§ 588. Greek Independence War (1)

19th century:
§588. Greek Independence War (1): IX-91.

The horrible pest of war shall devastate,
Perinthus and Nicopolis, Thessaly and Amphipolis.
The Peninsula and the Marcellus shall hold,
The unknown wrongs and the refusal of Anthony.

( L'horrible peste Perynte & Nicopolle,
Le Chersonnez tiendra & Marceloyne,
La Thessalie vastera l'Amphipolle,
Mal incogneu & le refus d'Anthoine.) (№ 10)

Keys to the reading:
The horrible pest of war: Peste, pestilence and pestifere in French occur 38 times in all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 31 examples indicate the disastrous social effects of war, only 2 in the medical sense (II-53 and VIII-84) and 5 cases in amphiboly.

shall devastate: The construction of the original verses 1-3 is as folllows: L'horrible peste vastera Perynte & Nicopolle, la Thessalie & l'Amphipolle, Le Chersonnez tiendra & Marceloyne [aussi]; « Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Acarnania, Ætolia, the Peloponnesus, Eubœa, and the Archipelago had become battle-fields on which perished alternately tyrants and slaves.» (HH, XXIV, p.230)

The Peninsula: in capital initial means the Peloponnesus, the perpetual centre of the party of independence;« The proclamation and the emissaries of Ypsilanti had given to the Peloponnesus the signal for independence. The archbishop of Patras, Germanos, orator, pontiff, and warrior, had convened all the chiefs of the clergy in the caverns of the Erymanthus mountains to arrange with them the insurrection of all their churches.» (HH, XXIV, p.229)

the Marcellus: Marceloyne means of Marcellus in the sense of those of the family, and Marcellus originally means the child of Mars, the god of war. Therefore, in accompanying the Peloponnesus it may indicate the Greek soldiers in this war of independence. In fact, this term is not a deformation, as many interpreters pretend, of Macedonia. In this quatrain Macedonia doesn't hold, because one of its cities Amphipolis is said to be devastated, but the people and the soldiers of Macedonia and Greece in general hold to the end as if they were children of Mars.

The unknown wrongs: «The Peloponnesus was fire and blood, under the cross as under the crescent; three centuries of cumulative servitude were the revenge for three centuries of oppression. Europe shuddered with horror at the recital of atrocities. Two races, two nations, two religions grappled with each other, from the shores where the waves beat upon the islands to the summits of Pindarus and of Thessaly. Patras, Missolonghi were entombed under ruins.» (HH, XXIV, p.230)

the refusal of Anthony: « If the emperor Alexander, who after the invasion of France in 1814 had become the Agamemnon of the kings of Europe, had had the perfidy of Catherine II, Greece, provoked or even encouraged by him, would have long before arisen in rebellion against Sultan Mahmud. But the emperor Alexander refused obstinately to provoke or even tolerate revolt among the Greeks... The Greek revolution would enfeeble the theory of the sovereignty of a great empire, and that theory of the legitimacy of thrones which he was sincerely trying to make a political religion in Europe.» (HH, XXIV, p.229) The name Anthony (Anthoine) seems not to refer to the king of Navarre Anthony (1518-1562) because of the abundance of the Greek place-names in the quatrain, but to the ancient Roman general Mark Antony (ca. 85-30 B.C.), who governed the eastern provinces of Rome including Greece when he formed in 43 B.C. the second triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus (HH, V, p.624). This circumstance of Mark Anthony may identify him with the emperor Alexander I, expected to be a protector of independent Greece as the Agamemnon of the kings of Europe.

The horrible pest of war in Greece, launched in 1821 by the Greek insurrection signalized by Alexander Ypsilanti [1792-1828] against the Ottomans, who reply with most terrible measures, devastates Perinthus in Thrace, Nicopolis in Epirus, Thessaly and Amphipolis in Macedonia. But the Greek leaders in the Peloponnesus, the perpetual centre of the party of independence, the people and the soldiers of Greece in general hold to the end as if they were children of Mars. All over the battle-fields in Greece the unknown wrongs are commited under the cross as under the crescent. Europe shudders with horror at the recital of atrocities. Two races, two nations, two religions grappled with each other, from the shores where the waves beat upon the islands to the summits of Pindarus and of Thessaly. Patras, Missolonghi were entombed under ruins. If the Russian emperor Alexander I, who after the invasion of France in 1814 had become the Agamemnon of the kings of Europe, had had the perfidy of Catherine II, Greece, provoked or even encouraged by him, would have long before arisen in rebellion against Sultan Mahmud. But the emperor Alexander refused obstinately to provoke or even tolerate revolt among the Greeks... The Greek revolution would enfeeble the theory of the sovereignty of a great empire, and that theory of the legitimacy of thrones which he was sincerely trying to make a political religion in Europe.
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 589.Greek Independence War (2)

19th century:

§589. Greek Independence War (2): V-90.


On the Cyclades, in Perinthus and Larissa,
At Sparta, all over the Pelloponnessus: 
Such great famine and pest by wrongs and fire, 
And the whole peninsula shall hold nine months.

( Dans les cyclades, en perinthe & larisse,
Dedans Sparte tout le Pelloponnesse: 
Si grand famine, peste, par faulx connisse, 
Neuf moys tiendra & tout le cherrouesse.
№ 9)                                                      


Keys to the reading:
Such great famine and pest: As peste, pestilence and pestifere in French occur 38 times in all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 31 examples indicate the disastrous social effects of war, only 2 in the medical sense (II-53 and VIII-84) and 5 cases in amphiboly (cf.§588), so faim, famine do 37 times, whose 26 cases refer to the disaster of war, and 11 examples in the sense of dearth;


wrongs: the original faulx is a synonym of mal (§588 IX-91);


fire: the original connisse, deriving from κονις in Greek, means dust, ashes, particularly those of the dead (Bailly), then it may connote lethal firing;


the whole peninsula: U and N being sometimes interchangeable in Nostradamus' style of spelling, the original cherrouesse means cherronesse (χερονησος), peninsula in Greek. Now, by this term the Greeks used to mean first the peninsula of Thrace (now of Gallipoli), secondly that of Taurida (now of Crimea), thirdly that which extends southward from Epidaurus and lastly that of Haemus (now the Balkans) (Bailly, Liddell and Scott and Pillon). But the second case is off the theme of the quatrain (Fontbrune's interpretation fails in a fully consistent analysis of the quatrain (1980, p.206)), and the three others are already referred to respectively by the mentions of Perinthus in Thrace, of the Pelloponnessus including Epidaurus and of Larissa in the Balkans. Therefore it may indicate the whole country of Greece mainly composed of several peninsulas except many islands (= the Cyclades);


the whole peninsula shall hold nine months: = the whole of Greece shall hold to the end of the independence war for nine years, starting in 1821 and ended in 1829. Here, the whole peninsula does not exclude the islands, because of the etymology of χερονησος composed of χερος (continental) and νησος (island) (Bailly). Moreover, the original cherrouesse, whose cher- indicates χερος (continental, firm, solid) and -rouesse may connote prouesse = prowess, exploit in French, is to be understood as the solid valour and exploit of the armed Greeks in coinciding with the expression: the Marcellus (Marceloyne) (§588, IX-91) = the valiant Greek soldiers as children of Mars, the god of war, who hold to the end in this war of independence;


Nine months: may be understood as nine years, as the other examples in Nostradamus suggest it. In fact, the quatrain VIII-93 twice says «seven months», which is the term of office of the presidency of the third French republic, namely seven years (septennate). It refers to President Loubet (1899-1906) and President Fallières (1906-1913), who are designated with the dictions «prelature» and «preture», both originally meaning «posted in front» (he who sits before = who presides = president) (Vignois, 1910, p.454). In it is mentioned also «the grand schism» and «the peaceful union near Venice», the former evidently refers to the Law separating Church and State in 1905, the latter to the secret treaty of understanding with Italy in 1902 (Ploetz, p.948). Vignois predicts in 1910, the year of the publication of this interpretation in his works on Nostradamus, that «as far as we interprete beforehand the Prophecies of Nostradamus, it is probable that President Fallières shall conserve his high function during the same lapse of time.» We have another example in the quatrain V-18, where it is depicted that the wall of Paris, besieged by Henry IV, shall fall on the seventh day, namely in the seventh year after its denial of the king of France in 1588. In reality, Paris occupied by the League shut out the king Henri III in 1588 and for the first time thereafter opened the gates to the king Henri IV, direct allied successor to Henri III, in 1594, which lapse of time the French used to count as seven years, starting with 1588 which is the first year and finishing with 1594 that is the seventh and last. And an encyclopedia of world history, particularly concerned with historical dating, describes as follows: «The independence war of Greece: 1821-1829» (Ploetz, p.1080), which means nine years in the French fashion. And the quatrain VII-15 (§212) will literally say: «For seven years the siege shall be laid in front of the city in the hands of the League under the controle of the master of the Milanese, i.e. Philip II: The greatest king shall make his entry into it. The city, then, free from his enemies.» 


Summary:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     On the Cyclades, in Thrace (Perinthus) and Thessaly (Larissa), at Sparta and all over the Pelloponnessus, such great disaster and calamity caused by grave wrongs and lethal firing. And with firmness and prowess the whole of Greece shall hold to the end of the independence war for nine years (1821-1829). This doesn't necessarily mean that the year 1829 is that of Greek Independence, which may be dated 1829 or 1830 according to the Protocol of London making Greece hereditary monarchy tributary to Turkey or to the Porte's recognition of the independence of Greece. Indeed, Nostradamus doesn't make explicit this point in the quatrain. 

© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 590.Greek Independence War (3)

19th century:
§590. Greek Independence War (3): VI-55.

The Duke shall wrest the promise of abandoning naval services against Greece from Ibrahim Pasha, allied with the Ottomans in Choumla,
When the Arabian fleet under Ibrahim shall appear to be defeated promptly.
Tripolitza in the hands of the French, the island of Chios and the inhabitants of Trebizond shall be of Turkey.
On the other hand, the Ottoman leader at Koulevtcha having been beaten by the Russians, the Black Sea and the city of Erzerum shall be devastated also by them.

(Au chalmé Duc en arrachant l'esponce,
Voille Arabesque voir, subit descouverte:
Tripolis Chio & ceulx de Trapesonce,
Duc prins Marnegro, & la cité deserte.)

Keys to the reading:
The Duke: duke = leader = the French admiral de Rigny on board the Siren engaged in the battle of Navarino (October, 1827).

Choumla: the original chalmé is an anagram of Choumla, mod. Choumen or Shumen in Bulgaria, i.e. chalmé ⇒chémla ⇒choumla. And the original au chalmé, composed of à (at, in, of or out of), le (the) and chalmé, may mean «out of the one in Choumla», i.e. «out of Ibrahim Pasha allied with Turkey», Choumla being of Turkey.

Trapesonce: = Trebizond.

the Ottoman leader: the grand vizir Reschid Pasha, the original duc meaning a leader.

Koulevtcha: mod. Provadiya (Pravody) between Varna and Shumen.

The French admiral de Rigny shall wrest the promise of abandoning naval services against Greece from Ibrahim Pasha, allied with the Ottomans in Choumla, when the Arabian fleet under Ibrahim shall appear to be defeated promptly in Navarino (cf. Charléty, 1921, p. 268-269). «On this occasion (April, 1826) an agreement known as the St. Petersburg protocol was made between Russia and England by which the two powers entered into a mutual engagement to mediate a reconciliation between the Porte and the revolted Greeks. A year later, July, 1827, a triple alliance based on this protocol was formed between England, Russia, and France, and led to the battle of Navarino, in which the allied fleets defeated that of the Porte (October, 1827)» (HH, XIV, p.588). Tripolitza evacuated by Ibrahim, the whole Peloponnesus falls into the hands of the troops from France under the commandment of the French general Maison (October, 1828) (cf. Charléty, 1921, p. 359). The island of Chios, thoroughly plundered by Ottomans in 1822 and the inhabitants of Trebizond shall not stop to be of Turkey. On the other hand, the Ottoman leader at Koulevtcha, Reschid Pasha, having been beaten, on the 11th of June, 1828, by the Russians under Diebitsch, who marched across the Balkans for the first time, a feat which won him the name of Sabalkanski (Trans-Balkanski), Paskevitch took Erzerum in Asia and the fortresses of Anapa and Poti on the Black Sea were afforded to Russia by the Treaty of Adrianople signed September 14th, 1829 (HH, XVII, p.544-545)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 591.Charles X abdicates in favor of the duke of Bordeaux

19th century:
§591. Charles X abdicates in favor of the duke of Bordeaux, the duke of Orleans missing his hope (1830): IV-45.

In the conflict against the liberal party the king Charles X shall abandon the sceptre to the duke of Bordeaux, his grandson.
The most reverend leader of the Bourbons, the duke of Orleans, shall miss the hope of the one in need.
The Swiss troops belonging to the king shall suffer mortal defeat, few of them escaping.
All of the legitimists in distress, the only one shall be the testifier of the event.

(Par conflit roy, regne abandonnera,
Le plus grand chef faillira au besoing:
Mors profligés peu en rechapera,
Tous destranchés, un en sera tesmoing.)

Keys to the reading:
The only one: the duke of Bordeaux.

destranchés: destrance, détresse (Godefroy).

The Swiss troops belonging to the king suffered mortal defeat, few of them escaping (cf. HH, XIII, p.47). «Charles X had finally abdicated in favour of a child, the duke de Bordeaux. His was a strange destiny. He, whom the royalists called Henry V, was only to reign for one day and that at the age of ten ! The old king was convinced that the duke of Orleans had only accepted the "lieutenancy of the kingdom" for the purpose of re-establishing legitimate authority in the person of Henry V. The duke found himself in a difficult position between the revolutionists who had offered him a throne, and Charles X, to whom he owed so much ! Very opportunely, owing to an alarm raised in Paris, on the 3rd of August a little band of Parisians marched on Rambouillet. It was a strange jumble of national guards, volunteers, stutents with soldiers' belts over their black coats, workmen wearing helmets, many of them in omnibuses or cabs chartered for the occasion. This disorderly troop set out on a march of forty-five miles without victuals and quite unprepared for any emergency. At the same time the duke of Orleans sent Marshal Maison, Schonen, and Odilon Barrot to Rambouillet. He had given the Parisians to understand that Charles X mignt prove dangerous, and he warned Charles X that sixty thousand Parisians were marching against him, and that he had better provide for his safety. Thus he got rid of the old king. Charles X and his family were accompanied as far as Cherbourg by his cousin's three envoys. Thence he went into exile where the elder branch of the Bourbons was to die out. On the 9th of August, 1830, the duke of Orleans was solemnly proclaimed king under the name of Louis Philippe I, king of the French.» (HH, XIII, p.49-50). All of the legitimists in distress, the only one shall be the testifier of the event of usurpation; in fact, the duke of Bordeaux shall never give up his right to be the legitimate pretender to the throne as Henry V.
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 592.Assassination of the duke of Berry

19th century:
§592. Assassination of the duke of Berry (1820) and the impasse of Charles X (1830): X-92.

Under his father's eyes the son shall be killed,
The father then among the cordes of rush.
Genevan people shall struggle hard,
The head lying down in the heart of the events as a stem.

(Devant le pere l'enfant sera tué,
Le pere apres entre cordes de jonc,
Genevoys peuple sera esvertué,
Gisant le chief au milieu comme un tronc.)

Keys to the reading:
the cordes of rush: An assemblage of numerous slender fibers, a metaphor for the Chamber of Deputies.

Genevan people: the Parisians who will imitate a democratic regime of Geneve (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.233).

Under his father's eyes the son shall be killed: «On the 13th of February, 1820, the duke de Berri [the second in succession to the crown] was assassinated by a fanatic named Louvel as he was coming from the Opera.» (HH, XIII, p.24) «The prince hearing the sobs of his desolate spouse said to her: "Dear Caroline, calm your despair, stand steady for the child you bear in your inside." These words unveiled the hope that had been only conjectured... Soon, at this scene of desolation came to gather Mister (count of Artois, father of the duke de Berri), Madam, the duke of Angouleme and the duke of Bourbon. All of them surrounded this bed of death... Already the shades of death enveloped the prince; he turned his last look at his companion whom he didn't recognize any more. "Caroline, I am dying happy, I am dying in your arms..."» (Delandine, Vie du duc de Berry, cité Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.232)

Then, the father on the throne September 26th, 1824, named Charles X, was destined, as his brother Louis XVIII, to be caught in his reign by the Chamber of Deputies: «The new ministry was formed Jan. 4th, 1828, with Martignac as leader of the cabinet. The king had made haste to say to his new ministers, "M. de Villele's system is mine"; and the chamber made haste to write down in its address that M. de Villele's system was "deplorable." The whole history of the Restoration is epitomised on this simple juxtaposition of facts.» (HH, XIII, p.39-40).

The Parisians imitating the democracy of Geneve shall struggle hard. The head lying down in the heart of the events as a stem: «Charles X was at St. Cloud. The day the ordinances appeared (July 26th) he was stag-hunting until the evening at Rambouillet. Partly owing to an incomprehensible carelessness and partly to avoid the unpleasantness of the struggle, he had kept out of reach of the storm which had assailed his crown. He was told :"Stocks have fallen"; and replied, "They will go up again." Then they said, "Paris is in a state of anarchy." To this he answered, "Anarchy will bring her to my feet." The most faithful royalists, trying to make the king realise his position, found him incredulous. Even on the 29th, when the revolutionists, after three days' fighting, were driving the army from Paris, Charles X, six miles away, kept on repeating that every measure was being taken to suppress the insurrection.» (HH, XIII, p.47-48).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 593. The revolution of July

19th century:
§593. The duke of Berry assassinated (1820.2.13); The revolution of July (1830): III-96.

The chief of Fossano shall have his throat cut,
By the conductor of the bloodhound and the greyhound:
The event accomplished by those of the Tarpeian Rock,
Saturn in the Lion the 13th of February.

(Chef de Fossan aura gorge copee,
Par le ducteur du limier & levrier:
Le faict patré par ceulx du mont Tarpee,
Saturne en Leo xiij. de Fevrier.) (№2)

Keys to the reading:
Fossano: a city of Piedmont in the kingdom of Sardinia, 60 km south of Turin;

The chief of Fossano: The duke of Berry, whose parents being Charles X and Mary-Theresa of Savoy, daughter of Victor Amadeus III, king of Sardinia, may in this sense be the chief of Sardinia (Le Pelletier, 1867, p.256-257);

copee: For coupée; shall have his throat cut: «On the 13th of February, 1820, the duke de Berri was assassinated by a fanatic named Louvel as he was coming from the Opera» (§592, X-92). This expression is not a description of the deed in detail, but a paraphrase of assassination to fit it to the following verse 'conductor of the bloodhound and the greyhound';

ducteur: Celui qui conduit (Godefroy). Conductor;

The conductor of the bloodhound and the greyhound: A sheer hunter. This expression refers to the fact that Louvel himself had been pursuing the royal princes as vivtims of his assassination as if in chasing preys since 1814, when he saw the enemies of France in all of the Bourbons restored, which also explains his political motive of the crime. And it does not mean, as Le Pelletier (id.) and Ionescu (1976, p.352) following him intend, the profession of Louvel, because he was not a stableman (palefrenier), but a saddler (sellier). Perhaps, the bloodhound and the greyhound symbolize two daggers, a big and a small one, that Louvel had with him when he stroke the prince with the former (cf. Bellart, 1821, p.10-12);

patré: Patrer, To bring an action to its final accomplishment, to its utmost consequence (Ionescu, id.);

the Tarpeian Rock: of the ancient Roman Republic. From its top were thrown down to death the criminals of state;

Saturn in the Lion: During the revolution of July, 1830, Saturn was in the sign of Lion (Ionescu, id.): January the 1st, 137.2°; October the 29th, 150.0°;

the 13th of February: Just the day of the assassination of the duke of Berry in 1820 (Le Pelletier, id.).

Ionescu's has accomplished the preliminary interpretation of Le Pelletier. He says that this quatrain involves four events in 1830:

«1. The Revolution of "July", which determined the abdication of Charles X.

2. The fall of Charles X, who was the last king of the Bourbons.

3. The duke of Bordeaux loses his title and goes into exile by the maneuvers of Louis-Philip of Orleans, who is allied wih the revolutionists. The duke of Bordeaux being the son of the duke of Berry, assassinated in 1820, was the only Bourbon with the right to succeed to Charles X.

4. The prince of Bourbon-Condé is himself also assassinated. He had also the right to the throne of France. Certain historians are of opinion that Louis-Philip is not foreign to this murder.

In brief, we may say that the year 1830 was the year of the Revolution of July and, at the same time, the year of the liquidation of the Bourbons in France...Le faict (the event of assassination of the duke of Berry in 1820) sera patré --- i.e. shall be brought to the finish --- par ceux du mont TARPEE --- i.e. by the Revolution of 1830. The disapperance in 1820 of one Bourbon shall be therefore continued in 1830, when all the other Bourbons shall be exterminated in turn.» (Ionscu, id.).
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§ 594.The prince of Condé found hung

19th century:
§594. The last of the princes of Condé found hung (1830.8.27): I-39.

At night in his bed a supreme person strangled,
Because of having too much supported the blond elite.
Three parties shall suffer the usurped empire,
A certified card shall put him to death, a packet being not read.

(De nuict dans lict le supresme estrangle
Pour trop avoir subjourné, blond esleu,
Par troys l'empire subroge exancle,
A mort mettra carte, pacquet ne leu.)

Keys to the reading:
suprême: Le plus élevé en valeur [the highest]. Le dernier [the last] (avec une idée de solennité ou de tragique) (Petit Robert);

A supreme person: the last male member of the family of highest rank, i.e. Louis-Henry-Joseph, the duke of Bourbon, prince of Condé (1756-1830);

subjourner: Séjourner, Lat. subdiurnare, Rester longtemps à la même place (Petit Robert):

subjourné, blond esleu: Séjourner sous le blond esleu;

the blond elite: The duke of Bordeaux, blond and king elite by the double abdication of his grandfather Charles X and his uncle Louis XIX (the duke of Angoulême) August 2nd , 1830;

subroge: metaphor of usurpé (usurped);

exancle: Lat. exanclare, to suffer, to endure;

carte: A certificate.

« By night, in his bed, the last of the Bourbons-Condé shall be strangled, because of his having been too long loyal to the young King with blond hair, a King elect by the abdication of his parents. The power usurped by the tutor (Louis-Philip) shall be objected by three parties: the legitimists, the Bonapartists and the Republicans. A testament shall cause the death of the prince of Bourbon-Condé» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.28).

Indeed, his testament, forced to make a year before by his young mistress Baroness of Feuchères engaging Louis-Philip to take her under his protection in exchange of gaining an advantageous one from the prince, left all of his properties to the next to the last of the sons of Louis-Philip, the young duke of Aumale, and several millions to Madame de Feuchères» (E. Dentu, 1861,p.9-12; p.6).

And his parcel of private manuscripts shall never been read in public. In fact, all the circumstances of his death having been evidently against the conclusion of suicide by the justice under the royal authority, the feigned papers half burned are found in the fireplace of his chamber thoroughly checked in vain in the morning, for the first time later in the evening by the secretary of the king, seemingly announcing his determination of suicide, instead of the real, authentic and undamaged documents of the prince containing naturally his explanations of pretended "suicide" (E. Dentu, id.,p.19-20).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 595.Death of Bourbon-Condé

19th century:
§595. Revolution of July; Death of Bourbon-Condé (July-August 1830): I-41.

A siege in a city, and by night assaulted,
Few escaped; not far from the sea being the conflict.
A lady of pleasure, returning of the memories of his late son.
A poison and letters hidden in the hearth.

(Siege en cité, & de nuict assaillie,
Peu eschapes: non loing de mer conflict.
Femme de joye, retours filz defaillie
Poison & lettres cachées dans le plic.)

Keys to the reading:
A siege in a city: The three days' fighting in Paris (July 27th-29th, 1830);

by night: In the sense of clandestinely (Ionescu, 1976, p.622). In fact, in the Prophecies of Nostradamus we find 37 uses of the word night (nuict), whose 21 being in the proper, 8 in the sense of clandestinely (I-41, IV-8, IV-78, IV-93, V-83, VI-53, VII-2 and IX-13) and 8 in the ambivalence;

conflict: that between Charles X and Louis-Philip;

his late son: The duke of Enghien assassinated by the order of Napoleon in 1804;

A poison and letters: «The letters containing the dishonoring avowal (poison) of one's suicide» = poyson & lettres (§624, VIII-82) (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.270);

plic: The anagram of lict (licp ⇒lict ⇒lit) = foyer (hearth) (cf. id.).

«Nightfall interrupted the fighting. Nothing disturbed the silent solemnity of that terrible night but the footsteps of the troops as they evacuated the town in order to mass themselves round the Tuileries. On the morning of the 29th, fighting began again. On the right bank, the people had only to get possession of the vast enclosure of the palace formed by the Louvre and the Tuileries. Since the day before they had been besieging the front of the Louvre before St. Germain l'Auxerrois [a siege in a city]. The Swiss, posted in the colonnade, directed a murderous fire on the assailants. A blunder, made while changing the battalion posted there, left the colonnade unprotected; in an instant the people stormed the entrance and broke in through the windows, firing from those which looked on to the courtyard. The Swiss, taken by surprise [by night assaulted], were seized with a panic, the officers were unable to restore order, and they were chased by the people as far as the place de la Concorde. The crowd then for the second time made their way into the conquered palace.» (HH, XIII, p.47). The Swiss troops belonging to the king suffered mortal defeat, few of them escaping (id.).

«The duke [of Orleans] found himself in a difficult position between the revolutionists who had offered him a throne, and Charles X, to whom he owed so much ! Very opportunely, owing to an alarm raised in Paris, on the 3rd of August a little band of Parisians marched on Rambouillet. At the same time the duke of Orleans sent Marshal Maison, Schonen, and Odilon Barrot to Rambouillet. He had given the Parisians to understand that Charles X mignt prove dangerous, and he warned Charles X that sixty thousand Parisians were marching against him, and that he had better provide for his safety. Thus he got rid of the old king [being the conflict]. Charles X and his family were accompanied as far as Cherbourg [not far from the sea] by his cousin's three envoys. Thence he went into exile where the elder branch of the Bourbons was to die out.» (HH, XIII, p.49-50).

And later in August, « a testament shall cause the death of the prince of Bourbon-Condé» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.28). Indeed, his testament, forced to make a year before by his young mistress Baroness of Feuchères [a lady of pleasure] engaging Louis-Philip to take her under his protection in exchange of gaining an advantageous one from the prince, left all of his properties to the young duke of Aumale, and several millions to Madame de Feuchères» (E. Dentu, 1861,p.9-12; p.6).

And his parcel of private manuscripts shall never been read in public. In fact, all the circumstances of his death having been evidently against the conclusion of suicide by the justice under the royal authority, the feigned papers half burned and broken in pieces are found in the fireplace [hidden in the hearth] of his chamber thoroughly checked in vain in the morning, for the first time later in the evening by the secretary of the king.

They read as follows: «Saint-Leu and its dependencies belong to your King Philip. Do not pillage nor burn the castle nor the village. Do not do a wrong to anyone of my friends and my people. You are off my intention. I have to die only in hoping happiness and prosperity for the French people and for my fatherland. Farewell forever. L.-H.-J. DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ. P.S. I wish to be buried at Vincennes, by my unfortunate son.» (E. Dentu, id.,p.19).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 596. Charles X chased to perish in exile

19th century:
§596. Charles X after conquering Algeria chased to perish in exile (1830-1836): IV-84.

A great of Auserre shall die very miserable,
Being chased by those who have been under him:
Tied in chains, then by a coarce cable,
In the year when Mars, Venus, and the Sun settled in summer.

(Un grand d'Auserre mourra bien miserable,
Chassé de ceulx qui soubz luy ont esté:
Serré de chaisnes, apres d'un rude cable,
En l'an que Mars, Venus, & Sol mis en esté.)

Keys to the reading:
Auserre: = Auxerre, the capital of the department of Yonne in France;

A great of Auserre: Charles X with the merit of aggrandizing France by conquering Algeria, proper names of place in Nostradamus often used to suggest some common concept by their etymological, phonetical or inferred connotation: here, Auxerre in relation to a Gk. Αúξη (Auxē), augmentation, enlargement, stands for that meaning (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.256);

Tied in chains, by a coarce cable: Cf. The father among the cordes of rush (Le pere entre cordes de jonc) (§592, X-92);

Mis en esté: Se mettre en été = To clothe oneself in summer wear; Mars clothed in summer wear: the French troops in expedition to Algeria in summer; Venus clothed in summer wear: Women elegantly clothed in summer wear; Sol clothed in summer wear: Charles X in need of fortune, Sol mis en esté connoting at the same time the hot season of the year.

«Charles X, King of France aggrandized by incorporating Algeria with his own heeds, shall be chased by those who have been his sujects, and die miserably in Goritz, having no private fortune, after having wandered various countries. Being tied with the Charter, he shall then be caught in the new chains, in persisting in holding his gouvernment hostile to the Charter supported by the Chambers. This revolution shall take place in summer (July 1830).» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.256). At that time the French troops are to be in expedition to Algeria, ladies and girls in France clothed elegantly in summer wear and Charles X in need of fortune.
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 597.Louis-Philip, a modern Agesilaus

19th century:
§597. Louis-Philip, a modern Agesilaus of France (1820-1830): VI-84.

He who cannot reign as limper in Sparte,
He shall do much by way of seduction:
He shall make net it long rather than instantly by force.
So that he shall get his own perspective against the King.

(Celuy qu'en Sparte Claude ne peult regner,
Il fera tant par voye seductive:
Que du court, long, le fera araigner,
Que contre Roy fera sa perspective.)

Keys to the reading:
Claude: Lat. claudus, limping, lame;

He who cannot reign as limper in Sparte: Who does not have legitimacy to succeed to a throne as a usurper Agesilaus, limping uncle of Leotychides, son and legitimate heir of the late king Agis;

The duke of Orleans Louis-Philip, as he does not have the supremacy in succeeding to the French throne, is making every effort to get the credit of deserving a crown by means of seductions.

«Louis-Philip, a new Agesilaus, protest the legitimacy of the birth of his [great-] nephew. The duke of Orleans protested in the Morning-Chronicle, November 1820, the birth of Monsieur the duke of Bordeaux, Charles-Ferdinand-Dieudonné, legitimate son of Her Royal Highness Madame the duchess of Berry, etc., etc. This protestation having its resoundings at the Tuileries, the duke of Orleans at once presented himself there, denied it and protested it; in 1830, he avowed it, moreover published it in the official journals.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.21).

«The princess Adelaide was regarded as having a great range of ideas, and above all grandiose ambition in favor of her family. So she was ever occupied in assembling by his brother the people whose opinions or interests alienated themselves from the elder branch of the Bourbons. It is under her influence that the party was formed, proved entirely ready when the revolution of 1830 occurred (Feller).» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.22).

«Louis-Philip and Talleyrand, these two conspirators, judged that the time had not yet come. Louis-Philip owed the greatest part of his force to his ability of knowing how to wait. In the meantime Louis XVIII died (Al. Dumas).» (Torné-Chavigny, id.).

«M. De Lafayette waited his royal visitor on the landing of the Town Hall (1830)... The situation was grave and solemn. This step Louis-Philip was to take in going to demand the sanction of the people in the palace of the people, it was an entire, complete and eternal breaking off of the monarchy with divine right, it was the crowning of the fifteen years' conspiration, it was the consecration of the revolt in the person of a prince of blood (Al. Dumas).» (Torné-Chavigny, id.).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 598.Three days' fighting

19th century:
§598. Three days' fighting; Maneuvers of Louis-Philip (1830): VI-95.

By the detractor calumny made upon the next born,
When the enormous and martial facts shall happen:
The least partaking of the power with elder Bourbon dubious,
And soon the partial groups shall be in power.

(Par detracteur calumnié à puis nay,
Quant istront faictz enormes & martiaulx:
La moindre part dubieuse à l'aisnay,
Et tost au regne seront faictz partiaulx.)

Keys to the reading:
The detractor: Louis-Philip;

the next born: The duke of Bordeaux who was born after the death of his father, duke of Berry;

the enormous and martial facts: Three days' fighting on 27th-29th of July, 1830;

the partial groups: The groups of Louis-Philip, of Talleyrand and of De Lafayette.

When the enormous and martial facts happen, by the detractor calumny made upon the next born: «The duke of Orleans protested in the Morning-Chronicle, November 1820, the birth of Monsieur the duke of Bordeaux, Charles-Ferdinand-Dieudonné, legitimate son of Her Royal Highness Madame the duchess of Berry, etc., etc. This protestation having its resoundings at the Tuileries, the duke of Orleans at once presented himself there, denied it and protested it; in 1830, he avowed it, moreover published it in the official journals.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.21) (§597, VI-84).

The least partaking of the power with elder Bourbon dubious: «The princess Adelaide was regarded as having a great range of ideas, and above all grandiose ambition in favor of her family. So she was ever occupied in assembling by his brother the people whose opinions or interests alienated themselves from the elder branch of the Bourbons. It is under her influence that the party was formed, proved entirely ready when the revolution of 1830 occurred (Feller).» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.22) (§597, VI-84).

And soon the partial groups shall be in power: «Louis-Philip and Talleyrand, these two conspirators, judged that the time had not yet come. Louis-Philip owed the greatest part of his force to his ability of knowing how to wait. In the meantime Louis XVIII died (Al. Dumas).» (Torné-Chavigny, id.). «M. De Lafayette waited his royal visitor on the landing of the Town Hall (1830)... The situation was grave and solemn. This step Louis-Philip was to take in going to demand the sanction of the people in the palace of the people, it was an entire, complete and eternal breaking off of the monarchy with divine right, it was the crowning of the fifteen years' conspiration, it was the consecration of the revolt in the person of a prince of blood (Al. Dumas).» (Torné-Chavigny, id.) (§597, VI-84).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 599.Louis-Philip, a constitutional king

19th century:
§599. Louis-Philip, a constitutional king (1830): VI-13.

A dubious shall not go far off the reign,
The greatest part will sustain him:
A capitol will never want that he should reign,
He shall not be able to hold his grand charge.

(Un dubieux ne viendra loing du regne,
La plus grand part le vouldra soustenir:
Un capitole ne vouldra point qu'il regne,
Sa grande charge ne pourra maintenir.)

Keys to the reading:
A dubious: Louis-Philip, cf. «with elder Bourbon dubious» (§598,VI-95);

The greatest part: A counterpart of «The least partaking of the power» (§598,VI-95);

A capitol: One and the representative of the conquering party in the July revolution, Thiers, the Capitol being the political symbol of supreme honour and victory (cf. Littré).

A dubious shall not go far off the reign (i.e. nearing it ): «The princess Adelaide was regarded as having a great range of ideas, and above all grandiose ambition in favor of her family. So she was ever occupied in assembling by his brother the people whose opinions or interests alienated themselves from the elder branch of the Bourbons. It is under her influence that the party was formed, proved entirely ready when the revolution of 1830 occurred (Feller).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.22)

The greatest part will sustain him: «M. De Lafayette waited his royal visitor on the landing of the Town Hall (1830)... The situation was grave and solemn. This step Louis-Philip was to take in going to demand the sanction of the people in the palace of the people, it was an entire, complete and eternal breaking off of the monarchy with divine right, it was the crowning of the fifteen years' conspiration, it was the consecration of the revolt in the person of a prince of blood (Al. Dumas).» (Torné-Chavigny, id.)

A capitol will never want that he should reign, He shall not be able to hold his grand charge: « One of the men who did most to enthrone Louis Philippe was Thiers, who has defined the constitutional monarchy in the phrase, " It reigns but it does not govern." The new king never accepted this maxim and aspired from the first day to rule in all things, less from any theory of monarchy than from a passion for affairs, big or little, and above all from a conviction of the superiority he fancied he held over his ministers, even when he had before him a Casimir Périer or a Thiers. He could not even delegate authority as Napoleon did and Charles X wanted to do. It was necessary then that he govern by address and by artifice, not by imposing and ordering, but by reducing and dividing, by subalternising his ministers and gaining his parliamentary majorities by interesting groups and individuals. Such a policy was incompatible with sincerity towards persons and things; incapable of violating the laws, Louis Philippe used all his skill to contract the laws and to undermine free institutions. These dangerous tendencies, however, manifested themselves but gradually.» (HH, p.54-55)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 600.Parliamentary principle in France

19th century:
§600. Parliamentary principle in France (1830): VIII-61.

Never in the open of daylight
Shall he arrive at the sceptred sign,
So that all his postures will not be resident.
A gift of the amicable parliament shall bring him to the throne of the French.

(Jamais par le decouvrement du jour
Ne parviendra au signe sceptrifere
Que tous ses sieges ne soient en sejour,
Portant au coq don du TAG amifere.)

Keys to the reading:
Decouvrement: = N. m. découvert, the open;

Par le decouvrement du jour: In the open of daylight;

Sceptrifere: Sceptre-portant, sceptre-carrying, sceptred;

The sceptred sign: The throne;

Resident: proper to himself;

Le coq: = France or the French, or the crown (crest) of France, coq in Latin gallus suggesting Gallic (French). Cf. §610,VIII-5;

TAG: PARLIAMENT in German, and also DAY (= the light of convention), as contrasted with the open of daylight (= legitimacy);

Amifere: Ami-portant, friend-carrying, friendly, amicable;

Portant au coq don du TAG amifere: The construction is as follows: Un don du TAG amifere [le] portant au coq.

Never in the open of daylight shall he arrive at the sceptred sign: « The blond hair (the duke of Bordeaux) shall be deserted by Ferdinand of Orleans, the eldest son and presumptive successor as Ferdinand Ier of Louis-Philip entrusting him with a regiment. He shall leave with his force the fleur-de-lis to follow Philip of France, marvelously resembling that Philip of Macedonia, who, tutor of his nephew, deprived him of his throne. Philip shall abandon the way he should follow when the blond hair is wanting most the aid of the Orleans. He shall make march the revolt toward Rambouillet against the little king God-Gift and child of miracle.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.14) (cf. §601,IX-35).

So that all his postures will not be resident: « Placed as Louis Philippe was between the past and the future, between the ancient monarchy crumbled without hope of return and the republic brought forward, then adjourned, his position was complex and his spirit contradictory. He was at the same time a prince at heart and a bourgeois in form; revolutionary by his memories, and reactionary, or at least stationary, from the fear which these very memories inspired in him, as well as by his royal memories. " King-citizen," promenading Paris in round hat and with an umbrella, not only by calculation, but by taste as well, he was at the same time a descendant of Louis XIV - the issue of the brother of Louis XIV, on the male side; he descended on the female side from the Grand Monarch himself and Mme. de Montespan. He had kept from Voltairianism sentiments of humanity and religious scepticism, but nothing more from that great breath of the eighteenth century which had for a moment animated his youth and inspired the entire life of La Fayette.» (HH, XIII, p.54)

A gift of the amicable parliament [ = a detestable one dissolved by the king] shall bring him to the throne of the French: « Fort Emperor once taken, Algiers could no longer hold out; Hussein signed a capitulation. The victory, however, was little heeded at home and war was declared between France and monarchy. The struggle had been desperate on both sides. The opposition brought out a new paper, the National, edited by Thiers and Mignet, the two historians of the Revolution, and Arman Carrel, who had begun his public career as leader of an armed conspiracy. This paper propagated the views of the opposition with extreme ardour. On the other side the king vainly threw his name and his influence into the scale. The result was a crushing defeat. The opposition had fought for the 221 deputies who had condemned the Polignac ministry, as in 1877 they were to fight for the 363. They were all returned again and fifty more elections were also gained. The defeated ministry prepared a coup d'état. Taking as a pretext the wording of Article 14 of the charter, they resolved to suppress the liberty of the country. Three ordinances signed by all the ministers formed the reply of Charles X to the French nation. One of these dissolved the chamber before it had ever met; so that the country had been consulted and had given its answer, but that answer was treated with contempt. Another abolished liberty of the press. Henceforth every paper would be forced to obtain the royal sanction; otherwise, it would not only be forbidden to appear, but its plant would be destroyed. The third created a new electoral system. It would no longer be a sufficient qualification for a vote to pay 300 francs in taxes; patents were no longer to be taken into account; all electors who were engaged in commerce or manufactures were deprived of their votes. The last two ordinances were manifestly unconstitutional: they violated the laws and usurped their functions. The king's pleasure was substituted for the votes of the chambers. This was a return to absolute monarchy. This attempt at violence was made in incredible ignorance of the actual situation. Up to the time of the elections the ministers had thought themselves certain of a majority, and, even after the results were known, seemed to have an inexplicable confidence in the measures they were preparing. They had only 19,000 men at their command to subdue Paris. Secrecy was most carefully observed. Nobody, except those who had drawn them up and signed them, knew the contents of the ordinances, when, on the evening of Sunday, 25th July, they were handed over to the chief editor of the Moniteur for publication the following morning. The editor glanced over them, and turning pale said to the minister: " I am fifty-seven years of age; I have passed through all the revolutions, but I now withdraw overwhelmed with fear." On the morning of the 26th of July, 1830, the ordinances published in the Moniteur burst on the nation like a thunderbolt. At first people seemed stupefied. The press had the honour of setting an example of action. It has already been said that one of the edicts suppressed all the opposition papers. That very day all their editors signed a protest of which the following words contain the gist: To-day the government has lost that constitutional character which alone commands obedience. And they added that they would use every possible means to publish their papers in defiance of the authority of the government. Among the young writers who perhaps risked their lives by affixing their signatures to this bold protest, were some who were destined to play an important part in public affairs. The protest was signed by Thiers, Mignet, Armand Carrel, Rémusat, and Pierre Leroux. This intrepid action of the press was the first reply to the coup d'état. Their actions were as bold as their words; and when on the following day the police attempted to carry out the provisions of the ordinance, the commissary of police found the proprietor of the paper, with the law in his hand, threatening the agent of the government with the punishment due to theft aggravated by housebreaking. A crowd collected and protested loudly. The locksmith who had been summoned to break up the plant refused to do so, and was heartily applauded. Another was sent for, who also refused. Not a workman could be found who was willing to raise his hand against the instrument of public liberty. It was found necessary at last to have recourse to the wretch whose duty it was to affix the fetters worn by convicts. Such was the lawful resistance which most politicians of that time, whether journalists or deputies, considered the only possible course.» (HH, XIII, p.44-45)

« The duke of Orleans made lieutenant-general of the kingdom. Those who had taken no part in the fighting wished to take advantage of the victory. Most of them had already begun to think of the duke of Orleans. As often happens in reigning families the Orleans branch, the younger branch, was always in a state of rivalry with the elder branch of Bourbons. Since 1789 the duke of Orleans had supported the revolutionary party; whilst his cousins were amongst the émigrés, he, a member of the convention, having given up using his title and assumed the name of Philippe Égalité, voted in favour of the death of Louis XVI. His son, duke of Orleans in 1792, had fought under the tricolour with Dumouriez at Jemmapes. Though he had emigrated afterwards, yet on the restoration he had again declared himself a liberal. The family has always maintained this variable attitude, sometimes supporting, sometimes deserting the revolutionary party. After 1815 the duke of Orleans was sometimes a prince of the blood, sometimes the hope of the revolutionists. He alternately claimed the largest share of the indemnity paid to the émigrés, or openly took the part of Béranger and General Foy; he at one time obtained from Charles X the title of Royal Highness, and at another would pose as a citizen-prince. The example of England was in everybody's mind. It was by dethroning the lawful king and putting in his place a prince of a lateral branch that the English had gained their liberties in 1688. For a long time many people had been hoping that a similar change might bring about a similar result in France. On the 30th Thiers and Mignet hurried to Neuilly where the prince lived, but he was not there. In the morning the deputies met at the house of Laffitte, and decided to hold a session at noon at the Bourbon palace. There it was decided to offer the " lieutenancy of the kingdom " to the duke of Orleans. He hesitated, tried to gain time, and was finally, it is said, persuaded by the advice of Talleyrand. On the 31st he accepted.» (HH, XIII, p.49)

« Hillebrand's parallel between the revolution of 1688 and 1830. The French 1688 was accomplished: the kingdom of God's grace [the open of daylight] had made way for a kingdom of conventions [TAG]. Whilst the " Glorious Revolution " had sealed the representative system in England, the " Great Week '' forever put an end to it in France. Instead of the balance of power between the crown, the house of peers, and the house of commons, the real or seemingly unlimited authority of the latter stepped in. The victory of the 221, that is to say the majority of the house, was like that of Pyrrhus, as is every victory which is only due to the assistance of uncertain confederates. Their leaders would infallibly have come into power, even if the throne had not been overturned, and they would have taken over the government under circumstances far more favourable to themselves and the land, if the irresponsibility of the throne had been regarded, and the dangerous support of the street riots disdained. Be that as it may, Charles X was the last monarch of France who attempted to oppose his will to the majority of the House. From henceforth not only did the minister require a similar majority so as to retain his office, but also the leaders of the state - king, emperor, or president - were dependent on Parliament, the fiction of an irresponsible leader of the state was forever ended, and the upper house was practically a thing of the past. According to this it was only natural and right that from henceforth all leaders of the state should, if only artificially, seek to assure the majority in the Commons and to accustom themselves to consider every opponent of their minister as their own opponent, views which the nation shared and still shares. At times the capital which helped the parliamentary majority to win in 1830 may have fought and conquered this majority, as in the years 1848 and 1870, but only to withdraw her taxes after a short interregnum. In England, the House of Commons only became all-powerful a century after the Revolution, and the irresponsibility of the crown is still undisputed to-day. The convention of 1688 was the voluntary agreement of two equally powerful contractors; the convention of 1830 was a one-sided and conditional offer to which the one party submitted and which the other simply signed.» (HH, XIII, p.50)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 601.Usurpation by the Orleans

IX-35 (§601):

The blond line shall be secluded, and Ferdinand
Shall leave the flower to follow the Macedonian.
In case of great need he shall lose his way,
And march against the Myrmidon.
(№ 10)

(Et Ferdinand blonde sera descorte,
Quitter la fleur suyvre le Macedon.
Au grand besoing defaillira sa routte,
Et marchera contre le Myrmidon.)

Keys to the reading:
Ferdinand blonde: Le nom d'un masculin n'acceptant pas de qualificatif féminin, les deux mots sont à part (The two words are irrelevant, the name of a masculine (Ferdinand) disagreeing with a feminine qualifier (blonde)), d’ailleurs dans l’exemple: « Le blonde » (§574, II-67) « Blonde est une forme masculine attestée (TL).» (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.290).

descorte: The feminine of « descort, adj., en désaccord (in discord); détaché (detached).» (Godefroy);

blonde sera descorte: This constructs one phrase in accordance in French, blonde and descorte being feminine.

Myrmidon: In Greek mythology, one of those who were transformed from ants (Gk. myrm
ēks) into humans by Zeus granting the prayer of Aeacus, a pious king of the island of Aegina whose population had been devastated by a fierce epidemic (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.17).

« The blond hair (the duke of Bordeaux) shall be deserted by Ferdinand of Orleans, the eldest son and presumptive successor as Ferdinand Ier of Louis-Philip entrusting him with a regiment. He shall leave with his force the fleur-de-lis to follow Philip of France, marvelously resembling that Philip of Macedonia, who, tutor of his nephew, deprived him of his throne. Philip shall abandon the way he should follow when the blond hair is wanting most the aid of the Orleans. He shall make march the revolt toward Rambouillet against the little king God-Gift and child of miracle.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.14) « The spouse of the duke of Berry, victim of Louvet in front of the Opera in February 1820, already mother of three children, whose the two born dead and the rest female, was going to give a baby ready inside her next September. It is not without reason that the contemporaries have named the duke of Bordeaux God-Gift, child of miracle, and that the Prophet has named him Myrmidon.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.17)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 602.The legitimate Bourbons expelled

19th century:

§602. The legitimate Bourbons expelled (1830): IV-85.


The white carbon of the black shall be chased,
A person held prisoner shall be carried on a tumbril.
The Moor and camels upon their legs interlaced, 
When the next-born shall stitch the eyelids of his falcon together.

(Le charbon blanc du noir sera chassé,
Prisonnier faict mené au tombereau:
More Chameau sur piedz entrelassez,
Lors le puisnay sillera l'aubereau.)

Keys to the reading:

The white carbon of the black: the legitimate king (= the duke of Angoulême) of the king (= Charles X), Black (Noir) and Carbon (= Black) meaning King (Noir = an anagram of Roi leaving N) and White (= the white flag of the French royal family) the legitimacy (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.257);


A person held prisoner on a tumbril: the prince of Polignac, the firmly anti-republican prime minister (1829-1830) of Charles X, the phrase on a tumbril indicating a state criminal involved (cf. id., p.258);


The Moor and camels on their legs interlaced: The Africans indicated and defeated, Algeria conquered by Charles X in 1830 (id.);


The next-born: the duke of Bordeaux, presumptive successor in principle to the duke of Angoulême, his uncle, successor to Charles X (id.);


Siller = to stitch the eyelids of one's falcon together with a needle. A technique of keeping it in repose in order to carry it (Littré);


Aubereau = hobereau, a small falcon (Ibuki).



In August 1830, the duke of Angoulême was compelled, with his father Charles X, his nephew the duke of Bordeaux, now on the throne as Henry V after the double abdication of his grandfather and uncle, the mother of the ten-year-old king, duchess of Berry, and his wife Mary-Theresa, daughter of Louis XVI, to go into exile in England out of the rebel France.


France has been, as it were, evoked into the July Revolution by « the president of the new cabinet, Jules de Polignac, a sort of incarnation of the old régime. He had been one of the most enthusiastic amongst the émigrés and later had become a leading member of the Congregation.» (HH, XIII, p.41) « After the triumph of the revolution, he tried to escape in disguise; but recognized at Granville, he ran the risk of his life. Transferred to Paris, and drawn before the Court of the peers, he was condemned to perpetual imprisonment. After several years' detention in the castle of Ham, he was amnestied (1836), passed in England, then obtained his return to France, where he died in 1847.» (Feller, cité Torné-Chavigny, id., p.258)


« On the 2nd of March, 1830, Charles X declared in the presence of the assembled deputies and peers his intention to preserve intact the prerogatives of the crown and French institutions. The address of the deputies in response to the speech from the throne showed the king that the composition of his new cabinet was dangerous and menacing to public liberty. Two hundred and twenty-one members as against 186 voted for this memorable address. The king was indignant. However, the council had tried to acquire some popularity by means of a military success, and an insult offered to the French consul by the dey of Algiers furnished the ministers a favourable opportunity to clear the sea of barbarous pirates. The Algerian dey, Hussein, had come into power in 1818. No bey had been so well obeyed... Ibrahim, Hussein's son-in-law, took with him the Turkish militia, some Kolougis and Moors of Algiers, the contingent of the beys, and some thousand Kabyles... The dey and the inhabitants of Algiers had no doubt of success; there was consternation at the arrival of the fugitives. The Algerians hastened to defend Fort Emperor, which protected the town on the southwest... On July fourth, at four o'clock in the morning, the entrenchement was opened against Fort Emperor; the French batteries then uncovered and destroyed it with their fire. The garrison made a brave defence, but the contest of the two artilleries was too unequal; at the end of a few hours the Turks had their embrasures demolished, their guns dismounted, their gunners disabled. Fort Emperor once taken, Algiers could no longer hold out; Hussein signed a capitulation.» (HH, XIII, p.42-44)


This time, the duke of Bordeuax is withdrawing his right of pretending to the throne (Sillera l'aubereau), until he shall be in good fortune.


Discussion:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              V. Ionescu (1976, p.718-719) attributes this quatrain to the theme of “ the United States of America developing along with the expansion of railroads.” But his unreasonable theme of this kind engenders a number of discrepancies between the verbal expressions and the conceptions intended through them as follows: (1) “ the white carbon ”, [= white coal] usually meaning “ water as a motive power ”, does not match the almost immaterial image of his pretended “ steam ”; (2) “ a prisoner held on a tumbril ” does not fit in with “ the highly pressed steam in circulation for the locomotive”; (3) the slow locomotion of “ camels upon their legs interlaced ” also disagrees with the rapid and rhythmical movement of “ connecting rods (bielles d’accouplement) ”, and if camels’ legs are “ connecting rods ”, there are no wheels in correspondence; (4) if the camels are simply such figures, there is no need for the Prophet to add into this quatrain the historical proper name “ the Moor ”, which must be here essentially for the geographically real indication: namely to refer to the Moor in reality and in history; (5) and “ the together-stitched eyelids of a falcon ” meaning its immobile and inactive passivity off work do betray their expected mission of figuring the United States of America developing with infinite promise; (6) and finally the expression “ the next-born ” is not applied to a state as an institutional being, but only to some particular personality in the Prophecies of Nostradamus: e.g., the duke of Bordeaux (IV-85, VI-95, IX-8), Richard Nixon (IV-95), Henri IV (VII-12), Francis Joseph I (VIII-3), François de Guise (VIII-45), Louis XVII (IX-23), François de Guise et Charles de Guise (IX-40), Henri de Guise (X-35). Here, it’s certainly the duke of Bordeaux. [Update: June 22,2014]

© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 603.Duke of Bordeaux, his destiny off the throne

19th century:
§603. Duke of Bordeaux, his destiny off the throne (1830-1873): III-91.

The tree that had dried to be dead for a long time,
In one night shall come to green again:
A king with a chronic illness, a prince with his leg splinted,
Afraid of enemies shall make the sail bound.

(L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché,
Dans une nuit viendra à reverdir:
Cron. roy malade, prince pied estaché
Craint d'ennemies fera voile bondir.)

Keys to the reading:
L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché: = L'arbre qui avoit seché mort par long temps, le pronom relatif « qui » se remplaçant parfois par « que » chez Nostradamus selon les usages exceptionnels du 16e siècle: « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70); cf. celuy qu'à nul ne donne lieu (§28, IX-29); ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4); Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96); Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98), et aussi II-10, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VI-19, VIII-28 et VIII-88;

Cron.: = chronique (chronic) (cf. Brind'Amour, № 8, p.453);

estaché: Estache, attache, lien, pieu poteau, pièce de bois (Godefroy);

pied estaché: a leg splinted;

prince pied estaché: the duke of Bordeaux with his leg splinted (cf. Le Pelletier, I, p.262, note 4).

A prince with his leg splinted, Afraid of enemies shall make the sail bound to cross the Channel: «In August 1830, the duke of Angoulême was compelled, with his father Charles X, his nephew the duke of Bordeaux, now on the throne as Henry V after the double abdication of his grandfather and uncle, the mother of the ten-year-old king, duchess of Berry, and his wife Mary-Theresa, daughter of Louis XVI, to go into exile in England out of the rebel France. This time, the duke of Bordeuax is withdrawing his right of pretending to the throne, until he shall be in good fortune» (§602, IV-85). It was indeed after a very long time that he decided to do so, when the royalist movement of fusion of the Bourbons occurred in France after the instant collapse of the second empire in 1870 (= The tree that had dried to be dead for a long time, In one night shall come to green again). But, the fusion was not attained at last, and the duke of Bordeaux, then the count of Chambord, did not stripped off his destiny of remaining a king without kingdom (= a king with a chronic illness).

As to the count of Chambord, cf. §708,§709,§712,§713.
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 604.Mastiff, deer, wolf and bear in July Revolution

19th century:
§604. The mastiff, the deer, the wolf and the bear in July Revolution (1830): V-4.
The big mastiff expelled of the city,
Shall be angry with the strange alliance.
After having chased the deer into fields,
The wolf and the bear shall defy one another.

(Le gros mastin de cité deschassé,
Sera fasché de l'estrange alliance.
Apres aux champs avoir le cerf chassé,
Le loup & l'Ours se donront deffiance.)

Keys to the reading:
The big mastiff expelled of the city: = A great of Auserre chased (§596, IV-84) = the king [chased] (§602, IV-85) = Charles X after his abdication;

the strange alliance: the anti-legitimate alliance of Louis-Philip with the Republicans in 1830;

the deer: = the Myrmidon (§601, IX-35) = the next-born (§602, IV-85) = the duke of Bordeaux (Henry V);

the wolf: Louis-Philip, the term loup in French having in itself lou of Louis and p of Philip, this use for Louis-Philip found twice (here and §632, IX-8) in the Centuries, and the other 4 uses of loup being for the constable of France Anne de Montmorency (§20, II-82; §22, III-33) and for the colonialist powers (X-98; X-99);

the bear: Republicans named mountaineers (montagnards), as the bears in highlands (Le Pelletier, I, p.258-259).

N.B. Le Pelletier's identification of «the big mastiff» with the duke of Bordeaux and «the deer» with Charles X (Le Pelletier, id.) is contrary to the imagination of Nostradamus, who has set forth the latter as «a great of Auserre» and the former as «Myrmidon», the dethroned king Charles X, of strong build and angry with the polotical maneuver of Louis-Philip, wishing to be the protector (mastiff) of his grandson, the young, innocent and promised king of legitimacy (deer).

«Charles X had finally abdicated in favour of a child, the duke de Bordeaux. The old king was convinced that the duke of Orleans had only accepted the "lieutenancy of the kingdom" for the purpose of re-establishing legitimate authority in the person of Henry V. The duke found himself in a difficult position between the revolutionists who had offered him a throne, and Charles X, to whom he owed so much ! Very opportunely a little band of Parisians marched on Rambouillet. He had given the Parisians to understand that Charles X mignt prove dangerous, and he warned Charles X that sixty thousand Parisians were marching against him, and that he had better provide for his safety. Thus he got rid of the old king » (§591, IV-45) [The big mastiff expelled of the city, Shall be angry with the strange alliance].

«Thus, for some, the fall of Charles X was but an incident in the history of the restored monarchy, for others it was the end of a system, the renewed tradition of the French Revolution. The divergent interpretations directed the Fench people toward the two fundamentally opposed politics... These two sorts of peoples [those of «resistance» and those of «movement»] shall remain separated; between them begins a hostility which will last eighteen years » (Charléty, 1921b, p.7-11). All of the ministries Louis-Philip demanded, except that of Laffitte (1830.11.2-1831.3.12), were of the «resistance» (cf. Shibata, 1996, p.466). [After having chased the deer into fields, The wolf and the bear shall defy one another].
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 605.A grand rowan berry, duchess of Berry

19th century:
§605. A grand rowan berry, duchess of Berry, exile in England (1830): X-69.

The brilliant fact of the new elevated veteran,
Shall be so great southwards and northwards,
A grand berry of the elevated rowan of his own sister,
Shall be bruised, in fleeing in the thicket of vineyard.

(Le fait luysant de neuf vieux esleve
Seront si grand par midi aquilon,
De sa seur propre grande aliesleve,
Fuyant murdry au buysson d'ambellon.)

Keys to the reading:
The new elevated veteran: Louis-Philip, born in 1773, king of the French in 1830, aged 56; aquilon: See §623,VIII-81: le pole aquilonaire; A grand berry of the elevated rowan of his own sister: aliesleve seems to be the union of alie (= alise, fruit of rowan (Godefroy)) and eslevé (elevated), which may indicate in its English nuance the duchess of Berry Caroline, mother of the duke of Bordeaux, exiled French king of legitimacy, as well elevated as Louis-Philip, whose queen Maria Amalia is a sisiter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies, father of Caroline. Thus, the mother of Caroline, wife of Francis I, is a sisiter of Louis-Philip's wife, then Louis-Philip's own sisiter. So, Caroline is [a daughter or a child = a fruit] of his own sister;

ambellon: Gk. ampelōn, vineyard.

in the thicket of vineyard: where one refreshes and recreates oneself.

«In passing through Carentan, Charles X was informed that the Duc d'Orléans had consummated his usurpation and assumed the title of King of the French. He refused to credit it and spoke of it simply as a rumour; but the news was, of course, only too true [The brilliant fact of the new elevated veteran shall be so great]. Between Carentan and Valognes, the country was strongly Royalist in its sympathies, and the peasants, who had gathered in numbers along the road, greeted the Royal Family with cries of "Vive le Roi! Vivent les Bourbons!" and pressed around the carriage of little Duc de Bordeaux to kiss his hand. The Duchesse de Berry was greatly moved, and complained bitterly that Charles X should have abandoned the struggle when he possessed such faithful subjects. "Let us stay here," she cried; "let us cling fast to a tree, to a post, but, for God's sake, let us go no further ! " However, it was now too late for repentance, and that evening they reached Valognes, the last stage from Cherbourg, in the midst of pouring rain, which did not tend to raise their spirits.» (Williams, 1911, p.281).

«It was not until reaching Valognes that the question of Charles X's destination, after leaving France, was definitely settled. He had successively proposed to land at Ostend, Amsterdam, and Hamburg; but the French Government, which was determined to drive the dethroned Sovereign not only from France, but from the Continent, prohibited all three [The brilliant fact of the new elevated veteran shall be so great northwards]. He, therefore, decided to disembark at Portsmouth, and wrote to William IV to ask for a temporary asylum in his dominions.» (Williams, id.).

«Both Charles X and the Dauphin had laid aside their uniforms and Orders for civilian dress, a change which announced that the moment of their departure was close at hand. At one o'clock, the cortège, escorted by the Gardes du corps, who still wore their white cockades, entered Cherbourg, where almost every house displayed the tricolour, in honour of the accession of Louis-Philip [The brilliant fact of the new elevated veteran shall be so great southwards]» (Williams, id., p.282-283).

«The moment had now come for Charles X to take leave of the faithful adherents - some sixty in all - who had followed him to Cherbourg, but who were not to accompany him into exile. It was a pathetic scene, as one by one they came forward to kiss the hand of the Sovereign who, with all his faults, had been one of the best and kindest masters. The old King bore the ordeal bravely, as did the Dauphin and Dauphine, but the Duchesse de Berry gave free vent to her grief and sobbed bitterly [A grand berry shall be bruised in fleeing]» (Williams, id., p.284).

«In London, the duchess occupied a house adjoining the Neapolitan Legation, and the Ambassador, the Count di Rudolfi, gave a grand dinner-party in her honour, at which the Duke of Wellington and other distinguished persons were present. This dinner-party gave great umbrage to Talleyrand, who had been appointed the representative of the July Monarchy in London, and who wrote to his Government that the Neapolitan Ambssador did not seem sufficiently to recollect that, if the Duchesse de Berry were the daughter of his Sovereign, the Queen of the French was his sister [A grand berry of the elevated rowan of his own sister]» (Williams, id., p.289-290).

«The Duchesse de Berry, almost from the day of her arrival in England, had placed herself in communication with the most enterprising spirits of the Legitimist party, with a view to the promotion of a counter-revolution which should hurl the treacherous usurper from his throne and set the Crown upon her son's head. And in this counter-revolution she herself intended to play an active part. The stories of Jeanne d'Arc, Mary Stuart, Henri IV, Maria Theresa, the Young Pretender, and other picturesque figures in history had always possessed for her a singular fascination, while she had greedily devoured the novels of Sir Walter Scott [in fleeing in the thicket of vineyard]» (Williams, id., p.291).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 606.The lady in ember, duchess of Berry

19th century:
§606. The lady in ember, duchess of Berry revolted in Vendée (June 1832 - August 1833): V-65.

A sudden visitor being, the fright shall be great,
The principals of the affair hidden:
And the lady in ember shall be no more seen in public,
The authorities shall be no more offended with her by little and little.

(Subit venu l'effrayeur sera grande,
Des principaulx de laffaire cachés:
Et dame en braise plus ne sera en veue,
De peu à peu seront les grands faschés.)

Keys to the reading:
The affair: Legitimist insurrection in Vendée in June 1832, initiated by the duchess of Berry;

The principals of the affair hidden: Four persons hidden in the hiding-place of a refuge in Nantes; i.e., Madame, the Comte de Mesnard (a member of a Vendéen family devoted to the cause of the Bourbons. Mesnard was a tall, distinguished-looking man, whose charming manners and witty and interesting conversation made him a great favourite in Society, notwithstanding that he was somewhat haughty and self-opinionated. Both the Duc and Duchesse de Berry held him in the highest esteem, and were accustomed to consult him in all matters of importance. After the tragic death of the duke, it will be Mesnard to whom the young princess will turn for counsel (Williams, 1911, p.107-108)), Achille Guibourg (a young advocate of Nantes, whom Madame had appointed her civil commissioner in Brittany (Williams, id.,p.316)) and Mlle. Stylite de Kersabiec (a young Breton lady serving Madame as femme de chambre (Williams, id.,p.325; 334));

«Their house, which was to become so celebrated, was situated in the Rue Haute-du-Château (No.3), in the highest part of the town. It was a modest three-storied dwelling, the rooms on the third floor being merely attics. Two of these attics were prepared for Madame, and the reason for their selection was as follows : - Behind the open fire-place of the inner room, which was placed in an angle of the apartment, was a mysterious hiding- place, access to which was obtained by pressing a spring in the iron plate which formed the back of the chimney-place. This hiding-place, which had been constructed during the Terror, and had doubtless on several occasions given shelter to proscribed Royalists in the days when the infamous Carrier was deluging Nantes with blood, was very small ; "about 18 inches wide at one of the extremities, and 8 to 10 inches at the other, and from 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches long." The height diminished also towards the narrower extremity, in such a way as scarcely to permit a man to stand upright, even by passing his head between the rafters." However, at a pinch, it could give shelter to four persons» (Williams, id.,p.333-334).

« Charles X., who believed that where an old man of his experience had failed, a young woman with no knowledge of politics or the difficulties of government could not possibly succeed, was very far from approving of the bellicose projects of his daughter-in-law, and endeavoured to persuade her to renounce them, pointing out that her chance of success was extremely remote, and that she would be incurring the gravest risks to very little purpose. But to Madame the prospect of danger in France was infinitely preferable to that of ennui at Holyrood, and the more he sought to discourage her, the more resolute did she become. Finally, the old King ended by giving a kind of half- consent. He could, indeed, do nothing else, for, since he and the Dauphin had renounced their rights in favour of the Duc de Bordeaux, it was to the mother of the little prince that the majority of Royalists looked for direction. Even in his little court at Holyrood, the party which favoured energetic action - that is to say the party of Madame - was much more numerous than his own, and, if his pessimistic views were shared by the Dauphin and Dauphine and his now favourite counsellor, the Duc de Blacas, the princess numbered among her supporters the Marshal de Bourmont - the conqueror of Algiers - three other ex-Ministers in the Baron d'Haussez, the Comte de Montbel, and the Baron Capelle ; the Duc Armand de Polignac, Damas, Mesnard, and Brissac. And so he made a virtue of necessity, and on January 27, 1831 conferred conditionally on the princess the title of Regent, in the event of her re-entering France.On June 18, accompanied by the Duc de Blacas, the Comtes de Mesnard and de Rosambo, and five servants, she sailed for Rotterdam, en route for Italy, where she had decided to organise the expedition from which she anticipated such great results» (Williams, id., p.292-294).

« The princess had agents at nearly every Court in Europe ; at St. Petersburg, at Vienna, at Madrid, at Lisbon, at Turin, and, in particular, at The Hague, where the Count Lucchesi- Palli, now Neapolitan Minister, was exceptionally well placed to aid her. With these agents, and with the Royalist leaders in different parts of France, she maintained a ceaseless correspondence, and during her residence at Nantes she is said to have despatched over nine hundred letters, nearly all written with her own hand. She wrote in white ink and in cipher, which necessitated so great a strain to her eyes that sometimes they " seemed ready to burst from their sockets."

Meanwhile, the French Government was making every effort to discover the whereabouts of the elusive princess, but all to no purpose. The police had, it is true, intercepted and deciphered several despatches between Madame and her partisans, from which they learned that at some time or other she had been at Nantes, but without ascertaining what house had served her as a refuge, or whether she was still in hiding there. At the beginning of October, a new Ministry came into office, with Thiers as Minister of the Interior. The cause of Legitimacy had no more determined enemy than this awkward, near-sighted little man, who, by sheer intellect and energy, was to rise to the highest position in the State. It was he who had organised the protest of the journalists against the Ordinances which had excited the populace to rise in arms; it was he who had been the first to offer the Crown to Louis- Philippe, and it was he who had overcome the last scruples of that prince and persuaded him to accept it. Thiers decided that it was matter of urgent importance that the Duchesse de Berry should be laid by the heels without delay. So long as she remained at large, the Government could not feel secure against another Legitimist rising, and, besides, her arrest and imprisonment were necessary to placate the Republican party, who had accused the late Ministers of knowing where Madame was and of being unwilling to have her arrested.

Notwithstanding the name of his portfolio, Thiers was less Minister of the Interior than Minister of Police, for the administrative duties had been transferred from his department to that of Commerce and Public Works. He was therefore able to devote himself exclusively to the supervision of the police ; and he determined to make this question his personal affair, to take none of his colleagues into his confidence, and to employ every possible means to discover the retreat of the princess.

A few days after Thiers had assumed his new duties, he received an unsigned letter, the writer of which offered to impart to him some important information in regard to an affair of State, if the Minister would come, alone, that night to a certain spot in the Champs-Élysées. Thiers kept the appointment, but since personal courage was not his strong point - he had kept carefully out of the way all through the fighting on the three days of July - and he feared an ambush, he came accompanied by several agents. No one addressed him, and, after waiting some time, he returned home.

Next morning, however, he received a second letter from the same person. It was as follows : " I told you to come alone ; you came accompanied ; and I did not address you. If you wish to know what I have to tell you, return this evening, and come alone." At the hour mentioned, the Minister returned to the rendez-vous, this time alone. He had not, however, neglected to take every precaution for the protection of his precious person. In each pocket of his coat he carried a pistol, and several policemen in plain clothes had preceded him, and concealed themselves in the vicinity, ready to rush to his assistance at the first alarm.

Presently, a man emerged from the shadow of the trees and approached the Minister, who inquired if he were the writer of the anonymous letters. The stranger replied in the affirmative, and said that he was prepared to render a great service to the Government, by giving Monsieur le Ministre the means to seize the person of the Duchesse de Berry. He added that it was necessary for him to proceed with the utmost caution, since, as he had been initiated into all the secrets of the Legitimist party, the leaders of that party in Paris kept him under close surveillance, and, if it were even suspected that he was in communication with a member of the Government, all would be useless. Thiers thereupon suggested that they should continue their conversation at the Ministry of the Interior, to which the other consented, on the understanding that he should be admitted by a private door.

Thiers then returned to the Rue de Rivoli, where the stranger presently rejoined him. He was a man of thirty years of age, and of somewhat unprepossessing appearance, a German Jew, converted to Catholicism, Hyacinthe Simon Deutz by name. Born, in 1802, at Cologne, of very respectable parents, Deutz had come when a boy to Paris, where his father had just been appointed rabbi. He himself, a few years later, entered Didot's printing-house, and appears to have been employed there for some time. In his youth, he was a very strict Jew indeed, and when his brother-in-law, a M. Drach, abandoned the faith of his fathers for Catholicism, he was so enraged as to threaten him with personal violence. Not long after this, however, his attitude completely changed, and he announced his intention of entering the Catholic fold also. Mgr. de Quelen, Archbishop of Paris, to whom he addressed himself, thinking that his conversion might be more promptly and more efficaciously accomplished at Rome, advised him to proceed thither ; and early in 1828 Deutz set out for Italy, furnished with the warmest recommendations from the archbishop to the Cardinal Capellari, then Prefect of the Propaganda, and afterwards Pope, under the name of Gregory XVI.

On his arrival in Rome, a pension of twenty-five piastres a month was allotted him from the funds of the Propaganda, and Leo XII. charged a distinguished ecclesiastic to instruct him in the Catholic faith. All who came in contact with the neophyte appear to have been much edified by his piety, and when he was received into the Church, he had the Baron Mortier, a Secretary of the French Embassy, for godfather, and an Italian princess for godmother. Shortly afterwards, he was presented to the Holy Father, who received him with great kindness and arranged for him to enter the Convent of the Holy Apostles. Here he remained for two years, and was then despatched on a mission to the Jews of the United States, though we are not told whether he was successful in persuading any of them to follow his example. In the autumn of 1831, he returned to Europe, landed in England, and succeeded in insinuating himself into the confidence of the French Legitimists whom he found there. For there can be no manner of doubt that M. Hyacinthe Simon Deutz was an amazingly plausible person ; and the exiles seem to have entertained as little suspicion of the sincerity of his political professions as did the ecclesiastics at Rome in regard to his religious convictions.

After a short stay in England, he set out for Italy, in charge of the two daughters of the Marechal de Bourmont, whom he escorted as far as Genoa, where he left them with their mother, and proceeded to Rome. Pope Gregory XVI., as Cardinal Capellari had now become, received him very cordially, and when the Duchesse de Berry visited Rome at the beginning of December 1831, on her way from Naples to Massa, learning that his protégé desired to enter her service, he recommended him to her as a person in whom she might place implicit reliance. The princess intimated her willingness to employ him, and towards the end of the following March Deutz proceeded to Massa.

Madame, like every one else with whom this specious scoundrel seems to have come in contact, was easily persuaded of his sincerity ; and, having provided him with ample funds, for her kind heart had been touched by his tale of poverty, sent him to Portugal, on a mission to Dom Miguel.

There can be very little doubt that Deutz was already meditating treason to his employer, and that he had entered Madame 's service for no other purpose than to betray the plans of the Legitimists to the Government of Louis-Philippe. Indeed, he confesses as much in an apology for his conduct which he published in 1835, though he takes up a high moral ground and declares that he was actuated by the loftiest motives. " France was my love," he writes, " Louis-Philippe my Utopia. I resolved to sacrifice myself for the first, in strengthening as far as was in my power the throne of the second. I was under no illusion as to the consequences of my action, but I was prepared to die a martyr for the cause " ; and so forth.

Any way, as soon as Deutz learned of the failure of the la Vendée insurrection and the unsuccessful efforts of the Government to discover the hiding-place of the Duchesse de Berry, he wrote from Lisbon to Montalivet, then Minister of the Interior, offering his services. As he received no reply, at the beginning of October he came to Paris, and had an interview with the Minister, who declared that he had never received any letter from him. Whether this was the truth, and whether, if he had remained in office, Montalivet would have consented to sully his hands with this very dirty business, is difficult to say. But, a few days later, he was replaced by Thiers, and " it was with this honourable Minister," writes Deutz, "that I really treated of the affair of Nantes."

Deutz told Thiers that Madame was concealed somewhere in Nantes, though he did not know at present her actual hiding-place. He did not, however, anticipate the least difficulty in discovering that, as he was entrusted with letters to deliver to her. And at a subsequent interview between them, which took place at a house in the Rue Richepense, and at which the commissary of police Joly was present, he showed the Minister a number of letters written in white ink, which had been confided to him by Jauge, the banker of the Legitimists in Paris.

Thiers was satisfied that the Jew was really in a position to perform what he promised, and he decided to send him to Nantes, accompanied by Joly and twelve of his most experienced men, who were charged to keep a vigilant watch on all his movements, for he was not without suspicion that Deutz might be deceiving him. "You have letters," said he, "which are a sure means of reaching the duchess. You will carry them to her, and my agents will follow you. Here, for the rest, are my conditions : If you deliver up the princess, your fortune is made ; and you shall receive 500,000 francs. In the contrary event, you are in our hands, and you are an agent of the conspiracy ; and you will learn to your cost that people do not jest with impunity with the Government in so grave a matter."

Deutz and Joly arrived at Nantes on October 22, the latter bringing with him orders from Thiers which placed both the civil and military authorities of the department of the Loire- Inferieure at his disposal. With the exception of the prefect of the department, Maurice Duval, no one, however, was admitted to the secret. On being introduced into the room where Madame was, Deutz immediately began to speak of the intense desire which he had to serve her. He was interrupted by the arrival of a letter, which the princess opened and handed to Mesnard. It was from the banker Jauge, and written in white ink. Mesnard moistened it with some liquid which he had prepared, and returned it to the duchess, who read its contents aloud : " It is advisable to neglect no precaution, since we are warned that Madame will be betrayed by a person in whom she has every confidence." " You hear that, Deutz," said she, smiling ; " perhaps it refers to you." And Deutz replied in the same tone : " It is possible." Then the scoundrel, not content with the money which he was to receive as the price of his treason, made an attempt to enrich himself at the expense of his victim, and demanded a large sum to defray the cost of his mission to Spain. Madame, however, replied that she had very little cash with her, and that he must be content with twenty-five louis and a letter of credit on a banking-house.

Soon afterwards, Deutz left the house. On his way out, he passed the door of the dining-room and saw a table laid for eight persons. Evidently, whether Madame lodged in this house or not, she intended to dine there. And he hurried off to inform his accomplices.» (Williams, id.,p.336- 343)

A sudden visitor being, the fright shall be great, the principals of the affair hidden: « At half-past five, Madame de Charette and Mlle. Céleste de Kersabiec, a younger sister of Eulalie and Stylite, whom Madame had invited to dinner, arrived ; and, while waiting for the meal to be served, they all assembled in Pauline du Guigny's room on the second floor, which looked on to the street. It was a beautiful night, and the moon, shining in a cloudless sky, made it possible to distinguish objects at a considerable distance. Suddenly Guibourg, who was standing at the window, perceived a battalion of soldiers advancing towards the house. " Save yourself, Madame ! " he cried. " Save yourself ! " And the princess, followed by Mesnard, Guibourg, and Stylite de Kersabiec, all three proscribed like herself, rushed up to her bedroom on the floor above, where, by chance, they found the plate at the back of the fire-place, which gave admission to the hiding-place, already open.
The order of entering and leaving it, in case of emergency, had been long arranged. As it would have been impossible for two tall men to make their way in the last, Madame had decided that Mesnard and Guibourg should enter first, and that she and Stylite de Kersabiec should follow. This arrangement was adhered to ; Mesnard threw himself flat on the ground and crawled in ; Guibourg followed ; then came Stylite de Kersabiec, and Madame brought up the rear. Mlle. de Kersabiec had entreated the princess to precede her, to which she replied, with her usual sang-froid, that " in good strategy, when a retreat took place, it was the commanding officer who marched last." Scarcely had the plate closed behind her, when the room she had just quitted was filled with soldiers and police.

The other occupants of the house behaved with admirable presence of mind. Before the invaders entered, the Mlles. du Guigny, Madame de Charette, and Céleste de Kersabiec had gone into the dining-room and taken their seats at the table, which the servants hastily rearranged for four persons only ; the first course had been served, and they were all eating with apparent appetite. When questioned, they emphatically protested that there was no one in the house, and the servants confirmed what they said. Madame de Charette, who had passed herself off as a Mlle. de Kersabiec, was conducted, with her supposed sister, to the latter's house ; a guard was posted over the Mlles. du Guigny and their femme de chambre, Charlotte Moreau ; while the cook, Marie Bossy, who had nobly resisted an attempt to bribe her to betray her mistresses' secrets, was taken to the château. Then began a systematic search of the house and of the two adjoining ones, with which the police believed that there might be some secret means of communication. Wardrobes and cupboards were forced open, boards and walls sounded, and chimneys explored. Joly mounted to the room where Madame had received Deutz, and the fugitives heard him call out : " Here is the audience chamber ! " Then they knew that it was the Jew who had betrayed them.

As no trace of the princess or her companions could be found, architects were sent for and questioned as to the likelihood of the house containing some secret hiding-place. After examining each of the rooms in turn, they declared that, having regard to the conformation of the walls, it was impossible for the house to contain one large enough to shelter even a single person, and particularly so in the attics. Nevertheless, the masons whom the police had brought with them were ordered to demolish the walls, and soon the proscribed heard the sound of the picks coming nearer and nearer. Just, however, when discovery seemed to be only a question of a few minutes, orders were given to suspend further operations until the morning ; and every one quitted the room, with the exception of two gendarmes, who were left there on guard. It was then past midnight, and the search had been in progress for nearly seven hours » (Williams, id.,p.343-345).

And the lady in ember : «But let us allow one of the captives - Guibourg - to describe in his own words what followed: " The night was damp, and the cold penetrated through the roof. To remedy this inconvenience, which they experienced also, the two gendarmes on guard in the room began to light a great fire. At first, it benefited six persons, but soon the heat became more insupportable than the cold. The plate of the fireplace became red-hot on both sides, and more than one of the prisoners still bears the marks which were made by the least contact with that fatal door. However, the day was still far off, and one did not foresee the end of this frightful situation. The captives, obliged to change their positions, turned with incredible difficulty, and Madame found herself in front of the plate. Soon her clothes became so hot that the hand was no longer able to clasp them. . . . "Thus the night passed in the midst of tortures that a thousand devices scarcely served to mitigate. The workmen did not await the return of the light to recommence their labours. It seemed as though they intended to pull down the Hôtel Duguigny and the adjoining houses. The walls resounded beneath their blows, and one did not know whether, after resisting the flames, Madame would not be crushed beneath the stone. . . . " Meanwhile, the gendarmes on guard had ceased to keep up the fire ; gradually, the air became fresher, and the plate cooled. On the other hand, the investigations appeared to be concentrating around the hiding-place. Returning to this place for the twentieth time, they broke a panel and examined the displaced slate, which allowed a little air to pass to the captives. They sounded the wall which sheltered them again, and the hiding-place resounded with the blows of the hammers which were striking the wall about the plate. The plaster was becoming loose, the hiding-place was almost revealed, when the workmen abandoned this spot which they had so minutely explored. . . , The workmen left the house a second time, as did the authorities. The guards were withdrawn to the rez-de-chaussée, and the third floor was guarded only by the two gendarmes who had remained in the room where the hiding-place was. " But this hope was not of long duration. The gendarmes had relighted the fire ; the plate, which had not had time to cool, became burning hot a second time ; the cracked wall let in the smoke ; the air of the hiding-place was no longer breathable ; it was necessary to put one's mouth against the slates to exchange a breath of fire for a breath of outside air. Nor was this all. To the danger of being asphyxiated had just been joined the fear of being burned alive. The bottom of their garments threatened to catch fire ; already this accident had happened to Madame 's dress, and they trembled at the sight of a danger so imminent. Hope became impossible, and was replaced by the conviction that they could not remain an hour longer in this furnace without endangering Madame's life. She recognised it also. . . . She gave orders to open very quietly the door of the hiding-place ; but the iron, dilated by the heat, resisted the efforts of Mlle. Stylite de Kersabiec, and only yielded to repeated kicks from the men. " At this unexpected noise, the astonished gendarmes cried out : ' Who's there ? ' ' Prisoners who surrender themselves' replied the voices of the women. They assisted each other to emerge from the hiding-place, beginning with Mlle. Stylite de Kersabiec. ' I am the Duchesse de Berry ! ' cried the princess, courageously, rising to her feet. ' You are Frenchmen and soldiers ; I trust myself to your honour.' " 1 It was half-past nine o'clock in the morning. They had been shut up for sixteen hours !
The two gendarmes - both former soldiers of the Royal Guards - were so touched by the sight of the princess, whom they had often seen in happier days, standing before them covered with dust and cinders, that they made no effort to detain her, and allowed her to pass into the adjoining room ; and possibly she might have succeeded in escaping by the roofs, had not some commissaries of police, who were in one of the rooms on the second floor, attracted by the noise above, mounted the stairs to ascertain what was going on. They made Madame enter the room where she had received Deutz the previous evening, and, at her request, sent to fetch General Dermoncourt, the author of that picturesque but somewhat imaginative work, la Vendée et Madame. The general arrived and saluted her with profound respect. " General," said she, " I surrender to you, and entrust myself to your loyalty." " Madame," was the reply, "your Highness is under the protection of French honour." " I have nothing with which to reproach myself," resumed the princess ; " I have fulfilled the duties of a mother in endeavouring to reconquer the heritage of my son"» (Williams, id.,p.345-347).

The authorities shall be no more offended with her by little and little: « If the Duchesse de Berry desired to be brought to trial, Louis-Philippe and his Ministers had not the least intention of gratifying her wish, for they were well aware that they had nothing to gain and a great deal to lose by such a step. "Members of royal families," observes Guizot, "always remain, morally and politically, very difficult and very dangerous persons to prosecute, particularly when the throne which they used to surround has fallen in a tempest, and they have the appearance of pursuing their rights in endeavouring to recover it. There is between their lofty position as princes, and their distress as fallen and accused persons, a contrast which inspires more sympathy on their behalf than their enterprises excite envy or alarm. Acquitted, they become almost victors ; condemned, they are the victims of their cause and their courage." If Madame were condemned, she would undoubtedly arouse an immense amount of sympathy at present withheld from her ; and, moreover, her condemnation would be very unfavourably viewed by certain foreign Courts, especially by Spain and Austria. If she were acquitted, she would not only become a popular heroine, but her acquittal would be a virtual condemnation of the July Monarchy, and an invitation to the subjects of Louis-Philippe to rebel against him. The Government, therefore, dared not prosecute the princess.

Why then did it not order her to be conducted to the frontier and set at liberty, with all the honours due to her rank and all the respect due to her misfortunes ? Such an action would have been at once chivalrous and politic. She was a woman, a princess, the niece of the Queen, the widow of a murdered prince of the Royal Family of France, the mother of the boy who, in happier circumstances, would have one day ascended the throne, the daughter-in-law of Charles X. Was it not the bounden duty of Louis-Philippe and his Ministers to conduct themselves as chivalrous gentlemen towards her ?
Moreover, from a legal point of view, her continued detention, now that the Government had no intention of bringing her to trial, was absolutely indefensible. Thiers attempted to justify it to the Chamber on the ground that the public safety required it. Well, it was the " public safety " which, under the old regime, had been the excuse for the issue of the lettres de cachet ; and even the English journals, which had so loudly acclaimed the Revolution, did not fail to comment on the startling inconsistency of such an attitude with those liberal principles for which the " best of republics " professed so much regard.

Nor was the plea even a valid one. The insurrection which the Duchesse de Berry had promoted had ended in the most complete fiasco, and had served only to demonstrate the utter lack of organisation and cohesion among the partisans of the exiled dynasty. It was obvious that some years at least must elapse before the disheartened Legitimists would venture to take up arms again, and that, when that time arrived - if it ever did - it would not be the Duchesse de Berry, but her son, who would be found at their head. No ; it was not consideration for the public safety ; it was not the fear that this redoubtable enemy would, if set at liberty, immediately proceed to organise a fresh enterprise ; it was not even the wish to throw a sop to the Cerberus of Republicanism, refusing to admit the principle of immunity for princes and declaring that every one was equal in the eyes of the Law, whatever their titles or their rank, which had decided Louis-Philippe and his advisers to keep the Duchesse de Berry under lock and key. It was because they had reason to suspect that, in a few months, an event would take place which they believed would dishonour the princess, and, in dishonouring her, dishonour her son, and deal a staggering blow to the Legitimist cause ; and they were determined that this event should be surrounded with all the publicity which it was possible to give to it. It was because they hoped to buttress the July Monarchy with the mud which would be thrown at a defenceless woman ! » (Williams, id.,p.353-355)

And the lady in ember shall be no more seen in public: Madame at last having convinced the Government in doubt and the public of her legitimate marriage in the second nuptials with Lucchesi-Palli, and her honorable delivery of a daughter, being acquitted de facto, « sailed for Palermo on June 8, 1833, on board a French corvette, the Agathe. At mid-day on July 5, the Agathe cast anchor in the harbour of Palermo. A boat, manned by ten rowers, in which sat a chamberlain of the Viceroy of Sicily, the Governor of Palermo, a Sicilian admiral, and the Count Lucchesi-Palli, came alongside. And Marie Caroline, Duchesse de Berry, passed for ever from the fierce glare of publicity into the calm shadows of private life.» (Williams, id.,p.375-376)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 607.Halley's Comet, revolts in Lyons, in Greece and Persia invades Turkey

19th century:
§607. Halley's Comet, revolts in Lyons, in Greece and Persia invades Turkey (1821-1835): II-96.

An ardent torch shall be seen in the evening sky,
Near the end and the inception of the Rhone:
Famine, sword: the relief provided late,
Persia turns to invade Macedonia.

(Flambeau ardent au ciel soir sera veu
Pres de la fin & principe du Rosne:
Famine, glaive: tard le secours pourveu,
La Perse tourne envahir Macedoine.)

Keys to the reading:
An ardent torch: A comet, probably Halley's Comet in 1835 among its recurrences in 1607, 1682, 1758-59, 1835, 1910 and 1986, because of its simultaneity with the revolt in Lyons in 1834.

Near the end and the inception of the Rhone: in Lyons, Near the end and the inception (= beginning) indicating the medium. We find the city of Lyons in the medium along the stream of the Rhone (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.138).

Famine: faim, famine in French occur 37 times in all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 26 examples including the present case refer to the disaster of war, and 11 employed in the sense of dearth (cf. §589, V-90).

Near the end and the inception of the Rhone famine, glaive: Revolt of silk-weavers in Lyons, lasting four days, after attempts by French government to suppress trade union activities (April 9th, 1834 - Williams, 1966, p.174)

In 1835 Halley's Comet recurs. And in 1834 the silk-weavers of Lyons revolt in arms against their suppressing government, discontented with their salaries abased (cf. Charléty, 1921b, p.101-105).

Greece revolted for independence: « European Sentiment: There were many influences which popularised in Europe the cause of Greek independence. The name of Greece became a sort of religion of the imagination in the literary world; the exploits - enlarged in the telling - of Bozzaris, Canaris, Kolokotronis, Mauromichales, Tombasis, those worthy descendants of Miltiades, of Leonidas, and of Themistocles; the sonorous echoes of that land, full of memories, the almost fabulous reports of victories won by a population of shepherds from the armies of a powerful empire, the prodigies of cruelty on the one side and of bravery on the other, thrilled popular sentiment, which has no other policy than its emotions. The public responded to the suffering of Greece with a cry of indignation against the persecutors, and of enthusiasm for the martyrs. Even the cause of American independence in 1775 had aroused France to less enthusiasm than that now aroused on the Christian continent by the cause of the Hellenes. This sentiment was purely individual, and did not involve the governments, which were still neutral and undecided. It gave to the Greeks, however, encouragement, ammunitions, arms, and auxiliaries. Greek committees formed in all the capitals voted subsidies, armed ships, recruited officers and men, published journals, held lectures, wrote poems, multiplied even among the people legends in favour of the popular cause. Literature as a whole, that spontaneous and irresistible expression of unreflected and disinterested generosity in the heart of the people, was on the side of the sons of Homer, of Demosthenes, and of Plato by a sort of filial tradition for those fathers of human thought. Courageous adventurers of France, Germany, and England, such as General Fabvier, disembarked from merchant ships upon the coast of Morea, and assumed the nomadic life of the Mainotes or of the Palicari in order to teach war and tactics to shepherds. Byron, having a heart as heroic as his imagination, threw name, fortune, life itself into the cause of Greece. He equipped a ship, paid troops, gave subsidies to the treasury of the insurrection, shut himself up in the most dangerous city, took part in battle, and was ready to die for the glorious past and the doubtful future of a people which had been unacquainted even with his name. Fabvier had followed the peasants into the mountains, and had disciplined them and trained them for war. At that moment Sultan Mahmud called Mehemet Ali, the pasha of half-independent Egypt, to the aid of imperilled Islam, and in consequence Ibrahim Pasha disembarked in the Morea with an Egyptian army and attempted the conquest of the Morea for the sultan.» (HH, XXIV, p.231-232)

«The Attitude of Foreign Governments: But although the people heard the voices of the Greeks, their sovereigns still refused to hear them. The emperor of Russia, fearing to encourage in Greece the spirit of revolution which he had sworn to extinguish in France, in Italy, in Spain, and in Germany, abandoned his ambition to follow his principle. Metternich feared for Austria the eruption of revolutionary thought such as disturbed Germany. Prussia hesitated, as always, between England, Austria, and Russia. England regarded with disapproval the resurrection of a nation whose power would be disastrous to her, would enfeeble Turkey, would open the Dardanelles, perhaps to the future fleets of Russia, and would place in the Mediterranean a merchant marine to rival her own commercial advantages. France, finally, who does not calculate but feels, vacillated, sympathetic but undecided, between her pity for a Christian race and her old alliance with the sultans.» (HH, XXIV, p.232)

«The Battle of Navarino: In 1827, Russia, France, and England assumed the rôle of armed arbitrators between Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Greece at that moment, having successively devoured the Turkish armies sent by Mahmud to reduce her to obedience, had finally succumbed to the Egyptian armies called to the aid of Islam and commanded by Ibrahim Pasha. Ibrahim, master of the Morea by his troops, and master of the sea by the Egyptian and Turkish fleets united in the harbour of Navarino, was waiting inactive for the result of the negotiations between the powers and the sultan, ready to execute the conditions of the treaty which should ensue and to evacuate or to retain the Greek continent. A month's armistice, to give time for negotiations, had been concluded between the belligerent parties. This armistice would expire October 20th, 1827. No declaration of war had been addressed to the Porte; on the contrary, a tacit peace existed between the Christian powers and the generalissimo of the Ottoman forces. The three admirals, Von Heyden, Codrington and de Rigny, stationed their fleets off the coasts of Morea like pacificatory witnesses and not like enemies, and held daily communications with Ibrahim. They imposed on him only a cessation of hostilities against the Greeks in the interests of humanity - an appeal which Ibrahim understood and respected while waiting the result of the negotiations begun at Constantinople.

«After some time the three foreign fleets entered the harbour and anchored, as in times of peace, deck to deck, opposite the Ottoman vessels, whose chief officers were on shore in full security. The laws of peace, the laws of war, neutrality, loyalty, humanity, alike imposed on the commanders of these fleets a peaceful attitude conformable indeed to the intentions of their governments, but inoffensive towards a friendly fleet. Such was the course imposed by the written instructions given the three admirals. But, urged on by the popularity which was at that moment possessed by the Greek revolution, and impatient to distinguish themselves by brave deeds at any price, they allowed themselves to be governed by their own initiative.

«A chance or else a premeditated shot - it is not known from what ship, so great was the confusion of five fleets in one harbour - gave the pretext or the signal for the engagement. The English admiral commanded by right of age; sure of the support of his two colleagues, he was the first to fire upon the Ottoman fleet; Admiral de Rigny and Admiral von Heyden opened fire on the still mute vessels before them. A continuous fire from the volleys of the three squadrons demolished the Turkish ships one by one. At anchor, motionless, pressed one upon another, communicating from deck to deck the fire which was devouring them, the Egyptians and Turks responded to the fire of the Christians with the courage of fatalism. Their batteries being extinguished by the waves into which they sank, the men shot through the gun-holes, to the last cannon which remained above the level of the water; the vessels, bursting under the explosion of the magazines, covered the sky with their smoke and the harbour with their debris; the cordage cut by bullets or burned by flames let the smoking hulls of their ships drift upon the reefs. In two hours eight thousand of their mariners had filled up the decks with their dead bodies. A few hundred men, themselves wounded by the batteries of the forts, alone survived to testify on the European floats to the distress of the Ottoman fleet. The smoke as it cleared away discovered only the fiery remnants of ninety ships of war, of which the waves threw the debris, as if in expiation, at the foot of the cliffs of New Greece.» (HH, XXIV, p.232-233)

The relief provided late: «The policy of La Ferronnays, minister of the foreign affairs in the cabinet of Martignac, was, as that of Villèle, prudent so as to be timid, and pacific. His principal preoccupation was to limit the Russian ambition in Turkey: Navarino signified that Greece had to be free, but not that Turkey should be conquered... He had made, by the conference of London (June 15, 1828), confine to France the care of defending Greece against the Turks. An army of 14,000 men, under the commandment of General Maison, occupied the Peloponnesus (October 1828), which the troops of the pacha of Egypt evacuated without difficulty.» (Charléty, 1921, p.359)

Persia vs. Russia: «Persia in the 19th century: European interference in Persia began at the very outset of the nineteenth century, in connection with Georgia. The founder of the Kajar dynasty, Aga Muhammed (1795), had succeeded in reconquering that country, but in 1800 its czar voluntarily surrendered his authority to Russia, and when his brother refused to recognise the act, Persia, under its ruler, Feth Ali Shah, took up arms, but, in spite of some successes on the part of the crown prince Abbas Mirza and the formal occupation of Erivan by the Persians, not much was accomplished. In the mean while England, the Indian government, and France sent embassies to Persia seeking to establish diplomatic relations, and France incited the shah to renew the war with Russia. The Persians were defeated and were forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan, which formally ceded to Russia Georgia, Derbent, Baku, Shirvan, Sheki, Ganja, the Talish, Moghan, and Karabagh (October 12th, 1813). Another war with Russia broke out in 1826 which terminated in the Treaty of Turkmantchai, in accordance with which Persia was obliged to cede Erivan and Nakhitchevan to Russia, to pay a war indemnity of about £3,000,000, and to give up her right to have armed vessels on the Caspian.» (HH, XXIV, p.494)

Persia turns to invade Macedonia (which was under the power of Turkey; so Persia invades Turkey): «War with Persia's other troublesome neighbour - Turkey - broke out in 1821, and peace was not definitely concluded until July 1823. Persia was also involved in fighting with Afghanistan, her neighbour on the other side. A Persian expedition into the country under Abbas Mirza captured several places and was on the whole successful. An attempt to take Herat, however, resulted in failure.» (HH, XXIV, p.494)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 608.French colonization of Algeria

19th century:
§608. French colonization of Algeria (1830-1847): V-69.

The great shall be no more in false sleep,
The inquietude shall take repose:
A country shall raise phalanges of gold, azure, & vermeil,
And subjugate Africa to gnaw it to the bone.

(Plus ne sera le grand en faulx sommeil,
L'inquietude viendra prendre repoz:
Dresser phalange d'or, azure, & vermeil,
Subjuguer Affrique la ronger jusques aux oz.)

Keys to the reading:
The great: The dey of Algiers.

The inquietude: The European navigators and coasts always risking the danger of being pirated.

A country: France, «of gold, azure, & vermeil» meaning «red, blue and silver», i.e. «tricolored». See below.

gold: Au colloid, used e.g. in stained glass, shows ruby.

vermeil: «Gold gives the red, azure is a mineral which gives the pure blue; what can signify the word vermeil ? - The vermeil has the same appearance as gold, but its base is silver, and silver is white. These phalanges cannot be of gold, azure and vermeil but in respect to the color. The Prophet signals three colors: gold gives the red, azure the blue; we are strictly constrained to see the silver or the white in vermeil: if this word is taken in the sense of gold or red, it will repeat the same in vain.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.57).

«The Moor of Algiers, entertaining the peace with all the peoples and delivering temselves to pirating all of them, shall stop being free, and the navigators shall be no more inquiet. France shall form the armies that, under the flag with three colors: red, blue, white, shall make Algeria a French territory.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.56).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 609.Louis-Philip and Thiers plan to translate Napoleon I

19th century:
§609. Louis-Philip and Thiers plan to translate Napoleon I (1840): V-7.

The bones of the triumvir shall be discovered,
They are seeking for an enigmatic profound treasure.
Those surrounding persons shall not be in repose,
Concerning the excavation of marble and metallic lead.

(Du triumvir seront trouvez les oz,
Cherchant profond tresor ænigmatique,
Ceulx d'alentour ne seront en repoz,
De concaver marbre & plomb metalique.) (№ 9)

Keys to the reading:
The triumvir: «France has had only once [1799-1804] the government executed by three magistrates, and the first of the three was Napoleon Bonaparte. This man can be designated particularly by the word triumvir.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.42).

«They shall go to collect, in St. Helena, the bones of the first of the three consuls, Louis-Philip seeking for the maintenance (a very difficult thing ) of his waning popularity. At the very time of the expedition, the nephew of the triumvir, who shall be thereafter a pacific emperor, and his partisans remaining in England, in the district surrounding France, shall disembark in Boulogne. Louis-Napoleon shall not be able to rest in peace in seeing the enthusiasm of the people that will» (Torné-Chavigny, id.)

excavate the tomb of marble and metallic lead:
«The soldiers of the marine laid the coffin on the border of the pit hollowed amidst a bunch of four or five willows. It was of nearly ten feet depth; the four walls of the parallelogram was of massonry from top to bottom; a bucket of hewn stone built at the bottom was going to support as its cover a large and long flagstone.» (Mameluck Ali, 2000(1926), p.282)

«Any mephitic exhalation did not come out of the soil which we removed, nor of the cellar that we opened. The cellar having been opened, I descended it: at the bottom was the coffin of the Emperor. It reposed upon a large flagstone, itself set on the stands of stone. The plates of mahogany that formed the coffin had yet their color and their hardness. Under it was a case of lead, closed everywhere, which enveloped another case of mahogany intact perfectly; and came the last a fourth case of tin... Proceedings of the surgeon-major of the Belle-Poule signed: Rémi Guillard, doctor of Medicine.» (Histoire populaire de l'Empereur Napoléon, p.224, cité Torné-Chavigny, id., p.44)

One of the stones that formed the tomb of Napoleon I is reported to be marble: «Name or description: Napoleon's Tomb Documented information: ● 1888: "1 Rough Block of Marble. No inscription on same. 'From the tomb of Napoleon.'" [Dimensions: 2' x 1'5" x 5"] [Receipt from G. Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the United States National Museum, Washington D.C., to Mr. G.W. Thomas, Custodian of the Washington Monument, October 22, 1888 (Dimensions are from a related piece of correspondence.); Entry 492, RG 42, NAB.] ● 1888: National Museum, Smithsonian Institution Accession Card and related correspondence arranging transport of stone from Washington Monument grounds to the museum and acknowledging their receipt. [Microfilm Reel 132 (1888), Acc. No. 21294; SIA] (Jacob, 2005, p.226)

As to this block of marble from the tomb of Napoleon for the Washington Monument in 1858-1859, cf. §648(I-43).

As to the translation of Napoleon I from St. Helena to his fatherland, cf. §610(VIII-5), §611(IV-20) and §612(IX-7).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 610.Return to France of the emperor in coffin

19th century:
§610. Return to France of the emperor in coffin (1840): VIII-5.

The temple shall appear shining and decorated,
Lamps and candles by the wayside or suspended with straps.
The lamp forbidden to be set along a certain part of the road,
When they shall see the great coq in coffin.

(Apparoistra temple luisant orné,
La lamp' & cierge à Borne & Bretueil.
Pour la lucerne le canton destorné,
Quand on verra le grand coq au Cercueil.)

Keys to the reading:
The temple: the church of the Invalides;

Borne: for the common noun, landmark, boundary-stone;

Bretueil: for the common noun bretelle, strap, suspender. The use of proper nouns for common ones is one of the figures by Nostradamus (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.55-56). Cf. §596, IV-84: Auxerre for augmentation;

lucerne: Lat. lamp;

canton: a section of the road under the direction of roadmender;

destorné: that which is forbidden, illegal or clandestine (Clébert, 2003, p.845);

coq: As explained in §40 (II-42) and §344 (I-31), of 16 examples of the word coq in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 8 cases including this are for Napoleon Bonaparte, 5 for other French sovereigns (Louis-Philip thrice, Henri II once, Louis-Napoleon once), and 3 for the other, whose only one (§712,VI-54) is in the proper sense. This statistic results from the fact that the coq has a crest resembling a crown and also gallus, coq in Latin, makes us recollect Gallicus (Gallic = French).

« Either as a means of exciting patriotic feeling or in accordance with the policy which wished to found the government of July on the renown of the first Napoleon, the king, in accordance with his ministers, resolved to demand from England the ashes of the emperor, who had died at St. Helena. Lord Palmerston granted the demand, and the prince de Joinville, on board the frigate Belle Poule, went to fetch these precious relics.

« The frigate made a good passage, and arrived in safety at St. Helena. The officers intrusted with the melancholy duty were received with the utmost respect by the English garrison, and every preparation was made to give due solemnity to the disinterment of the emperor's remains. The solitary tomb under the willow tree was opened, the winding-sheet rolled back with pious care, and the features of the immortal hero exposed to the view of the entranced spectators. So perfectly had the body been embalmed that the features were undecayed, the countenance serene, even a smile on the lips, and his dress the same, since immortalised in statuary, as when he stood on the fields of Austerlitz or Jena. Borne first on a magnificent hearse, and then down to the harbour on the shoulders of the British grenadiers, amidst the discharge of artillery from the vessels, batteries, and all parts of the island, the body was lowered into the French frigate, and England nobly and in a right spirit parted with the proudest trophy of her national glory.

« The Belle Poule had a favourable voyage home, and reached Havre in safety in the beginning of December. The interment was fixed for the 15th of the same month - not at St. Denis, amidst her ancient sovereigns, but in the church of the Invalides, beside the graves of Turenne, Vauban, Lannes, and the paladins of France; and every preparation was made for giving the utmost magnificence to the absorbing spectacle.

« Nothing could exceed the enthusiasm and excitement which prevailed in Paris when the day fixed for the august ceremony arrived. The weather was favourable; the sun shone forth in unclouded brilliancy, but a piercing wind from the north blew with such severity that several persons perished of cold as they were waiting for the funeral procession. Early on the morning of the 15th, the coffin, which had been brought by the Seine to Courbevoie the preceding evening, was placed on a gigantic funeral-car, and at ten it began its march, attended by an immense and splendid military escort, and amidst a crowd of six hundred thousand spectators. So dense was the throng that it was half-past one when the procession reached the place de la Concorde, from whence it passed by the bridge of the same name to the church of the Invalides, where it was received by the king, the royal family, with the archbishop and all the clergy of Paris. " Sire," said the prince de Joinville, who approached at the head of the coffin, " I present to you the body of the emperor Napoleon." "General Bertrand," said the king, "I command you to place the sword of the emperor on his coffin." When this was done, he said, " General Gourgaud, place the hat of the emperor on his coffin." This also was done; and, the king having withdrawn, the coffin was placed on a magnificent altar in the centre of the church, the funeral service was performed with the utmost solemnity, and the Dies Irœ chanted with inexpressible effect by a thousand voices. Finally, the coffin, amidst entrancing melody, was lowered into the grave, while every eye in the vast assemblage was wet with tears, and the bones of Napoleon " finally reposed on the banks of the Seine, amidst the people whom he had loved so well."» (HH, XIII, p.72-73)

P. Guinard (2011, p.24-26) arrived at the essentially same conclusion as mine, each independently of the other. And R. Prévost (1999, p.236) sees in this quatrain the three pompous funeral processions of François I and his two deceased sons in 1547, but the quatrain does not seem to mention the three coffins, but only the most magnificient one of the late king. And his reading of “le canton destorné (the district detoured)” as “détours dans chaque région (detours in each region)” cannot be justified, because the phrase: “détourner une région (to detour a region)” can only mean “to avoid the region”, entirely contrary to what he will mean. In another case, “le canton destorné ” has a meaning of “the out-of-the-way region”, which does not necessarily mean “the out-of-the-way region is visited”. For the phrase “le canton destorné (the district detoured)” to get the meaning he wishes, it is necessary for him to be able to move and displace the region as he likes, just as the course of a river.
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 611.Napoleon I buried in the chapel of Saint-Louis-des-Invalides

19th century:
§611. Napoleon I buried in the chapel of Saint-Louis-des-Invalides (1840.12.15): IV-20.

In peace and abundance they will laud the place.
During all his reign the flower of lily deserted:
They shall bring the corpse in water there on land,
Where he had been hoping in vain till then for a fortune of being buried.

(Paix uberté long temps lieu louera
Par tout son regne desert la fleur de lis:
Corps morts d'eau, terre la lon aportera,
Sperants vain heur d'estre la ensevelis.)

Keys to the reading:
his reign: that of Napoleon Bonaparte, because « he abandoned the flower of lily for the sake of bees as symbol of his reign.» (Dufresne, 1994, p.95)

the corpse in water: that of Napoleon Bonaparte, because « he deceased in fact on the ocean, in his island of exile de St. Helena.» (Dufresne, id.)

This quatrain was completely lighted by M. Dufresne (1994, p.94-95).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 612.Return of Napoleon I from St. Helena and Louis-Philip's policy uncertain

19th century:
§612. Return of Napoleon I from St. Helena and Louis-Philip's policy uncertain (1840-1847): IX-7.

He who shall open the found monument,
And shall not close it promptly.
A mischief shall fall on him, and he shall not be able to judge,
Which should be better, to be a king of France favorable to England, or one confronted with her.

(Qui ouvrira le monument trouvé,
Et ne viendra le serer promptement.
Mal luy viendra & ne pourra prouvé,
Si mieux doibt estre roy Breton ou Normand.)

Keys to the reading:
le monument trouvé: the coffin of Napoleon Bonaparte found to merit political attention;

serer: = serrer, to tighten, to fasten;

prouvé: for prouver.

This quatrain was completely lighted by Vignois (1910, p.220): « Louis-Philip, in making the ashes of Napoleon return from St. Helena to France in order to regain thereby for himself popular reputation, had a wrong of leaving the memories of the great man vivid too long among the people. This caused a mischief to him, because they made a comparison between the hate Bonaparte bore allways against the English and the humble concessions Louis-Philip granted to them. And he never succeeded in giving proof of which should be better, to be a king of France favorable to England, or one confronted with her.»

As to the uncertainty of the foreign policy towards England of the French government of these days, cf. Charléty, 1921b, p.306-313.
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 613.Herschel's universe, Discovery of Neptune and French Interregnum

19th century:
§613. Herschel's universe (1785), Discovery of Neptune (1846) and French Interregnum (1848): IV-33.

Jupiter joining Venus more closely than the Moon
Appearing in its white plenitude:
Venus hidden, Neptune under the whiteness,
Hit by Mars across the grainy branch.

(Jupiter joint plus Venus qu'à la Lune
Apparoissant de plenitude blanche:
Venus cachée soubs la blancheur Neptune,
De Mars frappé par la granée branche.)

Keys to the reading:
plus Venus: Ellipsis for plus à Venus (Ionescu, 1976, p.697);

de Mars frappé: « According to the language of the astrologers, the words 'being in difficulty' means exclusively 'opposition'.» (Centurio, 1953, p.95);

la granée branche: The French adjective 'grané' may have two senses, «ladre, en parlant d'un porc (suffering from bladder worms, cysticerci)» (Godefroy) or «grainy (Lat. graneus)». And the expression 'la granée branche' can indicate through its double sense: 'the branch outlined like a bladder' and 'the grainy branch' the characteristic image often called 'Herschel's universe', outlined like a bladder or compiled branches and fully containing innumerable small black spots like grains, which represents a section, nearly vertical, of the Galaxy, proposed by Sir William Herschel in 1785 and positively confirmed in its essence 140 years later by Edwin Hubble.

Herschel says, «Hitherto the sidereal heavens have, not inadequately for the purpose designed, been represented by the concave surface of a sphere, in the center of which the eye of an observer might be supposed to be placed. A surface of a globe or map will but ill delineate the interior parts of the heavens.» (Herschel, I, p.157-158)

«A very remarkable circumstance attending the nebulae and clusters of stars is, that they are arranged into strata, which seem to run on to a great length... the milky way, which undoubtedly is nothing but a stratum of fixed stars. It is very probable, that the great stratum, called the milky way, is that in which the sun is placed, though perhaps not in the very center of its thickness.» (id., p.160)

«We may see that our nebula is a very extensive, branching, compound Congeries of many millions of stars.» (id., p.252) Cf. his Figure 4 (id., p.251).

In this context, Ionescu's adoption of a variant with no bibliographic support 'la gravée blanche' (a white gravel) is wrong, though his conclusion of 'the Milky Way' is correct (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.697f.);

par la granée branche: Across the Milky Way whose axis is from Gemini to Sagitarius. Cf. Ionescu, 1983, p.224: «this axis of Gemini to Sagitarius being cut almost at right angles by the opposition Mars - Neptune».

Summary and Discussion:
This quatrain seems to be essentially lighted by Centurio (1953, p.94-95), followed by Ionescu (1976; 1983) and by Guinard (2000-2011), when he writes: « Before the German astronomer Gall at his Berlin Observatory on the 23rd of September, 1846, had recognized the planet, which had been predicted to him by a French astronomer Leverrier, an Englishman had become aware of it, but he held it to be a Nova, i.e., a new fixed star unknown till then. This discovery, almost by chance, of the planet Neptune, which was seen for the first time by an English astronomer Challis on the 4th and the 12th of August, 1846, Nostradamus describes with its essential or indeed very remarkable circumstances that may indicate the point of time. Challis could not progress without hindrance his first observation of a supposed Nova further, because the full Moon of the 7th of August, 1846, prevented him from doing so. This is what Nostradamus relates with no possibility of misunderstanding; the weak light of the long-distance planet came litterally within the full brightness of the Moon... And it is unthinkable to refill a falling comma before Neptune, because the full Moon cannot cover the planet Venus, which is found always in the vicinity of the Sun.»

Generally speaking, the astronomical conditions roughly described in the quatrain can indicate many possible dates including that of the 7th of August, 1846. And practically, it is recommendable that we should adopt the first of the theoretically possible and predictable conjunctions of Neptune with the full Moon after its discovery and naming, because one cannot refer to any conjunction of a planet named Neptune not yet discovered and identified with the full Moon.

Therefore, the case proposed by Centurio, namely that of the 7th of August, 1846 is invalid and to be excluded, Neptune being not yet discovered and identified by anyone at the moment.

The lucky fact of observation of Neptune by Challis on the 4th and the 12th of August, 1846, was confirmed only in retrospect, and it is on the 23rd, or most precisely at the very beginning (0h 15min) of the 24th of September, 1846, that the German astronomers Galle and D'Arrest at the Berlin Observatory found the planet at last, after having received previous evening a letter from the French mathematician Leverrier communicating his final prediction of the position of the supposed planet.(cf. Kollerstrom, 2011).

Now, there would be no astronomer who dares to survey the night sky near the Full Moon except for a special purpose, and there is no astronomical failure where there is no obserbation of the sky. So, during the full Moon and its surrounding days Challis must have stopped surveying the sky, then it is not due to the full Moon that Challis could not progress his research.

In fact, he seized the object in the sky on the 4th and the 12th of August, 1846, just immediately before and after the full Moon of the 7th of the month.

The recent historical investigations about the event of discovery of Neptune tells us that Challis failed in recognizing the planet because of the lack of precision of the calculated prediction of the position of the supposed planet supplied to him by his colleague Adams, whereas the eminent precision of the prediction calculated by the French mathematician Leverrier made it exceedingly easy for the German staff at Berlin to identify the new planet immediately after their receiving the letter of prediction from Leverrier. And the naming of the new planet as Neptune was made upon the proposal of it by Leverrier himself in his letters dated the 1st of October, 1846, addressed to European observatories. Challis and Adams proposed their idea of the name Oceanus ten days after in vain. (cf. Kollerstrom, 2011).

Thus, the event of discovery and naming of Neptune was especially the French prize and an English remorse.

Why the French prophet Nostradamus needs to take in consideration a scientific failure of the English with Herschel's merit on the Galaxy in this quatrain to the disfavor of his compatriots in neglecting the latter ?

We should prefer an interpretation of this quatrain granting the supreme merit of the French mathematician Leverrier in the event, which is already implied in the verses with the too explicit announcement of the name of the new planet Neptune.

This nominal demonstration does presuppose the truly effected discovery, identification and naming of Neptune, through which we can refer for the first time to a conjunction of Neptune with the full Moon as described in the quatrain; the theme of the quatrain IV-33 is a conjunction of this sort itself, not the failure of the English astronomical team. And the first of these conjunctions immediately after the dates of its discovery and naming would be the most appropiate for the quatrain, recollecting the vivid memory of the event, and the most fascinating to the world, deserving also a predictive mention of Nostradamus.

Then, the first possible and predictable conjunction of Neptune with the full Moon accompanied by the circumstances described in the quatrain after the dates of its discovery and naming is that of the night of the 14th of August, 1848.

Moreover, this date is pregnant with political nuances, especially meaningful to France in the interregnum between the collapse of the July monarchy (February) and the entry of the President Louis-Napoleon (December).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 614.Louis-Philip's reign losing popularity

19th century:
§614. Louis-Philip's reign losing popularity (1846-1848): III-73.

When the lame shall come into power,
The competitor shall have him as a bastard relation:
He and his reign shall cause such a wide indignation,
That it shall be too late for him to recover.

(Quand dans le regne parviendra le boiteux
Competiteur aura proche bastard:
Luy & le regne viendront si fort rogneux,
Qu'ains qu'il guerisse son fait sera bien tard.)

Keys to the reading:
The lame: Louis-Philip following the duke of Bordeaux in royal legitimacy;

the competitor: the duke of Bordeux having the legitimate right to pretend to the French throne.

« When the quasi-legitimate shall come to the throne, the competitor (Duke of Bordeux) shall be a proximate relation of the man who shall oppose the right of fact to that of birth. The quasi-legitimate and his government shall become so corrupt that it shall take too much time before they shall have recovered. The reform taken as remedy shall entail the fall of Louis-Philip. » (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.22).

Louis-Philip in difficulty through diplomatic inconsistency: « The views and interests of the two cabinets were well understood by the ministers on both sides, when Queen Victoria in the autumn of 1842 paid a visit to the French monarch at the chateau d'Eu in Normandy, which was followed next spring by a similar act of courtesy on the part of Louis Philippe to the queen of England in the princely halls of Windsor. Fortunately the pacific inclinations of the two sovereigns were aided by the wisdom and moderation of the ministers on both sides; and under the direction of Lord Aberdeen and Guizot a compromise was agreed on of the most fair and equitable kind. It was stipulated that the king of France should renounce all pretensions, on the part of any of his sons, to the hand of the queen of Spain; and, on the other hand, that the royal heiress should make her selection among the princes descendants of Philip V, which excluded the dreaded competition of a prince of the house of Coburg. And in regard to the marriage of the duke of Montpensier with the infanta Dona Luisa Fernanda, Louis Philippe positively engaged that it should not take place till the queen was married and had had children. On this condition the queen of England consented to waive all objections to the marriage when these events had taken place; and it was understood that this consent on both sides was to be dependent on the hand of the queen being bestowed on a descendant of Philip V and no other competitor. The sagacious Louis Philippe now discovered a certain half-idiotic cousin of Isabella of Spain, deficient in every power both of body and mind; and in a secret and underhand manner he celebrated the wedding of this miserable being with the queen; and immediately afterwards that [1846.10.10] of his son with the handsome, blooming, and wealthy Luisa Fernanda, who, in addition to her present possessions, which were very large, carried to her husband the succession to the Spanish crown, in the absolute impossibility of any issue from her sister's unhappy marriage. Hard feeling and political opposition were roused by this degrading trickery - and England learned, with a sentiment of regret and compassion, that Guizot, whose talents and character had hitherto commanded her respect, had been deluded by the crowned tempter at his ear to defend his conduct on the quibble that the marriages were not celebrated at the same time - some little interval having occurred between them - and that this was all he had promised. Suspicion and jealousy took the place of the former cordial relations. Losing the fervent friendship of the only constitutional neighbour on whom it could rely, France, like a beggar with its bonnet in its hand, waited at the gates of Austria and Russia, and begged the moral support of the most despotic of the powers. The moral support of Austria and Russia there was but one way to gain, and that was by an abnegation of all the principles represented by the accession of Louis Pnilippe, and an active co-operation in their policy of repression.

« At this time the Swiss broke out into violent efforts to obtain a reform. Austria quelled the Swiss aspirations with the strong hand, and took up a menacing attitude towards the benevolent pontiff, Pius IX. France was quiescent; and the opposition rose into invectives, which were repeated in harsher language out of doors.

« The stout shopkeeper who now occupied the throne of Henry IV thought that all the requirements of a government were fulfilled if it maintained peace with the neighbouring states. Trade he thought might flourish though honour and glory were trampled under foot. He accordingly neglected, or failed to understand, the disaffection of the middle class, whose pecuniary interests he was supposed to represent, but whose higher aspirations he had insulted by his truckling attempts to win the sympathy of the old aristocracy and the foreign despots. Statesmen like Thiers and Odilon Barrot, when the scales of office fell from their eyes and the blandishments of the sovereign were withdrawn, perceived that the parliamentary government of the charter had become a mockery, and that power had got more firmly consolidated in royal hands under these deceptive forms than in the time of the legitimate kings. A cry therefore suddenly rose from all quarters, except the benches of the ministry, for electoral and parliamentary reform; and there was also heard the uniformly recurring exclamation, premonitory of all serious disturbance, for a diminution of the taxes. The cries were founded on justice, and urged in a constitutional manner. Corruption had entered into all the elections; parliamentary purity had become a byword under the skilful manipulation of the purse-bearing king; and the expenses of the country far exceeded its income, owing to the extravagant building of forts and palaces, with which, in the years of his prosperity, he had endeavoured to amuse the people. » (HH, XIII, p.77-79).

Rising discontent (1847-1848): « The state of the budget, which was threatened with a yearly deficit, increased the difficulty of the situation which was still further aggravated by a scarcity of provisions. The method of taxing corn made it difficult to provision the country, a matter which was never easy in times previous to the construction of railways. There was a succession of bad harvests, and in the winter of 1847 a famine resulted. There were riots in all directions, and bands of men tramped through the country. At Buzançais, cases of death from starvation occurred. Thus everything combined to make the people dissatisfied with the government. And there was indeed little to be said in its favour. It had achieved nothing and no progress had been made. " To carry out such a policy as this," said Lamartine, " a statesman is not required, a finger-post would do." And one of the moderate party summed up the work done by this ministry as: "Nothing, nothing, nothing."

« In short, this strange result was all that Guizot could boast. Little by little public opinion unanimously turned against him, and the more unpopular he became, the more solid became his majority in the chamber, thanks to the system, which, placing the country in the hands of a handful of rich men, made the elections a mere mockery. Then a universal outcry arose, and the demand for progress and democracy seemed to be concentrated on one point: "electoral reform."

« Guizot opposed an obstinate refusal to this demand. Yet very little was asked for - not universal suffrage (and Guizot said " the day for universal suffrage will never come "), but some reform, however slight it might be. Guizot refused to give the vote even to jurymen and academicians ! The opposition appealed to public opinion. Banquets were organised in many different places for the discussion of reform, at Paris, then at Colmar, Strasburg, Soissons, St. Quentin, and Mâcon. » (HH, XIII, p.79).

The banquet of 1848: « It could not be denied that the excitement was singularly out of proportion to the idea which was its ostensible cause. The spirit of democracy in France had been aroused. Lamartine's book Les Girondins added the charm of lyric poetry to the recollections of the Revolution. The spectacle offered by the July monarchy had gradually influenced the great poet to espouse the cause of popular progress. In his striking speech at the banquet of Mâcon, which was organised as a tribute to him in honour of his Girondins in the midst of a violent thunderstorm which had not deterred a crowded audience from coming to hear him speak, he threatened Guizot's retrograde government with "a revolution of scorn."

« The year 1848 opened with heated debates, in the course of which Guizot's whole policy was denounced. A banquet on a vast scale was organised in Paris immediately after for the purpose of forwarding electoral reform. A large piece of ground enclosed by walls near the Champs-Élysées had been taken for the occasion.

« The ministry, with less tolerance than it had shown in the preceding year, claimed the right to forbid this banquet. This involved the question of the liberty of holding public meetings. This right had never yet been contested, but Guizot wished to take one more retrograde step.

« Orleanists, liberals, republicans, and legitimists all united in defending their rights. Parliament rang with the vehement discussions which ensued and in which Ledru-Rollin showed all his great oratorical powers. In spite of the threats of the government, it was decided to meet at the Madeleine and proceed from there to the banquet. The very evening before the banquet was to take place this plan was changed for fear of bringing about a massacre. It was stated in the morning papers that the meeting was put off, and instead of the demonstration which they had been obliged to abandon, the opposition members signed a vote of censure on Guizot. But the people nevertheless assembled at the appointed time in front of the Madeleine.

« History repeats itself strangely. It had been the chief anxiety of Louis Philippe to avoid another 1830, and yet he was now about to undergo, in every detail, the experience of Charles X. The rising of the people to support the claims of the opposition, but soon leaving these behind them; a disturbance indefinite at first, but developing into a fierce struggle; a king obstinate at first, then willing to make one concession after another, but never agreeing to make them until it was too late; then the flight across France and the departure for England: such was the history of both these revolutions.

« Two things increased Louis Philippe's confidence: Firstly, he had not violated the letter of the law. Though he had in a measure twisted the revolution of 1830 to his own purposes, he had done so by ruling his ministers, and by gaining over the electoral body. He did not realise that he was in the long run preparing a lasting disgrace for himself. His fall was none the less certain because instead of violating the rights of the people he had merely distorted them. His fall would only be the more petty for that. Secondly, he had in Paris, what Polignac had so signally lacked, a strong and numerous army.

« Had he not easily succeeded in suppressing all risings which had taken place ? He forgot that troops which are always firm and always victorious when dealing with the revolt of part of a nation, are useless when the people as a whole are actuated by the same opinion. Under such circumstances revolution pervades the air and paralyses the powers of the army. The troops hesitate, and sometimes recede. However this may be, on the 22nd of February, while the deputies of the opposition were preparing to ask Guizot's majority to pass a vote of censure on Guizot, an enormous crowd surged round the Madeleine, the populace began to parade the streets, and columns were formed at various points.» (HH, XIII, p.79-80).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 615.Revolution in 1848; Mehemet-Ali of Egypt

19th century:
§615. Frustrated revolution satisfied in 1848; Mehemet-Ali of Egypt (1805-1848): I-40.

The false waterspout dissimulating folly,
Byzantium shall make a change of laws:
Out of Egypt shall come he who wishes to loosen
The edict changing money and alloy.

(La trombe faulse dissimulant folie
Fera Bisance un changement de loys:
Hystra d'Egypte qui veult que l'on deslie
Edict changeant monnoyes & aloys.)

Keys to the reading:
Trombe (waterspout): This term is used only twice in The Prophecies (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.267), and the example in the quatrain I-57 (§361: la trombe tremblera) designates the first French revolution (1791-1793). This meaning of revolution is absolutely valid also here;

La trombe faulse (The false waterspout): the revolution of July in 1830, which entails a Bourbon monarchy of second grade focusing on the oligarchic riches, excluding the crucial interests of the republicans;

folly: the firece revolutional emotion with few result in 1830;

Byzantium: a historical metaphor for Paris. «The word Bisance designates Paris in several quatrains.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.253) In fact, Bisance and its derivatives (Bizantin, Bizant, Bisantinois) in The Prophecies have in total 16 uses, whose 9 (II-49, V-25, V-47, V-54, V-70, VI-21, VI-53, VIII-83, X-62) for the Ottoman Empire, 5 (I-40, V-80, V-86, VII-36, IX-30) including I-40 for Paris, and 1(IV-38) for Greece and 1(VIII-51) for Russia;

Byzantium shall make a change of laws: the revolution of February in France in 1848, being inferred from the simultaneity of the quasi-autonomous development of Egypt under a remarkable leader, Mehemet Ali.

The edict changing money and alloy: One of the most vital rights of sovereignty of a state. The lack of it leaves Egypt of Mehemet Ali in vassalage to the Porte.

The revolution of July in 1830, which entails a Bourbon monarchy of second grade focusing on the rich bourgeois, excluding the political initiative of the republicans, recurs in February, 1848, rejuvenating its radical emotion with the gain of the second French Republic.

« Having become practically independent of the Ottoman Empire, Egypt begins to modernize herself in the 19th century, under the impulsion of Mehmet Ali and of his successors, and she extends, from 1820 forth, her domination over Sudan, where Islamization grows rapid.» (Duby, 2008, p.276)

Chronology of Egypt under Mehemet Ali:
1805 The Porte appoints Mehemet Ali as viceroy (governor) of Egypt.
1805- '10 Mehemet Ali modernizes his army according to French consultants.
1811 Mehemet Ali massacres Mamelukes, existent rulers of Egypt, at Cairo.
1823- '27 Mehemet Ali aids the Sultan confronting Greece seeking for independence.
1827 Egyptian fleet conducted by Ibrahim Pasha, his son, completely defeated at Navarino by allied powers (France, England and Russia).
1828 Egyptian army retreats from Greece.
1831- '32 Egyptian troops take Syria.
1833 The Porte recognises independence of Egypt with a concession of Syria and Aden.
1839 Turkish army and fleet thoroughly defeated by Mehemet Ali's; Intervention of the powers in favour of Turkey.
1840 Quadruple Alliance formed [1840.7.15] by Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria in support of Turkey. Its diplomatic offers refused by Mehemet Ali expecting French aid to be obtained through warlike policies of Minister Thiers.
1841 France joins Quadruple Alliance.

«Intervention of the powers: As Louis Philippe's disinclination to war was well known, the allied powers, without troubling themselves overmuch about the wild cry of protest in France, the warlike preparations of Minister Thiers, or the demand for the frontier of the Rhine, began hostilities against Mehemet Ali, who had refused his submisson, trusting to France. An Anglo-Austrian fleet sailed for the Syrian coast; Beirut and Acre were taken, and Alexandria was bombarded by the English commodore Napier. Mehemet Ali, after the fall [1840.10.28] of the Thiers ministry, fully realised his mistake and had to be glad even to preserve the hereditary pashalik of Egypt, in return for the evacuation of all Syria, Arabia, and Crete, the restoration of the Turkish fleet, and the payment of a yearly tribute; this favour he owed to England, who wished thereby to make him a friend and to assure for herself the passage through Suez.» (HH, XXIV, p.454)

«The Firman of Investiture [1840.12.10]: The following are the principal rights which the firman granted the viceroy (this title was henceforth used for the governor of Egypt): hereditary dominion over Egypt in the family of Mehemet Ali, subject to the right of investiture and appointment by the Porte of every succeeding viceroy; independence - incomplete and circumscribed - of the internal administration of the country; appointment of all civil officials, and appointment of military officers up to the rank of colonel; conclusion of non-political treaties and conventions with foreign states; and limitation to a definite sum (300,000 pounds sterling) of the tribute to be paid the Porte, substituting the earlier statute, according to which tribute was determined in each instance proportionately to the revenues of the country. The former abuse had necessarily resulted in the domination of Turkish agents, and in vexations of all sorts. In opposition to these concessions, however, stood a mass of restrictions, whereby the Porte sought to protect and strengthen its sovereignty. We have already spoken of the investiture of every new viceroy by the Porte. Other clauses provided for the limitation of the army to eighteen thousand men and of the fleet to a few war-ships; for the levying of taxes in the name of the sultan; and for the conformity of laws, of coinage, even of army uniforms to those in the rest of the empire. These regulations were not always strictly observed, but they could always furnish, and more than once have furnished, the Porte with a convenient pretext for oppressing its Egyptian vassal.» (HH, XXIV, p.454)

«The Last Days of Mehemet Ali: Mehemet Ali had attained much, although by no means all, of what he had made the object of his life and policy. Despite the defeat [1840.11.3 in Syria] he had undergone in the last catastrophe, when he was an old man of seventy-two [born in 1769], he had yet been able to recover himself. But now his strength was exhausted; broken in mind and body by such powerful exertion and excitement, he showed a rapidly increasing debility which developed into mental derangement. In the year 1844 his son was called to take part in the government, and in January, 1848, it became necessary for the Porte to invest Ibrahim Pasha with Egypt in place of his father. Mehemet All, who through his energy and wisdom, through the greatness and strength of his character, through his administrative talents and his dominating will, through his broad vision and his great efforts, had far exceeded all oriental and some European regents of his time, who had freed Egypt from unworthy debasement, and had attracted to it the eyes of the whole political world, who had enabled this old and formerly respected land of culture to work up again in modern times to a position among civilised lands - Mehemet Ali passed his last days in mental imbecility, and died alone, at the age of eighty, on August 2nd, 1849, at his castle Shubra near Cairo. At the time of his death the second successor, Abbas Pasha, had already entered upon his governmental career, as Ibrahim Pasha had died ten months after his appointment.» (HH, XXIV, p.454-455)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 616.Louis Philip's abdication after resignation of Guizot

19th century:
§616. Louis Philip's abdication after resignation of Guizot (1847-1848): IV-64.

The failing in bourgeois clothes,
Shall come to try the King with his offense:
Fifteen soldiers the most part Vstagois,
The last life & a chief of his properties.

(Le deffaillant en habit de bourgois,
Viendra le Roy tempter de son offense:
Quinze souldartz la pluspart Vstagois,
Vie derniere & chef de sa chevance.)

Keys to the reading:
The failing in bourgeois clothes: The minister of Louis-Philip, Guizot, a bourgeois, in his crisis of fall at the end of 1847;

Fifteen : the number suggesting the sixteen corpses in a carriage and at the same time that of fifty persons killed or wounded of the insurgents (See below);

Vstagois: the anagram of A S. Guizot (For Mr. Guizot) (Dr. de Fontbrune, 1976, p.151);

the most part Vstagois: the most part of the national guard was for the government of Guizot;

Chevance: biens (properties) (Ibuki) ;

The last life & a chief of his properties: the last days of Louis-Philip in exile, only as an owner of his private properties;

Fifteen soldiers the most part Vstagois, The last life & a chief of his properties: The construction should be as follows: Royal soldiers under the control of Guizot [shall give] the last life [to] fifteen & [to] the chief of his own properties by their general charge, where the words “fifteen” and “the chief” are considered to be in the oblique case (cas-régime) without preposition, and the verb “shall give (donneront)” must have been omitted..

The minister of Louis-Philip, Guizot, a bourgeois, in his crisis of collapse at the end of 1847, came to advise the King in vain with the policy offensive to him, in proposing some republicans as new members of the ministry in order to prevent a revolt of the opposition (cf. Muel, 1895, p.208).

Confronted with the insurrection of the people supported by some legions of the national guard, Louis-Philip dismissed Guizot February 23rd, 1848. But the count of Molé nominated in place of Guizot could not arrive at the composition of a new cabinet: « the news of the dismissal of the ministers was welcomed with joy in Paris, but the republican opposition did not consider this concession sufficient. In the evening, Armand Marrast gave to a group of people who were under the windows of the National, a passionate discourse, in which he awoke all the energies of the multitude, in crying out that you had to be no more occupied with the vacant ministers, but that our strikes should mount to the throne.» (Muel, id., p.214)

« About nine o'clock in the evening, a column of demonstrators from the place of the Bastille marched in growing ever bigger till the building of the foreign affairs in the street of the Capucines. A battalion number 14 of the line under the commandment of the colonel Courrant lumping at that point of the street intercepted its passage to protect the ministry against the insurrection. The column was headed by officers and sub-officers of the national guard and the men carrying torches, armed with pikes, pistols and sticks.» (Muel, id., p.214)

A few seconds of crash and the street filled with the dead, the expiring, the wounded (cf. id., p.214-215). «The general charge killed or wounded about fifty persons. The crowd in panic fled into lateral streets; the troop, itself frightened, was disbanded. It was half past nine in the evening. The people stopped a carriage in passing, and loaded it with sixteen corpses.» (Charléty, 1921b, p.392) «Some of the insurgents picked up the bodies, sixteen in number, they said, and placed them in a carriage found there.» (Muel, id., p.215)

« Some men then improvised a sort of theatrical background for the massacre, with the genius that Parisians certainly possess for giving dramatic effect even to their most painful emotions. A cart was stopped, and the corpses were placed upon it; men walking beside it carried torches which illumined the ghastly cargo. The procession passed on through Paris while a man standing on the cart lifted up and showed to the people the dead body of a woman whose face was horribly mutilated by bullets. This frightful spectacle aroused a frenzy of rage throughout the city and Paris was again plunged into civil war.» (HH, XIII, p.82)

« The real battle was that of the 24th. On this occasion the king had placed Marshal Bugeaud in command of the royal forces. Bugeaud was the best of the African generals, but at the same time he was the one whose name was most dreaded by the people; he had the reputation of having gained some most bloody victories over insurgents on former occasions. This time Paris was covered with barricades; the fighting continued all the morning. Whenever the army seemed likely to yield or retreat, the king, who but a short time since was so full of confidence, and to whom the marshal had promised a brilliant victory, made some fresh concession. First he agreed that Thiers should form a ministry, then Odilon Barrot, as if the shades of difference which separated the centre of the chamber from the left-centre or the left-centre from the dynastic centre were of any importance in this mortal struggle between the people and the monarchy.» (HH, XIII, p.82)

The king abdicates and takes flight: « All these flimsy negotiations were going on amidst the smoke of battle. Now Thiers, now Odilon Barrot was to be seen rushing from one barricade to another announcing the king's last concession. Ministerial episodes mingled with the episodes of battle, and raised their weak voice amid the thunder of the cannon. Then, one after another, these political personages gave up what was an impossible task; and, like Charles X, Louis Philippe abdicated in favour of a child, his grandson, the count de Paris. The battle at this moment was brought to an end by its most bloody episode: the attack on the château d'Eau opposite the Palais Royal. The people on one side and the municipal guard on the other showed, at this point, indescribable energy, and fought with the courage of desperation. Bullets were dealing out death all around, and all the staunchest republicans were there, including Caussidiere, Albert, and Lagrange. By two o'clock the people had earned the victory. Louis Philippe and his family fled from the Tuileries. There was some difficulty in finding a cab to take him as far as St. Cloud. The crowd allowed this fallen King to pass, while behind him, the people for the third time invaded the Tuileries where they wrote, " Death to robbers ! " The duchess of Orleans had gone with her son to the chamber. The sight of a child and an unhappy woman, surrounded by sympathy, might induce the people in a moment of emotional excitement to agree to the maintenance of the monarchy. Some seemed ready to accept a regency. Lamartine felt the weakness and inadequacy of such a solution of the difficulty. Meantime the crowd was taking possession of the palace. The duchess of Orleans followed the old king into exile. The latter was going abroad like Charles X, but he had more to make him anxious. He was obliged to conceal himself, was often suspected, and sometimes had not enough money to supply his needs. When at last he reached the little Norman port which was his destination he found a stormy sea, and could not for a long time get any vessel to take him across the Channel; finally, having disguised himself, he secured a passage from Havre on board an English ship.» (HH, XIII, p.82-83)

A republican ministry: « On leaving the chamber the leaders of the people had gone to the Hotel-de-Ville. Crowds assembled from every direction, crying out in favour of ten different ministries at the same time; contradictory lists were made, but in the end the government was composed of Lamartine, Dupont de l'Eure Arago, Ledru-Rollin, Crémieux, Marie, Garnier-Pagès, the deputies of the Left benches to whom were added later Louis Blanc, Albert a working-man, Flocon, and Armand Marrast.» (HH, XIII, p.83)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

§ 617.Revolution of February

19th century:
§617. Louis Philip's reign and revolution of February (1830-1848): VIII-42.

By avarice, by force and violence
Shall come to vex his subjects the chiefs of Orleans,
Near saint Memire assault and resistance.
Death in his tent, they shall say his sleeping there inside.

(Par avarice, par force & violence
Viendra vexer les siens chiefz d'Orleans,
Pres saint Memire assault & resistance.
Mort dans sa tante, diront qu'il dort leans.)

Keys to the reading:
The chiefs of Orleans: The king Louis-Philip and his princes. The verb Viendra is supposed to agree with the representative Louis-Philip;

saint Memire: the cloister, the street and the block of saint Merry in the center of Paris, Memire being the anagram of Merry (Merri) (Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.73-74);

tante: = tente (tent);

leans: = léans = là dedans (Littré), there inside.

By avarice, by force and violence shall come to vex his subjects the chiefs of Orleans: «The king Louis-Philip, notwithstanding his immense fortune, says Mr. Guy, always shew himself ready to renew, in favour of his children, these demands of appanages and endowments, each time rejected by the decency of the assemblies.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.71) «We have seen these words in the protestation of the national guard against the conduct pursued by Louis-Philip in the question of Orient: it is to be considered that, in the circumstances where we find ourselves, it is no less important to avoid, with the greatest care, to give to a power, slack on the outside, the occasion of showing itself brutal inside.» (id., p.72) «We read in Al. Dumas (II. 213): "The king declares that he will oppose, even by means of the force, the reformist banquet that should take place in the Champs-Elysées" on the 22nd of February 1848.» (id.)

The revolution of 1848: « Among the troops called out to defend the government, the municipal guards, then very unpopular, made a vigorous charge and several on the other side were wounded. The army began to hesitate. At one place the crowd awaited an attack crying, " The dragoons forever ! " The dragoons sheathed their swords. The govemment was afraid to call out the national guards, whom they mistrusted: wherever they were called out they cried, " Reform forever ! " and tried to interpose between the troops and the people. But though a storm was brewing it did not burst yet. The streets were crowded with an infuriated mob, demonstrations were continually taking place, and now and then there was a skirmish with the troops. That was all, so far, but the more enthusiastic among the republicans were making steady efforts to get the populace to rise.

The king slept that evening confident that nothing serious would happen [his sleeping there inside]. During the night the troops bivouacked in the silence of Paris beneath a rainy sky, and the cannon were fixed ready for use. The next morning (February 23rd) the troops, who had spent the night in the mud, were weary and discontented. Barricades had been hastily raised in all parts of the town. There was no desperate struggle like that of 1830. The barricades were attacked without much spirit and were soon deserted only to be reconstructed at a little distance. However - in the part where risings usually took place, in the populous heart of Paris - the battle raged more fiercely: the veterans of St. Merry were fighting against the municipal guard [Near saint Memire assault and resistance]. At the Tuileries no anxiety was felt: " What do you call barricades ? " said the king, "do you call an overturned cab a barricade ? " [his sleeping there inside] However, General Jacqueminot resolved on that day to call out the national guard.

During a reign which was virtually that of the bourgeoisie, the national guard, like the electoral body, consisted only of bourgeois. The governing class alone carried arms, just as they only were allowed to vote. Therefore in the elections previous to 1840 the national guard had been the faithful ally of the government. They had shown themselves no less energetic against the barricades of the first half of the reign than the rest of the troops. But times had changed and everyone was thoroughly sick of Guizot's policy. When the soldiers were called out, they assembled crying, " Reform forever ! " One regiment had inscribed this on its flag; another refused to cry " God save the king ! " A third sent a deputation to the Bourbon palace to try to overcome the resistance of the ministry. At another place when the municipal guards were going to charge the crowd, the national guard opposed them with their bayonets. When the news of all this reached the king at the Tuileries he was filled with surprise and grief. He realised that he had lost the allegiance of the national guard in which he had such absolute confidence, the men for whose sake he had governed !

He then made a first concession agreeing that Molé should form a ministry. It was not much of a concession, for the difference between Guizot and Molé was only a difference in mental capacity and the rivalry for power which existed between them. Besides Molé had already represented the personal policy of the king. The king liked him, and in calling him to the ministry he merely changed the surname of his minister. But there are times when, if a certain name has become universally hateful, such a change is sufficient to pacify the public. Besides Molé was obliged to choose his cabinet in a conciliatory spirit. Paris, delighted to think that the strife was at an end, put on a festive appearance; the streets were illuminated, and gay crowds filled the boulevards when a spark re-ignited the flame of faction.

Near the Madeleine, troops barred the way. A column of demonstrators wished to pass through, and, in accordance with the peaceable feelings just then prevailing in Paris, to fraternise with the soldiers. The officer in command gave the order to fix bayonets: a shot was fired - whether by the soldiers or by the crowd is not known. How many times in French history have such accidents, the source of which is wrapped in mystery, proved the cause of terrible bloodshed ! What sinister results may ensue from the chance which causes a gun to go off and, at the same time, gives the signal for a battle ! [Death in his tent]» (HH, XIII, p.81-82)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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