§ 653. The truce of Villafranca

19th century:
§653. The truce of Villafranca (1859.7.11): IV-73.

IV-73:
The great nephew shall give a proof by his forces,
Of the treaty made by the chicken-hearted partner.
The Duke shall suffer from Ferrara and Asti,
When he shall pantomime in the evening.


(Le nepveu grand par forces prouvera,
Le pache faict du cœur pusillanime:
Ferrare & Ast le Duc espouvera,
Par lors qu’au soir fera le pantomime.)

Keys to the reading:
The great nephew: Napoleon III (Le Pelletier, I, p.296). In fact, of the 12 examples of the word “nephew” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 8 cases (III-29, IV-73, VI-22, VII-43, VIII-32, VIII-43bis and X-30) refer to Napoleon III, a great nephew of Napoleon I;

Pache: = “ pacte (contract), accord (agreement), convention (covenant).” (Godefroy);

The chicken-hearted partner: Francis-Joseph, the emperor of Austria;

The Duke: The emperor of Austria as leader (duc) of his troops. “Duke < OF duc < L dux leader < dūcere lead ” (Obunsha);

Ferrara: A pontifical state under the Austrian protection to be unified to the kingdom of Sardinia;

Ast: = Asti of the kingdom of Sardinia;

Au soir: At the final phase of disadvantage of his armies;

Le pantomime: A temporary gain of keeping the Venetia in his possession, till its Italian absorption in 1866.

Summary:
The great nephew shall give a proof by his forces, Of the treaty made by the chicken-hearted partner: « On the 8th of June, Napoleon, at the side of Victor Emmanuel, made a triumphal entry into Milan, where he addressed the people in high-sounding speeches, the Austrians, meanwhile, continuing their retreat as far as the Mincio, where they took up a new position in the middle of a quadrangle of fortifications, Peschiera, Verona, Mantua, and Legnago» (HH, IX, p.604). « The emperor of Austria, with a new general and considerable reinforcements, had arrived there to await the French army. The Austrians had long studied this battlefield; there were 160,000 of them ranged on the heights with their centre at the village and tower of Solferino, and ready to descend on the French in the plain. Napoleon III had scarcely 140,000 men available, and was obliged to fight on a line extending over five leagues. Whilst the right wing was struggling against the enemy in the plain in order to prevent itself from being turned, and King Victor Emmanuel with his Piedmontese was bravely resisting on the left, the centre delivered a vigorous attack, and after a heroic struggle successively carried Mount Fenile, the mount of the cypresses, and finally the village of Solferino. The enemy's line was broken; his reserves, before they could come into action, were attained by the balls from the new rifled cannon of the French. All fled in frightful confusion; but a fearful storm, accompanied by hail and torrents of rain, stopped the victors and permitted the Austrians to recross the Mincio; they left twenty-five thousand men put out of action. In the evening the emperor Napoleon took up his headquarters in the very room which Francis Joseph had occupied in the morning (June 24th). Twice a conqueror, the emperor suddenly offered peace to his enemy. Italy was freed, although a portion of Italian territory, namely Venetia, still remained in the hands of Austria. Europe, bewildered by these rapid victories, allowed her awakening jealousy to appear. The emperor thought he had done enough for Italy by pushing Austria, so recently established on the banks of the Ticino, back behind the Mincio, and at Villafranca he signed with Francis Joseph a peace, the principal conditions of which were confirmed at the end of the year by the Treaty of Zurich.» (HH, XIII, p.136-137)

The Duke shall suffer from Ferrara and Asti: « By this peace Austria resigned Lombardy, which France added to Piedmont that she might make for herself a faithful ally beyond the Alps. The Mincio became the boundary of Austria in the peninsula, where the various states were to form a great confederation under the presidency of the pope. But all those concerned rejected this plan, and the revolutionary movement continued. The emperor confined himself to preventing Austria from intervening. Then those governments of Parma, Modena, the Roman legations, Tuscany and Naples, which ever since 1814 had been merely lieutenants of Austria, were seen to fall to pieces successively, and Italy, minus Venice and Rome, was about to form a single kingdom, when the emperor thought himself called upon to take a precaution necessary to the security of France; he claimed the price of the assistance he had given and by the Treaty of Turin, March 24th, 1860, obtained the cession to himself of Savoy and the county of Nice (Nizza), which added three departments to France and carried her southern frontier to the summit of the Alps. For the first time since 1815 France, not by force and surprise but as the result of a great service rendered to a friendly nation, by pacific agreement, and according to the solemn vote of the inhabitants, had overstepped the limits traced round her at the period of her reverses. Europe dared not protest.» (HH, XIII, p.137)

When he shall pantomime in the evening: «Italy was freed, although a portion of Italian territory, namely Venetia, still remained in the hands of Austria.» (HH, XIII, p.137)

Discussion:
Le Pelletier (I, p.296) says about the first distich that «Napoleon III shall make observe by his force the treaty he shall have beforehand subscribed by prudence.» But, there is no such evidence in history and his reading of the text is very erroneous. First, the French verb “prouver”, which he interprets as “faire observer (to make observe)”, should be translated in English into “to prove, to give proof or evidence of ” (Dubois). Secondly, “faict du cœur pusillanime (made by the chicken-heart)”, which he attributes to Napoleon III, should be ascribed to Francis-Joseph, his international partner of the moment.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2012. All rights reserved.
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§ 654. Napoleon III and Pius IX

19th century:
§654. Napoleon III and Pius IX (1859.12.22): VIII-27.

VIII-27:
The road upon which one furnace on the other,
Out of the desert huge barrel placed a brave and gorgeous.
The script of an emperor the phoenix
Seen in the one what does not belong to any other.


(La voye auxelle l'une sur l'autre fornix
Du muy deser hor mis brave & genest
L’escript d’empereur le fenix
Veu en celuy ce qu'a nul autre n'est.)

Keys to the reading:
Auxelle: = à + laquelle, due to analogy with “ auquel = à + lequel “ and “auxquelles = à + lesquelles “, signifying simply UPON-WHICH, or WHERE. If it means “ Latin auxiliarus [auxiliaris, auxiliarius], auxiliary”, as Leoni proposes it (1982, p.354), it cannot afford any syntactical bridge between “la voye, the road ” and “l’une sur l’autre fornix, one furnace on the other". In reality, the French “auxiliaire” and English ”auxiliary” are the most rare cases of preserving intact the Latin origin “au-XILI-aris” notwithstanding the overwhelming linguistic pressure of regular transformation, under which “auxiliaris” ought to have been changed into somehow “ossiliaire” (ossiliary) (cf. Scheler, p.113, 163-164), so that they will resist any other trial of transcription such as “-XELLE-”. In such a perspective, too, R. Présvost‘s reading (1999, p.181) “voye aurelle, Via Aurelia”, followed by Patrice Guinard (2011, p.54), is entirely wide of the mark, and it is ridiculous that Prévost seems to want to dictate anew to Nostradamus “drave (darnel)” for “brave” and “vœ (vow)” for ”veu” in addition to “aurelle” (such a French word does not exist !) for “auxelle";

La fornix: At first, the meaning of the word fornix of the first line is not readily suggesting. It should be noted that the gender of the word here is feminine, but masculine in dictionaries: “fornix,icis, m.[fornus] 1 vault, dome, a shape like a bow. 2 arch. 3 a triumphal arch.” (TanakaH). Then, we check the word fornus: “ = furnus.” (TanakaH). So, we check the word furnus: “furnus,ī, m. [fornax] baking furnace.” (TanakaH). This being masculine too, then, we see the word fornax: “fornāx, ācis, f. [fornus = furnus] 1 fireplace, furnace 2 kitchen-range, blast furnace. ”(TanakaH). At last, we get the feminine word “furnace” implied by the feminine word “fornix” of the quatrain. The English “furnace”, itself deriving from “fornax”, may signify through our history of literature an "ordeal". So, “The road upon which one furnace on the other” can represent the road full of ordeals, which in fact Napoleon III had followed in his early days. When young he was forced into exile by the downfall of his uncle Emperor Napoleon (cf. §618,VI-16; §625,IX-89; §630,VII-43; §634,IV-65; §635,VIII-53);

Le muy deser: A French word like “muy” does not exist, but it may be “muid”, a huge barrel, the pronunciation of the former and the latter being the same (cf. Vignois, 1910, p.256). Moreover, the alphabet “y” in the impression of the 16th century was the same as “i”, and one can borrow “d” for “muid”from the beginning of “deser” immediately following it. And “deser”, whose figure called “apocope” in grammar being frequent in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (e.g. “muy” for muyd (here), “mor” for mort (I-81,II-70), “gran” for grand (II-26, II-66), “escri” for escrit (VIII-56), “diver” for divers (VI-17), “couver” for couvert (VI-17), “descouver” for descouvert (VIII-26), etc.), is certainly “desert”. Now, “le deserteur de la grand forteresse, the deserter of the grand fortress” of §634,IV-65 was an expression for Louis-Napoleon who deserted and escaped the castle of Ham in 1846. So, “le muy deser, the desert huge barrel” is for the desolate castle of Ham deserted by Louis-Napoleon.

Genest: = genêt, a plant called "broom" with numerous yellow flowers in shape of butterflies, which represents another aspect of Louis-Napoleon in addition to his proved "bravery". It may differ from an ordinary image of his, biassed throgh the public opinion after the collapse of the second empire largely influenced by a famous novelist such as Victor Hugo who especially hated Napoleon III, “a traitor to French Republicans”. He was " a presence with pomp" through closer look in the diagnosis of Nostradamus (cf. § 634,IV-65; § 635, VIII-53). Hugo's descriptions of the emperor in Napoleon the small (1852) gives us an image of this kind in relief if we exclude the negatives due to the famous author’s personal repugnance to the emperor. It is no wonder that a glimpse of the quality had already emerged in his youth. The word “genest = genêt” is entirely distinct from “genet”, miniature horse from Spain.

Du muy deser hor mis brave & genest: The construction is as follows: [Un] brave & [brillant comme]genest [sera] mis hor du muy deser, A brave and gorgeous [shall be] placed out of the desert huge barrel [by his domestic, Charles Thelin], the success of his flight having been essentially owing to Thelin, who had prepared a cabriolet for the prince and had obtained the permission from the commander of the castle of his going out of the castle to journey to Saint-Quentin, and the prince in the disguise of a workman accompanying him (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1860, p.84-85). On the other hand, the option: "hor + mis = hormis, except" is not admissible, because the preposition "de" of "du muy" wants necessarily "hor" for the sake of a compound preposition "hor [= hors] de, out of", "hor" being a simple apocope of "hors" with the same pronounciation. Moreover, Nostradamus writes in the evident cases the preposition “hormis, except” as “hors mis” (II-31, II-37 and II-39) or “ormis” (VI-4), which exclude the option “hor mis”.

L’escript d’empereur: The script of an emperor, a pamphlet published in Paris on December 22, 1859, entitled Pope and Congress (Vignois, id.), drafted by his vassal under the instructions of Napoleon III (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p.14). A script, “what was written”, cannot indicate an edict, “what was proclaimed”, and Nostradamus himself, in his Prophecies, distinguishes between the two terms rigorously: except the one (V-72) with the meaning of “publication”, five uses of the term “edict (édit or édict)” signify in the same way “official decrees or orders of a supreme power comparable to the edicts of a monarch" (I-40, II-7, IV-18, V-97, X-945), on the other hand, six examples of the term “script (escrit, escript, escris)” refer to "an engagement document" (IV-57), "an epitaph" (VIII-28), "a description in the book of Fate" (VIII-56), "a consensus document of political parties” (IX-8), "inscriptions of the Rosetta Stone"(IX-32), and "a booklet, which is regarded as attributable to Napoleon III";

Le fenix: = (the) phoenix, a symbol of “Jesus Christ in resurrection” in the Western civilisation under Christianity, a renewal of the old Eastern legend. Here it symbolizes, of course, the pope;

Ce qu’a nul autre n’est: = Ce qui n’est à nul autre, what does not belong to any other, namely, a monopolistic spiritual powers of the pope compared with the temporals of political sovereigns.

Summary:
The script of an emperor the phoenix Seen in the one what does not belong to any other : «Neither the curses of the Vatican nor the wrath of the ultramontanes all over Europe could retard in the least degree the march of events. Although the confederation decided upon at Villafranca and Zurich was never made a fact, owing to the disinclination of Austria and the pope to institute the necessary reform; the neutral attitude maintained by England and France yet materially assisted Italy to realise her dream of national unity. Towards the end of 1859 a pamphlet published in Paris entitled Pope and Congress first startled the world with the thought that it was time the temporal power of the pope should cease, that his rule ought hereafter to be confined to the precincts of Rome itself. This naturally threw the whole Catholic world in an uproar, and elicited from the pope repeated violent denunciations, yet in the course of time the idea became an accomplished fact. Napoleon had never forgotten that the holy father had refused him consecration at the time of his coronation. The union of the middle Italian states with Sardinia was the forerunner of all those “annexations” which was soon to transform completely the character of the peninsula. Napoleon was willing to permit the expansion of the upper Italian kingdom provided Savoy and the countship of Nice be ceded to France. From the time of Cavour's resumption of his place in the ministry in January, Napoleon and the crafty minister exerted every art known to diplomacy to bring about the end they had in view. At last in March, 1860, the popular vote was obtained which gave Savoy and Nice to France and made Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Roman legations a part of the kingdom of Sardinia. The pope excommunicated all who had taken part or even connived at this despoliation of Rome; but the papal bull, once so formidable a weapon, had in the course of time lost much of its early terrors. The 2nd of April witnessed the opening of the first Italian parliament, in which were representatives not only from Sardinia and Lombardy, but from Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and the Roman legations. “ Our fatherland is no longer the Italy of Rome,” declared the crown speech, “ nor of the Middle Ages; neither shall it be the arena wherein shall meet for combat the ambitions of all nations. Now and forever it is the Italy of the Italians.”» (HH, IX, p.606-607)

Discussion:
The interpretation of this quatrain by J.-Ch. de Fontbrune (1980, p.299) is too full of grammatical miskakes to be treated seriously. At first, “auxelle” is not “Latin auxillium, aide (aid), secours (succour)”, and “fornix” is in no way “fornication (fornication)”, for the Latin “fornix” in the sense of a “brothel” is masculine compared with the feminine “fornix” of the text, and the construed text “one brothel upon the other” does not necessarily imply “carnal relations among anyones”. Secondly, “muy (= mui)” is never a “form of the present and the perfect of mouvoir (to move)”, which should be “meu”, “mû” or “mue”, and “muy deser” is not to be falsified into “muy de fer (the movement of iron = S.S.)”. Thirdly, “genest” is not Greek and does not need to be Greek. In the end, the metaphor “phoenix” in its Christian tradition does not fit to an essentially anti-Christian “Mein Kampf” of Hitler he recalls in his analysis.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2012. All rights reserved.

§ 655. Despoliation of the pontifical states

19th century:
§655. Despoliation of the pontifical states (1860): VI-39.

VI-39:
Children of the reign in paternal possession,
Shall be despoiled in order to deliver:
Near by the Lake Trasimene the azure taken,
The troops in hostage because of having too much grown drunk.


(L’enfant du regne par paternelle prinse,
Expolié sera pour delivrer:
Aupres du lac Trasimen l’azur prinse,
La troupe hostaige pour trop fort s’enyvrer.)

Keys to the reading:
Prinse: = Prise (n.f.), possession;

The reign in paternal possession: = The reign of the Roman Pontiff, “pope” being originally “father”;

Children of the reign in paternal possession: The pontifical states in Italy;

Expolier: «Lat. exspoliare, dépouiller entièrement, to cast off entirely» (Ibuki);

L’azur: The blue representing the populated landscape with green grass, i.e., the pontifical states in Middle Italy (near the Lake Trasimene);

L’azur prinse: = L’azur prins (= l’azur pris), the feminine prinse (p.p.) is to rhyme to prinse (n.f.) of the first line;

Grown drunk: Revolutionarily passionate;

Summary:
Children of the reign in paternal possession, Shall be despoiled in order to deliver: Near by the Lake Trasimene the azure taken: « The Mincio became the boundary of Austria in the peninsula, where the various states were to form a great confederation under the presidency of the pope. But all those concerned rejected this plan, and the revolutionary movement continued. The emperor confined himself to preventing Austria from intervening. Then those governments of Parma, Modena, the Roman legations, Tuscany and Naples, which ever since 1814 had been merely lieutenants of Austria, were seen to fall to pieces successively, and Italy, minus Venice and Rome, was about to form a single kingdom, when the emperor thought himself called upon to take a precaution necessary to the security of France; he claimed the price of the assistance he had given and by the Treaty of Turin, March 24th, 1860, obtained the cession to himself of Savoy and the county of Nice (Nizza).» (HH, XIII, p.137)

« Unionist enthusiasm had already burned too high, however, for political or diplomatic schemes to avail against it. All over the land the flag of united Italy was raised, and conjunction demanded with Sardinia. Bologna declared itself free from the pope and invoked the dictatorship of the king of Sardinia. Many other cities of the pontifical state followed this example, indeed the greater part of the pontifical possessions would have fallen away from Rome had not the terrible storming of Perugia by the pope's Swiss guard spread such dismay that Ancona, Ferara, and Ravenna for a while remained true.» (HH, IX, p.604-605)

« Towards the end of 1859 a pamphlet published in Paris entitled Pope and Congress first startled the world with the thought that it was time the temporal power of the pope should cease, that his rule ought hereafter to be confined to the precincts of Rome itself. This naturally threw the whole Catholic world in an uproar, and elicited from the pope repeated violent denunciations, yet in the course of time the idea became an accomplished fact. Napoleon had never forgotten that the holy father had refused him consecration at the time of his coronation. The union of the middle Italian states with Sardinia was the forerunner of all those “annexations” which was soon to transform completely the character of the peninsula. Napoleon was willing to permit the expansion of the upper Italian kingdom provided Savoy and the countship of Nice be ceded to France. From the time of Cavour's resumption of his place in the ministry in January, Napoleon and the crafty minister exerted every art known to diplomacy to bring about the end they had in view. At last in March, 1860, the popular vote was obtained which gave Savoy and Nice to France and made Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Roman legations a part of the kingdom of Sardinia. The 2nd of April witnessed the opening of the first Italian parliament, in which were representatives not only from Sardinia and Lombardy, but from Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and the Roman legations. “ Our fatherland is no longer the Italy of Rome,” declared the crown speech, “ nor of the Middle Ages; neither shall it be the arena wherein shall meet for combat the ambitions of all nations. Now and forever it is the Italy of the Italians.”» (HH, IX, p.606-607)

«Comment le Pape sera-t-il tout à la fois Pontife et Roi ? Comment l’homme de l’Évangile qui pardonne sera-t-il l’homme de la loi qui punit ? Ce n’est ni par la monarchie, ni par la république, ni par le despotisme, ni par la liberté que ce but sera atteint. Le pouvoir du Pape ne peut être qu’un pouvoir paternel; il doit plutôt ressembler à une famille qu’à un État. Ainsi, non-seulement il n’est pas nécessaire que son territoire soit très-étendu, mais nous croyons qu’il est même essentiel qu’il soit restreint. Plus le territoire sera petit, plus le souverain sera grand ! En effet, un grand État implique certaines exigences auxquelles il est impossible que le Pape donne satisfaction. Un grand État voudra vivre politiquement, perfectionner ses institutions, participer au mouvement général du temps, des conquêtes de la science, des progrès de l’esprit humain. Il ne le pourra pas.» (Guéronnière, 1859, p.9-11)

The troops in hostage because of having too much grown drunk: « After the Peace of Villafranca the states south of the Po united under Garibaldi in a military league which had for object the repulsion of all attacks from without and the hindrance of all attempts at restoration on the part of the particularists and reactionists within. Even Bologna and a great part of the Romagna withdrew from the pontifical state and petitioned Victor Emmanuel to take them under his protection. This request was not refused however hot might be the wrath of of the holy father. Under the leadership of D’azeglio the necessary steps towards union with Sardinia were taken throughout Romagna, and by New Year of 1860, a specially established ministry deliberated on the affairs of the new-fledged state of middle Italy, to which was given the name of Emilia, from the old Via Æmilia of Rome.”» (HH, IX, p.606)
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2012. All rights reserved.

§ 656. Fall of Sicily and Naples; Kingdom of Italy

19th century:
§656. Fall of Sicily and Naples; Kingdom of Italy (1859-1861): VIII-8.

VIII-8:
Near linterne within closed tuns,
Chivasso shall use a ruse because of the eagle,
The broken elite himself and his followers enclosed,
In Turin an abduction; a bride taken away.


(Pres de linterne dans de tonnes fermes,
Chivaz fera pour l’aigle la menee,
L’esleu cassé luy ses gens enfermez,
Dedans Turin rapt espouse emmenee.)

Keys to the reading:
The construction, being dislocated, is to be remade as follows: “Chivasso shall use a ruse near linterne, The broken elite himself and his followers enclosed within closed tuns”.

linterne: = Linterne or Literne, Lat. Liternum, on the south border of the lake Lago di Pátria in Campagna (GeoCenter, Euro Atlas Italy, p.70, Pa103);

Near linterne: In the kingdom of Naples;

Chivasso: Represnts the kingdom of Sardinia as one of her cities;

The eagle: The emperor Napoleon III (as is Napoleon I in §413,III-37);

The elite: King Francis II of Naples, “elite” being “a constitutional king” (cf. §352,IX-20; §366,VIII-87);

An abduction, a bride taken away: A figure of expressing a marriage of covenience.

Summary:
Chivasso shall use a ruse Near linterne: « Garibaldi drives the Bourbons from Sicily: With the Peace of Zurich and the “annexation” that followed closed the first act in the drama of Italy's freedom. The way had been paved thereto by the conviction that had gained ground among the cultivated classes since 1848 that only by a union of the whole country under the constitutional monarchy of Sardinia could any stable and permanent national position be obtained. To accomplish this end all the revolutionary and nationalist forces made common cause, and chose as their scene of action the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, which had lately passed into the hands of Francis II, the inexperienced son of Ferdinand II. The French and Russian ambassadors had in vain endeavoured, after the Peace of Villafranca, to bring about an alliance between Naples and Piedmont, thinking thus to frustrate all the efforts of the revolutionists; but the policy of tradition, which persisted in placing trust in Austria, prevailed even with the new king. By his refusal to espouse the cause of Italian unity Francis II precipitated the fall of the Bourbon dynasty and the dissolution of the Neapolitan-SiciIian kingdom. The project of attacking a kingdom that had at its command a well-organised military force of 150,000 men was indeed a bold one; but tyranny had prepared the ground for the operations of the secret societies, and the indifference with which the warning of the French and Russian ambassadors were received, together with the dismissal of the Swiss mercenaries, robbed the throne of its strongest and most trustworthy support at the precise moment when Garibaldi and his associates had planned to strike a decisive blow.

On the 6th of May Garibaldi set sail with 1,062 volunteers from Genoa without suffering any hinderance from the Sardinian authorities, and on the 11th of May landed at Marsala, on the west coast of Sicily. To the protest of the king of Naples and of the German courts against the impunity allowed a band of “sea-robbers,” Turin made reply that since the expedition was a private enterprise undertaken by Garibalai and his associates, the Piedmontese authorities had no right to interfere. Before Garibaldi’s departure, however, Cavour had written to Persano: “We must support the revolution, but it must have all the appearance, in the eyes of Europe, a volunteer enterprise.” After Garibaldi had disembarked with his immediate followers he withdrew to the mountains and gathered about him, near Salemi, the scattered fragments of his volunteer corps. On the 14th of May, when the number of men had increased to 4,000 he issued a proclamatin in which, in the name of Victcor Emmanuel, king of Italy, he declared himself dictator over the realm of Sicily.

After several successful encounters Garibaldi pressed towards the capital by way of Misilmeri, keeping his confederates informed of his movements by means of watch-fire at night. On the 27th of May he stood before Palermo and immediately gave the signal for attack. In a few hours the city, whose population had risen with one accord to support the invaders, had nearly passed into the hands of Garibaldi, when General Lanza, who had been despatched to the island by the young king with an important force, caused the city to be so heavily bombarded by the citadel and ships of war in the harbour, that the next day more than half of it lay in ruins. By the intermediary of the English admiral a truce was arranged which ended with the withdrawal of the Neapolitan troops and ships, and the delivering over the city to the revolutionists. Almost incalculable were the effects of these events in Palermo. By them the monarchy was shaken to its base and the name of Garibaldi carried into every corner of the world. At the court of Naples confidence was totally destroyed. In vain the king sought to prop his tottering throne by restoring the constitution of 1848 [the broken elite].

Six weeks after the victory at Palermo the “dictator” Garibaldi set sail for Messina without having fulfilled the expectations of Turin that he would announce the annexation of Sicily to Sardinia. In three days he took the fortress of Milazzo, and shortly after the commander of Messina effected a truce by the terms of which the city, with the exception of the citadel, was to be evacuated by the Neapolitan troops. Europe learned with astonishment of the first rapid successes of the great agitator, but his exploits on the mainland were to excite still greater wonder. His further progress through the southern part of the peninsula was one long triumph; nowhere was resolute opposition offered him. On the 5th of Sepember he arrived at Eboli, not far from Salerno. The very name of Garibaldi exercised a potent spell over the people; to them he appeared as the instrument of God on earth, the discharger of a providential mission. On the 6th of September Francis II left Naples and withdrew, with the 40,000 men who still remained to him, to the fortresses of Gaeta and Capua. The day following Garibaldi made his formal entrance into Naples in the midst of the acclamations of the people. He established a provisory government, but still deferred sending news of annexation to Piedmont. The leaders of the radical parties had filled the popular demi-god with distrust against the policy of Cavour and it was not until he was joined by Pallavicino, the martyr of Spielberg, that he again made common cause with the unionists. The foreign powers preserved a strictly neutral attitude throughout, and Napoleon's efforts to effect the united intervention of France and England failed before the determined resistance of Palmerston and Russell. While these events were in progress the excitement of the Italian people reached fever-heat. The fall of the Bourbon dynasty in Naples, which was now seen to be imminent, would make the union of the Apennine peninsula under the sceptre of Victor Emmanuel almost an accomplished fact. The boast of Garibaldi that from the Quirinal itself, its national capital, he would announce the birth of the United Italian kingdom, found an echo in the hearts of the people who made it apparent in every way that they would be satisfied with no less a victory.» (HH, IX, p.607-609)

Because of the eagle: « But the papal government at Rome opposed threats of excommunication to effort of the French emperor towards reform, and a cry of horror arose from the devout all over Europe at the danger to which religion would be exposed should there be any further encroachments upon the temporal power of the pope. There were thus but two ways left open to Napoleon; either to allow the Italian revolution to have free play, in which case Garibaldi would without doubt make an end of the temporal supremacy of the pope and select Rome as the capital of the Italian kingdom, or to permit an alliance between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel whereby a natural limit would be placed to the revolution, and the danger that Mazzini and the “Action” party might gain the upper hand would be removed. Napoleon chose the latter course. There is little doubt of his having sent word to the king that the latter might add Umbria and the Marches to his realm, and send his forces to occupy Naples provided he would leave Rome to the occupation of the French.» (HH, IX, p.609)

Chivasso shall use a ruse because of the eagle Near linterne: « However this may be, in the early days of September two divisions of the Sardinian army, under the minister of war Fanti and General Cialdini, drew near the border of the papal states. The entrance of the Piedmontese troops was the signal for a general uprising of the people. In Pesaro, Montefeltre, Sinigaglia, and Urbino provisory governments were established, and deputations were sent to Turin. The Sardinian field-marshal laid before General Lamoricière and the papal court the demand that the people should be allowed to follow their will in all the papal states; this being rejected with indignation General Fanti advanced into Umbria, while Cialdini proceeded to the occupation of the Marches. On both sides great bravery was shown, but the papal troops were finally defeated and put to rout. Lamoricière fled with only a handful of followers, to Ancona which was obliged to surrender, after having been besieged by Cialdini on the land side and by the Sardinian admiral Persano from the sea. A few days later Victor Emmanuel arrived in Ancona and assumed command in person of all his forces. The intention of the king in taking over the command of the army had been to effect, in conjunction with Garibaldi, the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. The attempt on the part of the volunteers to press forward as far as Capua had been balked by their defeat at Cajazzo. Although the open and straightforward revolutionist leader had little liking for Cavour, the man of devious ways and unidealistic views, he felt himself drawn by many common qualities towards the king in whom he beheld the “liberator” of Italy. Thus it was not difficult for his friend Pallavicino to induce him to adopt for his watchword, “ One undivided Italy under the sceptre of the house of Savoy.” When Victor Emmanuel took up his position at the head of the united troops in Sessia, Garibaldi laid at his feet the dictatorship of Naples, and transferred to him the mission of making Italy free and giving her a place among the nations of the earth. “ I am ready to obey you. Sire,” he said; then, after riding into Naples at the side of the king and commending his followers to the monarch's favour and protection, he retired to a small property he possessed on the lonely island of Capri, refusing all honours and rewards. This was the greatest moment in the agitated life of the Italian patriot, the one in which he achieved the conquest of himself. From now on, the war operations assumed a more definite character. After the capture of Capua by the Piedmontese and Garibaldians, King Francis, with the remnant of his best troops, was driven into the fort in Gaeta [within closed tuns], while Victor Emmanuel, after a visit to Palermo, took possession of the double kingdom of Sicily and disbanded the Garibaldian troops, dismissing some of them to their homes and taking others into the Sardinian army. Gaeta had not become the last bulwark of the kingdom of Naples and the Bourbon dynasty. The valorous defence of the seaport town, during which the unfortunate young queen Maria of Bavaria, displayed remarkable heroism, was afterward to constitute the one praiseworthy period in the short regency of Francis II. The appeals for help of the beleaguered Bourbon king to the different powers of Europe failing to bring about any armed intervention, and his manifestos addressed to the Sicilian people resulting in no uprisings in his favour, lack of food and ammunition finally compelled the king to capitulate. On the 13th of February, 1861, he embarked on a French ship for Rome where he resided for the next ten years, constantly supported by the hope that his partisans in Naples would bring about a counter-revolution which would reinstate him on the throne. The following month the citadel of Messina also surrendered to General Cialdini. With this event the kingdom of both Sicilies came to an end, and the supremacy of the Bourbons was forever destroyed in the beautiful peninsula. On the 18th of February, King Victor Emmanuel assembled in Turin about his throne representatives from all those states which acknowleged his rule, and with their joyful acquiescence adopted for himself and his legitimate descendants the title of “ king of Italy.”(Law of March 17th 1861.) The protests of the dethroned princes as well as of the pope and the emperor of Austria were received as so many empty words.

In this manner the impossible had been accomplished; the various states of Italy with the exception of Austrian Venice in the northwest and the papal city of Rome with its surroundings, had been united into a single kingdom. Cavour's statecraft, Victor Emmanuel’s firmness and decision, Garibaldi's patriot devotion, the political tact shown by the educated classes, had all contributed to bring about the wonderful result; and now that it had been brought about, equally powerful factors would be needed to make permanent the newly acquired possessions of freedom and unity. A safe and satisfactory solution of the “ Roman question “ could be attained only by gradually accustoming the Catholic world to the idea of the separation of the spiritual power from the temporal. According to Cavour’s idea the papacy should be relieved from all obligations of worldly rule that it might the better achieve the full glory of its special mission — the spiritual guidance of Catholic Christendom. “ A free church is a free state,” was the watchword of the question as understood by Cavour; but an offer which he made to the pope embodying those conditions was indignantly refused; it would be indeed a work of time to reconcile the Catholic world to the idea of a church without territorial possessions.» (HH, IX, p.609-611)

The broken elite himself and his followers enclosed within closed tuns: « L’ami de la Religion (February 25, 1861) The casemate where the unfortunate Francis II and his courageous spouse dwelled was composed of a series of vaults like the cells of a convent. It was situated on the line of defences, on the marine side. All being in amphitheatre, immense beams were placed upon all the openings in order to parry the burst of projectiles.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.124)

In Turin an abduction; a bride taken away: « [January 21, 1859] It was further proposed that the bond between the two reigning houses should be made still firmer by the betrothal of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte with Clotilde, the daughter of Victor Emmanuel. According to Bulle, Cavour had higher plans for Clotilde's marriage, but yielded for diplomacy's sake.» (HH, IX, p.603)

Discussion:
J.-Ch. de Fontbrune (1999, p.39) paraphrases this quatrain as follows: “When peoples were enclosed in the fortifications near Linternum (Naples), after Chivasso, the Eagle shall made his intrigue (coup d’Etat of Brumaire 18). The elite of the Chuch (Pius VI) shall be destituted, taken away and brought to Turin and his followers (cardinals) imprisoned.” But this interpretation does not match the construction and the terms of the quatrain. First, it is not the Eagle, but Chivasso that shall make its intrigue for the eagle, and this intrigue does not seem to take place in France, but in Italy. Moreover, there is no mention of “After Chivasso”, nor of the “peoples enclosed in the fortifications” in the poem, because he preferred to identify the term “ses gens enfermez (his peoples enclosed)” as “the cardinals (of Pius VI) imprisoned”. In fact, the cardinals are not to be mentioned historically and in Nostradamus, too, as “ses gens (his peoples, the peoples of a Pope)”. Finally, he neglects the term “fermes (closed)” of “de tonnes fermes (closed tuns)”, which does not mean “enfermez (imprisoned)”, but “shut, closed (window, gate)” (Dubois), just as “immense beams were placed upon all the openings in order to parry the burst of projectiles.» (Torné-Chavigny, id.)”. And only one critique of the interpretation of this qautrain by R. Pévost (1999, p.237) is sufficient to destroy all its validity, because his pretention of the event “the kidnapping of Doña Maria in Gaeta by Barberousse” does not match the text: “In Turin an abduction; a bride taken away”, which is perfectly fitting to our analysis, Turin having the royal court of Sardinia, the residence of Princess Clotilde.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2012. All rights reserved.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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