§657 - §661.

19th century: §657 - §661.

§657. Kingdom of Sardinia into Kingdom of Italy (1861): X-6.
X-6:
Sardon Nemans shall so highly overflow,
That they shall think Deucalion to occur again,
Into the colossus the greater part shall flee,
Vesta sepulcher the extinct fire shall appear.


(Sardon Nemans si hault desborderont,
Qu’on cuidera Deucalion renaistre,
Dans le collosse la plus par fuyront,
Vesta sepulchre feu estaint apparoistre.)

Notes:
Sardon: Sardinia, from Gk. Σαρδών, Sardōn, Sardinia (Pillon). Cf. “Sardon, Mauris...” (§666,VIII-6). Every student of Nostradamus, from Jaubert (1656, p.341) to Clébert (2003, p.1067), has accepted wrong “Sardon” as “Gardon”, notwithstanding the unanimous text “Sardon” of the editions;

Nemans: Nîmes, from Lat. Nemausensium civ., city of Nemausus; Colonia Augusta Nemausus, Colony Augusta Nemausus (L. et A. Mirot, 1980). Here it is a synecdoche for “France”;

Deucalion: A metaphor for troubles, civil wars or revolutions as “wave, water, deluge” (Ionescu, 1976, p.464);

The colossus: The kingdom of Sardinia, the only independent power in Italy in the middle of the 19th century;

La plus par: La plupart;

The greater part: A greater part of the numerous small states of Italy;

Vesta: In Roman mythology a goddess of hearth and its fire; the sacred “vestal fire” was burning without interruption upon its alter symbolizing the state (Koine).

Sardon Nemans shall so highly overflow, That they shall think Deucalion to occur again, Into the colossus the greater part shall flee: « There were but two ways left open to Napoleon; either to allow the Italian revolution to have free play, in which case Garibaldi would without doubt make an end of the temporal supremacy of the pope and select Rome as the capital of the Italian kingdom, or to permit an alliance between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel whereby a natural limit would be placed to the revolution, and the danger that Mazzini and the “Action” party might gain the upper hand would be removed. Napoleon chose the latter course. There is little doubt of his having sent word to the king that the latter might add Umbria and the Marches to his realm, and send his forces to occupy Naples provided he would leave Rome to the occupation of the French. However this may be, in the early days of September two divisions of the Sardinian army, under the minister of war Fanti and General Cialdini, drew near the border of the papal states. The entrance of the Piedmontese troops was the signal for a general uprising of the people. In Pesaro, Montefeltre, Sinigaglia, and Urbino provisory governments were established, and deputations were sent to Turin. The Sardinian field-marshal laid before General Lamoricière and the papal court the demand that the people should be allowed to follow their will in all the papal states; this being rejected with indignation General Fanti advanced into Umbria, while Cialdini proceeded to the occupation of the Marches. On both sides great bravery was shown, but the papal troops were finally defeated and put to rout. Lamoricière fled with only a handful of followers, to Ancona which was obliged to surrender, after having been besieged by Cialdini on the land side and by the Sardinian admiral Persano from the sea. A few days later Victor Emmanuel arrived in Ancona and assumed command in person of all his forces. The intention of the king in taking over the command of the army had been to effect, in conjunction with Garibaldi, the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. Although the open and straightforward revolutionist leader had little liking for Cavour, the man of devious ways and unidealistic views, he felt himself drawn by many common qualities towards the king in whom he beheld the “liberator” of Italy. Thus it was not difficult for his friend Pallavicino to induce him to adopt for his watchword, “ One undivided Italy under the sceptre of the house of Savoy.” When Victor Emmanuel took up his position at the head of the united troops in Sessia, Garibaldi laid at his feet the dictatorship of Naples, and transferred to him the mission of making Italy free and giving her a place among the nations of the earth. Victor Emmanuel, after a visit to Palermo, took possession of the double kingdom of Sicily and disbanded the Garibaldian troops, dismissing some of them to their homes and taking others into the Sardinian army. The appeals for help of the beleaguered Bourbon king to the different powers of Europe failing to bring about any armed intervention, and his manifestos addressed to the Sicilian people resulting in no uprisings in his favour, lack of food and ammunition finally compelled the king to capitulate. The following month the citadel of Messina also surrendered to General Cialdini. With this event the kingdom of both Sicilies came to an end, and the supremacy of the Bourbons was forever destroyed in the beautiful peninsula. On the 18th of February, King Victor Emmanuel assembled in Turin about his throne representatives from all those states which acknowleged his rule, and with their joyful acquiescence adopted for himself and his legitimate descendants the title of “ king of Italy.”(Law of March 17th 1861)» (HH, IX, p.609-610)

Vesta sepulcher the extinct fire shall appear: « In this manner the impossible had been accomplished; the various states of Italy with the exception of Austrian Venice in the northwest and the papal city of Rome with its surroundings, had been united into a single kingdom. Cavour's statecraft, Victor Emmanuel’s firmness and decision, Garibaldi's patriot devotion, the political tact shown by the educated classes, had all contributed to bring about the wonderful result; and now that it had been brought about, equally powerful factors would be needed to make permanent the newly acquired possessions of freedom and unity. A safe and satisfactory solution of the “ Roman question “ could be attained only by gradually accustoming the Catholic world to the idea of the separation of the spiritual power from the temporal. According to Cavour’s idea the papacy should be relieved from all obligations of worldly rule that it might the better achieve the full glory of its special mission — the spiritual guidance of Catholic Christendom. “ A free church is a free state,” was the watchword of the question as understood by Cavour; but an offer which he made to the pope embodying those conditions was indignantly refused; it would be indeed a work of time to reconcile the Catholic world to the idea of a church without territorial possessions.» (HH, IX, p.610-611)

§658. Ferdinand II & Francis II, Oppressors in Naples (1854-1861): VI-81.
VI-81:
Weeps, cries & complaint, howl fearfulness,
Inhuman heart, a cruel & chilled king:
Leman, the major islands of Genoa,
Blood shall discharge, colhunger, mercy on none.


(Pleurs, cris & plainct, hurlemen effraieur,
Cœur inhumain, cruel, noir, & transy:
Leman, les isles de Gennes les majeurs,
Sang espancher, frofaim à nul mercy.)

Notes:
Noir: An anagram of Roi, King (Torné-Chavigny,1861,p.13). In fact, of 27 examples of this word, 21 (= 77.8%) are for king as Philippe II (3 times ), François II, Charles IX, Henri IV, Louis XVI, Napoléon Ier (6 times), Louis XVIII, Charles X, Napoléon III, François-Joseph Ier et al., and only 6 are for the color black (I-77, VI-10, VI-36, VII-14, IX-60, X-91);

Leman: representing Savoy in this context;

The major islands of Genoa: Sardinia and Sicily, Genoa representing the kingdom of Sardinia and Sicily being to be incoporated there;

Colhunger: A neologism of Nostradamus frofaim, probably composed of froid (cold) + faim (hunger);

Weeps, cries & complaint, howl fearfulness, Inhuman heart, a cruel & chilled king: « Most terrible of all was the situation in Naples and Sicily, that part of the world fashioned by nature to be a paradise, but turned by man into a place of damnation. Ferdinand II made use of the years of European reaction to stamp out every inclination toward freedom and equal rights among his people, to fill the prisons with his political adversaries and to carry on all over his realm, a rule of despotism in which the spy-system, and judicial and official tyranny came to full luxuriance of growth. The king witnessed from his balcony the placing in chains by a special flogging-committee, of the political prisoners who numbered, it is said, from first to last 22,000. In November [1856] the former member of parliament, Baron Bentioigna, headed an insurrection to force the readoption of the constitution of 1812, but he was defeated by the king's troops and afterwards shot with many of his companions. In December the life of the king was attempted by a Mazzinist soldier. Armed bands, imited in a secret society called the “Camorra”, perpetrated robbery and murder through all the land. Not daring to remain longer in the capital the king moved with his family to the castle of Caserta, which he kept closely guarded, allowing entrance to none but his most intimate friends. The presence of Mazzini in Genoa in the summer of 1857 brought the excitement over the whole peninsula up to fever-heat and led to several serious attempts at insurrection in Leghorn, Naples, and Capri. These insurrections were suppressed, but the causes of the discontent still remained, and the rebellious spirit was only the more ready to assert itself again at the first favorable opportunity.» (HH, IX, p.602)

Leman, the major islands of Genoa: «The propositions of Cavour, though not given the sanction of the congress, were made the programme of all the reform parties in the Italian peninsula. Piedmont which numbered, including Savoy and the island from which the kingdom took its name, scarcely five million inhabitants, could hope to form one member of the great Italian federation only after it had succeeded in breaking the rule and influence of Austria. All attempts to free Italy by force of arms having hitherto met with ill-success it was seen that Austria must first be spiritually undermined and weakened before recourse was again had to the sword. When Austria, setting its faith according to custom in the power of the bayonet and the influence of the clergy, sought to keep the people in subjection by means of spiritual pressure and a carefully organised police, Sardinia followed exactly the opposite course and weakened the power of the clergy, introduced greater political freedom and endeavoured in every way to win the confidence of the Italian people. Reforms were instituted in the system of taxation, foreign traffic and commerce were encouraged, the number of convents was reduced, and freedom of the press was allowed. In all these measures Cavour, as minister of commerce, was the moving spirit. The army was strengthened in important points, the fortification of Alexandria was begun, and the land defences all over the kingdom were placed in a state of readiness. In March, 1854, the despotic voluptuary Duke Charles III of Parma, who hated democrats and patriots and mistrusted all people of culture, was murdered in the open street, and two years later the prison-director Cereali, and the war-auditor Bordi, both objects of popular hatred, were assassinated in the same manner.» (HH, IX, p.602)

Leman, the major islands of Genoa, Blood shall discharge, colhunger, mercy on none: « [Garibaldi drives the Bourbons from Sicily] With the Peace of Zurich and the “annexation” that followed closed the first act in the drama of Italy's freedom. The way had been paved thereto by the conviction that had gained ground among the cultivated classes since 1848 that only by a union of the whole country under the constitutional monarchy of Sardinia could any stable and permanent national position be obtained. To accomplish this end all the revolutionary and nationalist forces made common cause, and chose as their scene of action the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, which had lately passed into the hands of Francis II, the inexperienced son of Ferdinand II. By his refusal to espouse the cause of Italian unity Francis II precipitated the fall of the Bourbon dynasty and the dissolution of the Neapolitan-SiciIian kingdom. The project of attacking a kingdom that had at its command a well-organised military force of 150,000 men was indeed a bold one; but tyranny had prepared the ground for the operations of the secret societies, and the indifference with which the warning of the French and Russian ambassadors were received, together with the dismissal of the Swiss mercenaries, robbed the throne of its strongest and most trustworthy support at the precise moment when Garibaldi and his associates had planned to strike a decisive blow.

On the 6th of May Garibaldi set sail with 1,062 volunteers from Genoa without suffering any hinderance from the Sardinian authorities, and on the 11th of May landed at Marsala, on the west coast of Sicily. To the protest of the king of Naples and of the German courts against the impunity allowed a band of “sea-robbers,” Turin made reply that since the expedition was a private enterprise undertaken by Garibalai and his associates, the Piedmontese authorities had no right to interfere. Before Garibaldi’s departure, however, Cavour had written to Persano: “We must support the revolution, but it must have all the appearance, in the eyes of Europe, a volunteer enterprise.” After Garibaldi had disembarked with his immediate followers he withdrew to the mountains and gathered about him, near Salemi, the scattered fragments of his volunteer corps. On the 14th of May, when the number of men had increased to 4,000 he issued a proclamatin in which, in the name of Victcor Emmanuel, king of Italy, he declared himself dictator over the realm of Sicily.

After several successful encounters Garibaldi pressed towards the capital by way of Misilmeri, keeping his confederates informed of his movements by means of watch-fire at night. On the 27th of May he stood before Palermo and immediately gave the signal for attack. In a few hours the city, whose population had risen with one accord to support the invaders, had nearly passed into the hands of Garibaldi, when General Lanza, who had been despatched to the island by the young king with an important force, caused the city to be so heavily bombarded by the citadel and ships of war in the harbour, that the next day more than half of it lay in ruins. By the intermediary of the English admiral a truce was arranged which ended with the withdrawal of the Neapolitan troops and ships, and the delivering over the city to the revolutionists. Almost incalculable were the effects of these events in Palermo. By them the monarchy was shaken to its base and the name of Garibaldi carried into every corner of the world. At the court of Naples confidence was totally destroyed. In vain the king sought to prop his tottering throne by restoring the constitution of 1848.

Six weeks after the victory at Palermo the “dictator” Garibaldi set sail for Messina without having fulfilled the expectations of Turin that he would announce the annexation of Sicily to Sardinia. In three days he took the fortress of Milazzo, and shortly after the commander of Messina effected a truce by the terms of which the city, with the exception of the citadel, was to be evacuated by the Neapolitan troops. Europe learned with astonishment of the first rapid successes of the great agitator, but his exploits on the mainland were to excite still greater wonder. His further progress through the southern part of the peninsula was one long triumph; nowhere was resolute opposition offered him. On the 5th of Sepember he arrived at Eboli, not far from Salerno. The very name of Garibaldi exercised a potent spell over the people; to them he appeared as the instrument of God on earth, the discharger of a providential mission. On the 6th of September Francis II left Naples and withdrew, with the 40,000 men who still remained to him, to the fortresses of Gaeta and Capua. The day following Garibaldi made his formal entrance into Naples in the midst of the acclamations of the people. He established a provisory government, but still deferred sending news of annexation to Piedmont. The leaders of the radical parties had filled the popular demi-god with distrust against the policy of Cavour and it was not until he was joined by Pallavicino, the martyr of Spielberg, that he again made common cause with the unionists. The foreign powers preserved a strictly neutral attitude throughout, and Napoleon's efforts to effect the united intervention of France and England failed before the determined resistance of Palmerston and Russell. While these events were in progress the excitement of the Italian people reached fever-heat. The fall of the Bourbon dynasty in Naples, which was now seen to be imminent, would make the union of the Apennine peninsula under the sceptre of Victor Emmanuel almost an accomplished fact. The boast of Garibaldi that from the Quirinal itself, its national capital, he would announce the birth of the United Italian kingdom, found an echo in the hearts of the people who made it apparent in every way that they would be satisfied with no less a victory.» (HH, IX, p.607-609)

« In the early days of September two divisions of the Sardinian army, under the minister of war Fanti and General Cialdini, drew near the border of the papal states. The entrance of the Piedmontese troops was the signal for a general uprising of the people. In Pesaro, Montefeltre, Sinigaglia, and Urbino provisory governments were established, and deputations were sent to Turin. The Sardinian field-marshal laid before General Lamoricière and the papal court the demand that the people should be allowed to follow their will in all the papal states; this being rejected with indignation General Fanti advanced into Umbria, while Cialdini proceeded to the occupation of the Marches. On both sides great bravery was shown, but the papal troops were finally defeated and put to rout. Lamoricière fled with only a handful of followers, to Ancona which was obliged to surrender, after having been besieged by Cialdini on the land side and by the Sardinian admiral Persano from the sea. A few days later Victor Emmanuel arrived in Ancona and assumed command in person of all his forces. The intention of the king in taking over the command of the army had been to effect, in conjunction with Garibaldi, the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. The attempt on the part of the volunteers to press forward as far as Capua had been balked by their defeat at Cajazzo. Although the open and straightforward revolutionist leader had little liking for Cavour, the man of devious ways and unidealistic views, he felt himself drawn by many common qualities towards the king in whom he beheld the “liberator” of Italy. Thus it was not difficult for his friend Pallavicino to induce him to adopt for his watchword, “ One undivided Italy under the sceptre of the house of Savoy.” When Victor Emmanuel took up his position at the head of the united troops in Sessia, Garibaldi laid at his feet the dictatorship of Naples, and transferred to him the mission of making Italy free and giving her a place among the nations of the earth. “ I am ready to obey you. Sire,” he said; then, after riding into Naples at the side of the king and commending his followers to the monarch's favour and protection, he retired to a small property he possessed on the lonely island of Capri, refusing all honours and rewards. This was the greatest moment in the agitated life of the Italian patriot, the one in which he achieved the conquest of himself. From now on, the war operations assumed a more definite character. After the capture of Capua by the Piedmontese and Garibaldians, King Francis, with the remnant of his best troops, was driven into the fort in Gaeta, while Victor Emmanuel, after a visit to Palermo, took possession of the double kingdom of Sicily. Gaeta had not become the last bulwark of the kingdom of Naples and the Bourbon dynasty. The valorous defence of the seaport town, during which the unfortunate young queen Maria of Bavaria, displayed remarkable heroism, was afterward to constitute the one praiseworthy period in the short regency of Francis II. The appeals for help of the beleaguered Bourbon king to the different powers of Europe failing to bring about any armed intervention, and his manifestos addressed to the Sicilian people resulting in no uprisings in his favour, lack of food and ammunition finally compelled the king to capitulate. On the 13th of February, 1861, he embarked on a French ship for Rome where he resided for the next ten years. On the 18th of February, King Victor Emmanuel assembled in Turin about his throne representatives from all those states which acknowleged his rule, and with their joyful acquiescence adopted for himself and his legitimate descendants the title of “ king of Italy.” (Law of March 17th 1861)» (HH, IX, p.609-610).

§659. Ferdinand II deceased (1859); Francis II expelled (1861): V-21.
V-21:
Because of the decease of the Latin monarch,
Those whom he shall hold by his reign delivered:
Fire shall flare, the booty divided,
The public death to the bold and daring.


(Par le trespas du monarque latin,
Ceulx qu'il aura par regne secouruz:
Le feu luyra, divisé le butin,
La mort publique aux hardis incoruz.)

According to a general idea of Vignois (1910, p.253) about this quatrain, we explain it as follows:
Notes:
Latin: Of 7 usages of the word, 5 including this case refer to Latium, the middle Italy (Naples: I-83, V-21), Italy itself (V-63) or Italians (X-59) or people of papal counties in France (IX-70), 1 to Latin America (II-5. Cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.479) and 1 to Roumania, a country of Latin people (V-50. Cf. Ionescu, id., p.577);

The Latin monarch: That of the kingdom of Naples Ferdinand II (1830-1859);

Those... delivered: Being freed from their tyranny (cf. §658,VI-8: Inhuman heart, a cruel & chilled king);

Fire shall flare: Francis II (1859-1861) continues the oppressive policy of his father against the Italian unionists;

The booty divided: Peoples of the kingdom of Naples to be conquered by the Italian unionists are divided into the pros and the cons;

The public death to the bold and daring: = the political death to the cons headed by Francis II who went into exile in Rome where he lived another ten years.

Les hardis incoruz: = Les hardis & incoruz;

Incoruz: = Encourus, Those who exposed themselves to politico-military risks.

§660. Francis-Joseph I; Count of Cavour; Napoleon III (1848-1859): VIII-31.
VIII-31:
The first great fruit of the prince of Pesquiere,
But then shall come a very cruel & malign one,
Inside Venice he shall lose his proud glory
And be put to trouble by a more joyful Celin.


(Premier grand fruit le prince de Pesquiere
Mais puis viendra bien & cruel malin,
Dedans Venise perdra sa gloire fiere
Et mys à mal par plus joyue Celin.)

Notes:
Premier grand fruit le prince de Pesquiere: Le prince is in the case of regime (cas-régime, oblique case) equal to of the prince (cf. Shimaoka,p.11);

The prince of Pesquiere: Francis-Joseph I, Emperor of Austria (1848-1916), Pesquiere (Peschiera del Garda) being one of the Austrian quadrilateral fortifications of Venetia (Verona, Mantua, Legnago and Peschiera) (cf. HH, IX, p.599);

The first great fruit of the prince of Pesquiere: His first grand victory against Charles-Albert of Sardinia: «On the 25th of July [1848], on a hot summer day Count Radetzky gained a victory at Custozza which established Austria’s military glory in the most brilliant fashion.» (HH, id.)

A very cruel & malign one: Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour (1810-1861), malign in Nostradamus being « the chacacter of a man of ruse and fineness, an intelligent» (Petit Robert), i.e., a statesman. « Cavour, the man of devious ways and unidealistic views » (HH, IX, p.610) « The count Camillo Benso di Cavour had been born in 1810, two years later than Mazzini. He had not yet entered upon his ministerial career, but was writing articles for the Risorgimento, which at Turin opposed the Mazzinistic journal Concordia, and was devoting himself to political and economical studies. It is impossible to speak of Mazzini and Cavour without remembering the third great regenerator of Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi. At this date he was in exile; but a few years later he returned, and began his career of popular deliverance in Lombardy. Mazzini the prophet, Garibaldi the knight-errant, and Cavour the statesman, of Italian independence, were all natives of the kingdom of Sardinia. But their several positions in it were so different as to account in no small measure for the very divergent parts they played in the coming drama. Mazzini was a native of Genoa, which ill tolerated the enforced rule of Turin. Graribaldi came from Nice, and was a child of the people. Cavour was born in the midst of that stiff aristocraticul society of old Piedmont which has been described so vividly by D'Azeglio in his Ricordi. The Piedmontese nobles had the virtues and the defects of English country squires in the last century. Loyal, truthful, brave, hard-headed, tough in resistance, obstinately prejudiced, they made excellent soldiers, and were devoted servants of the crown. Moreover, they hid beneath their stolid exterior greater political capacity than the more genial and brilliant inhabitants of southern and central Italy.
Cavour came of this race and understood it. But he was a man of exceptional quality. He had the genius of statesmanship — a practical sense of what could be done, combined with rare dexterity in doing it, fine diplomatic and parliamentary tact, and noble courage in the hour of need. Without the enthusiasm, amounting to the passion of a new religion, which Mazzini inspired, without Garibaldi’s brilliant achievements, and the idolatry excited by this pure-hearted hero in the breasts of all who fought with him and felt his sacred fire, there is little doubt that Cavour would not have found the creation of United Italy possible. But if Cavour had not been there to win the confidence, support, and sympathy of Europe, if he had not been recognised by the body of the nation as a man whose work was solid and whose sense was just in all emergencies, Mazzini's efforts would have run to waste in questionable insurrections, and Garibaldi's feats of arms must have added but one chapter more to the history of unproductive patriotism. While, therefore, we recognise the part played by each of these great men in the liberation of their country, and while we willingly ignore their differences and disputes, it is Cavour whom we must honour with the title of the maker of United Italy.» (HH, IX, p.590-591);

Joyue: Most probably joyeux, Merry, joyful;

A more joyful Celin: Napoleon III, Celin being a variant of Selin, which means in Nostradamus by virtue of its resemblance to Selene (Σελήνη), the Greek goddess of the Moon (= Diana): 1° Diane de Poitiers, elder mistress of Henry II (II-79, VI-58), 2° Henry II himself (IV-77, VI-27, VIII-54), 3° his wife Catherine de Médicis (VI-78), 4° the dynasty of the last Valois (VI-42, X-53), 5° the Bay of Biscay shaped like a crescent moon (I-94, II-1, IV-23, V-35; cf. Leoni, 1961, p.261) and C of Celin refers to Cavour, therefore, Celin may indicate a French top leader allied with Cavour, that is to say, Napoleon III. In fact, « Napoleon III no longer gave an impression of, as in the early days of his presidency, a dull and indifferent uprooted adventurer, and became acquainted with France and had confidence in the future. He used to talk little and listen without saying anything, but those who approched him found him gentle, affable and kind, and with simple ways and language. Hübner in 1853 wrote that he "knows how to be charming when he wants and very talkative when it is pleasing for him to be out of his habitual solemnity".» (Seignobos, 1921a, p.245).

Inside Venice he [the prince of Pesquiere] shall lose his proud glory And be put to trouble by a more joyful Celin: « After the brilliant affair of Montebello, which defeated an attempted surprise on the part of the Austrians, the Franco-Piedmontese army concentrated round Alessandria; then by a bold and skilful movement turned the right of the Austrians, who had already passed the Ticino, and compelled them to recross that river. Caught between the army corps of General MacMahon and the guard at Magenta, the Austrians lost 7,000 killed or wounded and 8,000 prisoners (June 4th [1859]). Two days later the French regiments entered Milan. The enemy, astounded at so rude a shock, abandoned his first line of defence, where, however, he had long been accumulating powerful means of action and resistance. He retired on the Adda, after vainly making a momentary stand at the already famous town of Marignano and on the Mincio, behind the illustrious plains of Castiglione and between the two fortresses of Peschiera and Mantua; then he took up his position, backed by the great city of Verona as an impregnable base. The emperor of Austria, with a new general and considerable reinforcements, had arrived there to await the French army. The Austrians had long studied this battlefield; there were 160,000 of them ranged on the heights with their centre at the village and tower of Solferino, and ready to descend on the French in the plain. Napoleon III had scarcely 140,000 men available, and was obliged to fight on a line extending over five leagues. Whilst the right wing was struggling against the enemy in the plain in order to prevent itself from being turned, and King Victor Emmanuel with his Piedmontese was bravely resisting on the left, the centre delivered a vigorous attack, and after a heroic struggle successively carried Mount Fenile, the mount of the cypresses, and finally the village of Solferino. The enemy's line was broken; his reserves, before they could come into action, were attained by the balls from the new rifled cannon of the French. All fled in frightful confusion; but a fearful storm, accompanied by hail and torrents of rain, stopped the victors and permitted the Austrians to recross the Mincio; they left twenty-five thousand men put out of action. In the evening the emperor Napoleon took up his headquarters in the very room which Francis Joseph had occupied in the morning (June 24th). Twice a conqueror, the emperor suddenly offered peace to his enemy. Italy was freed, although a portion of Italian territory, namely Venetia, still remained in the hands of Austria.» (HH, XIII, p.136)

§661. Risorgimento: the Kingdom of Italy founded (1861.3.17): I-6.
I-6:
The eye of Ravenna shall be dismissed,
When at his feet his wings shall fail.
The two of Bresse shall have constituted
Turin, Verceil which the French shall tread.


(L'œil de Ravenne sera destitué,
Quand à ses piedz les ælles failliront:
Les deux de Bresse auront constitué
Turin, Verseil que Gauloys fouleront.) (№ 2)

Notes:
The eye of Ravenna: The pope, its holy sovereign;

Les ælles: = les ailes, Wings, i.e., pontifical states such as Bologna, Perugia, Ferrara, Ravenna, etc.;

The eye of Ravenna shall be dismissed, When at his feet his wings shall fail: « Unionist enthusiasm had already burned too high, however, for political or diplomatic schemes to avail against it. All over the land the flag of united Italy was raised, and conjunction demanded with Sardinia. Bologna declared itself free from the pope and invoked the dictatorship of the king of Sardinia. Many other cities of the pontifical state followed this example, indeed the greater part of the pontifical possessions would have fallen away from Rome had not the terrible storming of Perugia by the pope's Swiss guard spread such dismay that Ancona, Ferara, and Ravenna for a while remained true... At last in March, 1860, the popular vote was obtained which gave Savoy and Nice to France and made Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Roman legations a part of the kingdom of Sardinia. The pope excommunicated all who had taken part or even connived at this despoliation of Rome; but the papal bull, once so formidable a weapon, had in the course of time lost much of its early terrors. The 2nd of April witnessed the opening of the first Italian parliament, in which were representatives not only from Sardinia and Lombardy, but from Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and the Roman legations. “ Our fatherland is no longer the Italy of Rome,” declared the crown speech, “ nor of the Middle Ages; neither shall it be the arena wherein shall meet for combat the ambitions of all nations. Now and forever it is the Italy of the Italians”... On the 18th of February [1861], King Victor Emmanuel assembled in Turin about his throne representatives from all those states which acknowleged his rule, and with their joyful acquiescence adopted for himself and his legitimate descendants the title of “ king of Italy.” (Law of March 17th 1861)» (HH, IX, p.604-610)

The two of Bresse: The two representatives of Risorgimento, Cavour (1810-1861) and Garibaldi (1807-1882), both having been born in a region [symbolized by Bresse (Ain) (French since 1601)] of the French Empire (1804-1815) under Napoleon Bonaparte: the former in Turin (French since 1802), the latter in Nice (French since 1793);

The two of Bresse shall have constituted Turin, Verceil which the French shall tread: Cavour and Garibaldi shall lead the Risorgimento that shall arrive, in 1861, at the foundation of the Kingdom of Italy incorporating the Piedmont (Turin, Verceil) which Napoleon Bonaparte shall have conquered in 1796 and annexed to France in 1802.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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