was not one between Minister and Emperor, but between the Prussian Junker of Schönhausen, Varzin, and Friedrichsruhe, and the Elector of Brandenburg whom the Junker had made German Emperor. Repeatedly pressed, Bismarck at last submitted his resignation [The great of Mainz shall be deprived of his great dignity]. On March 20 the official Gazette announced that the Emperor had been graciously pleased to accept with profound regret the Chancellor's request to be relieved of his offices, and in return for his ‘ imperishable services ' conferred upon him the title of Duke of Lauenburg and Colonel-General, with the rank of Field-Marshal in the army. Punch, in one of the most famous of its famous cartoons which, curiously enough, delighted both Bismarck and William II., summed up the event with unerring felicity. ‘ The Pilot ' who had steered the ship through so many storms and so many shoals, ' was dropped.' The Emperor henceforward intended to be Captain and Pilot in one. Official Berlin heard the news, expected for so many months, with a sigh of profound relief: but to Germany and the German nation the Emperor's dismissal of the man who summed up German power and represented the Empire in the Councils of the world — the greatest German political figure since the Middle Ages — was received with consternation and genuine sorrow [Those of Cologne shall come to pity him so much]. The old Emperor was dead; Moltke in his ninetieth year was no longer the brain of the German army; and now Bismarck had gone, removed neither by death nor incapacitated by sickness. The German nation knew that in the political sphere there was no one in experience, strength of character, prestige, or intellect fit to tie the latchet of Bismarck's shoe. With March 20, 1890, the heroic age had indeed ended.» (Robertson, 1919, p.488-491)

The great sculpin shall be thrown into the Rhine: « For the first time Bismarck found himself at Varzin and Friedrichsruhe unemployed; yet the absolute leisure for which he had so often craved was framed in political isolation, and proved to be a curse. Had he been thirty years younger he could have flung himself, as he had often contemplated, into the duties of a great landowner, and found in Nature an outlet for his energies and an anodyne for the savage pain that ceaselessly tore his heart. To many statesmen the opportunity, before the final call comes, to remake the broken threads of intellectual interests and ambitions, or simply to sift and test in serene reflection the lessons of life matured by the golden sunshine of the ripening years, has been the boon they have valued most. For them old age, warmed by the recognition of a people's gratitude, has been a fruitful and satisfying climax. Through Leisure with Dignity the men of action have often taught their richest criticism of life. But Bismarck assuredly was not one of these. At seventy-six he could neither resume nor begin a contemplative and intellectual phase; and his ebbing physical forces denied to him the power that he demanded for the mastery of nature. To him life without power and the contest for power lost all its savour. In his love of Nature, with all its keen appreciation of beauty — the dawn on dreaming woods, the blue witchery of distant hills, sunset on lush pastures, a mighty river wave — charmed by the earnest stars — can be detected from his boyhood an unconscious craving to make the beauty his own, and to bend the power it enshrined to his insurgent will. Nature now failed him, just because he was old and Nature was young, and could yearly repeat the miracle of renewing her youth. As he drove or walked on his estates, followed by his dogs as imperious and fierce as himself. Nature seemed to cry at every turn the mocking truth that no longer could he find the healing rest or the balm that had in the past always been the prelude to a mightier toil. In one place, and one alone, — the Reichskanzlerpalais in the Wilhelmstrasse — was the power that would satisfy. His favourite Goethe had said so truly that no young man can be a master. Knowledge, judgment, experience, the secrets of the Higher Command — these were not the prerogatives of youth but of a maturity, fired in the furnace of a life passed in great affairs. Bismarck knew that life had made him a master. Yet away there in Berlin the mastery was torn from him by ingrates and incompetents, mere novices and apprentices, compared with himself. The laceration of his heart poured out the pent-up passion in the revelation of State secrets and journalist denunciation... In 1894 he had suffered in the death of his wife (November 27) the personal bereavement that completed the solitude of these years of unquenchable resentment. The princess was buried at Varzin — the home that he made for her, and which was in itself a record of the achievement in which she had played a share, fully known only to Bismarck himself. Johanna von Puttkamer had been happy in the supreme gifts of love and life to a woman — the right to be the wife and ally of the mightiest German of her and his century; and of that personal union both husband and wife could have said with truth that they had lived with distinction between the torch of marriage and the torch of death: Fiximus insignes inter utramque facem. Varzin never beheld its bereaved master again, though to this day the peasantry tell how in the glades that Bismarck planted the lonely wayfarer in the dusk has suddenly been confronted with the familiar figure, now on horseback, now on foot — erect and superhuman in mien and stature, galloping or striding with the effortless majesty of power from one beloved haunt to another — and sometimes halting to turn on the awed spectator the penetration of eyes, once seen in life, never to be forgotten. The end came on July 30, 1898, at Friedrichsruhe. Nations that have beaten out their path through toil, failure, controversy, revolution, and civil war to the golden summits of victorious ambitions frequently anticipate the verdict of posterity even in the lifetime of the leader and in all the asphyxiating and blinding atmosphere of strife. The Germany of 1890 had already placed Bismarck along with the other three greatest of German figures since the Renaissance, with Luther, Frederick the Great, and Goethe.» (Robertson, 1919, p.508-511).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§721

19th century:

§721 The Roman Catholics persecuted in Italy and in Germany (1870-1887): V-43.

 

V-43:

The great ruin of the ecclesiastics is not far-off.

Provence, Naples, Sicily, Sezze and Ponza:

In Germany, by the Rhine and in the region of Cologne,

Vexed to death by all those of Magonce.

(La grand ruyne des sacrés ne s'esloigne.

Provence, Naples, Sicille, seez & Ponce:

En Germanie, au Ryn & la Cologne,

Vexés à mort par tous ceulx de Magonce.)

 

NOTES: Provence: « This word designates Piedmont. It is with Piedmont that began “the great ruin of the ecclesiastics” which was, by her, extended over all Italy.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.47). The County of Nice in Provence is mediating between Provence and Piedmont, having been by turns Piedmontese (Sardinian) and French from 1388 till 1860 (cf. Duby, p.69, p.137; Mirot, 1980, p.227, p.271, p.276, p.431).

Provence, Naples, Sicily: The Kingdom of Italy including Sicily and Naples.

Sezze (seez): or Sezza, « a small town of the Pontifical states, 12 km west-southwest of Frosinone.» (MacCarthy).

Ponza (Ponce): The island of Ponza, « the most important of the Ponza islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea dependent on the Kingdom of Naples.» (id.). « … famous for the exiles of so many a saint in martyrdom.» (Moréri, cité Torné-Chavigny, id.).

The great ruin of the ecclesiastics is not far-off. Provence, Naples, Sicily, Sezze and Ponza: The spoliation of Rome ensuing the sufferings of the Roman ecclesiastics by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870 (cf. §669-678) is not distant from the 1870s and 1880s when the German Catholics shall be persecuted analogously.

Magonce: = Mainz (Mayence); « Mayence is named by the Latin authors Maguntia. Some derive its etymology from  the name of Magog, son of Japhet.» (Moréri, cité Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.48). « MAYENCE, in Latin Moguntia, in German Mainz, city of the German Confederation [1863]. This city surrendered to the French, in 1799, and stayed under their power until 1814.» (Bescherelle). « Mogontiācum, a town of the Vangiones (now Mainz).» (TanakaH).

Those of Magonce: = The Protestant Prussians, « the great of Magonce (Grand de Magonce) » of the quatrain VI-40 (§722) being Otto von Bismarck, Protestant Chancellor.

The region of Cologne (la Cologne): = Prussia (in 1815 by the Congress of Wien) = the German Empire (in 1871), by synecdoche.

Vexed to death: « All those of Magonce, namely of Mainz shall vex the Catholics of Germany not literally to death.» (Torné-Chavigny, id.).

In Germany, near the Rhine and in the region of Cologne, Vexed to death by all those of Magonce: « Kulturkampf (‘Conflict of Beliefs’), a term generally used to describe the conflict between Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church, 1871-87. Bismarck feared that the decrees of the Vatican Council [of 1870] implied that the Church was asserting a prior claim to the State on the obedience of the citizen. He was, too, considerably alarmed by the creation of the Roman Catholic Centre Party which was avowedly anti-Prussian. The Kulturkampf was worse in Prussia than in other parts of Germany. Bismarck, seeing that his opponents were flourishing under persecution, realized that his policy was inept and with the election of a new Pope (Leo XIII) in 1878 began negotiations which restored most of the Roman Catholic rights by 1887.» (Palmer, s.v.).

« Even the German bishops after some opposition at the beginning had submitted to the new dogma of papal infallibility. The great mass of priests and laymen submitted to the dogma now expressly represented by the bishops. At first Prince Bismarck had allowed this theoretical declaration of war by the papacy against the modern state to remain unnoticed. But immediately after the war Ludwig Windthorst and Peter Reichensperger formed a confessional Catholic party of sixty-three members for the Reichstag, the Centre party, in order thereby to furnish the interests of their church with such backing as they had lost by the secession of Austria from the German state community. They demanded restoration of the ecclesiastical state "freedom '' of the church and the expansion of the empire on a "federative" basis. In June, 1871, the Prussian government abolished the Catholic section of the ministry of public instruction, because it had become a church weapon against the state, and an imperial law of December, 1871, threatened with punishment every abuse of the pulpit with a view to raising agitation. Hereupon the new minister of public instruction (from January, 1872), Adalbert Falk, who, jurist and doctrinaire as he was, went much further in resistance to the aggressions of the Roman Church than was wise or necessary, introduced for Prussia a law of school inspection, and for the empire a law compelling the expulsion of the Jesuits (on the 4th of July, 1872), and finally, in 1873, the "May laws," which included the limitation of ecclesiastical vindictive jurisdiction to purely ecclesiastical matters, training of priests exclusively in German institutions, state inspection of ecclesiastical institutions, compulsory notice by ecclesiastical superiors on appointment of their inferiors to office, and a royal disciplinary court of justice for ecclesiastical concerns. Other laws transferred the pecuniary control of vacant bishoprics to royal commissioners (May, 1874) and that of parishes to a secular body representing the parish (June, 1876); that of all dioceses was placed under state supervision (July, 1876), priests at loggerheads with one another were deprived of state fees (April, 1875), and all religious foundations not devoted to healing the sick were abolished (May, 1875). The introduction of civil marriage into Prussia in 1874, and into the whole empire in 1875, was calculated to preserve the solemnisation of marriage from all abuse at the hands of the ecclesiastical power. But the hope that was entertained of separating the Catholic laymen from the clergy, and so compelling the latter to submit, was a total fiasco and the clergy, starting with the assumption that all these laws were invalid because they lacked the sanction of the church, offered the most obstinate resistance. So, at the end of 1876, seven out of twelve Prussian bishops gradually came to be dispossessed by sentence, a thousand parsonages were left vacant, and ill feeling was further increased by frequent agitation in the Kaplanspresse, which shot into rapid notoriety, agitation that was demagogical and knew no bounds, so that on the 13th of July, 1874, a fanatic in Kissingen went so far as to attempt to murder Prince Bismarck. These contests between the sovereign state and the church, which at the same time disputed with it that sovereignty, prehistoric conflicts receiving illustration anew in modern form, naturally impeded to no small degree the expansion of the empire. And yet it made vigorous progress. The French war indemnity was devoted to compensating the damage.» (HH, XV, p.534-535).

« With the internal peace and well-being of Germany, the final and the highest aim of all these enterprises, was destined to be associated that ecclesiastical peace which the Kulturkampf had interrupted for the Catholic Germans. Social as well as political considerations pointed to the attainment of such a peace. At the same time the secession of a large fraction of the liberals (since 1878) from the new policy of taxation and economic adjustment compelled Prince Bismarck to come to an understanding with the Centre, and this involved concessions to the church. Moreover, a change of front in the papacy seemed more possible under Leo XIII, who succeeded to Pius IX in 1878, than under Pius himself. Consequently Falk was replaced in July, 1879, by Puttkamer, who again, on becoming minister of the interior, was succeeded by Von Gossler. The abolition of several punitive enactments in the May laws made it now possible to restore regular incumbents in the majority of the vacant parishes; the majority of the deposed bishops were enabled to return to their dioceses; and when in 1883 Leo XIII had given his consent to the law of notice on appointment, all the still unoccupied parsonages were filled, and in 1886 the new bishops also were nominated by papal brief with the assent of the territorial prince; finally, in 1887 a series of ecclesiastical orders was admitted. Thus the obligation to give notice on appointment was adhered to, as were also the participation of laymen in the ecclesiastical control of the parish and civil marriage; the Jesuits remained banished from the territory of the empire, and the Catholic section of the ministry of public worship was not re-established. Whatever material concessions the state may have made, it had yet preserved in the main the sovereignty of its legislation and of its administration. Destructive and confusing as had been the effect of the Kulturkampf, the nation grew more and more consolidated. National holidays were made of Sedan day, the birthday of the emperor, and, more particularly since 1885, of the birthday of Prince Bismarck; everywhere rose innumerable monuments commemorating the great time of the wars of unification and their leaders — sometimes only simple stones, sometimes splendid works of art.» (HH, XV, p.538-539).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§720

19th century:

§720 William I, Bismarck and Moltke (1861-1871): V-84.

 

V-84:

An immeasurable city shall be born of the gulf,

And the offspring of the obscure and tenebrous parents:

Who shall wish to destroy the power of the reverend

Great king in Rouen and Evreux.

(Naistra du goulphre & cité immesuree,

Nay de parents obscurs & tenebreux:

Qui la puissance du grand roy reveree,

Vouldra destruire par Rouan & Evreux.)

NOTES: An immeasurable city shall be born of the gulf [of numerous small states]: Berlin made the capital of the German Empire: « The accession of William I (1861 A.D.) Meantime, on the 2nd of January, 1861, Frederick William IV died, and in October the coronation took place. The new elections, in which the newly formed party of progress for the first time came into prominence, were in favour of the opposition; after a short session the house was dissolved and a change of ministry ensued. The elections of the 6th of May, 1862, furnished another defeat to the government; the house refused the whole cost of the organisation, and the king now sent for Bismarck, who, after the close of the session, formed a new ministry…» (HH, XV, p.481). « The unification of Germany [1866-1871 A.D.] The unity of the greater part of Germany has been secured, and, by a pardonable confusion of ideas, the Imperial title has been assumed by the chief of the united nation. I need not show that such a title is in strictness inaccurate, but it would be hard to find a title more appropriate than that of Emperor for the head of a confederation of kings and other princes. The new German Empire is a fair revival of the old German Kingdom, but it must be borne in mind that it is in no sense a revival of the Holy Roman Empire. That has passed away forever. Freeman.» (HH, XV, p.496).

« So that all that great Germany which extends from the Kongs-Aa to the Alps rose up and sang the Wacht am Rhein. And it did not stop at singing. The most decisive steps followed one after the other. As early as the 12th of July Bismarck and Moltke came to Berlin and conferred with the ministers…On the 19th of July King William opened the north German diet. The speech from the throne was full of lofty patriotism, boldness, and confidence: “ If in former centuries Germany has borne in silence such violations of her rights and her honour, she did so only because in her distracted state she knew not how strong she was. To-day when the bond of spiritual and legal unity, which the wars of liberation began to twine, is ever drawing the German races more closely together; to-day when Germany's armour no longer offers a weak spot to the enemy, Germany bears within herself the will and the power to cope with new acts of French violence.» (HH, XV, p.520).

The obscure and tenebrous parents: The two distinguished Germans, one in politics and the other in army, who helped the King of Prussia become the Emperor of Germany, Bismarck and Moltke.

« Moltke, Helmuth von (1800-91), German Field-Marshal; entered the Prussian Army in 1822 and served in it for 66 years, although from 1835 to 1839 he was seconded as adviser to the Turks. Moltke became Chief of the Prussian General Staff in 1857 and, in collaboration with Bismarck and General von  Roon (1803-79, Prussian Minister of War 1859-73), completely re-organized the Prussian Army. He was responsible for the strategic planning that defeated Denmark in 1864, Austria in 1866 and France in 1870. From 1870 to 1888 he was the first Chief of the Great German General Staff.» (Palmer, p.187-188). « Great events were now at hand, for by April 1839 the time had come when some decision must be arrived at in the struggle between the Sultan and the Viceroy of Egypt. The continuous state of military preparation was a severe drain on Turkish finances, and the Turkish troops were being wasted by sickness, and were deserting freely. The Porte had 70,000 men under arms in Asia Minor, but they were split up into three main groups, whereas the Egyptian forces, which lay at that time in the neighbourhood of Aleppo, were under the single command of Ibrahim Pasha — Mehemet Ali's son. The question to be decided was whether Ibrahim would make a dash for Constantinople or turn upon Hafiz Pasha in Malatia and attack him. Moltke held that the former course was the one the enemy was more likely to adopt, and to counter it recommended that Hafiz should take up a position menacing the Egyptian commander's right flank. This move would probably have the effect of compelling Ibrahim to suspend his march to deal with the threat against his flank, and it was advisable that all the available Turkish troops should be concentrated at Biradschik, on the left bank of the Euphrates. They were then to move forward to the right bank and dig themselves in, in which position the flanks of the Turkish force would be secured by the winding course of the river. It was true that an unbridged river would then be in the Turkish rear, but Moltke looked upon this circumstance as a positive advantage, for, as he shrewdly remarked, “ a bridge would only be useful for deserters, but as matters now stand every man must hold his ground or perish.” Broadly speaking, Moltke's plan was a combination of the strategic offensive with a tactical defensive, and it promised good results, but it was wrecked by the impatience and superstition of Hafiz. While Ibrahim's army was as yet some distance off, the Mollahs induced the pasha to leave his stronghold at Biradschik, and advance to Nisib, where the flanks of his army would be completely in the air. Ibrahim, indeed, was at first inclined to play a cautious game, and showed no inclination to deal with Hafiz, but the pinpricks of several minor Turkish raids stung him into action, and on June 20 he advanced to the attack. For a moment, while his forces were temporarily divided by a manoeuvre leading up to an attack on Hafiz's left flank, there was a possibility of a Turkish victory, for a bold stroke launched by the whole Turkish force might have led to a defeat in detail of the Egyptian army. Moltke strenuously urged this step, but Hafiz was not equal to the task, and contented himself with a useless exhibition of his miserable cavalry. With this favourable opportunity let slip there remained but one course, namely, to fall back while there was yet time to the entrenched position at Biradschik, where it was impossible to be surrounded, and where the Turkish troops would have no choice but between death and glory. Moltke pointed this out with emphasis to Hafiz, but the vacillating mind of the Turkish commander could not be stiffened into soldierly resolution. Again and again Moltke reiterated his advice, but even when it was clear that Ibrahim was rapidly outflanking him on both sides, Hafiz would not move. Priestly exhortations had outweighed the advice of the professional soldier, and Moltke had to content himself with the prophecy, " By to-morrow at sundown you will know what it is to be a commander without an army." Not even the Witch of Endor had been a truer seer. Ibrahim advanced in three columns and placed himself between the Turkish camp at Nisib and their magazine at Biradschik. Moltke had by now ceased to be the official adviser of the pasha, for he had formally resigned that position when his advice had been neglected. But he was not the man to leave a commander in the lurch at a critical moment. He threw himself heart and soul into the fight, giving every assistance he could, but the Turkish soldiers, outnumbered, out-generalled and out-gunned, made but a sorry resistance. The left wing speedily retired and could on no account be induced to advance, while the reserve divisions made several attempts to get out of the line of fire, and whole battalions stood with hands uplifted, crying aloud to Allah. Finally the cavalry left their position among the reserves and advanced to the attack. But the first few shells threw them into the wildest confusion, and in their flight they dragged the terrified infantry with them in wild disarray. All was now over, and in the frightful confusion it was a case of every man for himself. Making his way through the mob Moltke met the other two Prussian officers — for another had been sent out in addition to Moltke and von Muhlbach — and they had no choice but to join in the sauve qui peut. That night they reached Aintab, and from there they pushed on, without food for themselves or their horses, to Marasch, a ride of ninety miles. Later the Prussian officers rejoined their now armyless general, and were met with the news of the death of the Sultan Mahmoud, and their own letter of recall. They rode back to the coast — shouting, like the Ten Thousand of old, " Thalatta ! Thalatta ! " at the first glimpse of the sea — and on August 3 embarked for Constantinople. Moltke' s stay at Constantinople was marked chiefly by a narrative of his adventures in Turkish — which he could now speak fluently — to his old patron Chosref, and by his successful intercession for the unfortunate Hafiz Pasha. " It was hardly his fault,” said Moltke, " if instead of giving him 80,000 men he was allowed only half that number, and the various corps were not placed under one general, as we had repeatedly advised in our despatches. Nor could the faulty arrangement of the army, formed as it was of two-thirds Kurdish troops, be set down to him — troops who were loth to remain in the service and who turned tail and fled when it came to the point." On the 9th of September 1839, Moltke and his companions embarked and steamed along the coast of the Black Sea, and up the Danube, whence he proceeded overland to Berlin, and once more resumed his position as a captain of the General Staff. (Whitton, 1921, p.35-38).

« Although Moltke's experience in the East had been associated with defeat, and although like Frederick and Peter the Great he had galloped off from his first battlefield — in his case, however, with the amplest justification — the campaign he had made was of infinite service to him. He had left the General Staff at Berlin just at the time when the wave of military reform which had burst forth after Jena had begun to subside, and when the lessons learnt in war were in danger of being forgotten in the post-Waterloo era of peace. Further, he had left it at that critical period of a soldier's life when notions acquired from arduous theoretical study alone are apt to petrify. This danger was particularly likely to affect a student like Moltke, whose higher military education had been received at the feet of the philosophical Clausewitz. Not that Clausewitz was merely a theorist of war. Far from it; his practical experience of warfare both in defeat and victory was of an extraordinarily wide range. But its very extent had led his systematic and logical mind to endeavour to construct a framework of theory on to which he could fit his wide and varied experiences of the field. With such experience behind him it was impossible for a man like Clausewitz ever to develop into a mere academic student of war. With a pupil not so favoured with reminiscences of active service the case was widely different. A staff officer reared in the school, whose great text-book was On War, would, unless such theory were seasoned with practical experience, run a very serious risk of developing into a military pedant. From the possibility of such untoward fate Moltke was saved by a rough-and-tumble campaign in a semi-civilized country, where half-trained and, in some cases, wholly unwilling soldiers were led by unpractical and unskilled commanders. It was an invaluable revelation for a Moltke to discover that the subtleties of an appreciation elaborately prepared can be wrecked in a moment by the incapacity or inexperience of the instrument for whom it is devised. That human element which can never be properly appreciated at a desk becomes startlingly apparent in action in the field, and few staff officers in preparing a tactical project could have foreseen that the niceties of their plan could be set aside by a deference to fanatical priests. Yet that was what happened at Nisib, and led to Moltke's first and only defeat. Though such a perversion of warfare was unlikely ever to occur in Western Europe, the lesson was probably not lost upon Moltke that there are conditions which limit the power of the strongest will, and that such conditions must be taken into account. The four years spent in the East, monotonous, laborious and unfortunate though they were, were thus a fine school in which to gain practical experience, and to develop the initiative and acceptance of responsibility required of a commander in the field.» (Whitton, 1921, p.38-40).

« Napoleon III could surrender his person - he was no longer a general; it was not his work to surrender the army. Another was to be entrusted with this mission. Wimpffen, with despair at his heart, was obliged to submit to it. He went over to the enemy's headquarters, to the castle of Bellevue, near Donchery. For three long hours Wimpffen struggled in vain to obtain some modification of the conditions which Moltke had fixed. This cold and inflexible calculator, who had reduced war to mathematical formulas, was as incapable of generosity as of anger. He had decided that the entire army, with arms and baggage, should be prisoners.» (HH, XIII, p.160).

« Bismarck, Otto von (1815-98, created a prince 1871), ... In September 1862, he was appointed chief minister of Prussia with the immediate task of completing army reforms despite parliamentary refusal of a grant; characteristically he solved this problem by governing without a budget. Bismarck’s policy was ruthlessly realistic and opportunist; he believed in the inevitable unification of Germany but was determined that it should be done under Prussian Junker leadership. With his Eastern frontier secure through a friendly understanding with Russia, he sought the elimination of Austria as a Germanic state and the replacement of France by Prussia as the arbiter of Europe. To achieve these ends he fought three wars; with Denmark (1864) over Schleswig-Holstein; with Austria and the other German states (1866); and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. On the proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles in January 1871 he became Imperial Chancellor and dominated European diplomacy for nineteen years.» (Palmer, p.31-32).

Remember that Moltke, a sheer calculator with contingencies in consideration, and Bismarck, a ruthless realist and opportunist, can be obscure and tenebrous for the third person who cannot grip the overview of their own whole strategical or political planning with an inevitable factor of contingencies, with which they themselves alone can deal in their most intimate perception. 

Who shall wish to destroy the power of the reverend Great king [of France]  in Rouen and Evreux: = Rouen, Evreux shall not escape the King [of Prussia] (§694, IV-100): « … while Prince Frederick Charles menaced Chanzy's front, two columns were sent in a northerly direction under the command of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, with orders to disperse the Francs-tireurs in the department of the Eure [Evreux], and prevent the Armies of the North and West from establishing communications. There was, in consequence, some fighting at Orbec and Bernay (January 21st and 22nd [1871]), and everywhere as the Duke advanced the retreating French were driven right and left in a panic. On the 26th the two columns arrived at Rouen [Rouen], and effected a junction with the forces of Goeben, fresh from the action of St. Quentin [ Rouen, Evreux shall not escape the King]…The positions to which he retired were in front of Poitiers, (where Chanzy now established his head-quarters,) south of the Loire, and west of its tributary, the Creuse…The history of the Second Army of the Loire is terminated when we add that it furnished twenty-one regiments of infantry, three battalions of chasseurs, nine regiments of cavalry, and fourteen batteries to the Army of Versailles, which crushed the Commune of Paris.» (Rich, II, p.537).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§719

19th century:

§719 The modern Mausoleum in Paris (1885.5.26): IX-74.

 

IX-74:

In the city of Fertsod homicide committed

And committed many times not to immolate plowing oxen,

Returning to the honors of Artimisia

And to Vulcan consecrating dead bodies.

(Dans la cité de Fertsod homicide,

Fait, & fait multe beuf arant ne macter,

Retours encores aux honneurs d'Artemide

Et à Vulcan corps morts sepulturer.)

 

NOTES: In the city of Fertsod: = in the city of Paris filled with vices, Fertsod being composed of « fert, it produces » and « Sodom », i.e. « what Sodom produces = vices » (cf. Vignois, 1910, p.399).

Homicide committed And committed many times: The crimes in Paris were apparently very numerous according to its extremely large population in the end of the 19th century.

Arer: = to plow (Godefroy).

Macter: = to immolate (Godefroy).

Not to immolate plowing oxen: « They voted the Grammont law in favor of animals [the law of July 2nd 1850] just as in Athens where it was forbidden to immolate plowing oxen.» (Vignois, id.).

Returning to the honors of Artimisia: « They came back to Artimisia’s comportment and to the manners of the Convention in consecrating the Pantheon to great persons. Artimisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, constructed for her spouse Mausolus a grave which was one of the seven marvels of the world; and the Convention dedicated the Pantheon to the persons of great merit.» (Vignois, id.). « The decrees of May 26th [1885]: The first decree. Art. 1st. – The Pantheon is rendered to its primitive and legal destination. The rests of the great persons who merit the national recognition shall be deposed there. The second decree. Art. 1st. – Following the obsequies ordered by the law of May 24th 1885, the body of Victor Hugo shall be deposed in the Pantheon.» (Vidieu, 1885, p.5-6)

And to Vulcan [God of fire] consecrating dead bodies: « It was permitted to cremate the deceased in place of burying them » (Vignois, id.) upon the law concerning the liberty of funerals (the law of November 15th 1887). « The crematory furnaces of the Père-Lachaise » (Larmor, 1925, p.261).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§718

19th century:

§718 An encyclical of Leo XIII (August 4th, 1879): X-56.

 

X-56:

The royal prelate having charged his despisers too much,

A great flux of blood shall come out of the mouth,

The angelical reign revived by his reign,

For a long time dead alive in Tunys like a stump.

 

(Prelat royal son baissant trop tiré,

Grand fleux de sang sortira par la boche,

Le regne Anglicque par regne respiré,

Long temps mort vif en Tunys comme soche.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.394) presents us with a likely solution: « In confronting the so-called philosophers, sworn enemies of the Catholicism, who, after the example of Goliath lowering the people of God, provoked the Church, Leo XIII like the young David threw down his adversaries by means of the powerful publication of his Encyclical of August 4th, 1879, about the return to the doctrines of Saint Thomas. Since retook the breath the authority of the angelical doctor, which had been seemingly dead – “ lying neglected and forgotten ” – , but remained alive for a few people.»

 

Fleux: From the Latin fluvius, a river.

 

Boche: = bouche pour rimer à soche du vers 4, boche being at the same time familiar with the ancient Provençal boca (cf. Bloch & Wartburg, s.v. BOUCHE).

 

A great flux of blood shall come out of the mouth: This means the extraordinary effort of Leo XIII to publish in text his firm orthodox belief with full power and spirit against his adversaries. So, the interpretation of Vignois to the effect that « Leo XIII made flow out of his enemy’s mouth fluxes of blood » is impertinent.

 

« Leo XIII … his foreign policy must therefore be seen as the least successful part of his pontificate. More successful was his attempt to align the Church with trends in the modern world without compromising her traditional teaching. In letter after letter [A great flux of blood out of the mouth] he condemned, accepted and guided. Socialism, Communism and Freemasonry were condemned; democracy, workers’ rights and trades’ unions were accepted (these last in his most famous publication, Rerum novarum, 1891, which earned him the sobriquet, ‘the workers’ pope’); while the study of St Thomas Aquinas    to spread the doctrine that between true science and true religion there was no conflict – astronomy, natural sciences, and objective historical and Biblical research were all encouraged.» (Maxwell-Stuart, 2006, p.220-221)

 

Anglicque: = Angélique (angelic).

 

Tunys: = Gk. τυννός (tynnos), « so small, so little » (Liddell & Scott); « petit (small), tout jeune (so young) » (Bailly).

 

Soche: = souche: « SOUCHE, XIIe (Chrétien, sous la forme çoche). Cette forme çoche est confirmée par chouque du picard et du normand.» (Bloch & Wartburg).

 

Discussion: Ionescu (1987, p.482-484) attributes this quatrain erroneously to the Islamic revolution in Iran initiated by Ayatollah Khomeini in 1978, in having commited three grave faults of grammar:

 

1° He says that the word « tiré » (charged) is a reduction of « martirier » (martyriser) (to martyr), but before jumping to his own arbitrary dilettantism in language he is to be required to search far into the existing meanings of the word itself: « tirer, v. tr. 1. To pull, to draw (in general); 2. To lengthen (allonger); 3. To pull off (ôter); 4. To extract (extraire); 5. To obtain (obtenir); 6. To drag away (from); 7. To make, to draw up (dresser); 8. To draw (a lottery); 9. GRAMM. To take, to borrow (emprunter); 10. SPORTS. To shoot at (un animal); 11. MILIT. To shoot, to fire, to discharge; 12. NAUT. To draw, to have a draught of ; 13. AGRIC. To milk; 14. Med. To pull out (a tooth); 15. THEATHR. To draw, to take; 16. ARCHIT. To draw (a line, a plan); 17. FIN. To draw, to make out (a check); 18. TECHN. To extract, to print; 19. FAM. Encore une heure à tirer, still another hour to go; il tire son temps, he’s doing his stretch; tirer de la prison, to do time; tirer le portrait de qqn, to take s.o.’s picture or photograph.» (Dubois); of these ample and diversified meanings one can select that of « 11. MILIT. To shoot, to fire, to discharge » as a most applicable one to the present case depicting some higher prelate furiously charging his foes by means of his eloquence.

 

2° He says also that the word « respiré » (revived) is from an ancient French « respirer » which is itself in turn for « respiter » (respitier ?) = sauver (to save), mettre hors de danger (to put outside of dangers). But without such an illegitimate paraphrase one can literally attain to the plain truth that the word respirer itself can fully satisfy the grammatical needs of the verse in granting us the meaning of « reviving the angelic reign »; for the word « Anglicque » is here, not for Anglais (English), Ionescu’s naive option, but for « angélique » (angelic, angelical) in reality as follows:

 

3°« Anglicquement. – Par bien soy bassiner anglicquement. RABELAIS, II, 11. – Sainéan traduit par angéliquement: « Dérivé isolé d’angle, forme archaïque pour ange.» » (Sainéan translates the word Anglicquement in Rabelais into angéliquement (angelically), deriving from angle, archaic form of angel.) (Huguet). « ANGE. D’abord angele, XIe (Saint Alexis); en outre, angle et angre jusqu’au XIIIe s.; ange ne triomphe que plus tard. Lat. eccl. angělus, grec eccl. angělos, « messager de Dieu».» (ANGEL. At first angele, XIth (Saint Alexis); moreover, angle and angre till in XIIIth c.; angel does not triumph but until later.) (Bloch & Wartburg).

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©  Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§717

19th century:

§717 Prince imperial checked; Amnesty of the Communards (1879): V-97.

 

V-97:

The deformed child by fear suffocated,

In the comfortable city of the great King:

The severe edict of the captives revoked,

Hail and thunder inestimable Condom.

(Le nay defforme par horreur suffoqué,

Dans la cité du grand Roy habitable:

L'edict severe des captifz revoqué,

Gresle & tonnerre Condom inestimable.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.386) presents us with a reasonable solution: « Several years after the Prince imperial had been condemned to fall like a Spartan deformed child by the Assembly at Bordeaux [in 1871], and a few months before he effectively passed away [June 1st 1879], the edict of the prisoners in Noumea, shown as too severe, was revoked. Those who had made rain like hail and thunder the evils upon their country could not fully appreciate such a pardon without precedent.»

The deformed child by fear suffocated: = The Prince imperial Napoléon-Eugène-Louis-Jean-Joseph Bonaparte deprived of his heirship to the Empire by the anti-Bonapartist deputies = the young prince (§702, VI-3) = the chief of the camp (§716, IV-9). Such an expression is accustomed with Nostradamus who says “the eaten hands of his son ” (§553,IV-61), “his son submerged in the pit”(§554,IV-53), etc. as to the King of Rome, the legitimate heir to the Emperor Napoleon I.

In the comfortable city [Paris] of the great King [President Grévy]: President Grévy: « On the 28th of January, 1879, MacMahon, finding himself unable to agree with his ministers and hopeless of forming a new ministry conformable to his views, resigned. There is every reason to believe that, had he willed, he might have contested the presidency of the republic successfully. But he waived his claims in favour of Jules Grévy, who was elected president on the 30th of January, 1879, by 536 votes against 99 for General Chanzy, Gambetta becoming president of the chamber and Waddington the prime minister.» (HH, XIII, p.192).

Hail and thunder: The Communard revolt in 1871. Cf. §693, V-81: thunder, lightning: « The strength of the Versailles army engaged in these operations was about 90,000 men; so desperate was the struggle to plant the tricolour upon the Montmartre buttes and the Northern Railway station. The victorious troops immediately erected several batteries in Montmartre, one with eight naval guns of large calibre. These and other guns opened a heavy fire [hail] during the night between the 23rd and 24th of May on the Quartier du Temple and the Hôtel de Ville. During this night the Tuileries burst out in flames, and the Palais Royal, the Theatre Lyrique, and the Chatelet, the Palais de Justice, the Prefecture of Police, and other public buildings shared the same fate. The scene as witnessed from the top of the Belleville heights [we once more quote the official historian of the Commune] was “ the most imposing, terrific, and horrible spectacle that can possibly be imagined. The flames seemed to reach the clouds and lick the heavens. The hearths from which they arose were more white-red, more incandescent, than the hottest furnace. Some, with fiercer nuclei in their midst than the rest, displayed a brilliancy beyond all description. From time to time terrific explosions [thunder] were heard, while immense sheaves of flame and balls of fire and sparks rose above the rest to the heavens, piercing the clouds…Wherever any shell bursts, they seemed to burn weakly at first, but rapidly increased in intensity, and rising like giants, illuminated the horizon. It is no exaggeration to say that they multiplied with the rapidity of lightning [lightning].”» (Rich, II, p.628-629).

Condom: =  Condon (§715, IV-72) (Gers) suggesting the Latin word condono (to forgive, to pardon) (Vignois, id.).

The severe edict of the captives revoked: = Amnesty of the Communards: A partial amnesty in April 1879 and a general one in July 1879 (cf. Seignobos, 1921c, p. 60; p.70).

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§716

19th century:

§716 Prince imperial dead; Switzerland in religious conflict (1847-1890): IV-9.

 

IV-9:

The chief of the camp in the middle of the throng

Shall be hurt in the thigh by a stroke of arrows,

When Geneva in tears and depression

Shall be betrayed by Lausanne and Switzerland.

(Le chef du camp au milieu de la presse

D'un coup de fleche sera blessé aux cuisses,

Lors que Geneve en larmes & detresse

Sera trahie par Lozan & Souysses.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.393) presents us with a most probable solution: « In the war of Zoulouland, the Prince imperial was reconnoitering on June 1st, 1879, with a small number of English soldiers, in company with the lieutenant Carey. During their halt, when the cavaliers descended on the ground, the Zoulous hiding in the tall grasses assaulted them abruptly with their assagais: in the middle of the agitation of the soldiers hurrying to flee, the Prince was wounded with a stroke of arrow that prevented him from following his companions and eluding the strikes of arrows which killed him. It was in these days that Geneva, in tears because of the wrongs made to its Church, and deprived of Mgr. Mermillod, the bishop the Pope Pius IX had given to it, was victim of the treason of the Swiss federal Council that pretended to support the rights of the bishopric of Lausanne.»

The chief of the camp: = The Prince imperial Napoléon-Eugène-Louis-Jean-Joseph Bonaparte = the young prince (§702, VI-3).

Shall be hurt by a stroke of arrows: « The Empress Eugénie, then, settled with his son in Chislehurst (England). Napoleon III, having been granted liberty by Germany after the conclusion of peace, rejoined the Empress and his son in this city where he died on January 9th 1873. The prince imperial, having been in Zoulouland [South Africa] to serve England, died on June 1st 1879 in Ulundi, aged 23, shot with assagais by a band of Zoulous.» (Muel, 1895, p.331-332, note 1).

When Geneva in tears and depression Shall be betrayed by Lausanne and Switzerland: = When Geneva shall be in tears and depression, [having been] betrayed by Lausanne and Switzerland = (When the Catholics of Geneva shall be disappointed of their hope of instituting a see of bishop disavowed by the federal authority that shall thereafter approve the see of Lausanne.): « Even more important were the consequences of the religious conflicts. The calling of Doctor Strauss from Würtemberg to the University at Zurich in 1839 roused the rural population to arms and caused the fall of the liberal government at Zurich; this did not again secure supremacy till 1845. More significant was the question of the convents. In a conference at Baden in 1834 seven cantons had determined upon the subjection of the church to the authority of the state and the employment of the convents for purposes of general usefulness. Most violent was the quarrel over this matter in the canton Aargau, whose radical government finally, in 1841, closed all the convents, among others the wealthy one of Muri, and took possession of the property for “ purpose of instruction and benevolence.” Among the bigoted Catholics there was great excitement over this. It led to a victory of the ultramontane party in Lucerne and Valais in 1844. This party called the Jesuits to Lucerne to take charge of the instruction of youth. In this affair the wealthy farmer Joseph Leu and Sigwart Müller showed themselves especially active. The Jesuits had also established themselves in Fribourg and Schwys. To expel them from Switzerland was the aim of all the liberal cantons. The expedition of the free lances (Freischaren) of 1845 under the leadership of Ochsenbein of Bern met with failure. The government of Lucerne, still more embittered by the murder of Leu, assumed a terrorising attitude, demanded the punishment of the free lances, and restoration of the convents of the Aargau; and when no attention was paid to these demands concluded with Schwys, Uri, Unterwalden, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais a separate league (Sonderbund) for mutual protection against external and internal enemies. This league within a league was not to be endured; and, since the liberal cantons were in the majority, they decided at the diet in Bern, in July, 1847, upon the dissolution of the Sonderbund, as being contrary to the Pact of Federation (Bundesvertrag) and upon the expulsion of the Jesuits. As the fanatics of Lucerne failed to obey the diet, orders were given for federal action against the cantons of the Sonderbund. The federal army was mustered in and the experienced general Dufour of Geneva was placed at its head… Dufour set five divisions of his army on the march from the various points they occupied, giving them Lucerne as object... Twenty-five days after the decree of execution the task of the army was complete — the Sonderbund no longer existed. The diet now debated the draft constitution drawn up by Kern of Thurgau and Druey of Vaud, which in the summer of 1848 was accepted by fifteen and a half cantons, the minority consisting of the three forest cantons, Valais, Zug,Ticino,and Appenzell (Tuner Rhodes), and it was proclaimed on September 12th.» (HH, XVII, p.38-43).

« From 1848 onwards the cantons continually revised their constitutions, always in a democratic sense, though after the Sonderbund War Schwys and Zug abolished their Landsgemeinde. The chief point was the introduction of the referendum, by which laws made by the cantonal legislature may (facultative referendum) or must (obligatory referendum) be submitted to the people for their approval; and this has obtained such general acceptance that Fribourg alone does not possess the referendum in either of its two forms, Ticino having accepted it in its optional form in 1883. It was therefore only natural that attempts should be made to revise the federal consitution of 1848 in a democratic and centralising sense, for it had been provided that the federal assembly, on its own initiative or on the written request of fifty thousand Swiss electors, could submit the question of revision to a popular vote. In 1866 the restriction of certain rights to Christians only was swept away; but the attempt at final revision in 1872 was defeated by a smal1 majority, owing to the efforts of the anticentralising party. Finally, however, another draft was better liked, and on April 19th, 1874, the new constitution was accepted by the people. This constitution is that now [as of 1907] in force, and is simply an improved edition of that of 1848. The federal tribunal (now of nine members only) was fixed (by federal law) at Lausanne, and its jurisdiction enlarged, especially in constitutional disputes between cantons and the federal authorities, though jurisdiction in administrative matters (e.g., educational, religious, election, commercial) is given to the federal council — a division of functions which is very anomalous, and does not work well.» (HH, XVII, p.43).

 

The new constitution has an article that « it is required a federal approbation for a new see of bishop to be instituted within the territory of Switzerland. » (Morita, 1998, p.127).

 

« Chronological summary:

1840 Clericals revolt against the radicals in Aargau.

1841 They are put down. Eight monasteries in Aargau are suppressed. The quarrel provokes disputes in the diet.

1843 The diet effects a compromise in the religious quarrel in Aargau by which four instead of eight of the monasteries are suppressed. The seven Catholic cantons, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais hereupon form a separate league, the Sonderbund.

1844 The Sonderbund declares for the reopening of all the monasteries in Aargau. The clericals in Lucerne, the Vorort, give high posts to Jesuits. Parties of free-lances attempt to capture the city.

1845 The attack on Lucerne is renewed but is unsuccessful. The radicals gain control in Zurich.

1846 The radicals become the majority in Bern and Geneva.

1847 The radicals get a majority in St. Gall. The diet in which the radicals are now in the majority declares the Sonderbund contrary to the Federal Pact. The diet resolves to revise the pact and asks the cantons to expel the Jesuits. The attempt to enforce the decree leads to the Sonderbund War. This is quickly ended by the defeat of the rebellious Catholic cantons at Gislikon, largely because of the good generalship of Dufour.

1848 A new constitution is accepted by the majority of the cantons. Switzerland becomes a federal state (Bundesstaat) . A central government is organised consisting of a council of states (Ständerath), a national council (National Rath) and a federal council or executive (Bundesrath). German, French, and Italian are recognised as national languages. Bern is chosen the national capital.

1866 Restrictions on religious liberty of Jesuits, etc., are removed. An attempt is made to revise the constitution in a democratic sense but fails.

1871 Switzerland shelters French refugees of the Franco-German War though insisting on the maintenance of neutrality. The growth in power of the “old Catholics” causes disturbances in western Switzerland (the struggle against Ultramontanism).

1872 An attempt at revision of the constitution is defeated by a small majority.

1873 Abbé Mermillod, appointed by the pope " apostolic vicar " of Geneva, is banished from Switzerland. The see of Bishop Lachat of Bâle is suppressed by several cantons because he upholds the doctrine of papal infallibility.

1874 A new constitution, a revision of that of 1848, is accepted by the people. The referendum hereby becomes a part of the machinery of the federal government as it had already been part of that of most of the cantons. The new constitution increases centralisation in the government.

1876 Religious and political differences cause an armed encounter in Ticino.

1883 Mermillod is appointed bishop of Lausanne.

1884 Bishop Lachat is made apostolic vicar of Ticino.

1888 The creation of a see at Lugano excites the opposition of the radicals. 

1890 Religions riot at Ticino. » (HH, XVII, p.65-67).

 

As to the decease of the Prince imperial, cf. V-97 (§717).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

§715

19th century:

§715 Resignation of President MacMahon (1879.1.30): IV-72.

 

IV-72:

The counselors by the Orleanists and the Legitimists,

At St.-Félix shall make their Parliament:

Those of touchstone shall come to their disfavor,

To seize the amnesty and the military personnel promptly.

 

(Les Artomiques par Agen & l'Estore,

A sainct Felix feront leur parlement:

Ceulx de Basas viendront à la mal' heure,

Saisir Condon & Marsan promptement.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.385) gives us a sophisticated solution in applying the method of Torné-Chavigny who sees sometimes common usages in the proper names: e.g. Monech (Monaco) for moine (monk) (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.56); Nice for victoire (victory) (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.58), etc.

Les Artomiques: = the Greek ἀρθῆναι (to be cleared) + ὁμἰχλη (mist, fog, obscurity) (Bailly; Liddell & Scott) = oneiromancy (interpretation of dreams) = the counselors of a monarch (Vignois, id.) = the duke of Broglie, chief of the Cabinet and the Orleanist chiefs supporting President MacMahon followed by the Orleanist majority of the Bordeaux Assembly, who saw the tide in favor of the Tricolor.

Agen: in Lot-et-Garonne = agens (agents) (Vignois, id.) = the Republicans, altough Vignois attributes it to the Bonapartists.

l'Estore: = Lectoure (Gers) = the Latin lecto (in the bed) (Vignois, id.) = the Legitimists dreaming of the White Standard, although Vignois attributes it to the Orleanists.

Sainct Felix: = Saint-Félix of Caraman = Saint-Félix-Lauragais (Haute-Garonne): MacMahon was “of Caraman” by his mother (Vignois, id.).

Basas: = Bazas (Gironde) = in Greek βἀσανος (touchstone); Ceulx de Basas: Those of touchstone = the Radicals (Vignois, id.).

Condon: =  Condom (Gers) suggesting the Latin word condono (to forgive, to pardon) (Vignois, id.).

Marsan: = Mont-de-Marsan (Landes) leading to Martii mons (the mountain of Mars) = the supreme commandment of the Army (Vignois, id.).

The counselors by the Orleanists and the Legitimists, At St.-Félix shall make their Parliament: « The Orleanist chiefs could not want the return of a king accustomed to see in them his adversaries, irresistibly disposed to keep them off the power and prefer his legitimist partisans to them. They kept to the parliamentary regime and to the Tricolor [make their Parliament], and could not but dread a Prince avowedly devoted to the personal government and to the white standard. The duke of Broglie, president of the Council, and Buffet, president of the Assembly [the councelors], appealed to their functions to keep off… In case of the failure, the Orleanist chiefs had their solution ready, the prolongation of the powers of the Marshal MacMahon [At St.-Félix], under a provisory regime which should reserve their future.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.366).

« The Orleanist chiefs were prepared for the failure of the restoration, and probably they desired it; they at once took their measures to keep indefinitely the provisory regime and the government of the conservative party… There remained none other but the solution prepared by de Broglie, a prolongation of the powers of MacMahon, sufficiently long to combat with authority against the radicals [those of touchstone]… But, the hazard gave the majority of 8 against 7  to the republicans in the allotment of bureau of the commission. The Left Center declared itself ready to extend the Presidency, but “ in tying tight the law of prolongation to the prompt organization of the Public Powers.” The prolongation, instead of perpetuating the provisory, would serve to found the Republic.» (Seignobos, id., p.375-376).

« The commission, modifying the proposition, reduced the prolongation to five years starting from the next legislation, and created a commission of 30 members nominated in the bureau to examine constitutional laws. The report, drafted by Laboulaye, of the Left Center, admirer of the United States, declared in favor of the Republic: “ It is by virtue of the monarchy that you desired to obtain a constitutional government. The monarchy has subsided, but, this government you desired, we believe that you can have it no less surely under the republican form. There is no other solution today.”» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.376-377).

« The government accepted a compromise: the prolongation of the powers for seven years starting from the vote of the law, with the title of President of the Republic, and a commission of 30 members, but elected by voting for candidates on a party list, so as to secure a monarchical majority. These concessions, presented as counter-project by the minority of the commission were announced to the Assembly by a message (November 17th) that demanded the immediate vote as mark of confidence. In the public discussion (November 18th-19th), the appeal to the people was rejected by 492 votes against 38, and the counter-project voted by 383 votes against 317; a part of the Left Center [Agen], to consolidate the Republic, voted with the Rights [les Artomiques]. The extreme Right [l’Estore], after a discourse of Broglie who promised the neutrality, voted the prolongation, except 7 members who abstained. The duration of seven years, the septennate, became a constitutional law that could be modified no more by the ordinary legislative procedure. This law remains the first foundation of the actual Constitution of France [as of 1921]. As a work of a monarchic majority, it gives the President a duration of powers longer than in any other Republic of the world.» (Seignobos, id., p.377)

Those of touchstone shall come to their disfavor, To seize the amnesty and the military personnel promptly: The Radicals shall come to their disfavor to realise a general amnesty for the Communards and their policy about the higher commandments of the Army (cf. Vignois, id.).

Designation of MacMahon: On the 30th of January 1879, under the pressure of the Republican majority of the Chamber, of the Senate and of the Ministry after the election of the Senate of January 5th, President MacMahon abandoned his post before the end of his septennate because of his refusal of removing the conservative generals of the Army to which he remained attached emotionally to the last (cf. Seignobos, 1921c, p. 51-51).

President Grévy: « On the 28th of January, 1879, MacMahon, finding himself unable to agree with his ministers and hopeless of forming a new ministry conformable to his views, resigned and in his last acts conducted himself with such dignity as to wring even from Zevort this commendation: " From the beginning of the governmental crisis the marshal had conducted himself as a man of honour, and preserved an attitude the most correct and most deserving of respect, and employed the simplest and most becoming language. From the moment that the politician had vanished, the honest man, the good citizen, the successful soldier had reappeared, and the lofty dignity of his retreat made men forget the errors for which he was only half responsible." What part Gambetta acted in the crisis of January, 1879, when MacMahon's ministry fell, it is difficult to decide. At the critical juncture he appears to have absented himself from Paris. He abstained from speaking in the debate on the policy of the ministry, neither did he vote in the final division. There is every reason to believe that, had he willed, he might have contested the presidency of the republic successfully. But he waived his claims in favour of Jules Grévy, who was elected president on the 30th of January, 1879, by 536 votes against 99 for General Chanzy, Gambetta becoming president of the chamber and Waddington the prime minister.» (HH, XIII, p.192).

Amnesty of the Communards: A partial amnesty in April 1879 and a general one in July 1879 (cf. Seignobos, 1921c, p. 60; p.70).

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§714

19th century:

§714 The foundation of the Basilica of Montmartre (1873-1919): IX-87.

 

IX-87:

By means of the filled up quarry of tufa,

In the deserted place shall be founded the temple,

The duke of Estampes by his invented ruse,

Shall give an advanced example of the mount Lehori.

(Par la forest du Touphon effarree,

Par hermitaige sera posé le temple,

Le duc d'Estampes par sa ruse inventee,

Du mont Lehori prelat donra exemple.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.344) gives us a reasonable solution: « In 1873, they commenced the construction of the basilica of the Sacré Cœur [the temple] upon the rarely frequented plateau of Montmartre. Its foundations were masoned in the profound wells which had been hollowed out vertically down to the solid ground through the gypsum quarry [quarry of tufa] of the knoll. These wells recall the oubliettes whose inventor was the ruse King Louis XI [the duke of Estampes] who left its model [example] in the castle of Montlhéry [le mont Lehori].».

Forest: = Ouverture (opening) (Vignois, id.); = Lat. « foratus, m. piercing, boring » (TanakaH).

Touphon: « In Greek τοφιών, carrière (quarry), plâtrière (gypsum quarry).» (Vignois, id.), the capital initial T suggesting the proper name of Montmartre: « Montmartre, a village of France (Seine) on an eminent hill called la Butte-Montmartre (the Montmartre Heights), whence one can command a view of the capital in its entire extension… They exploit there a number of gypsum quarries.» (MacCarthy).

Effarrer: From the Latin effarciō: « effarciō → efferciō;  efferciō (de farcio) bourrer (to stuff), remplir (to fill).» (Nimmo).

Hermitaige: = « Ermitage (hermitage).» (Dubois).

The duke of Estampes: = Louis XI: « Louis XI procured the county of Estampes which François I set up as a duchy.» (Vignois, id.).

Prelat: « advanced » (Vignois, id.).

Donra: = donnera (Vignois, id.).

Du mont Lehori prelat donra exemple: = [Il] donra exemple prelat du mont Lehori ( He shall give an advanced example of the mount Lehori).

donnera (Vignois, id.).

A subscription for the Church of Sacré Cœur: « A subscription was opened since 1870, with the benediction of the pope, to construct a church consecrated to the Sacré-Cœur on the summit of the Montmartre Heights, where the founder of the Company of Jesus, Loyola, had joined together his first companions.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.364).

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§713

19th century:

§713 The republican rise in Europe (1870-1890): VI-44.

 

VI-44:

By night through Nantes Lyris shall appear,

Marine arts shall provoke the rain:

The Arabian gulf shall plunge the grand fleet to the bottom,

A monster in Saxony shall be born of a bear and a sow.

(De nuict par Nantes Lyris apparoistra,

Des artz marins susciteront la pluye:

Arabiq goulfre grand classe parfondra,

Un monstre en Saxe naistra d'ours & truye.)

 

NOTES: Lyris: = « Iris, the rainbow of covenant of God with mankind (L’Iris, l’arc-d’alliance de Dieu avec les hommes). Henry V, the Gift of God, perceived in Chambord (le Dieudonné, aperçu à Chambord.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1872, p. 184). Lyris also hints “ fleur-de-lis ”, the House of the Bourbons. The Count of Chambord is also called by Nostradamus “the great Satyr” (§709, III-90), “the blond elite” (§594, I-39), “the Myrmidon” (§601, IX-35), “a king with a chronic illness (= a king without kingdom)” (§603, III-91) and “the deer” (§604, V-4).

By night through Nantes Lyris shall appear: « The Count of Chambord made know, by a public letter [dated October 25th 1872] to one of his partisans, that he should persevere in his mystic politics of union with the papacy. “ The moment France wakes up and announces herself by a great act of faith, they would impose her a government that is most menacing for her religious liberties… After all, France is catholic and monarchic. Have confidence in the mission of France. Europe needs her, the papacy needs her, and consequently the old Christian nation cannot perish.”» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.347) « The King wrote to Mr. de la Rochette, deputy of Nantes, a manifesto-letter, which the Espérance du peuple, of Nantes, brought into the entire world. This letter lighted the profound night we were plunged in.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1876a, p. 44).

Marine arts shall provoke the rain: « Gen.: “ God said to Noah: I will bring the waters of flood onto the earth. I will make alliance with you and you will enter the Ark.” The promise of alliance precedes the scourge. Here, Iris precedes the rain. Noah employed to construct the Ark “ the marine arts ” whose vision provoked the railleries of the culprits…» (Torné-Chavigny, 1872, p. 185). Marine arts represent in the context of the quatrain the monarchy in White fixedly planned and eloquently manifested by Henry V, which provoked its refusal [the rain] by the Orleanists persevering in the Tricolor.

The Arabian gulf: The word “Arabian (Arabiq)” refers to “the Arabs (les Arabes)” of the preceding quatrain VI-54 (§712), which designates the Orleans: « Algiers was seized by French troops to avenge a national insult on July 5th, 1830. The Algerians (under Abd-el-Kadar) resisted until 1845, many of France’s victories being won by Orleanist princes.» (Palmer, p.10). Then, the Arabian gulf, referring mythologically to the Red Sea, signifies the Orleanist separation from the fusion with the Legitimists.

The Arabian gulf shall plunge the grand fleet to the bottom: The Orleanists refuse to accept the white standard as the national emblem to result in the failure of the Monarchy [the grand fleet]. « The Orleanist chiefs were prepared for the failure of the restoration, and probably they desired it; they at once took their measures to keep indefinitely the provisory regime and the government of the conservative party… There remained none other but the solution prepared by de Broglie, a prolongation of the powers of MacMahon, sufficiently long to combat with authority against the radicals.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.375). « The government accepted a compromise: the prolongation of the powers for seven years starting from the vote of the law, with the title of President of the Republic. The duration of seven years, the septennate, became a constitutional law that could be modified no more by the ordinary legislative procedure. This law remains the first foundation of the actual Constitution of France [as of 1921].» (Seignobos, id., p.377).

Saxony: Representing the whole Germany by synecdoche.

A monster in Saxony: « The German revolutionaries.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1872, p. 189), the word monstre (monster) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus refer in most cases to a monstrous, prodigious or oppositional person, power or being such as Henry of Navarre (I-90), the government of the Jacobins (III-34), Napoleon Bonaparte (II-32), Garibaldi (V-20, V-88), the great colonialist powers (X-98), etc.

A bear (ours): « The French Jacobins » as “ l’Ours (the Bear) ”in the quatrain V-4 (§604) (id.).

A sow (truye): « The followers of Garibaldi » surnamed « pourceau demy-homme » (a half-man pig) [§689, I-64] by Nostradamus.» (id.).

A monster in Saxony shall be born: The rising German social democracy Bismarck endeavored to suppress: « New rivets to make the empire fast were found in the new ordinance for a single standard of measures, coinage, and weights (1873); in the magnificent development of the imperial postal and telegraphic system due to the intelligence of the imperial postmaster, Heinrich von Stephan (from 1870); in the unification of the regulations governing the courts of law in 1876, of which the crowning point was the establishment of the imperial court at Leipsic in 1879. In no respect was the empire so closely bound up with its co-ordinate states as in its finance. For to meet the ever-increasing tasks that were imposed upon it the empire had to look to the income from its indirect taxes, its duties and its imperial regalia (post and telegraph); but besides this it was bound to continue to lay claim to the monetary contributions of the individual states; in this respect, therefore, it was dependent on them, and in other ways often influenced their finances in an irregular and damaging manner. For this reason Prince Bismarck wished to put the empire on its own feet by increasing its own income and to make the single states its boarders, that is to say, its financial dependents.

The first move was to carry out the splendid plan of bringing all the German railways into the possession of the empire, and so making an end at one blow to the ever-increasing confusion caused by eighty-two independent railway districts with sixty boards of directors, forty-nine of which were private undertakings; but this plan proved impracticable in 1876, for the secondary states offered the most determined opposition —  all it did was to serve as an introduction for the general transformation of the railways into state property by the separate states. In his second course, that of raising the duties, Prince Bismarck encountered the opposition of the doctrine of free trade that prevailed everywhere. The abolition of the iron tax on the 1st of January, 1878, showed at last that one of the most important branches of German industry had been imperiled as a consequence of a practical application of this doctrine, and at the same time the rapid growth of social democracy showed that the state could not waste any further time before actively intervening between employers and workmen without prejudicing its own interests. In support of this view what was called Kathedersozialismus [schoolsocialism] brought forward the theories of political economy. The crisis, however, was not reached until in April, 1877, Prince Bismarck, weary of office and ill in health, handed in his resignation; and the emperor, recognizing the incomparable merits of the great statesman, wrote upon it his “ Never ! ” and accordingly expressed his willingness to give him a free hand. Two foul attempts at murder were now aimed at the humane monarch, on the 11th of May and on the 2nd of June, 1878; with lightning flash they illuminated the abyss to which social democracy when left to itself had brought the German people. After the first attempt the Reichstag still refused to pass a special law against it; after the second attempt the newly elected Reichstag adopted one that had been better prepared, on the 19th of October, 1878, to extend until the 31st of May, 1881; this was several times prolonged (until 1890). Thus with one blow the whole social democratic press and the open organization and agitation of a party that placed itself outside the pale of the law were suppressed.» (HH, XV, p.(535-536).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§712

19th century:

§712 MacMahon, partisan of the Tricolor, checked the restoration of the monarchy in White (6) (1873.11.20): VI-54.

 

VI-54:

At daybreak at the second crowing of the cock,

Those of Tunis, of Fez, and of Bugia:

By the Arabs captive the Maroccan King,

The year a thousand six hundred and seven, of Liturgy.

(Au poinct du jour au second chant du coq,

Ceulx de Tunes, de Fez, & de Bugie:

Par les Arabes captif le Roy Maroq,

L'an mil six cens & sept, de Liturgie.)

 

NOTES: The theme of this mysterious quatrain could be detected by Vignois (1910, p.355) as « the vote of the Septennate (November 20th 1873) ».

At daybreak at the second crowing of the cock, Those of Tunis, of Fez, and of Bugia: By the Arabs captive the Maroccan King: « The vote of the Septennate, proposed in a session of night, reminded us of this word of Jesus to Peter: “ At daybreak at the second crowing of a cock you shall have denied me three times.”(cf. Mark, XIV, 30) As the divine Master, delivered by the ingratitude of Judas, to accomplish the prophecy, to a small group of soldiers with arms and lanterns, the Count of Chambord saw against him those to whom his ancestors, among other benefits, had opened Africa; he was not recognized as king of fleur-de-lis by those surnamed Africans, because of their relations with Arabs. The Orleans combatted in Africa, and MacMahon, soldier in Algeria, governor of the Arabs, has his odyssey…» (Vignois, id.)

At daybreak: When the Royalists began to use their majority of the National Assembly to effect the restoration of the monarchy of the Bourbons symbolized by the Sun-King in May 1873 (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.319).

At the second crowing of the cock: When the problem of the national standard [suggested by the crested cock] began to be debated [crowing] among the Royalists in 1873 for the second time: « The princes of the Orleans and the majority of the Assembly accepted the fusion; nothing remained  but to make decide for it the chief of the elder branch, the Count of Chambord. He had returned to France, but incognito, and had announced to the chiefs of the Royalist commission his intention of publishing a manifesto about the question of the standard, which had been in 1850 the principal obstacle to the fusion.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.320; cf. Seignobos, 1921a, p.188-190).

Those of Tunis, of Fez, and of Bugia: The three names of African cities connote the French people because Algeria containing Bugia began to be conquered by them in 1830, Tunisia implied by Tunis is to be so in 1883 and Morocco of Fez is to become a French protectorate in 1912 (cf. Williams, 1968, p.162, p.328 and p.438). Then, the phrase: Those of Tunis, of Fez, and of Bugia can designate the French, especially the different parties of the National Assembly, more or less friendly to the government of MacMahon, as three different African places are more or less penetrated by the French.

The Arabs: = The Orleans: « Algeria. Algiers, a base for ‘Barbary Pirates’ from the sixteenth century, was seized by French troops to avenge a national insult on July 5th, 1830. The Algerians (under Abd-el-Kadar) resisted until 1845, many of France’s victories being won by Orleanist princes.» (Palmer, p.10).

The Maroccan King: = President Marshal of MacMahon, « Mar- » and  « Ma- » of Maroccan, distinct from a real name Moroccan, smartly indicating « Mar- » of Marshal and  the double « Ma- » of MacMahon. Besides, MacMahon has a career in army in Algeria: « Macmahon, Patrice (1808-93, created Marshal of France 1859, Duke of Magenta 1859-70, President of France 1873-9), descendant of an Irish soldier who settled in France after 1688; entered the Army under Charles X and served in Algeria, always remaining at heart a supporter of the Bourbons. His military reputation was made, however, under the Second Empire; he distinguished himself in the Cremea in 1855 by capturing and holding Malakoff Fort and was the victor of Magenta in 1859. After serving as Governor-General of Algeria, he returned to France in 1870, was defeated at Wört and wounded and captured at Sedan. On repatriation, he commanded the troops  that suppressed the Commune in 1871. Two years later he was elected President of the Republic by a predominantly royalist assembly which hoped that he would achieve a restoration of the monarchy…»  (Palmer, p.172-173).

By the Arabs captive the Maroccan King: = The Maroccan King [being] captive by the Arabs: President MacMahon made himself guided as to material administrative matters in presidency by the Orleanist chiefs, especially by the Duke of Broglie, his Prime Minister: « MacMahon, originally legitimist, was disposed to conduct himself as parliamentary chief of State. But, timid and modest, he felt himself ignorant, and left his ministers to manage the affairs. The power passed to the chief of the coalition, the Duke of Broglie, an Orleanist who had refused to join the Empire. Nominated vice-President of the Council, he instantly formed a ministry with Orleanists, two Legitimists and a minister of the Empire, Magne (for the Finances).» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.361)

« The Orleanist chiefs could not want the return of a king accustomed to see in them his adversaries, irresistibly disposed to keep them off the power and prefer his legitimist partisans to them. They kept to the parliamentary regime and to the Tricolor, and could not but dread a Prince avowedly devoted to the personal government and to the white standard. The duke of Broglie, president of the Council, and Buffet, president of the Assembly, appealed to their functions to keep off… In case of the failure, the Orleanist chiefs had their solution ready, the prolongation of the powers of the Marshal MacMahon, under a provisory regime which should reserve their future.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.366).

« MacMahon and Broglie could rely upon the simple and obstinate character of Chambord often revealed in his manifestos and letters (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.320-321, p.341, p.347, p.367, p.369 and p.374) in order to bring about by design the abortion of the restoration of the Monarchy in White, which they could not prefer before any regime in Tricolor, by means of imposing the Tricolor upon him, which was a kind of murder, a suffocation of the political life of the Count of Chambord (cf. id., p.366-368 and p.369-370). « The Prince sent his confident to MacMahon. MacMahon replied that his honor forbade him to enter secret conferences; the Assembly had wanted to restore the monarchy, but since the letter of the Prince, it judged its return impossible; this situation imposed on him new obligations he refused to betray. Chambord was grieved by this refusal which deprived him of all means of taking action.» (Seignobos, id., p.376).

The year a thousand six hundred and seven, of Liturgy: This expression refers to the quatrain VIII-71 (§242), where the same expression: L'an mil six cens & sept (The year a thousand six hundred and seven) designates as a cipher, hinting approximately the year of the invention of telescope by Lippersheim in 1608 and its application by Galilei in 1609 (cf. Asimov, 1996, p.98-99), Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) who is one of those who shall not be secured (ne seront asseurez) by the Sacred Congregation of Roman Inquisition (par sacre glomes) in 1633.

This case of Galilei is eminently analogous to that of the Count of Chambord because their supposed protectors, namely the Roman Pontiff Urban VIII with Galilei and the President of France MacMahon with Chambord were to be contrary to their expectation of approving them with personal authority in theology and in politics, respectively.

The Pope (1623-1644), having been very friendly to Galilei when a cardinal (Maffeo Barberini: 1568-1644), was not to be the same as chief of the Church under the massive pressure of Dominican and Jesuitic ecclesiastics persistently disavowing the Copernican system (cf. Noda, 1982, p.303-311), and in parallel, the President, always legitimist at heart, could not choose but decide to adopt the Tricolor under the overwhelming pressure of his military career and of his Orleanist surroundings.

In the end, the Count of Chambord was not secured by the National Assembly (congregation), which voted the Septennate:

« The Orleanist chiefs were prepared for the failure of the restoration, and probably they desired it; they at once took their measures to keep indefinitely the provisory regime and the government of the conservative party… There remained none other but the solution prepared by de Broglie, a prolongation of the powers of MacMahon, sufficiently long to combat with authority against the radicals… But, the hazard gave the majority of 8 against 7  to the republicans in the allotment of bureau of the commission. The Left Center declared itself ready to extend the Presidency, but “ in tying tight the law of prolongation to the prompt organization of the Public Powers.” The prolongation, instead of perpetuating the provisory, would serve to found the Republic.» (Seignobos, id., p.375-376).

« The commission, modifying the proposition, reduced the prolongation to five years starting from the next legislation, and created a commission of 30 members nominated in the bureau to examine constitutional laws. The report, drafted by Laboulaye, of the Left Center, admirer of the United States, declared in favor of the Republic: “ It is by virtue of the monarchy that you desired to obtain a constitutional government. The monarchy has subsided, but, this government you desired, we believe that you can have it no less surely under the republican form. There is no other solution today.”» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.376-377).

« The government accepted a compromise: the prolongation of the powers for seven years starting from the vote of the law, with the title of President of the Republic, and a commission of 30 members, but elected by voting for candidates on a party list, so as to secure a monarchical majority. These concessions, presented as counter-project by the minority of the commission were announced to the Assembly by a message (November 17th) that demanded the immediate vote as mark of confidence. In the public discussion (November 18th-19th), the appeal to the people was rejected by 492 votes against 38, and the counter-project voted by 383 votes against 317; a part of the Left Center [those of Fez], to consolidate the Republic, voted with the Rights [those of Bugie]. The extreme Right [those of Tunis], after a discourse of Broglie who promised the neutrality, voted the prolongation, except 7 members who abstained. The duration of seven years, the septennate, became a constitutional law that could be modified no more by the ordinary legislative procedure. This law remains the first foundation of the actual Constitution of France [as of 1921]. As a work of a monarchic majority, it gives the President a duration of powers longer than in any other Republic of the world.» (Seignobos, id., p.377).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§711

19th century:

§711 MacMahon, partisan of the Tricolor, checked the restoration of the monarchy in White (5) (1873.11.21): IX-15.

 

IX-15:

Near Parpan the reds detained,

Those of the medium completely defeated brought far.

Three put in pieces and Five hardly supported

For the lord and prelate of Bourgoing.

(Pres de Parpan les rouges detenus,

Ceux du milieu parfondres menez loing:

Trois mis en pieces, & cinq mal soustenus,

Pour le Seigneur & Prelat de Bourgoing.)

 

NOTES: The first two lines describe the defeat of the Paris Commune in May 1871, and the numbers Three and Five of the line 3 refer respectively to Napoleon III dethroned in September 1870 and to Henry V (Count of Chambord) failed in restoration in October 1873.

Parpan: “ A village of France, prefecture of Haute Garonne (Languedoc).” (Bescherelle). « Nostradamus plays with the names of place: “ Parpan ”, a locality of the department of the Rhone, is for par and pan, all.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1875, p.23). « παρἀπαν (parapan), Adv., altogether, absolutely.» (Liddell & Scott). The name Parpan itself also connotes vaguely the theme of Paris nearly in its entirety, which was the case of the Commune of 1871. A proper name of place for a common usage: e.g. Monech (Monaco) for moine (monk) (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.56); Nice for victoire (victory) (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.58), etc.

The reds: = Revolutionaries (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.32). « The tendency of the Commune, in majority revolutionary, rather than socialist.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.307).

The medium: = the capital (Paris): « Ancient people said Medio, milieu (middle), Milan, for capital.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1872, p.183).

Those of the medium: = the reds = the Communards of Paris in 1871.

Near Parpan the reds detained, Those of the medium completely defeated brought far: Almost all the Communards other than killed were completely defeated, detained and deported in the colonial islands far off: « Those of the capital, dispersed by the arms, were brought to New Caledonia.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1872, p.183).

Three put in pieces: « Napoleon III already put in pieces by the vote of deposition, was also broken into pieces by the operation of lithotomy.» (Vignois, 1910, p.341). « The Empress Eugénie, then, settled with his son in Chislehurst (England). Napoleon III, having been granted liberty by Germany after the conclusion of peace, rejoined the Empress and his son in this city where he died on January 9th 1873.» (Muel, 1895, p.331-332, note 1.)

Five hardly supported For [because of ] the lord and prelate of Bourgoing: « The Count of Chambord was not sufficiently supported by the people of the order [i.e. the moral Order, the cause of President MacMahon and his ministry (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.361)] to become Henry V.» (Vignois, id.)

The lord of Bourgoing: = The Duke of Broglie, the name Bourgoing hinting that of Broglie, one of the Orleanist chiefs: « The Orleanist chiefs could not want the return of a king accustomed to see in them his adversaries, irresistibly disposed to keep them off the power and prefer his legitimist partisans to them. They kept to the parliamentary regime and to the Tricolor, and could not but dread a Prince avowedly devoted to the personal government and to the white standard. The duke of Broglie, president of the Council, and Buffet, president of the Assembly, appealed to their functions to keep off… In case of the failure, the Orleanist chiefs had their solution ready, the prolongation of the powers of the Marshal MacMahon, under a provisory regime which should reserve their future.» (Seignobos, id., p.366).

The prelate of Bourgoing: = President MacMahon: prelat (prelate) means a principal person of a Church or a State, prelat (prelature and preture, too) being in Latin « prælatus, being brought forward.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.52; Vignois, 1910, p.356). Cf. The great Celtic Prelate (§710, VI-53) = The Count of Chambord. Moreover, the name Bourgoing suggests, too, that of Bourgogne, and the town of Sully (Saône-et-Loire) where MacMahon was born in 1808 is located in the region (cf. Vignois, id., p.357).

Hardly supported for the prelate of Bourgoing: « MacMahon and Broglie could rely upon the simple and obstinate character of Chambord often revealed in his manifestos and letters (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.320-321, p.341, p.347, p.367, p.369 and p.374) in order to bring about by design the abortion of the restoration of the Monarchy in White, which they could not prefer before any regime in Tricolor, by means of imposing the Tricolor upon him, which was a kind of murder, a suffocation of the political life of the Count of Chambord (cf. id., p.366-368 and p.369-370). « The Prince sent his confident to MacMahon. MacMahon replied that his honor forbade him to enter secret conferences; the Assembly had wanted to restore the monarchy, but since the letter of the Prince, it judged its return impossible; this situation imposed on him new obligations he refused to betray. Chambord was grieved by this refusal which deprived him of all means of taking action.» (Seignobos, id., p.376).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§710

19th century:

§710 MacMahon, partisan of the Tricolor, checked the restoration of the monarchy in White (4) (1873.11.21): VI-53.

 

VI-53:

The great Celtic Prelate being suspect to the King,

By night with rapidity shall go out of the reign:

For the fertile duke in favor of his great King, of Britain,

Byzantium in Cyprus and Tunis unsuspected.

(Le grand Prelat Celtique à Roy suspect,

De nuict par cours sortira hors du regne:

Par duc fertille à son grand Roy, Bretaigne,

Bisance à Cipres & Tunes insuspect.)

 

NOTES: Prelat (prelate): A principal person of a Church or a State, prelat (prelature and preture, too) being in Latin « prælatus, being brought forward.» ((Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.52; Vignois, 1910, p.356). The usages in the Prophecies of Nostradamus in an ecclesiastical sense: VI-31, VI-93 and X-56); in a political one: VI-53, VI-86 bis, VIII-93 bis and IX-15; and in a common sense of forward: III-41, IX-21 bis, IX-87 and X-47.

The great Celtic Prelate: « The Count of Chambord, the great Frenchman » (Vignois, id.), Celtique meaning in most cases French (15 among 18 usages of the words Celte, Celtique are for France, Français, français)..

The King: = The President of the French Republic MacMahon (Vignois, id.).

The great Celtic Prelate being suspect to the King: « The Count of Chambord, the great Frenchman, having appeared in person against the vote and become by his presence suspect to MacMahon…» (Vignois, id.). « MacMahon, originally legitimist, having served the two revolutionary monarchies, and lived as a military foreign to the politics, was disposed to conduct himself as parliamentary chief of State…» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.361) « … Chambord saw in the adhesion to his principle the renunciation of the parliamentary regime… » (Seignobos, id., p.367)

By night: In secret.

To go out of the reign: To go out of the French territory and of the French government.

By night with rapidity shall go out of the reign: « The Count of Chambord, uneasy, arrived secretly in France, hoping to restore the kingdom by means of a personal agreement with the President of the Republic. He stayed hidden at Versailles in the house of his faithful of Vanssay during twelve days (November 9-21); the secret, kept by twenty persons, was known neither to the Assembly nor to the police. The Prince expected to appear suddenly in the Assembly on MacMahon’s arm, and make recognize himself as king in the transport of enthusiasm. He sent his confident to MacMahon. MacMahon replied that his honor forbade him to enter secret conferences; the Assembly had wanted to restore the monarchy, but since the letter of the Prince, it judged its return impossible; this situation imposed on him new obligations he refused to betray. Chambord was grieved by this refusal which deprived him of all means of taking action... [which made Chambord leave France on November 21.]» (Seignobos, id., p.376).

The fertile duke in favor of his great King: = Mars (§708, VI-35) = the Duke of Broglie: « MacMahon [his great King], originally legitimist, having served the two revolutionary monarchies, and lived as a military foreign to the politics, was disposed to conduct himself as parliamentary chief of State. But, timid and modest, he felt himself ignorant, and left his ministers to manage the affairs. The power passed to the chief of the coalition [of all the parties of the Right], the Duke of Broglie, an Orleanist who had refused to join the Empire. He had on the conservative majority a personal influence, by his speech, which, though handicapped by a harsh and nasal voice, was, under the academic forms, biting, disdainful, very strong in attack -, still more by his talents of parliamentary tactician, skilful in the negotiations in lobby among the allies and in the maneuvers in session against his adversaries. Nominated vice-President of the Council, he instantly formed a ministry with Orleanists, two Legitimists and a minister of the Empire, Magne (for the Finances).» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.361)

His great King, of Britain: « MacMahon, Marie-Edme-Emile-Maurice, born in Sully (Saône-et-Loire), July 13th 1808, was by his father of Irish origin, and descended by his mother of the dukes of Caraman who had their cradle near Saint-Félix, 14 km distant from Villefranche (Haute-Saône).» (Vignois, id., p.357; cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.116, note (a)).

The great Celtic Prelate by night with rapidity shall go out of the reign: for [= because of ] the fertile duke: « The Orleanist chiefs could not want the return of a king accustomed to see in them his adversaries, irresistibly disposed to keep them off the power and prefer his legitimist partisans to them. They kept to the parliamentary regime and to the Tricolor, and could not but dread a Prince avowedly devoted to the personal government and to the white standard. The duke of Broglie, president of the Council, and Buffet, president of the Assembly, appealed to their functions to keep off… In case of the failure, the Orleanist chiefs had their solution ready, the prolongation of the powers of the Marshal MacMahon, under a provisory regime which should reserve their future.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.366).

Byzantium in Cyprus and Tunis unsuspected: The royal power the Count of Chambord expected to obtain in restoring the kingdom was like that of the sovereign sieged in Constantinople ruling Cyprus and Tunis in 1873 among the others, where he was not to be suspected.

 « I am the indispensable pilot, the only one capable of conducting the vessel into the port, because I have mission and authority for that.» (Chambord’s manifesto of July 6th 1871. Seignobos, id., p.320).

« My personality is nothing; my principle is all. France shall see the end of her trials when she will understand it… and when God has resolved to save a people, He sees to it that the scepter of justice is given nothing but in the hands sufficiently firm to carry it.» (Letter dated 27th, disclosed 29th October 1873. Seignobos, id., p.374).

« The public, ill-informed about the sentiments of the Count of Chambord, understood that he refused to return to France to reign, for fear of resistances or of complications with Germany. His confidents have energetically protested against this interpretation. The king wished to reign; but, convinced sincerely of the intervention of God in the government of the peoples, he thinks himself missioned to raise the royal authority, which the Providence reserved only for him, ‘ indispensable pilot ’, and he could feel himself provided with the force to accomplish it only when he returned in France with his integral right and the standard, emblem of his right.» (Seignobos, id., p.375)

« The Deputies, friends of the well-being, who formed the minority, cried out: “ We are then in Turkey ! ”» (Vignois, id. p.356).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§709

19th century:

§709 MacMahon, partisan of the Tricolor, checked the restoration of the monarchy in White (3) (1873.11.21): X-57.

 

X-57:

The dethroned shall not restore his scepter;

He shall detest the young children of the greatests,

There had been no more miserable nor sorer being,

For their spouses the king shall banish him to death.

(Le sublevé ne cognoistra son ceptre,

Les enfans jeunes des plus grands honnira,

Oncques ne feut un plus ord cruel estre,

Pour leurs espouses à mort noir bannira.)

 

NOTES: Sublever: = « élever (to raise), enlever (to take away, to deprive), soulager (to relieve).» (Godefroy)

Ceptre: = Sceptre (Scepter).

Ord: = « ord, ort, fém. orde, V. ort.»; « ort, fém. orde (horridu, horrida), adj. sale (dull, dingy), laid (mean, vile).» (Daele)

Noir: = An anagram of Roi (King) (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.13).

The dethroned shall not restore his scepter; He shall detest the young children of the greatests: The Count of Chambord [the dethroned] did not restore the monarchy of Charles X [his scepter] in 1873 when the royalist fusion was opened because he did detest [honnira] his partner the Orleanists, the descendants of the younger branch of the Bourbons [les enfans jeunes des plus grands], who, partisans of the Tricolor instead of the white flag, did prefer a republic to the monarchy in White: « The Orleanists said that they did not want to make the monarchy in white (la monarchie ‘en blanc’), and Broglie wrote (24th [August 1873]) to Falloux: “ … We should anticipate the obstinacy of which the Count of Chambord has already given more than a proof… and reserve for ourselves a second solution that wards off the complete disorder of the conservative party…, a temporary, but sufficiently long-terminable power, commited to MacMahon.” The chief of the government accepted in advance the failure of the monarchy, and prepared himself to another regime.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.367-368).

Their spouses:  The partisans of MacMahon and Broglie.

The king:  President MacMahon.

There had been no more miserable nor sorer being  [than Chambord], [because] the king shall banish him to [political] death in favor of their spouses: The letter of Chambord from Salzbourg denying the possibility of the Tricolor, dated 27th and disclosed 29th October 1873, was « for the Royalists a thunderbolt, a collapse, a broken dream; it filled the Imperialists and the Republicans with joy. Partisans and adversaries, all saw at once that it made the monarchy impossible... The public, ill-informed about the sentiments of the Count of Chambord, understood that he refused to return to France to reign, for fear of resistances or of complications with Germany. His confidents have energetically protested against this interpretation. He waited his return to France, hoping, with the aid of God, by his personal ascendancy, make accept his government and his standard.» (Seignobos, id., p.374-375)

« The Orleanist chiefs were prepared for the failure of the restoration, and probably they desired it; they at once took their measures to keep indefinitely the provisory regime and the government of the conservative party… There remained none other but the solution prepared by de Broglie, a prolongation of the powers of MacMahon, sufficiently long to combat with authority against the radicals… But, the hazard gave the majority of 8 against 7  to the republicans in the allotment of bureau of the commission. The Left Center declared itself ready to extend the Presidency, but “ in tying tight the law of prolongation to the prompt organization of the Public Powers.” The prolongation, instead of perpetuating the provisory, would serve to found the Republic.» (Seignobos, id., p.375-376).

« The Count of Chambord, uneasy, arrived secretly in France, hoping to restore the kingdom by means of a personal agreement with the President of the Republic. He stayed hidden at Versailles in the house of his faithful of Vanssay during twelve days (November 9-21); the secret, kept by twenty persons, was known neither to the Assembly nor to the police. The Prince expected to appear suddenly in the Assembly on MacMahon’s arm, and make recognize himself as king in the transport of enthusiasm. He sent his confident de Blacas to say to MacMahon that he wished to see him. MacMahon replied that his honor defended him to enter secret conferences; the Assembly had wanted to restore the monarchy, but since the letter of the Prince, it judged its return impossible; this situation imposed on him new obligations he refused to betray. Chambord was grieved by this refusal which deprived him of all means of taking action.» (Seignobos, id., p.376).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§708

19th century:

§708 MacMahon, partisan of the Tricolor, checked the restoration of the monarchy in White (2) (1873.10.29): VI-35.

 

VI-35:

Close to the Top, and near the white wool,

Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo Virgo:

Mars, Jupiter, the Sun shall burn the grand plain,

Woods and cities, letters sealed up with wax.

(Pres de Rion, & proche à blanche laine,

Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo la Vierge:

Mars, Jupiter, le Sol ardra grand plaine,

Boys & cités, lettres cachés au cierge.)

 

NOTES: Rion (Top): « In Greek, the summit of a mountain.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.217) « ῥἰον, any jutting part of a mountain, whether upwards or forwards; hence, peak; headland.» (Liddell & Scott) « Ƥἰον, Rhion, name of various promontories, in Achaea, in Etolia, etc(Bailly). This word is also an anagram of ROI, KING. Therefore, this is to mean the throne (Top) of France.

The white wool: = The white flag of the ancient regime of France. « The legitimacy of the white king…» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.222)

Close to the Top, and near the white wool: Expressing the French political situation where the restoration of the monarchy in White is near at hand.

Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo Virgo: By the enumeration of these zodiacal signs, « Nostradamus gives the epoch of the events the quatrain contains. The peak of the Mountain of the reds (Rion) [the Revolutionaries] appeared, on the 18th of March when the Sun was going to enter Aries (March 20). We shall be “ near the white wool ” when the Sun shall leave Virgo (September 22).» (Torné-Chavigny, id.) The omission of Gemini between Taurus and Cancer seems to indicate that there are a gap of two years between a group of Atries and Taurus (1871: the Paris Commune and its defeat under Thiers’s administration) and that of Cancer, Leo and Virgo (1873: MacMahon in presidency), and also that the following Mars, Jupiter constitute a kind of Gemini.

Mars, Jupiter: = The Duke of Broglie and the Count of Chambord, the latter being the chief of the elder branch of the Bourbons and the former the representative of their younger branch; in fact, the image of Jupiter as the Top of the Heaven becomes Henry V, on the other hand that of Mars fits the vice-President Broglie as a distinguished political fighter. 

« Influence of the Duke of Broglie. MacMahon, originally legitimist, having served the two revolutionary monarchies, and lived as a military foreign to the politics, was disposed to conduct himself as parliamentary chief of State. But, timid and modest, he felt himself ignorant, and left his ministers to manage the affairs. The power passed to the chief of the coalition [of all the parties of the Right], the Duke of Broglie, an Orleanist who had refused to join the Empire. He had on the conservative majority a personal influence, by his speech, which, though handicapped by a harsh and nasal voice, was, under the academic forms, biting, disdainful, very strong in attack -, still more by his talents of parliamentary tactician, skilful in the negotiations in lobby among the allies and in the maneuvers in session against his adversaries. Nominated vice-President of the Council, he instantly formed a ministry with Orleanists, two Legitimists and a minister of the Empire, Magne (for the Finances).» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.361)

The Sun: = The President of the French Republic MacMahon, the Sun being the principal of the Heaven.

The Sun shall burn the grand plain, Woods and cities: President MacMahon displayed his strong opinion about the national flag to be adopted toward the special commission of the National Assembly [which connotes the entire France: the grand plain (= the metropolitan France), woods and cities] that it should be the Tricolor: « MacMahon, according to Broglie’s advice, made a declaration “as an echo of the impressions of the entire army”. “ They argue about the substitution of the Tricolor by the white flag. I believe it my duty to give you a warning. If the white flag is raised in place of the Tricolor and if it occurs that the white flag is hoisted by a window in contrast with the Tricolor floating opposite, the chassepots will shoot of themselves, and I could not be responsible to the order in the streets, nor to the discipline in the army.”» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.217)

Letters sealed up with wax: The manifestos and letters of the Count of Chambord denying the Tricolor: « I will not leave the standard of Henry IV, of François Ist and of Joan of Arc snatched up out of my hands.» (Manifesto of July 6th 1871. Seignobos, id., p.321)

« I do not raise a new flag. No one, under any pretext whatever, shall not obtain of me that I consent to become the legitimate king of the Revolution.» (Manifesto of January 29th 1872. Seignobos, id., p.341)

« I cannot consent to inaugurate a reparative regime by an act of weakness. It is in mode to oppose the firmness of Henry V to the dexterity of Heny IV... I would really know what a lesson the fully audacious imprudent could have won to persuade him to disavow the standard of Arques and of Ivry…» (Letter dated 27th, disclosed 29th October 1873. Seignobos, id., p.374)

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§707

19th century:

§707 MacMahon, partisan of the Tricolor, checked the restoration of the monarchy in White (1873.10.29): V-36.

 

V-36:

The brother of his sister by his dissimulated repulsion,

Shall come to mix the rosy color of mineral:

Upon the cake given to the tardy old man,

A murder. The taster shall be simple and rural.

(De sœur le frere par simulte faintise,

Viendra mesler rosee en myneral:

Sur la placente donne à vieille tardifve,

Meurt. le goustant sera simple & rural.)

 

NOTES: The brother of his sister: = MacMahon, the President (the brother) of the French Republic, who nominated the Duke of Broglie as his Prime Minister (his sister): « When, at the re-formation of the ministry on May 18th, 1873, he [Thiers] wholly disregarded the monarchistic majority and recruited his cabinet entirely from the moderate Left, the monarchists moved a vote of censure upon Thiers. This was carried on May 24th, 1873, by a vote of 360 against 344. Thiers and his ministry resigned; whereupon, in the same sitting, MacMahon was elected president of the republic. The duke de Broglie held the place of vice-president under him(HH, XIII, p.188).

Simulte: = « Simulté, haine (hatred), inimitié (enmity).» (Godefroy).

Faintise: = The feminine of faintis = « feintis, adj., dissimulé (dissimulated), feint (assumed), trompeur (deceptive).» (Godefroy).

Rosee: = La couleur rosée (the rosy color).

Rosee en myneral: = The rosy color of mineral which hardly fades away, representing the perpetuity of the French Tricolor.

Placente: = Lat. placenta, « gâteau» (Chabrier); « cake » (Smith-Lockwood).

Donne à: = Donnée à.

Vieille: = Le vieux, « mon [petit] vieux; ma vieille [coll.] My dear [the feminine could be used also for a man].» (Suzuki).

Tardifve: = The feminine of « tardif, adj., Late (tree, hour); backward (fruits); Fig. Belated (measures, regrets); tardy (regrets)» (Dubois).

Vieille tardifve = The old man behind the times = the Count of Chambord missing the chance of Restoration in October 1873, aged 53: « The Count of Chambord had never lived but under the white flag, and he believed himself engaged in the matter of honor by his manifesto of 1871 to maintain it. Having been in exile for forty years away from France, he did not realize the force of the sentiment that attached the new generation to the Tricolor already national, which was staying for him the “ revolutionary ” emblem.» (Seignobos, 1921b, p.368).

Meurt.: The apocope of Meurtre, Murder.

Le goustant: The taster = The Count of Chambord receiving the act of the National Assembly to call him to the throne in October 1873 [the cake].

The taster shall be simple and rural: The Count of Chambord was personally genuine (simple) but politically unrealistic and never sophisticated (rural): = the great Satyr (§706, III-90), Satyr’s most original metaphorical meaning being “ the race of worthless and helpless Satyrs .” (cf. Liddell & Scott). He, in favor of his traditional white flag, missed the final chance of the Restoration of his family by denying the Tricolor, which Mac-Mahon strongly recommended in keeping to his military career (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.372-375), this psychological genuineness of Chambord testifying to his political inability. So, he was called a Satyr within the grand sphere of national politics, the unique appellation whose usage being once for all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus. The severe opinion of the Prophet seems to agree with that of one of the most eminent French statesmen Adolphe Thiers who commented about Chambord as “ a gently but intrepidly obstinate child or simpleton (un enfant ou un sot doucement mais intrépidement obstiné) .” (Seignobos, 1921b, p.319)

The brother of his sister by his dissimulated repulsion shall come to mix the rosy color of mineral upon the cake given to the tardy old man: President MacMahon [the brother] supported by the Duke of Broglie [his sister] by his hidden hatred for Chambord obstinately attached to the White flag [the tardy old man] shall make enter the maintenance of the Tricolor [the rosy color of mineral] into the articles of the act of the National Assembly to call Chambord to the throne [the cake], which inevitably caused the refusal of the act by Chambord (October 1873): « The majority elected to the presidency the Marshal of Mac-Mahon, and then tried to accomplish the fusion of the two branches of the royal family, in order to call the Count of Chambord to the throne. The chief of the younger branch, the Count of Paris, visited the residence of the Count of Chambord, and declared to this Prince that neither he himself nor his family shall be any obstacle to the restoration of the elder branch. This restoration therefore seemed done, and it seemed that France, tired and bewildered, might not come out of her silence. Nevertheless, when they learned that the Count of Chambord had refused to abandon the white flag, emblem of the ancient regime, all aborted and the project was abandoned. (M. Faustin-Ad. Hélie. – Constitutions de la France.)» (Muel, 1895, p.368).

A murder. The taster shall be simple and rural: MacMahon and Broglie could rely upon the simple and obstinate character of Chambord often revealed in his manifestos and letters (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.320-321, p.341, p.347, p.367, p.369 and p.374) in order to bring about by design the abortion of the restoration of the Monarchy in White, which they could not prefer before any regime in Tricolor, by means of imposing the Tricolor upon him, which was a kind of murder, a suffocation of the political life of the Count of Chambord (cf. id., p.366-368 and p.369-370).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§706

19th century:

§706 The great Satyr and the Iranian Tiger (1873.5.24-11.20): III-90.


III-90:

The great Satyr and the Tiger of Hyrcania,

The gift offered to those of the Ocean:

The chief of the army shall come out of Carmania

Who shall reach the shore of the Tyrant of Marseilles.

(Le grand Satyre & Tigre de Hyrcanie,

Don presente à ceux de l'Ocean:

Le chef de classe istra de Carmanie

Qui prendra terre au Tyrren Phocean.)

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.343), developing the theme of Torné-Chavigny (1870, p.20-21; 1876a, pp.64, 74-75), arrived at a general solution of the difficult quatrain: « When the descendant of the kings of France, who had been called the child of miracle and was invested with the title of the duke of Bordeaux, was expected as a liberator, the Marshal of Mac-Mahon, son of the Duchess of Caraman, was elected President of the Republic and attained the supreme magistracy of the State.».

Satyr: Its most original metaphorical meaning is as follows: « Σἀτυρος, Satyr, first in Hes. (γἐνος οὐτιδανῶν Σατύρων καἰ ἀμηχανοεργῶν [the race of worthless and helpless Satyrs] Fr.198.2).» (Liddell & Scott)

The great Satyr: = The Count of Chambord (= the Duke of Bordeaux) (Henri-Charles-Ferdinand-Marie-Dieudonné d'Artois, comte de, 1820-1883) who missed the final chance of the Restoration of his family by denying the Tricolor, which Mac-Mahon strongly recommended in keeping to his military career, in favor of his traditional white flag (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.372-375), this psychological genuineness of Chambord testifying to his political inability. So, he was called a Satyr within the grand sphere of national politics, the unique appellation whose usage being once for all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus. The severe opinion of the Prophet seems to agree with that of one of the most eminent French statesmen Adolphe Thiers who commented about Chambord as “ a gently but intrepidly obstinate child or simpleton (un enfant ou un sot doucement mais intrépidement obstiné) .” (Seignobos, 1921b, p.319)

Hyrcania: “ Hyrcania is a province of Persia as well as Carmania.” (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.21). « Ὑρκανία, Hyrcania, a district between Parthia, Media and the Caspian Sea.» (Pillon). « Καρμανία, Carmania, a province of Persia.» (Pillon).

The Tiger of Hyrcania: A metaphor through its fierceness and majesty in the lonely Persian mountains for a prominent French Field Marshal, Patrice Macmahon (1808-1893), whose mother the Duchess of Caraman recalling the name of Carmania to us (Torné-Chavigny, id.). « The Marshal is descended, by his mother, from the Dukes of Caraman… Carmanum, Carmaing [Caraman], a city of France (Haute-Garonne) is the cradle of the family of Caraman.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.116) [The chief of the army shall come out of Carmania]. Moreover, the word “ tiger ” (tigris in Latin and Greek) has an Iranian (= Persian) origin (cf. Petit Robert).

The Ocean: = The Gironde, the Ocean having the two meanings of the sea and of the grand river (Oceanus), which fit the Gironde.

Those of the Ocean: = Those of Bordeaux, the representative city on the Gironde = the National Assembly first convoked in Bordeaux in February 1871.

The gift offered to those of the Ocean: Henry V (the count of Chambord), chief of the House of the Bourbons surnamed Dieudonné (gift of God) to be called to the throne by the act of October 14th 1873 of the National Assembly solicited by its royalist majority facing toward the traditional monarchy incorporated in the personality of Henry V (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.370-371).

The gift: = Duke of Bordeaux ­= Count of Chambord = Henri Charles Ferdinand Dieudonné (Heaven-sent) de France: « THE CHILD OF THE MIRACLE. In the year 1816 Louis XVIII, King of France and Navarre, for the second time restored, after an exile of more than five-and-twenty years, to the throne of his ancestors, began to be somewhat disquieted in his mind as to the perpetuation of the Bourbon line. He himself was old, infirm, and childless; but his brother and designated successor, the Comte d'Artois, had two sons. The first was the Duc d'Angoulême, a sickly, silent, morose man, married to a princess, not indeed morose, but as silent and more sorrowful than her lord— Marie Thérèse de France, indeed, the daughter of Louis XVI., the “ Orphan of the Temple.” Her childhood had been passed in the stately Palace of Versailles; her girlhood in the horrible gaol of the Temple — released from which, she had wandered about for years in a restless, memory-haunted banishment; coming back to France in 1814, a bride, it is true, but an utterly crushed and disconsolate woman. Her father and mother had been torn from her arms to be dragged to the scaffold; her brother, the Dauphin, had been beaten and starved to death almost beneath her eyes; she had wanted food, raiment, light even, in her foul dungeon; and, when prosperity came, it was too late, for the heart of Marie Thérèse de France was dead within her. So the Duc and Duchess d'Angoulême were solemn couple, and, in 1816, were childless. The second son of the Comte d'Artois was Charles Ferdinand, Duc de Berri. Those who knew this youthful Prince were wont to say that his worth lay more in his heart than in his appearance; since he was stunted in stature, broad-shouldered, beetle-browed, shaggy-haired, with a nez camus, thick lips, and " something of a wild and ferocious expression." It would seem, however, that the Duc de Berri was very much belied, and that he was, in reality, not at all a bad sort of Prince. He was, those who knew, loved, and understood him, declared, “ constant in love, firm in friendship, eager for action, and ambitious for glory.” Thus, though two kinsmen, his father and his elder brother, stood between him and the throne, the Duc de Berri was not only the possible and probable, but the humanly certain Dauphin of a very few years to come... Lastly, there was the brooding, umbrageous Angoulême, who, it was certain, cared very little about becoming Dauphin, and less about being Louis XIX. Charles Ferdinand, Duc de Berri, was thus the hope of the Bourbon race. There was, to be sure, a branche cadette, a junior stem. There was a Duc d' Orleans, Louis Philippe by name, descended from a younger son of Louis XIII., married to a Sicilian Princess, and already beginning to abound in children; but the Orleans connection were barely tolerated at Court, and were secretly abhorred by the restored Bourbons. The King could not forget that the Duke's father, Egalité, had voted for the death of Louis XVI.; far less could the Duchess d'Angoulême forgive the man who was the son of one of her father's murderers. Old Louis Dixhuit, then, discreetly married him, in the year '16, to Marie Caroline Ferdinande Louise de Bourbon, daughter of the Prince Royal of the Two Sicilies. This Marie Caroline was a delightfully pretty, vivacious, petulant, spoilt girl, who had been brought up to tell her beads, to eat sweetmeats, to play with a doll, and absolutely to do nothing else. She brought some of her poupées with her to Paris; and was wont to divert herself therewith in the intervals of Court receptions; until there came to her another doll to dandle, of real flesh and blood, and with eyes that moved without any string-pulling. In negotiating this alliance the crafty old king is said to have had in view the consolidation of the House of Bourbon upon the three thrones it then occupied in Italy, in Spain, and in France. The union of Charles Ferdinand and Marie Caroline promised at first to be a very happy one. Two daughters were born to them, but by the year 1819 one of these infants had died. Still, the Duke and Duchess were very young; and the chances of the detested Orleans connection ever dropping into the line of succession seemed too preposterous to think about. You see that it is not given to mankind to peruse the proof-sheets of the decrees of Fate. How one would " operate" on the Stock Exchange, if such a perusal were possible, to be sure ! » (Sala, 1873, p.21-30).

« There happened to be in Paris in 1820 a man named Louvel. Louvel was a petty mechanic, and came from Versailles, where his father dealt in old clothes. Thirty-two years of age, a little weazened, wan, bilious man, with something the matter with his lungs — this Louvel, journeyman saddler or harness-maker, or something of that kind, I apprehend, had gotten some absurd nonsense into his head. It occurred to Louvel — as it has occurred to many before and after that rascal — that the times were out of joint, and that he was born to set them right. The natural sequence to this, in his muddled mind, was that the Bourbons were wholly and solely responsible for the disjointed condition of things; and that if he could only contrive to cut the throat of a Bourbon Prince — say of the Duc de Berri — peace and prosperity would thenceforth reign; liberty, equality, and fraternity would flourish. With a dagger in his pocket, he began to lurk at night about the doors of theatres which he thought the Duc de Berri would visit. He followed him even to the churches; but, throughout the many months during which this frightful quest continued, he failed to grasp his prey. At length, on the 13th February, 1820, it being then High Carnival in Paris, it was announced that the Duc and Duchess de Berri would honour with their presence the Académie Royal de Musique, which was then situated in the Rue de Richelieu, over against the Bibliothèque Royale. While they were enjoying the prospects of the evening's entertainment — nay, while they were in the act of dressing for the opera ball, Louvel, his knife in his bosom, was watching at the Palace of the Elysée, in the Rue du Faubourg St. Honoré, where the Royal couple dwelt. Thence, about seven, he skulked away to the Opera House. It was Sunday — le Dimanche Gras — the first of the three "fat" days, which crown and close the Carnival. At eight o'clock Louvel was at the Royal entrance to the theatre: when the clattering of horses' hoofs, and the glare of the torches borne by the dragons éclaireurs announced the coming of the Duke and Duchess... Mortally wounded, Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, Duc de Berri, lingered for some hours in one of the antechambers of the Opera House. He was sensible, however, to the last, and, as has often been the case with princes in his condition, earnestly besought that no harm might be done to his murderer. His surviving daughter, just a year old, was brought to him. He stretched out his trembling arms to her, murmuring, “ Poor child, may you be less unhappy than the rest of your family ! ” He little knew how many more misfortunes were in store for his fated race. His father, his brother Angoulême, his cousins of Orleans and of Bourbon-Conde, stood round his couch; and it was in the arms of his wife — no longer a petulant, vivacious, spoilt child, but a woman destined to be a Heroine — that he died. ''Caroline," he whispered, “ take care of yourself, for the sake of the child that you bear." This was the first revelation of the birth of an heir to his name. A little before the Duke’s death the poor old King arrived. Extreme unction had been administered by the Bishop of Chartres; and then the Curtain fell, and the most tragic of all the dramas that had ever been played within the walls of that garish theatre came to an end. Seven months and sixteen days after the murder of Charles Ferdinand, Duc de Berri, at the Opera House — which, shortly after his death, was demolished to its last stone, with a view to the erection of an expiatory chapel on its site; (the Place Louvois is yet bare, and the Third Restoration may yet build the chapel of expiation) — the widowed Marie Caroline gave birth, at the Palace of the Tuileries, to a man child. This was Henri Charles Ferdinand Dieudonné de France, born on the 29th of September, 1820. It is as well to be particular concerning the date of his birth, as it is one which, in combination with that of his father's death, those evilly disposed to the Elder Branche never failed malevolently to recite. The pious Legitimists, on their part, were more pleased to remember that the "Heaven-sent" Prince first saw the light on St. Michael's Day. That Archangel was famous for stamping out the lives of infernal dragons — Rafaelle and Correggio have shown us how; — and all good French Catholics saw, in 1820, in the birth of the young Prince on the feast of St. Michael, a special sign of protection from Heaven against the dreadful plots of the Revolutionists. Revolutionary conspiracies were annoyingly prevalent in 1820. There had been, also, some very ill-natured rumours current just before the little Prince's appearance. To confound the calumniators, it was determined, in the case of the Duchesse de Berri, that to her accouchement should be given “ an authentic publicity, in conformity with the ancient usages of the Monarchy;” and Marshal Suchet, “ with several officers of the guard of the Tuileries, were present at the birth, as irrefragable witnesses of the maternity of the Duchess.” Royalty, you see, has its responsibilities as well as its rights. At least we of the middle classes are entitled to be born without the surveillance of an officer of the Grenadier Guards and an Inspector of Police.» (Sala, 1873, p.30-43).

Tyrren: = Tyran (Tyrant = Chief of the State) by homophony.

Phocean: = Of Marseilles, 7 usages in all of the words Phocen,  Phocean,  Phossen in the Prophecies of Nostradamus designating Marseilles because of its having been a colony of the Phoenicians (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.112).

The Tyrant of Marseilles: The Chief of the State of France, Marseilles representing France by synecdoche.

Who shall reach the shore of the Tyrant of Marseilles: « The national assembly, divided into parties which were bitterly opposed to each other, developed a very meagre legislative activity. On one side stood the three monarchistic parties of the legitimists, the Orleanists, and the Bourbons, each of which had its pretender to the throne; on the other the republicans, who were divided into a moderate and an extreme Left. Between them stood a group of parliamentarians, who could be satisfied with either form of government, if only the constitutional system were preserved. It is true that the monarchists held the majority, but in the course of the next few years they lost considerable ground through the supplementary elections, and they were so disunited among themselves that in the most important questions frequently a fraction of the Right voted with the Left, and the majority thus became a minority. The " fusion," i.e. the union of the legitimists and Orleanists into one single party, did not succeed. Thiers preferred the actual republic to any one of the three possible monarchies, and for that very reason the monarchists were very much dissatisfied with him. When, at the re-formation of the ministry on May 18th, 1873, he wholly disregarded the monarchistic majority and recruited his cabinet entirely from the moderate Left, the monarchists moved a vote of censure upon Thiers. This was carried on May 24th, 1873, by a vote of 360 against 344. Thiers and his ministry resigned; whereupon, in the same sitting, MacMahon was elected president of the republic. The duke de Broglie held the place of vice-president under him.» (HH, XIII, p.187-188).

« The majority elected to the presidency the Marshal of Mac-Mahon, and then tried to accomplish the fusion of the two branches of the royal family, in order to call the Count of Chambord to the throne. The chief of the younger branch, the Count of Paris, visited the residence of the Count of Chambord, and declared to this Prince that neither he himself nor his family shall be any obstacle to the restoration of the elder branch. This restoration therefore seemed done, and it seemed that France, tired and bewildered, might not come out of her silence. Nevertheless, when they learned that the Count of Chambord had refused to abandon the white flag, emblem of the ancient regime, all aborted and the project was abandoned. (M. Faustin-Ad. Hélie. – Constitutions de la France.)» (Muel, 1895, p.368).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§705

19th century:

§705 Amadeo I, King-Elect of Spain (1870.11-1873.2): VI-51.


VI-51:

The assembled people, to see a new spectacle,

Princes and several Kings present by deputy:

Pillars, walls shall fail but like a miracle,

The King saved and his thirty followers.

 

(Peuple assemblé, voir nouveau expectacle,

Princes & Roys par plusieurs assistans:

Pilliers faillir, murs mais comme miracle,

Le Roy sauvé & trente des instans.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.311) succeeds in detecting the true theme of this stray quatrain: « Amadeo of Savoy, King of Spain. The crowd assembled in Barcelona to see their new King. A number of dignities of the kingdom, princes of science and those deputies who proclaimed themselves sovereigns in delegating their powers to Amadeo, accompanied him. The moment when His Majesty went up the first step of the stair leading to the pavilion of reception, the platform upon which the King just passed fell instantly, dragging away with it all that were on it; thirty persons fell in the debris, but this accident had no sinister results.»; but his materialistic view of the “fall of pillars and walls” is not pertinent because he gave no historical proof of it, nor there was any record of such an accident in the royal ceremony, which was not held in a pavilion, but in the monumentally built Palace of the Cortes ( “An official reception had been prepared for the new King. A state carriage was in waiting to convey him to the Cortes.” - Whitehouse, 1897, p.92-93) permitting no such eventual fall of a royal platform. The “fall of pillars and walls” is a metaphor for the assassination of General Prim, the promoter of the King-Elect Amadeus and at the same time his principal supporter and protector to come, the misfortune having befallen a moment before the Royal entrance to the capital.

Pillar: A metaphor for a supporter (cf. Dubois), as in the quatrains VII-43 and VIII-29.

Wall: A metaphor for a protector, as in the quatrains III-56, X-45.

Pillars, walls shall fail: « On the conclusion of the ceremonies and fetes at Florence attending his investiture of the high dignity conferred upon him, Amadeus returned to Turin to confer with the Duchess who, still suffering from the effects of her recent confinement (Count of Turin, born in Turin, November 24, 1870), had been unable to accompany her husband to the capital. It was now arranged, the King's immediate presence being necessary at Madrid, that Maria Victoria with her two sons should follow when she had sufficiently regained her strength, while Amadeus set out alone for the country of his adoption. After a hasty visit to Florence, where he remained but a few hours in order to receive his father's blessing and bid a final farewell to the other members of his family, Amadeus left on Christmas night for Spezia, there to embark on the Spanish frigate which was to convey him to Barcelona. The King-Elect was accompanied thus far on his journey by his brother Prince Humbert and Prince Eugene Carignano. General Cialdini, with the rank of special Ambassador to the King of Spain, was to escort his royal master as far as Madrid.

At noon on December 26th, on the arrival of the train at Spezia, the royal party at once proceeded to the harbor to embark on the " Numancia " which was lying at anchor in the bay. The weather was dull and dreary, and snow fell as the launch left the quay. Besides the local authorities and officials but few persons had ventured forth to witness the departure of the Prince. A feeble attempt at a cheer was made as the party left the landing-stage, but the proceedings were characterized throughout by moral as well as atmospheric depression, and even the Spanish officials showed but little enthusiasm in spite of the thunder of the guns, and brave display of bunting of the assembled war vessels. As Prince Humbert and the other visitors left the " Numancia " Amadeus uttered the prophetic words: " I go to fulfil an impossible mission. Spain, now divided into various parties, will unite against a foreign King, and I shall soon be obliged to return the crown they have offered me." To the reply that the well-known loyalty of the House of Savoy would disarm and conquer his enemies, he sadly murmured, " My loyalty will not be able to save me from the fury of the contending factions."

Doubtless the warning words of Mendez Vigo, uttered a few days previously, were in the Prince's mind. In a furious attack on the President of the Council, accusing him of manufacturing out of whole cloth the enthusiastic reports of the welcome which would be accorded the Duke of Aosta in Spain, Vigo, had exclaimed: " I am a loyal Spaniard, and I owe the truth to the King-Elect. I ask him before he enters Spanish territory to employ some means of ascertaining the true opinion of the Spanish people."

Meanwhile it must not be supposed that Queen Isabella calmly submitted without protest to what she naturally considered the usurpation of the rights of her son Don Alfonso, in whose favor she had abdicated a throne she in truth no longer possessed. From Geneva a vigorously worded manifesto was launched: " The revolution continues its career, and has just disavowed the rights of my son, — who is to-day your legitimate King according to all the Spanish Constitutions, — by calling to the throne of St. Ferdinand and of Charles V. a foreigner, whose merits, however great, cannot entitle him to be your Sovereign in the face of the rights of a whole dynasty, the only one which has in its favor that legitimacy, consecrated by the lapse of ages and by constitutions which it has been a signal folly to disavow." The ex-Queen then adds that she would not restore the throne to her son at the cost of Spanish blood, enough of which has been already shed, but that she enters this solemn protest, and is confident that when the revolutionary torrent has spent itself, the restoration may be brought about pacifically. Similar pronunciamentos from the pen of Don Carlos stimulated the energies of his partisans, who had proclaimed him King in the famous assembly held at Vevey, Switzeland, on April 18, 1870; on the conclusion of which the royal exile had actually constituted a ministry and distributed military commands in the Peninsula to which he dared not himself return.

Political passions ran high in Madrid, while in the provinces the situation was further complicated by the efforts of the Alphonsists, Carlists, Republicans, and, last but not least, the members of the "Internacional." The prospects for a peaceful accession of the new Ruler were doubtful at best, when an event occurred which shook the political fabric to its foundations, and deprived the Crown at a blow of its chief support [Pillars, walls shall fail]. With the assassination of General Prim the possibility of the foundation of a foreign dynasty in Spain vanished. By virtue of the combined prestige of Prim and Serrano it might have floated a while longer than it did, but with the disappearance of either it must inevitably have sunk below the overwhelming blood of national opposition. The session of the Cortes on December 27, had been marked by violent denunciation on the part of the opposition to the new regime. In vain had Prim argued, stormed and pleaded, surpassing himself in his effort to shield the sovereign whose advent he so impatiently awaited. Laboring under great excitement, which he made no attempt to conceal, the General, in company with two of his aides-de-camp, left the Cortes after dark to drive to the Ministry of War. As the carriage entered the narrow Calle del Turco it was stopped by a party of armed men and the General fired upon at close range. The assault was so sudden and unexpected that no attempt could be made to seize the aggressors, who promptly took to flight. Nine shots had taken effect; seven in the left shoulder and two in the right hand. Covered with blood the General sank in the arms of an aide-de-camp, while the carriage was driven at full gallop to his residence. In spite of the gravity of the wounds and the necessary amputation of his fingers, the doctors did not at first apprehend a fatal termination. For two days Madrid hovered between hope and despair; on the third fever ensued, and at half-past eight o'clock on the evening of December 30, but a few hours before the arrival of the King on whose brow he had labored so persistently to place the crown, Prim expired. The first news which greeted Amadeus when the " Numancia " cast anchor in the harbor of Carthagena, was that of the assassination of the man to whom he must naturally turn for guidance and advice on taking up the reins of government. Nor were the motives for the assassination obscure or far to seek. If Prim had found death at the hands of his political adversaries, yet countrymen withal, for the part he had played in attempting to bring peace to his distracted country, there could be but little doubt that the foreign Ruler, whose importation was so bitterly resented, would from the outset become the target of every discontented dagger within the realm. Yet Amadeus hesitated not a moment. Turning to those around him he sadly exclaimed: " Gentlemen, my duty is clear. Let us get on to Madrid." Passing the night at Aranjuez, where his reception by the populace was cold and forbidding, the King reached Madrid about noon on January 2, 1871.» (Whitehouse, 1897, p.86-92).  

The assembled people, to see a new spectacle, Princes and several Kings present by deputy:  « An official reception had been prepared for the new King [a new spectacle], and the approaches to the station, and streets through which he must pass, were thronged with vast crowds assembled, in spite of the bitter cold and snow, to witness the arrival of the sovereign [The assembled people, to see a new spectacle]. A state carriage was in waiting to convey him to the Cortes. Declining this the King signified his intention of entering the capital on horseback. As the brilliant escort of generals and aides-de-camp started it soon became evident to Amadeus that special precautions were being devised by the members of his suite [his thirty followers] to surround him in such manner as to prevent any possible contact with the public crowd for fear of insult, or worse. The King thereupon requested all accompanying him to fall back, and rode alone several paces in advance of his brilliant following. From the railway station the King proceeded direct to the church of Atocha where the remains of Prim lay in state. A large painting representing the scene hangs in the apartments of the Ducal Palace in Turin. The general lies in his unclosed coffin, in full uniform, his hands folded upon his breast. Four tall candles burn at the corners of the low platform on which the bier rests. Amadeus stands beside the corpse, his hands clasped upon his sword, his head bowed in grief. At a respectful distance hovers a brilliant group of generals [princes], diplomatists [several Kings present by deputy] and statesmen, while in the background a half-dozen priests recite the prayers for the dead. What a contrast from the grim presence of death to the scene in the Cortes, where the young King now goes to take the oath and receive the homage of his new subjects ! As he glanced round the serried ranks of members of both branches of the Cortes, Amadeus knew that even here amongst those assembled to give him official greeting were inexorable foes, morally responsible if not directly accountable for the political crime which had deprived him of his staunchest ally [Pillars, walls]. Not even the glittering uniforms of the representatives of army, navy and diplomacy, or the sumptuous toilettes of the Court Ladies, dazzling with jewels and gay with flowers, could efface the sombre memory of the silent form lying yonder in the church of the Atocha, and which should have been so conspicuous a figure near the throne. To the sensitive ears of the new King the enthusiastic and prolonged cries of welcome which greeted his entrance had a false ring, noticeable even under the emotion they caused. On the entrance of the King, the President arose and read the following message from the Regent [Marshal Serrano]: 

" Deputies: The revolution of 1868, initiated through the bravery of the army and navy, and prepared by national sentiment, has become personified in this Constituent Assembly which, comprehending the needs of the country, has given satisfaction to liberal aspirations while preserving peace and order, granting a fundamental code having as its basis democratic principles, guaranteed by a monarchy, the more lofty and worthy of respect emanating as it does from the popular sovereignty. The constitution having been voted, the Assembly desired to develop the system adopted by it, and while the election of the Prince who was to occupy the throne was being prepared, placed its confidence in me, rendering me the high honor of entrusting to me public affairs and the direction of the policy framed by the Chamber. I, from that moment desirous of accomplishing with loyal impartiality the duty you charged me with, have had, in common with the Chamber, the responsibility of the important interval which closes to-day. Nevertheless I do not regret traversing so many and such difficult trials since they have left us all the consciousness of the fulfilment of duties imposed upon us by our country. The day has at length arrived on which your labor is terminated, and on which I must resign the powers which, to enable me to assist you in accomplishing an end, you confided to me. With an easy conscience I abandon the high magistracy with which you invested me, hoping the verdict of my country will be benign, and considering myself rewarded with the opinion you have formed as to my conduct; which opinion remains impressed on my most sacred feelings. May God grant the fervent prayers I offer up to Him for the prosperity and future of my dear country. May our fellow-citizens gratefully cherish the memory of this Assembly whose labors result in the monarchy we inaugurate to-day, and towards which we all look for the happiness of this noble nation."

Grand words, and modest, coming as they did from one in whose hands had so long lain the destiny of a great nation, and from one who, looking only to what he considered the public good, had so strenuously rejected all temptation for personal aggrandizement. The constitution of 1869 having been read, His Majesty arose and took solemn oath to accept and defend the same, as well as the laws of the Kingdom. The President then turning to the chamber amidst enthusiastic applause proclaimed Amadeus I. King of Spain. The Constituent Cortes, its labors having ended with the election and proclamation of the Sovereign, was now declared dissolved, and the responsibilities and cares of government devolved upon the young Monarch.» (Whitehouse, 1897, p.92-97).  

Instan: From the Latin « insto, instare, être ou se trouver sur (to be or to be present).» (Vignois, id.); « īn-stō, to stand in or on; to be near or close.» (Smith-Lockwood) .

But like a miracle, The King saved and his thirty followers: « The first official act of the new Ruler consisted in the selection of a ministry, the formation of which was naturally enough entrusted to Marshal Serrano [one of the princes]. The Marshal himself Prime Minister and Minister of War, gathered round him a composite cabinet into which entered such various political ingredients of the liberal-monarchical factions as Ruiz-Zorrilla, Martos (Foreign Affair), Ulloa, Sagasta, Moret, Ayala and Beranger. This ministry entered upon its official being on January 4, 1871. On the 13th General Cialdini was received by the King with all the pomp and ceremony befitting his high mission, and delivered into His Majesty's hands the letter of Victor Emmanuel accrediting him as Ambassador Extraordinary to congratulate the new Sovereign on his accession [the King present by deputy]. The general expressed to His Majesty the sorrow of the Italian people at losing a prince [General Prim] so greatly and deservedly beloved, but gave utterance also to the widespread conviction that the Prince [Amadeo]'s origin could but strengthen the sympathies and interests of the two nations, already so closely related by ties of blood and racial affinities.» (Whitehouse, 1897, p.97-98).  

« The sequel of the revolution of September demonstrated that the Spanish people did not confound the monarchical principle with the causes which had produced the downfall of the late dynasty, and this fact was still further confirmed by the action of the Constituent Assembly and the object the Carlists, or rebels as they were called, had in view. The republican element was as yet a factor which, although it could not safely be overlooked, was, however, no serious menace to the established government; but the troublesome Carlist following, and the possibility of a fusion of one or several independent factions with this party, caused the ministry to anticipate the approaching elections with considerable apprehension. The result proclaimed a not insignificant ministerial majority in both houses of Parliament, and the political atmosphere seemed less dangerously charged with brewing storm than had been anticipated when, on the date fixed, Amadeus opened the session with a speech impregnated with wise and conciliatory utterances. Alas ! If the opening ceremonies were characterized by calm and apathy the brief lull was all too soon to be followed by violent controversy and bitter denunciation... From tenderest infancy he had witnessed the varying fortunes of the struggle for independence and unity in the land of his birth. He had assisted at the national or parliamentary checks, or advantages, which marked the progressive policy of his father and the great ministers who served him. Defeat and disappointment were no strangers to him; despair and humiliation had visited his House. But he had instilled into his very nature that reverence for the constitutional rights of the people which had in the end carried his father triumphantly to the leadership of a great nation. Political trickery, or any tampering with the spirit of the conditions under which he had assumed the great charge entrusted to him, was as far removed from his character as the committal of a dishonest action. Of doubtful political expediency there should be none. He would walk straight and upright to the goal, and when the path was blocked with obstacles over which he could not constitutionally pass, he would turn neither to the right nor to the left: would make no attempt to coerce the desires of those who had called him to preside over their destinies, but with honor unscathed abdicate the throne for whose mere lustre he cared so little.» (Whitehouse, 1897, p.100-105).  

« A favorite morning excursion was to the museums. On these occasions the King crossed the city to the Prado on foot, attended by a single aide-de-camp. The servants returning from their early marketing would relate to their mistresses how they had met the King, and almost brushed against him with their baskets full of vegetables and household provisions. The democratic simplicity of these excursions gave offence to many, who maintained that the monarch lowered the majesty of his office in dispensing with the time-honored ceremonial of his predecessors. The Carlists and Alfonsinists sneered at the vagaries of " King Maccaroni," as they contemptuously styled him, but all parties united in considering the proceeding hazardous in the extreme. Nor were they wrong, for in July an unsuccessful attempt was made on his life by an unknown individual who discharged a pistol at him as he walked through the streets. The King was uninjured, and the incident seemed to make little impression on him; it certainly did not cause him to alter his habits or to mingle less freely with his subjects. But the occurrence justified the anxiety felt by those who were charged with His Majesty's safety.» (Whitehouse, 1897, p.114-115).  

« For some time past Amadeus had received warning that a plot was rife for a fresh attempt upon his life, and it was rumored that the night of July eighteenth had been selected for the perpetration of some outrage. Nevertheless the King refused to alter in any degree his usual habits, and resolved to spend that evening in the society of his subjects. Whether the decision was born of his inherent contempt of danger, or from the conviction that it especially behooved him to show himself to his people at a time when such rumors were in circulation, who shall say ! It would appear, however, that on this occasion Amadeus did not place much faith in the warnings of a police he had ample reason to believe officious, or give credence to the existence of any serious danger, since he allowed the Queen to accompany him. Their Majesties spent the hot, close, evening listening to the concert in the public gardens of the Buen Ritiro, one of Madrid's most famous pleasure-grounds. At midnight, on the close of the concert, the homeward drive was begun along the route where, on account of the evil reports abroad, constables had been stationed at intervals sufficiently apart to avoid the suggestion that special precautions had been deemed necessary. As the royal carriage proceeded at a rapid pace up the via del Arenal, a broad, modern thoroughfare, a public vehicle, adopting the same tactics as those which had been employed in the assassination of General Prim, attempted to impede its progress by driving at right angles across the street, and fouling the Court equipage [The King and his thirty followers]. Fortunately, however, the King's coachman was able to knock the cab-driver from his box before the wheels of the two vehicles became locked. At the same moment six or seven shots were fired from the midst of a group of idlers standing on the corner. The King sprang to his feet at the first detonation, shouting: " Here is the King. Fire at him, not at the others ! " The aide-de-camp, seated in front of Their Majesties, courageously threw himself before the Queen, interposing his body between Her Majesty and the direction from whence the shots were fired. By a miracle [like a miracle] none of the occupants of the carriage were touched [The King saved and his thirty followers] although one of the horses was wounded and the carriage itself riddled with bullets. The postilion immediately whipped up his maddened beasts to full gallop, guiding them in the direction of the palace.

Meanwhile the police closed in on the band of would-be assassins who defended themselves with revolvers. Crowds rapidly assembled and, while impeding the operations of the police, facilitated the escape of many of those implicated in the plot. Two were arrested on the spot; a third killed while desperately attempting to cut his way through. During the night some twenty arrests were made, amongst the most notable of which was that of a certain Dudascal, the ex-chief of an unsavory political association. The indignation of the populace at the dastardly attempt was general and widespread. Angry crowds demanded that the prisoners be given into their hands in order that summary justice might be meted out to them. Frightened and excited officials flocked to the palace where they huddled together in the antechambers exchanging vivid and grossly exaggerated accounts of the occurrence. Señor Zorilla was amongst the first to arrive, and was at once ushered into the presence of the King. In spite of the trying ordeal just passed through, Amadeus appeared perfectly calm and collected as he quietly related the circumstances of the attack, and gave orders concerning the measures he desired carried out. His first thought was for his father, and the desire to spare him unnecessary anxiety should exaggerated accounts of the attempted assassination first reach him. Accordingly the following somewhat laconic telegram was immediately despatched to the Italian Court:

" I inform Your Majesty that this evening we were objects of an outrage. Thanks to God are absolutely unhurt. Amadeus.

" Madrid, July 18,

" 1: 24 A. M."

This message reached Victor Emmanuel while on one of his favorite hunting expeditions in the mountains above Valsavaranche, near Aosta. Rapidly descending to the nearest encampment to which the telegraph wires had been carried for his convenience, the King, in spite of his terrible anxiety, forwarded congratulations and words of encouragement to his son; at the same time urging him to loyally persevere in the task he had undertaken, and to show to the world that a prince of the House of Savoy, at any cost, and regardless of personal peril, would pursue the aim in view without swerving a hair's breadth from his constitutional obligations. The following morning Amadeus might have been seen walking without escort through the Madrid streets as if he were as free from worry or danger as the meanest of his subjects. The Queen, however, did not so readily recover from the recent shock, or close her eyes to the peril of their position. Her Majesty's life was one of continual dread for the safety of her husband and those most dear to her. Each time Amadeus left the palace she suffered torments of apprehension lest he should not enter it again alive. " Alas ! " the poor lady exclaimed to one of her intimate friends shortly after the July outrage, "all here have the right to complain except ourselves. We must bear all in silence." Her discouragement and mental anxiety added in no small degree to her consort's distaste for a task, the ultimate accomplishment of which became daily more doubtful.» (Whitehouse, 1897, p.150-155).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§704

19th century:

§704 Louis AdolpheThiers, President of the French Republic (1871.8-1873.5): VIII-65.


VIII-65:

The frustrate old man of the principal hope,

He shall arrive at the chief of his empire.

For twenty months he shall hold the reign with a great power,

Tyrant, cruel in abandoning a worse party.

 

(Le vieux frustré du principal espoir

Il parviendra au chef de son empire

Vingt mois tiendra le regne a grand pouvoir

Tiran, cruel en delaissant un pire.)

 

NOTES: The old man: = Adolphe Thiers (April 1797 - September 1877): « There are more than a reason that lead us to see in “ the frustrate old man of the principal hope ” the government we have now [October 1871]. Nostradamus might have been able to indicate it by the expression “ le vieux (the old) ”, because of the age of its highest representative, Mr. Thiers.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1871b, p.184). In fact, Mr. Thiers was aged more than seventy when he was appointed the Chief of the executive power of the French Republic by the National Assembly in Bordeaux on February 17th, 1871; « On the 8th of February [1871] elections were held throughout France, and on the 12th the national assembly was opened at Bordeaux. Thiers was chosen chief of the executive on the 17th, formed his ministry on the 19th, and on the 21st, accompanied by the ministers Favre and Picard, he went to Versailles, commissioned by the national assembly, to begin the peace negociations.» (HH, XIII, p.179).

The frustrate old man: Louis Adolphe Thiers was fundamentally frustrate in his own personality because of his inner contradiction between his old faith of a monarchist and his real conviction of political impossibility of a monarchy in the contemporary accelerative tide of republicanism, which destined him to a partisan of the Conservative Republic. (cf. Muel, 1895, p.364). So he was engaged in the government of the July Monarchy and formed the Opposition against the Secomd Empire, whose sudden fall made him appear on the stage as the Chief of the executive power of the French Republic (He shall arrive at the chief of his empire).

The old man of the principal hope: He was the deputy of nearly universal hope in the assembly of Bordeaux, where he was nominated Chief of the executive power of the French Republic almost unanimously (Muel, id., p.347 ).

For twenty months he shall hold the reign with a great power: « The reign with a great power » marks, apart from that of the executive Chief, the Presidency of the French Republic starting with the title of President of the French Republic with which Adolphe Thiers was invested on August 31st, 1871 (Muel, id., p.357-358). Therefore, his presidency was for 20 months and 25 days (August 31, 1871 – May 24, 1873). « The national assembly, divided into parties which were bitterly opposed to each other, developed a very meagre legislative activity. On one side stood the three monarchistic parties of the legitimists, the Orleanists, and the Bourbons, each of which had its pretender to the throne; on the other the republicans, who were divided into a moderate and an extreme Left. Between them stood a group of parliamentarians, who could be satisfied with either form of government, if only the constitutional system were preserved. It is true that the monarchists held the majority, but in the course of the next few years they lost considerable ground through the supplementary elections, and they were so disunited among themselves that in the most important questions frequently a fraction of the Right voted with the Left, and the majority thus became a minority. The " fusion," i.e. the union of the legitimists and Orleanists into one single party, did not succeed. Thiers preferred the actual republic to any one of the three possible monarchies, and for that very reason the monarchists were very much dissatisfied with him. When, at the re-formation of the ministry on May 18th, 1873, he wholly disregarded the monarchistic majority and recruited his cabinet entirely from the moderate Left, the monarchists moved a vote of censure upon Thiers. This was carried on May 24th, 1873, by a vote of 360 against 344. Thiers and his ministry resigned; whereupon, in the same sitting, MacMahon was elected president of the republic.» (HH, XIII, p.187-188).

Tyrant, cruel in abandoning a worse party: « Meanwhile the advanced republicans were organising their party; they expected to have to fight the monarchical assembly by force. The law against Paris, the law of échéance, caused great indignation. The name of Thiers recalled his struggle against the republic after 1848 and his services as minister under Louis Philippe. All this was too far distant to enable people to judge of the new rô1e he intended to play. The republicans of the ministry, Jules Favre, Picard, and Jules Simon, had, after the siege, lost all influence in Paris. A great many men who inspired confidence, left the assembly. Victor Hugo, whose speech had been shouted down by the populace, and Gambetta had resigned. A severe conflict seemed imminent. Though Thiers wished on the one hand to control the royalists of the assembly, he was determined on the other to deprive of weapons the republicans of the large towns [a worse party]. He made a pretext for doing this by demanding the restitution of the cannon which had been seized. Some of the radical deputies intervened to prevent civil war. They had twice almost succeeded in obtaining the restitution of the cannon, and were making further efforts to do so. Paris, too, seemed gradually calming down, when Thiers decided to employ force. On the 18th of March, at daybreak, the troops, under the orders of General Vinoy, ascended the slopes of Montmartre and took possession of the cannon. But things had been so badly managed that the people were aware of what was happening. The sight of those who had been wounded in the morning enraged the crowd; the troops were surrounded and dispersed: there was not even a struggle. The soldiers no longer obeyed their officers, but mingled with the populace. All Paris was in arms: instantly barricades were raised in every direction. Thiers had for a long time held that when a rebellion is serious it is best to abandon the revolting town [a worse party] and only re-enter it as a conqueror. He commanded a retreat to Versailles. During the night the Hôtel-de-Ville was evacuated by the government. The insurrection had been inaugurated with terrible bloodshed. General Leconte, who in the morning commanded part of the troops at Montmartre, had been detained by the crowd with some other prisoners, and the republican Clément Thomas, who had commanded the national guard in 1848 and during the siege, had been recognised and arrested on the boulevard. These prisoners had been dragged from place to place. At last they were brought to the rue des Rosiers where a committee from Montmartre was sitting. A crowd of infuriated people assailed the house, and in the midst of a scene of wild confusion the two generals, Leconte and Clément Thomas, were pushed against the walls of the garden and riddled with bullets. This slaughter made a bloody stain on the proceedings of the day…History has rarely known a more unpatriotic crime than that of the insurrection of the commune [a worse party]; but the punishment inflicted on the insurgents by the Versailles troops was so ruthless [Tyrant, cruel] that it seemed to be a counter-manifestation of French hatred for Frenchmen in civil disturbance rather than a judicial penalty applied to a heinous offence. The number of Parisians killed by French soldiers in the last week of May, 1871, was probably twenty thousand, though the partisans of the commune declared that thirty-six thousand men and women were shot in the streets or after summary court-martial. It is from this point that the history of the Third Republic commences...» (HH, XIII, p.181-182).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§703

19th century:

§703 Louis Adolphe Thiers, Chief of the executive power of the French Republic (1871.2-1873.5): X-32.


X-32:

The great empire that each ought to be such

One person shall obtain it above the others,

But his reign and existence shall be for a while,

Two years in his vessels he shall be able to hold it.

 

(Le grand empire chacun an devoir estre

Un sur les autres le viendra obtenir,

Mais peu de temps sera son regne & estre,

Deux ans aux naves le porra soustenir.)

 

NOTES: An: = en (by homophony) = un grand empire (a great empire).

The great empire that each ought to be such: This expresses after the fashion of Nostradamus the principle of the sovereign people of such a great Republic as that of France (the great empire) whose any member (each) ought to be a possible Chief of State through certain legal process representing the State itself, the word “ ought ” (devoir) referring to the obligation by laws.

The convocation of the electors of the National Assembly of Bordeaux to come followed the electoral law of 1849 (Seignobos, 1921b, p.279), which was modeled on that of 1848 with a modification of the total number of the representatives reduced from 900 to 750 (Seignobos, 1921a, p.135).

The electoral law of 1848: « The time was now approaching when something definite required to be adopted by the provisional government in regard to the future constitution of the republic. With this view the government felt that it was necessary to convoke a national assembly; but before that could be done, the basis required to be fixed on which the election of its members should proceed. In these moments of republican fervour, there could be no doubt of the principle which required to be adopted. The convention of 1793 presented the model ready made to their hands. The precedent of that year accordingly was followed, with a trifling alteration, merely in form, which subsequent experience had proved to be necessary. The number of the assembly was fixed at nine hundred, including the representatives of Algeria and the other colonies, and it was declared that the members should be distributed in exact proportion to the population. The whole was to form one assembly, chosen by universal suffrage. Every person was to be admitted to vote who had attained the age of twenty-one, who had resided six months in a commune, and had not been judicially deprived of his suffrage. Any Frenchman of the age of twenty-five, not judicially deprived of his rights, was declared eligible as a representative (each ought to be such). The voting was to be secret, by signing lists; and no one could be elected unless he had at least two thousand votes.» (HH, XIII, p.94-95; cf. Seignobos, 1921a, p.28-30).

One person shall obtain it above the others: « Mr. Thiers, in talking to the Monarchists: “ Come to an agreement if you could in order to establish one of your monarchies,” and to the Republicans: “ You will have your republic if you are wise,” above the ones and above the others shall succeed in obtaining the power.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1876a, p.65).

« On the 8th of February [1871] elections were held throughout France, and on the 12th the national assembly was opened at Bordeaux. Thiers was chosen chief of the executive on the 17th, formed his ministry on the 19th, and on the 21st, accompanied by the ministers Favre and Picard, he went to Versailles, commissioned by the national assembly, to begin the peace negociations.» (HH, XIII, p.179).

Nave: = « s.f., navire (vessel).» (Godefroy).

But his reign shall be for a while, Two years in his vessels he shall be able to hold it: « But he shall hold it only for a little while. He shall be able to keep out two years in tacking about. He shall guard it in all for 27 months starting with the pact of Bordeaux [February 1871 – May 1873].» (Torné-Chavigny, id.).

Estre: = « Being, existence.» (Dubois).

But his existence shall be for a while: Indeed, Adolphe Thiers deceased on September 3rd, 1877, only four years after his resignation from the presidency.

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

§702

19th century:

§702 The deposition of Napoleon III and of his dynasty confirmed (1871.3.1): VI-3.

VI-3:

The river which distinguishes the Celtic newborn,

Shall be gravely in discord with the Empire:

A coronal shall deprive the young prince

Of the scepter by the ecclesiastic people in concordance.

 

(Fleuve qu'esprove le nouveau nay Celtique,

Sera en grande de l'Empire discorde:

Le jeune prince par gent ecclesiastique,

Ostera le sceptre coronal de concorde.)

 

NOTES: Qu’: = Qui, as often seen in Nostradamus.

Esprover: « Vérifier (to verify), distinguer (to distinguish), reconnaître (to recognize), approuver (to approve).» (Godefroy).

The Celtic newborn (le nouveau nay Celtique): = The French Republic newly proclaimed on the 4th of September, 1870, Celtique meaning in most cases French (15 among 18 usages of the words «Celte» «Celtique» are for «France, Français, français»).

The river which distinguishes the Celtic newborn: = The national Assembly elected on February 8th 1871 which is to affirm constitutionally the new Republic or to adopt another regime. This expression is metaphorically based upon a German legend that « With the Celts, as st. Gregory of Nazianzus [Cappadocia] says so, the newly born children were verified in being placed in the Rhine covered with a shield; if they stayed firm on the water, they were recognized as legitimate, and if they submerged, they were not to be recognized as such.» (Le Brun, Hist. des pratiques superstitieuses, cité Torné-Chavigny, 1879, p.95).

The river… shall be gravely in discord with the Empire: The national Assembly of Bordeaux (the river) confirmed the deposition of Napoleon III and of his dynasty on March 1st 1871 (Muel, 1895, p.351).

Coronal: = Lat. corōna (garland, wreath, crown) + suf. –al = (adj.) of a crown = (subst.) a person like a crowned man = Thiers, Chief of the executive power of France.

A coronal shall deprive the young prince of the scepter by the ecclesiastic people in concordance: On the 1st of March, 1871, Thiers (A coronal) as chief of the executive power of France shall solicit by means of arguing the foreign origin of the Franco-Prussian war the almost unanimous decision (in concordance) of the deposition of the dynasty of Napoleon III (deprive the young prince of the scepter) responsible to the recent disaster of France by the national Assembly, whose majority was the party of the Catholics (the ecclesiastic people) (cf. Muel, id., p.352; Grousset et Léonard, 1958, p.574).

The young prince: Napoléon-Eugène-Louis-Jean-Joseph Bonaparte. « During the session of 1856 the baptism of the prince imperial, who had been born (March 16th) during the congress of Paris, was celebrated with great pomp at Notre Dame [June 14th]. The godfather was Pius IX, represented by a Roman cardinal. This intimate bond with the pope was to involve the policy of the empire on grave occasions.» (HH, XIII, p.131). « The Empress Eugénie, then, settled with his son in Chislehurst (England). Napoleon III, having been granted liberty by Germany after the conclusion of peace, rejoined the Empress and his son in this city where he died on January 9th 1873. The prince imperial, having been in Zoulouland [South Africa] to serve England, died on June 1st 1879 in Ulundi, aged 23, shot with assagais by a band of Zoulous.» (Muel, id., p.331-332, note 1.)

As to the baptism of the prince imperial, cf. X-8 (§643).

As to the decease of the prince imperial, cf. IV-9 (§716) and V-97 (§717).

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2014. All rights reserved.

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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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