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§740 The Great War on the Italian, Western and Eastern Fronts besides in the Atlantic and the Russian Revolution (1914-1918): I-55.

I-55 (§740):

Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia
Great shall be the effusion of blood,
That the earth and the sea, air, sky shall be soiled:
Sects, hunger, reigns, pests, confusion.

(Sous l'opposite climat Babylonique
Grande sera de sang effusion,
Que terre & mer, aïr, ciel sera inique:
Sectes, faim, regnes, pestes, confusion.)

NOTES: Sous l'opposite climat Babylonique: = « Sous le climat opposé à celui de Babylone » (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.127) = Under the clime opposite to that of Babylon.

Climat (clime): This term is found only twice in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (I-55 and III-77: Le tiers climat soubz Aries comprins) and follows the Ptolemaic conception of astro-geographical character.

Clime
: « κλἰμα, terrestrial latitude, latitudes, region; seven latitudinal strips in the οἰκουμένη [inhabited region] on which the longest day ranged by half-hour intervals from 13 to 16 hours.» (Liddell & Scott, s.v.).

The usage of the term in this quatrain is in the Ptolemaic framework of the four triangles of the zodiac:
« The familiarity by triangles is as follows. Inasmuch as the triangular and equilateral form is most harmonious with itself, the zodiac also is bounded by three circles, the equinoctial and the two tropics, and its twelve parts are divided into four equilateral triangles.» (Ptolemy,
Tetrabiblos, p.83).

« The first of these, which passes through Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, is composed of three masculine signs and includes the houses of the sun, of Mars, and of Jupiter. The sun assumes first governance of it by day and Jupiter by night. This triangle is preëminently northern because of Jupiter's share in its government, since Jupiter is fecund and windy, similarly to the winds from the north. However, because of the house of Mars it suffers an admixture of the south-west wind and is constituted Borrolibycon [
βορρολιβυκόν = north-western (Liddell & Scott)], because Mars causes such winds.» (id., p.83-85).

« The second triangle, which is the one drawn through Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is composed of three feminine signs, and consequently was assigned to the moon and Venus; the moon governs it by night and Venus by day. This triangle is made preëminently southern because of the dominance of Venus, since this star through the heat and moisture of its power produces similar winds; but as it receives an admixture of Apeliotes [ἀπηλιώτης = east wind (Liddell & Scott)] because the house of Saturn, Capricornus, is included within it, it is constituted Notapeliotes [
νοταπηλιωτικὸν = south-easterly (Liddell & Scott)] in contrast to the first triangle, since Saturn produces winds of this kind and is related to the east through sharing in the sect of the sun.» (id., p.85).

« The third triangle is the one drawn through Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, composed of three masculine signs, and having no relation to Mars but rather to Saturn and Mercury because of their houses. It was assigned in turn to these, with Saturn governing during the day on account of his sect and Mercury by night. This triangle also is primarily of eastern constitution, because of Saturn, but by admixture north-eastern [
βορραπηλιωτικὸν], because the sect of Jupiter has familiarity with Saturn, inasmuch as it is diurnal.» (id., p.87).

« The fourth triangle, which is the one drawn through Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, was left to the only remaining planet, Mars, which is related to it through his house, Scorpio; and along with him, on account of the sect and the femininity of the signs, the moon by night and Venus by day are co‑rulers. This triangle is constituted preëminently western, because it is dominated by Mars and the moon; but by admixture it becomes south-western [
νοτολιβυκὸν] through the domination of Venus.» (id., p.87).

The Familiarities between Countries and the Triplicities and Stars:
« Now of the four triangular formations recognized in the zodiac, as we have shown above, the one which consists of Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius is north-western, and is chiefly dominated by Jupiter on account of the north wind, but Mars joins in its government because of the south-west wind. That which is made up of Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn is south-eastern, and again is governed primarily by Venus on account of the south wind, but conjointly by Saturn because of the east wind. The one consisting of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius is north-eastern and is governed primarily by Saturn because of the east wind, and conjointly by Jupiter because of the north wind. The triangle of Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces is south-western and is governed primarily, because of the west wind, by Mars, who is joined by Venus as co‑ruler on account of the south wind. As this is so, and since our inhabited world is divided into four quarters, equal in number to the triangles, and is divided latitudinally by our sea from the Straits of Hercules (Straights of Gibraltar) to the Gulf of Issus (Gulf of Iskenderun) and the mountainous ridge adjacent on the east, and by these its southern and northern portions are separated, and in longitude by the Arabian Gulf (the Red Sea), the Aegean Sea, the Pontus (the Black sea), and the Lake Maeotis (the sea of Azov), whereby the eastern and western portions are separated, there arise four quarters, and these agree in position with the triangles.» (
id., p.129-131).

« The first quarter lies in the north-west of the whole inhabited world; it embraces Celtic Gaul and we give it the general name Europe. Opposite this is the south-eastern quarter; this includes eastern Ethiopia, which would be called the southern part of Greater Asia. Again, the north-eastern quarter of the whole inhabited world is that which contains Scythia, which likewise is the northern part of Greater Asia; and the quarter opposite this and toward the south-west wind, the quarter of western Ethiopia, is that which we call by the general term Libya.» (
id., p.131).

« Again, of each of the aforesaid quarters the parts which are placed closer to the centre of the inhabited world are placed in a contrary fashion with respect to the surrounding quarters, just as are the latter in comparison with the whole world; and since the European quarter lies in the north-west of the whole world, the parts about the centre, which are allied to the opposite angle, obviously are situated in the south-east part of the quarter. The same holds of the other quarters, so that each of them is related to two oppositely situated triangles; for while the other parts are in harmony with the general inclination of the quarter, the portions at the centre [of the world] share in familiarity with the opposite inclination.» (
id., p.131-133).

« Under this arrangement, the remainder of the first quarter, by which I mean the European quarter, situated in the north-west of the inhabited world, is in familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and is governed, as one would expect, by the lords of the triangle, Jupiter and Mars. In terms of whole nations these parts consist of Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, Bastarnia (The south-western part of Russia and southern Poland), Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, Sicily, Tyrrhenia [Corsica and Sardinia], Celtica [Portugal], and Spain.

[I-a] Of these same countries Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, and Bastarnia are in closer familiarity with Aries and Mars.

[I-b] But Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) Gaul, and Sicily have their familiarity with Leo and the sun;

[I-c] Tyrrhenia, Celtica, and Spain are subject to Sagittarius and Jupiter.

[I-d] The parts of this quarter which are situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria, Hellas, Achaia, Crete, and likewise the Cyclades, and the coastal regions of Asia Minor and Cyprus, which are in the south-east portion of the whole quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south-east triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and its co‑rulers Venus, Saturn, and Mercury.» (
id., p.133-137).
 
« Of the second quarter, which embraces the southern part of greater Asia, the other parts, including India, Ariana (north of Gedrosia), Gedrosia (modern Beluchistan), Parthia, Media, Persia, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, which are situated in the south-east of the whole inhabited world, are, as we might presume, familiar to the south-eastern triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and are governed by Venus and Saturn.

[II-a] Part by part, again, Parthia, Media, and Persia are more closely familiar to Taurus and Venus;

[II-b] Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria are familiar to Virgo and Mercury.

[II-c] India, Ariana, and Gedrosia have familiarity with Capricorn and Saturn;

[II-d] The remaining parts of the quarter, situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Idumaea, Coelê Syria, Judaea, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, Orchinia, and Arabia Felix, which are situated toward the north-west of the whole quarter, have additional familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and furthermore, have as co‑rulers Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury.» (
id., p.139-143).

« Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana, and the regions in the north-east of the inhabited world, are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter. Of the remaining quarter, which includes what is called by the common name Libya, the other parts, including Numidia, Carthage, Africa, Phazania, Nasamonitis, Garamantica, Mauritania, Gaetulia, Metagonitis, and the regions situated in the south-west of the inhabited world, are related by familiarity to the south-western triangle, Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and are accordingly ruled by Mars and Venus... » (id., p.145-151).

The clime opposite to that of Babylonia: The second quarter (south-eastern) is opposed to the first quarter (north-western) according to Ptolemy, then the second group of countries (II-b: Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria) of the second quarter corresponds to the second group of countries (I-b: Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) Gaul, and Sicily) of the first quarter. In this context, the regions called the clime opposite to that of Babylonia are Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) Gaul, and Sicily, which is nearly the mainland of Italy with Sicily.

Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia Great shall be the effusion of blood, That the earth and the sea, air, sky shall be soiled: Sects, hunger, reigns, pests, confusion: These verses seem to depict the Great War (1914-1918) furiously fought on the Italian, Western and Eastern Fronts besides in the Atlantic [the earth and the sea soiled], the first phrase being of no necessity of delimiting the third and the fourth lines. As to the option of the Great War among numerous candidates, the two adjacent words of similar meaning « air, sky » shall provide its motive, for « air soiled » refers to the gas attacks and « sky soiled » to the aerial battles, both of these having been seen for the first time in the Great War. Therefore, the indiscrimination of the two words (luttes aériennes, aerial struggles [in the Vietnamese war]) by V. Ionescu in his interpretation of the quatrain (Ionescu, 1976, p.657) seems to be erroneous.

Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia Great shall be the effusion of blood: The Italian Front in the Great War: « The Italian front, while the British and French may have considered it a sideshow, was the main scene of action for Italy and a significant one for the overstretched Austro-Hungarian Empire. It saw four years of heavy fighting, with consequent hecatombs of casualties [Great shall be the effusion of blood]. Its origin lay in the ancient enmity between Italians and the Austrians, and it is easy to forget how recently large parts of the Italian peninsula lay under Austrian rule. Nineteenth-century nationalism and the Risorgimento were a relatively recent memory, and Italian nationalists were keen to relieve Austria of more territory that they considered their own.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.58).

That
(que): The French particle « que » is a conjunction designating a coexistence: « QUE. conj. Introducing a circumstantial proposition. (Temporal: expressing the concomitance, the incidence, the continuation).» (Petit Robert).

Soiled
(inique): « Iniquer. Souiller (to soil, to dirty).» (Huguet).

That the earth and the sea, air, sky shall be soiled:
= That the earth shall be soiled, the sea shall be soiled, air shall be soiled and sky shall be soiled.

Air shall be soiled:
« BELOW [a photograph of war victims]: Italian dead after an Austrian gas attack. First used by the Germans on the Russian front, chemical warfare was widely used on the Eastern, Western and Italian Fronts.» (Chasseaud, id., p.64).

The earth shall be soiled, the sea shall be soiled, sky shall be soiled:
« Submarines and torpedoes had been prefigured in the American Civil War of 1860s, and the air dimension had already been entered by reconnaissance balloons in various conflicts. However, the First World War witnessed the first development of all these, plus airship and aeroplanes, as regular weapons of war. In this sense it was the first mechanized, three-dimensional war [earth, sea, sky soiled]. Aircraft were also becoming amphibious, being designed with floats or special hulls to take off from, and land on, water.» (Chasseaud, id., p.188).

Sects:
« World War I. The immediate cause of the War was the spread of nationalism in the Balkans [sects], as shown by the assassination at Sarajevo and the determination of the Austrians to destroy the Serbian ‘hornets’ nest’ [sects]. The reasons why this conflict could not be localized lie further back. Among them was the division of Europe into rival camps [sects] by a system of alliances, originally defensive in character but made dangerous through a lessening of international trust by successive crises – Morocco in 1905, Bosnia in 1908-9, Agadir in 1911. Anglo-German relations had worsened because of naval rivalry and, to a much lesser extent, trade competition.» (Palmer, p.305).

Reigns: = the powers. The list of main belligerent countries of the Great War: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Montenegro, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Japan, USA, China. « Although the First World War was triggered by a local dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, its origin was an existential struggle between empires. These empires were the German Second Reich, under Kaiser Wilhelm II; the Russian, ruled by Tsar Nicholas II; the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, held together by Emperor and King (Kaiser und König) Franz Joseph II; and the Ottoman (Turkish), under Sultan Abdul Hamid II but with power increasingly in the hands of the ‘Young Turks’ of the Committee of Union and Progress. On the fringes at the outset, but drawn in by the system of alliances, were the Republican French and monarchical-democratic British Empires. While these two had been traditional enemies for reasons of proximity, religion, maritime and imperial rivalry, this enmity had faded in the face of the growing industrial, military, naval and manpower strength of Germany, which under Wilhelm II demanded its imperial ‘place in the sun’. France and Britain in any case both had their own quarrels with Germany. France burned for a revanche – revenge against Germany for the loss of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine following the disastrous Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. Britain resented the deliberate challenge to the Royal Navy, her Empire and her trade represented by Wilhelm’s building up of the Kriegsmarine, and also the vain posturing of this upstart grandson of Queen Victoria.» (Chasseaud, id., p.20).

Hunger (faim): Metaphorically, egocentric passions of sects and powers. The term faim (hunger) in Nostradamus is almost always a metaphor of sufferings of WAR typically symbolized by the word earthquake. In fact, we have 37 usages of the words faim or famine (famine) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 25 being figurative and 12 literal. Hunger is above all a designation of Nostradamus for the conflicts of religious and ideologic character.

Pest (peste): This word, as well as the words pestilence, pestilent and pestifere (pestiferous), is figurative, non literal, for most of the expressions indicative of natural phenomena such as " earthquake, rain, tempest, dryness, inundation", etc. are not literal for Nostradamus, but figurative, describing metaphorically wars, revolts, social troubles, collective distress, etc., conditioned principally by human comportments (cf. Introduction §5). In fact, of 38 usages of the words « peste », « pestilence », « pestilent» and « pestifere », 32 are figurative for the warlike and social disasters and menaces, only 5 literal (II-19, II-37, II-46, II-53, II-65) and one for the real seism (VIII-84).

Confusion: This expression refers to that of the quatrain I-45 (§761) with the theme of the Russian Communist Revolution in 1917 at the last stage of the World War I: « Par sectes monde confus & scismatique (By sects the world confused and schismatic) »; « The war had not been going well for Russia; the high command was inefficient and junior officers often brutal to their men, while a vast swathe of territory had been lost, and each year had taken a terrible toll in casualties. In common with much of Europe, the winter of 1916-17 was severe enough to curtail food supplies. These had already been shrinking because of labour shortages caused by conscription and by wartime transport problems. Food shortages, compounded by rising prices, led to strikes. The peasants, hungry and angry, wanted land. The urban population, restive because of falling real wages, demanded bread. By using the slogan ‘Peace, Land, Bread’, Bolshevik agitators were able to maximize their support from soldiers, urban workers and peasants... The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin who was soon to return from in exile in neutral Switzerland, were becoming increasingly powerful within the Soviet (Council of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies). In the cold, short, dark days of early 1917, desperation was growing among Russians... The Germans were heartened by the success of the July operations in Galicia and even though they were heavily engaged in Flanders from late July, made another attempt to knock out Russia. Riga was captured on 3 September, and the battle developed into exploitation and pursuit. This defeat destroyed any remaining Russian morale and cohesion, and shook the Provisional Government and high command. German forces, advancing in Courland, their left flank on the Baltic, now threatened Petrograd itself. Senior Russian officers were now more against the Provisional Government than the Central Powers. The crisis caused by a disobedient army, urban industrial workers in revolt, and peasants’ demands for food and bread, all led to the collapse of Kerensky’s government and the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks. In October, Lenin, who had prudently left Petrograd for Finland in the summer, returned to Petrograd and took control of events. The Bolshevik coup, or Second Russian Revolution, was mounted on 7 November, after which the Bolsheviks asked the Germans for an armistice, granted on 16 December. This effectively took the Russians out of the war, though the Germans continued to advance to enforce their will, and a punitive peace treaty was finally signed at Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918.» (Chasseaud, id., p.219-221).

In general, the words confusion or confus (confused) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are of three meanings as follows:

1° Warlike defeat or disadvantage (III-24, IV-92, VI-99, VII-37 and XII-69);

2° Social chaos (I-45 and I-55);

3° Congestion (IX-36).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 
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§741 The Great War in Turkey against Russia (1914-1917): V-70.

V-70 (§741):

The regions subject to the Balance,
Shall make trouble the mountains by a great war:
All the two sexes and all shall be captive in Byzantium,
That each province shall cry for a daybreak.

(Des regions subjectes à la Balance,
Feront troubler les monts par grande guerre
Captifz tout sexe deu & tout bisance,
Qu'on criera à l'aube terre à terre.)

NOTES: The regions subject to the Balance: = The north-eastern quarter of the inhabited world according to Ptolemy. He says that « Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing Hyrcania (around the south end of the Caspian to the west), Armenia ([which] lies south of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian), Matiana (around the south end of the Caspian to the east), Bactriana (around the upper courses of the Oxus), Casperia (probably the region around the northern part of the Caspian Sea), Serica (China or its western portion), Sauromatica (Asiatic part of Russia), Oxiana (around the upper courses of the Oxus), Sogdiana (around the upper courses of the Oxus), and the regions in the north-east of the inhabited world, are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter.» (Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p.145).

Sexe deu: = Two sexes, the form deu being an apocope of deux (two in French).

Captifz tout sexe deu & tout bisance: = Tout sexe deu & tout [seront] captifz [en] Bisance (All the two sexes and all [i.e.all the people in question of the district in question] shall be captive in Byzantium, bisance (Bisance or bisance in Nostradamus = Byzance) being effectively a public placename without preposition but with a meaning of adverb (in Byzantium), here symbolizing the Ottoman Empire (cf. Entrée §5).

The regions subject to the Balance, Shall make trouble the mountains by a great war: All the two sexes and all shall be captive in Byzantium: These lines seem to refer to the Great War in the mountainous Caucasus with the Turkish persecution of the Armenians: « The Caucasus: Turkey and Russia, having been brought into conflict by Russia’s inexorable expansion to the south, had fought three wars since 1828. The Caucasus, that great and mountainous land bridge between the Black Sea on the west and the Caspian on the east, was home to different ethnic and religious populations that included Armenians, Geogians and Tartars. Russia had supported, as a defensive measure, nationalist movements in the Balkans and also in the Caucasus. This antagonized the Turks who, in 1914, had just recovered from the Second Balkan War. Within the Ottoman Empire, the new doctrine of pan-Turkism, which strengthened after Turkey’s loss of outlying territories during the Balkan Wars – notably Libya and the Dodecanese Islands to Italy and parts of Macedonia and Thrace to Greece – increased the attraction to Turkey of the Caucasus. A Turkish attack on Russia here would pin down a Russian army and could be accompanied by its claim to be freeing Turkic people from Russian oppression, and also by its cry of jihad - holy war. Enver Pasha, Commander of the Ottoman forces, committed his third Army to a wide, enveloping movement through the mountains at Sarikamish, rather than the more methodical operations favoured by his German staff officer. Enver’s sweep to the left (north), on the axis of Ardahan, took his troops sixty miles further on through hideously difficult terrain and winter conditions, at temperatures sometimes below – 30°C. This disastrous manoevre saw Turkish supplies exhausted on 25 December 1914, and their army virtually destroyed. The Russians successfully counter-attacked, having held Sarikamish in the battle of 1–4 January. Turkish casualties were between 75,000 and 90,000; most of their force. By 23 January 1915 this only numbered some 12,000 bayonets, with another 8,000 in supporting services. Even now Enver attempted to advance eastwards towards Persian Azerbaijan and Tabriz to encourage the Kurds to stage un uprising against the Russians. This failed. The Russian 1915 spring offensive aimed south from Kars to the west of Lake Van, in an area of eastern Anatolia partly-populated by Christian Armenians. Antagonism between Muslim Turks and the Armenians had grown in the late nineteenth century, culminating in violent clashes in 1894-6. As the Armenians were supported by the Russians, who in 1914 had encouraged revolt, the Turks suspected treason. Murders of Armenians, with looting and destruction of their villages, by Turkish soldiers, began during the winter. In April 1915, during the Russian advance, an Armenian revolt began in Van. Atrocities by Turks and Kurds followed, and at the end of May the deportation of Armenians south to Syria and Mosul was began. About a million dies, either from direct acts of violence or from exhaustion, exposure and disease [All the two sexes and all shall be captive in Byzantium]. By August 1916, the Russians had pushed as far west as Trebizond and south to Lake Van, thus creating a large bridgehead in eastern Anatolia. The Caucasus came to prominence again following the 1917 Russian Revolutions, when the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk committed Russia to supplying German with oil from Baku, on the Caspian side of the Caucasus, and cotton from Turkestan. The weakening of Russia in the region, consequent upon the revolutions and military incapacity, encouraged the Turks to advance towards Baku. In early 1918 operation Thunderbolt saw the German forces that had moved into easten Ukraine and the Donetz Basin advancing southeast to Baku. The British were also increasing their presence in the region, following their advance to Mosul and the creation of ‘Dunsterforce’ in Persia. Named after its commander General Dunsterville, this was a British military mission of, initially, less than a thousand men, with armoured cars. It was formed after the Russian Revolution had led to the collapse of the Caucasus front to gather intelligence, train and lead tribal militias, and counter German propaganda in Persia.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.91-93). Cf. V-54 (§736): The Great War in Turkey (1896-1916). The three usages in all of the expression ‘great war (grande guerre or grand guerre)’ in the Prophecies of Nostradamus refer respectively to the French war of religion (XII-56), the Franco-Prussian war (IV-100) and the World War I (V-70).

That
(que): The French particle « que » is a conjunction serving to form a final conjunctive locution (cf. Petit Robert).

That each province shall cry for a daybreak
: the Balkans shall stand on their own feet liberated from the foreign occupation after the preceding example of Greece:

1° Crete is refreshed by the unification with Greece in 1908 after having been autonomous in 1898, which finishes her liberation from the long Turkish occupation, the independence of Greece itself from the Turkish rule in 1830 having been effected with their military aid: « ... the Great Powers intervened to establish a Greek Kingdom.» (Palmer, p.119); « 1830 Feb: 3rd, at London Conference, Greece is declared independent under the protection of France, Russia and Britain.» (Williams, 1968, p.162); « An uprising on Crete failed (1866). After the acquisition of Thessaly (1881), Macedonia became the object of dispute between Greece and Bulgaria. A 2nd uprising on Crete led to the 1897 Greco-Turkish War with Greek defeats in Thessaly. Nevertheless, Crete gained political autonomy under Turkish sovereignty because of the interference of the great powers. The leader of Enosis, Venizelos (1864-1936), proclaimed the annexation of Crete in 1905. 1908 Formal union of Crete and Greece.» (
PenguinAtlas 2, p.81).

2° « Croatia, region of Yugoslavia, capital Zagreb (formerly called Agram). Although there was an independent Croatia in the tenth century, from 1102 to 1918 Croatia was joined to Hungary. In 1917 Croatian exiles signed with the Serbian Government the ‘Pact of Corfu’ providing for the establishment of a Yugoslav State after the war.» (Palmer, p.74).

3° Slovenia: « Yugoslavia. A movement for the union of the South Slav peoples, known originally as ‘Illyrianism’, began early in the nineteenth century but it was not until the First World War that a South Slav State (a ‘Yugoslavia’) became possible with the prospect of detaching Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina from Austria-Hungary and uniting them with Serbia and Montenegro. The Pact of Corfu, an agreement on the formation of a unitary kingdom under the Serbian dynasty, was signed on July 20th, 1917, and the ‘Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes’ came into being officially on December 4th, 1918. King Alexander formally changed the name of the Kingdom to ‘Yugoslavia’ on October 3rd, 1929.» (Palmer, p.310).

4° « Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnia-Herzegovina was occupied by the Turks in the fifteenth century and, even today [in 1962], contains the largest group of Moslems in Europe outside Turkey. In the 1870s the provinces were moved by enthusiasm for union with their Serbian compatriots; in 1875 there was a serious uprising which was suppressed by the Turks with customary cruelty. At the Congress of Berlin of 1878 Austria-Hungary was given the right to occupy the provinces, although they remained part of the Turkish Empire. The Austrians developed Bosnia considerably, treating the provinces as if they were colonial possessions and reducing Turkish authority to a mere formality. The Young Turk movement made the Austrians fear that their control would be challenged, and in consequence they formally annexed the provinces in October 1908. The annexation precipitated the Bosnian Crisis since it was particularly resented by the Russians, who wanted compensation for increased Austrian power by concessions over the Straits. Although the menacing attitude of Austria’s ally, Germany, forced Russia to accept the annexation (March 1909), it left much international bitterness. Moreover, the Serbs living in Bosnia began a terrorist agitation against Austrian rule which culminated in the 1914 assassination in Sarajevo and so led to war. Between the wars the provinces formed part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.» (Palmer, p.36-37).

Centurio’s interpretation (1953, p.122) of the quatrain with the theme of the defeat of Austria and Turkey in the Great War (1916-1918) is full of suggestions, but off the two essential points: the Turco-Russian conflict and the Turkish persecution of the Armenians.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§742 The German offensive and the battles of Reims (1914-1918): III-18.

III-18 (§742):

After a sufficiently longish time of peace and abundance [since the end of the Franco-Prussian war],
The sky shall be touched [by shells] at several places of Reims:
Alas what a murder of blood is ready near them.
Fathers, sons and kings shall not dare to approach there.

(Apres la pluie laict assés longuete,
En plusieurs lieux de Reins le ciel touché:
Helas meurtre de seng pres d'eux s'apreste.
Peres & filz rois n'oseront aprocher.)

NOTES: V. Ionescu (1976, p.385; 1987, p.218-219) gives us a sufficiently reasonable interpretation of the quatrain with the theme of the German offensive and the battles of Reims (1914-1918) following the first pertinent explanation given by Centurio (1953. p.72).

La pluie (the rain): = A symbol of welfare as in the quatrain II-46. Of 12 usages of the term rain in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 9 signify warlike disasters (I-70, II-1, II-18, II-31, III-42, III-52, VI-5, VI-44 and IX-99) and 2 welfare (II-46 and III-18), only one (IV-67) being in a proper sense.

Laict (milk): = A symbol of abundance. The term milk has 6 usages in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 3 (I-57, III-19 and VI-89) designate the crown and the remaining 3 (II-32, II-46 and III-18) symbolize abundance.

The sky shall be touched at several places of Reims: « 1914 Sep: 3rd, French government moved to Bordeaux; - Germans cross R. Marne and, 4th, occupy Rheims; 14th, Allies reoccupy Rheims.» (Williams, 1968, p.448); « The German devastations. The cathedral of Reims set on fire and bombarded: The cathedral of Reims was ever one of the most eminent symbols of French glory, art and piety. It was above all designated to show that its destruction was one of the most striking testimony of the German vandalism. Set on fire on September 7, 1914, it was bombarded ulteriorly several times over.» (Gauvain et al., 1922, p.272-273); « 1918 May: 29th, Germans capture Soissons and Rheims.» (Williams, id., p.468).

Alas what a murder of blood is ready near them. Fathers, sons and kings shall not dare to approach there.: « The main area of fighting against Germany was along the Western Front where, after the repulse of the initial German advance to the Marne, both sides constructed defence-works so that a line of trenches extended from Nieuport on the Belgian coast, through Ypres, Arras, Albert, Soissons and Rheims to Verdun. For three and a half years neither side advanced more than a few miles along this line, despite new weapons such as poison gas (first used by Germans at Ypres in April 1915) and tanks (first used by the British on the Somme in September 1916). In the early spring of 1918 the Germans again broke through to the Marne but a few weeks later were thrown back into Belgium.» (Palmer, p.306);

« Ludendorff’s chief railway staff officer now insisted on the capture of Reims to ensure communications to the Marne salient; if this was not achieved, he claimed, the salient would have to be abandoned. On 15 July, the Germans used forty nine divisions in an attempt to pinch out the French salient at Reims by attacking on either side. They succeeded in crossing the Marne but were prevented from pushing their artillery over the river in support, and soon had to withdraw from this exposed position. To the east of Reims the French artillery, forewarned by Intelligence, smashed the German assault waves in their jumping-off positions by opening counter-preparation fire ten minutes before the assault. The defeat of these German attacks and the waxing Allied defence signalled that the tide had turned. Ludendorff had diverted his reserves from the Flanders attack, planned for June but cancelled, and his gamble had failed.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.264).

« The turning point was an attack at Amiens on 8 August, spearheaded by Australian and Canadian infantry, and supported by massed British and French tanks. Described by the German general Erich Ludendorff [1865-1937] as “the black day of the German army”, it initiated the “Hundred Days” of relentless Allied offensives, with large-scale use of tanks and aircraft. In September, Pershing achieved his ambition of commanding an independent US operation – the capture of the St Mihiel salient. This was followed by a combined American and French offensive in the Argonne forest, the costliest single battle in American history with 117,000 US casualties.» (
DKHistory, p.353).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§743 The battles of Reims and Tours-sur-Marne (1914-1918): IV-46.

IV-46 (§743):

It shall be a fact of preeminence that your country shall have been well defended,
Tours-sur-Marne, guard against your close ruin.
London and Nantes shall defend by Reims,
Don’t pass by the time of drizzle.

(Bien defendu le faict par excelence,
Garde toy Tours[-sur-Marne] de ta proche ruine:
Londres & Nantes par Reims fera defense,
Ne passés outre au temps de la bruine.)

NOTES: V. Ionescu (1976, p.387-388) gives us a smart interpretation of the quatrain with the theme of the battles of Reims and of Tours-sur-Marne (September 1914 and July 1918) after the featuring of the theme by Centurio (1953, p.97-98).

Londres (London): « A synecdoche, for Britain.» (Ionescu, id., p.387).

Nantes: « A synecdoche, for France – or an apheresis, for “Ponantes”, a name given to the Americans, called also the Hesperians, for Occident and Ponant are the synonyms of Hesperia which designates the lands of the West.» (id.). And Nantes can connote USA also through the fact that a part of the soldiers of American Expeditionary Forces landed at the port of St. Nazaire in front of Nantes (cf. Coffman, 1968, p.125). 

Tours-sur-Marne, guard against your close ruin: « Ludendorff still planned to reopen the Flanders offensive when sufficient Allied reserves had been drawn south. Meanwhile American troops were being convoyed across the Atlantic in increasing numbers. Fifty thousand were arriving every week and being given extra training for battlefield conditions. Time was running out for Ludendorff, who was all too conscious that he had to strike again quickly. His new focus of attack was the French front on the Aisne, between Soissons and Reims, the axis being south towards the river Marne [Tours-sur-Marne, guard against your close ruin].» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.263).  

London [Britain] and Nantes [France & USA] shall defend by Reims, Don’t pass by the time of drizzle: « The defending troops of Duchêne’s Sixth Army [France], including five weak British divisions [Britain] recuperating in this ‘quiet sector’ from earlier fighting were crammed too densely into the narrow frontal area along the Chemin-des-Dames ridge north of the Aisne. On 27 May they found themselves pounded by 3,719 guns and mortars for three and a half hours, in yet another murderous Bruchmüller bombardment. On that day the Germans stormed through twelve miles on a forty-mile front, advancing over the Aisne and Vesle rivers to the Marne in three days, reaching a point only forty miles from Paris. American troops [USA], part of the one-and-a-half-million-strong American Expeditionary Force already in France, helped to hold the Germans on the Marne. French troops on both flanks held fast, Reims on the east acting like an anchor [shall defend by Reims] as Verdun had done during the First Battle of the Marne in 1914, and again the result was a huge German salient, against the west flank of which Pétain immediately launched counter-attacks. The contents of the wine cellars of the Champagne region, as well as the temptations of other forms of looting, contributed to the loss of impetus of the German attacks. Officers, as elsewhere during their 1918 offensives, found it difficult to get their men moving again.» (Chasseaud, id., p.263-264).
 
« From 31 May the Germans tried to drive out of the western part of the bulge created by the breakthrough to the Marne, aiming to push down towards Paris between the Ourcq and the Marne. On 9 June the Germans attacked at Compiègne between the two salients created by their Montdidier and Aisne attacks. This attack also was intended to draw Allied reserves from Flanders, as also was the later attack (15 July) astride Reims. Pétain was painfully aware of the disaster caused on the Chemin-des-Dames by a too-rigid defence. So he tried to destroy the impetus of the Compiègne attack by insisting on an elastic defence, but was to some extent foiled by the inflexibility of the local commanders. However the attacks met with little success. Ludendorff’s chief railway staff officer now insisted on the capture of Reims to ensure communications to the Marne salient; if this was not achieved, he claimed, the salient would have to be abandoned. On 15 July, the Germans used forty nine divisions in an attempt to pinch out the French salient at Reims by attacking on either side. They succeeded in crossing the Marne but were prevented from pushing their artillery over the river in support, and soon had to withdraw from this exposed position. To the east of Reims the French artillery, forewarned by Intelligence, smashed the German assault waves in their jumping-off positions by opening counter-preparation fire ten minutes before the assault [France shall defend by Reims]. The defeat of these German attacks and the waxing Allied defence signalled that the tide had turned. Ludendorff had diverted his reserves from the Flanders attack, planned for June but cancelled, and his gamble had failed.» (Chasseaud, id., p.264).

« The turning point was an attack at Amiens on 8 August, spearheaded by Australian and Canadian infantry, and supported by massed British and French tanks. Described by the German general Erich Ludendorff [1865-1937] as “the black day of the German army”, it initiated the “Hundred Days” of relentless Allied offensives, with large-scale use of tanks and aircraft. In September, Pershing achieved his ambition of commanding an independent US operation – the capture of the St Mihiel salient. This was followed by a combined American and French offensive in the Argonne forest, the costliest single battle in American history with 117,000 US casualties.» (
DKHistory, p.353).

« Battle of Epéhy and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive In the battle of Epéhy on 18 and 19 September, British forces broke through the outer Hindenburg defences and established jumping-off positions for the attack on the main Hindenburg position. Foch’s grand offensive now gathered pace along the whole Allied front. On 26 September, Pershing’s American First and Gouraud’s French Fourth Armies began the Meuse-Argonne offensive, on the front from Verdun to the Argonne Forest, with Pershing’s right flank on the river Meuse and the French attacking on his left. Twenty-two French and fifteen American divisions were involved. This, the largest American operation of the war, lasted from 26 September to the Armistice on 11 November [Don’t pass by the time of drizzle]. In the difficult Argonne Forest terrain of tangled woods, gullies and ridges, it was almost impossible for tanks to operate, and the Americans found themselves engaging in a bloody slog through a succession of strongly held German positions. By 1 October the French and Americans had advanced some ten miles and taken 18,000 prisoners, and in a few more miles came up against the strong defensive position of the Kriemhild Line. While their advance was painfully slow, they were at least holding down thirty-six German divisions.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.269-271).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§744 Emperor William II and the Western Front; Intervention of USA (1914-1918): IV-99.

IV-99 (§744):

The vallant first-born son of the daughter of the King,
Shall push back the French so deep,
That he shall spark lightnings, how
[the French] in such arrangements,
Those from USA a few and far at first, then deep into the fronts.

(L'aisné vaillant de la fille du Roy,
Respoulsera si profond les Celtiques:
Qu'il mettra fouldres, combien en tel arroy,
Peu & loing puis profond es Hesperiques.)

NOTES: V. Ionescu (1976, p.392-393) gives us an intelligent interpretation of the quatrain with the theme of the German Emperor William II (the eldest son of the daughter [Auguste Viktoria] of Queen Victoria [the King]) and the Western Front; Intervention of USA following the pertinent interpretation of the quatrain by Centurio (1953, p.109).

Arroy: « Arrangement, disposition; Suit, train; Military apparatus, armament, army.» (Huguet). Ionescu’s explanation of this term as “désarroi (disarray, disorder)” (Ionescu, 1976, p.270; p.392) following that of Le Pelletier (I, p.187) is not pertinent.

The vallant first-born son of the daughter of the King, Shall push back the French so deep, That he shall spark lightnings, how [the French] in such arrangements, Those from USA a few and far at first, then deep into the fronts: « The Great War. From the outset, the decisive area of conflict was Germany’s Western Front. The Germans invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg, overcoming Belgian resistance at Liege and Antwerp. French and British forces were driven into retreat southward after clashes at Mons and Charleroi. At the Marne, however, French commander General Joseph Joffre rallied his forces for a counter-offensive and the Germans were pushed back. After a desperate struggle at Ypres in autumn 1914, the rival armies dug into trenches that stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland. Massive resources were committed to offensives – by the Germans at Verdun and the Western Allies at the Somme – without breaking the stalemate. Up to 1918, only a voluntary withdrawal by the Germans to the fortified Hindenburg Line significantly changed the position of the armies. From March 1918 a series of large-scale German offensives broke through Allied defences and advanced the front line toward Paris [That he shall spark lightnings, how [the French] in such arrangements]. But, aided by the arrival of US troops, the Allies halted the Germans at the Marne. A successful British offensive at Amiens in August initiated the “Hundred Days”, a series of advances that pushed the fighting back close to the German border.» (
DKHistory, p.344).

« Meanwhile American troops were being convoyed across the Atlantic in increasing numbers. Fifty thousand were arriving every week and being given extra training for battlefield conditions [Those from USA a few and far at first]. On that day [27 May] the Germans stormed through twelve miles on a forty-mile front, advancing over the Aisne and Vesle rivers to the Marne in three days, reaching a point only forty miles from Paris. American troops, part of the one-and-a-half-million-strong American Expeditionay Force already in France, helped to hold the Germans on the Marne [Those from USA then deep into the fronts].» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.263-264).

« In the difficult Argonne Forest terrain of tangled woods, gullies and ridges, it was almost impossible for tanks to operate, and the Americans found themselves engaging in a bloody slog through a succession of strongly held German positions. By 1 October the French and Americans had advanced some ten miles and taken 18,000 prisoners, and in a few more miles came up against the strong defensive position of the Kriemhild Line. While their advance was painfully slow, they were at least holding down thirty-six German divisions.» (Chasseaud, id., p.269-271).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§745 Confrontation of the two big camps; German retreat (1914-1918): VI-7.

VI-7 (§745):

Montenegro and Dacia and the British Isle,
By the united brothers shall be vexed:
The Roman chief issuing from the Gallic blood,
And the troops in the forests shall be repelled.

(Norneigre & Dace, & l'isle Britannique,
Par les unis freres seront vexes:
Le chef Romain issu de sang Gallique
Et les copies aux forestz repoulssees.)

NOTES: Montenegro and Dacia and the British Isle By the united brothers shall be vexed: « In the First World War (1914-1918) Montenegro, Rumania and England shall be attacked by Germany and Austria, the united brothers of kindred.» (Centurio, 1953, p.131-132).

Norneigre: = Montenegro, Nor hinting through its on the on of Monte-. Ionescu’s interpretation of the term as Noricum (Ionescu, 1976, p.386) is not pertinent, because Noricum in the Roman Empire mainly refers to the area occupied today by Austria, one of the antagonists to Montenegro in the First World War.

Montenegro By the united brothers shall be vexed: « Montenegro, The last ruler, Nicholas I (Prince, 1860-1910: King, 1910-18) modernized his state... He considerably extended his territories by judicious intervention in the Balkan Wars. He went to war in 1914 in support of Serbia and, when his Kingdom was overrun at the end of 1915, he escaped to France (where he died in 1921). The Allies believed that Nicholas had not resisted the Austrians as energetically as he might, and when in 1918 a packed assembly at Podgorica deposed the dynasty and voted for union with Serbia, the Allies, with many qualms, accepted the decision.» (Palmer, p.188-189); « In January 1916, warships of the Allies landed on Corfu some detachments who prepared for the arrival of the debris of Serbian army, taking refuge most deplorably on the Albanian coasts after horrible trials. It was on the eve of German rush for Verdun [21 Feb. – 26 Nov. 1916]. The King Nicolas of Montenegro delivered Lovtchen, reputed impregnable, to the Austrian troops, who entered Cetinje. A few days later, on January 18th, William II saw at Nish Tsar Ferdinand [I of Bulgaria], and celebrated with him the crush of Serbia, on the anniversary of the foundation of the Kingdom of Prussia.» (Gauvain et al., 1922, p.378-379).

Dacia By the united brothers shall be vexed:
« At the end of August [1916], Russian forces advanced in the Carpathians, to the north and south of the Jablonica Pass, and captured the important height of Ploska. Between June and August, Lechitsky’s army in the Bukovina captured over 100, 000 prisoners and nearly 600 guns. Meanwhile, on 27 August, Rumania, encouraged by the Russian successes, declared war, with her twenty-seven divisions, on Austria-Hungary.On 17 August, Rumania had agreed with France and Russia that she would enter the war in return for land. The Central Powers’s territories she coveted, and was granted in this venal transaction, were Transylvania, the Bukovina, and part of southern Galicia and southwest [sic] Hungary. She was relying on the Russian offensive, and in particular that towards Kowel in the southern Pripet marshes, to keep German reserves away from the Southeast theatre, and was strangely dismissive of the possibility of having to make war against Bulgaria and Turkey. The latter, in fact, shipped two divisions to the Rumanian front. The Russians gave Rumania little help, being already heavily engaged themselves, and Alekseyev considered Rumania an unwelcome burden. Neither did the British and French at Salonika come to her immediate assistance, as the Bulgarians, Germans and Turks attacked in Macedonia on 17 August, defeating the reconstituted Serbian army at Florina, and delayed the planned attack by the Bristish and French until September, by which time it was too late... Rumania’s accession to the Allies came too late to affect the situation, and merely invited an Austro-German counter-offensive. Indeed, the Germans were now counter-attacking remorselessly. At Tarnopol in July they launched a savage thrust, heralded by one of Bruchmüller’s brief but crushing bombardments, and soon Austro-German counter-attacks were hammering away along the line. Though the Russians had initially achieved a great tactical victory, in four months suffered nearly a million casualties. The offensive had also greatly sapped the power of the Central Powers and Austria-Hungary was a spent force. German resources were, however, still sufficient to counter-attack the Russians and support the Bulgarians and Austria-Hungary against Rumania.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.159-161).

The British Isle By the united brothers shall be vexed:
« The war at sea. The completion of the Kiel Canal [opened June 20th, 1895], connecting the Baltic with the North Sea, has been seen by some as a signal that Germany was now ready, after many years of fleet-building, and the years of the ‘naval race’, to challenge British naval supremacy. The critical factor was control of the North Sea, on the far side of which lay Germany, and the waters surrounding the British Isles, including the English Channel and, especially, the Western Approaches to British ports. Blockade and counter-blockade, whether by surface vessels or submarines, mostly occurred in these zones. While a decisive fleet action between Britain and Germany might affected the course of war, the success or failure of either side’s blockade would have a more certain effect...» (Chasseaud, id., p.188); « At the end of May [1916], the German High Seas Fleet and the Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet met in the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea. The British spotted a sortie by the German fleet and sent a far superior naval force to attack it. German Admiral Reinhard Scheer (1863-1928) was caught by surprise, but British Admiral John Jellicoe (1859-1935) failed to profit from the advantage. The German warships were able to make a fighting withdrawal to port, while inflicting heavier losses than they suffered. Despite a disappointing performance, the Royal Navy had confirmed its superiority – it was the German fleet that had retreated.» (DKHistory, p.346); « Churchill said of Admiral Jellicoe that he was the only man on either side who could lose the war in an afternoon.» (Chasseaud, id., p.188); « On 1 July [1916], General Douglas Haig launched a massive offensive at the Somme. Rather than destroy enemy defences, the eight-day artillery bombardment had alerted the Germans to an imminent attack. British troops marched forward in lines, because the generals believed their conscripted troops were incapable of executing more intelligent tactics, and were mown down by German machine guns. Almost 20,000 men were killed, the heaviest losses ever experienced by the British army in a single day’s fighting. Haig kept the men fighting for five months, introducing tanks as soon as this new weapon was available, and allowing his subordinates to experiment with varied tactics including night attacks. But there was no breakthrough, and the only result was attrition – a gradual wearing down of the armies.» (DKHistory, p.346-347);.

The Roman chief issuing from the Gallic blood
: The King of Italy in the First World War, Victor Emmanuel III (1900-1946) was of the House of Savoy, whose founder was Humbert the Whitehanded, a son of Amadeus, the great-grandson of Boson of Provence [Gallic] proclaimed King of Provence in 879 (cf. HH, IX, p.502; VII, p.585; Mirot, 1980, p.86-87). This third line, seeming to be in a syntactical isolation in the quatrain, belongs probably to the group of « Montenegro and Dacia and the British Isle », for Italy stands on the side of the Allies notwithstanding her formal alliance with the Central Powers; The Italian Front in the Great War: « The Italian front, while the British and French may have considered it a sideshow, was the main scene of action for Italy and a significant one for the overstretched Austro-Hungarian Empire. It saw four years of heavy fighting, with consequent hecatombs of casualties. Its origin lay in the ancient enmity between Italians and the Austrians, and it is easy to forget how recently large parts of the Italian peninsula lay under Austrian rule. Nineteenth-century nationalism and the Risorgimento were a relatively recent memory, and Italian nationalists were keen to relieve Austria of more territory that they considered their own.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.58). Cf. I-55 (§740): Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia Great shall be the effusion of blood.

And
: This coordinate conjunction in this place expresses the “correlation of opposition” (cf. Koine, s.v. and), so « the troops repelled » refer to the Germans or the Austrians who were offensive earlier.

And the troops in the forests shall be repelled
: The key to the interpretation of this line lies in the expression « the forests », which, interpreted with some formality but without circumspection by Ionescu as Black Forest (der Schwarzwalt, la Forêt Noire) symbolizing Germany (Ionescu, 1976, p.386), probably refers in its plural form not to Black Forest outside the real area of fightingt but to the real wooded battle fields, such as the forests of Argonne, Dieulet and Mormal, where the Germans were repulsed by the Allies at the last stage of the War; « In the difficult Argonne Forest terrain of tangled woods, gullies and ridges, it was almost impossible for tanks to operate, and the Americans found themselves engaging in a bloody slog through a succession of strongly held German positions. By 1 October [1918] the French and Americans had advanced some ten miles and taken 18,000 prisoners, and in a few more miles came up against the strong defensive position of the Kriemhild Line [cf. Coffman, 1968, p.302, Chart: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive]. While their advance was painfully slow, they were at least holding down thirty-six German divisions.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.269-271).

« On October 10, the Argonne Forest was in possession of the Americans. The flank attack of the 82nd, together with advances by the 77th and 28th Divisions, cleared this area which dominated the left of the Meuse-Argonne sector since the beginning of the offensive. Yet, Liggett was not satisfied. His plan had worked, but the thought of what might have been the result if Lindsey had been able to get his full brigade of the 82nd into action on the seventh galled him. Possibly, they could have captured the bulk of the German force in the forest, and they might have prevented the enemy from establishing a strong position at Grandpré and the Bois des Loges, north of the Argonne... “However the difficulties were great,” Liggett wrote Drum in 1927, “& the Div comparatively green & I think they did well under all the circumstances.” In his conception of this daring maneuver, Liggett demonstrated his flair for tactics. He showed his understanding of men and war in his acceptance of the results. An attempt to seize the heights east of the Meuse was not as successful as Liggett’s maneuver to drive the Germans from the Argonne...» (Coffman, 1968, p.325);

« On [November] 3rd, the two armies Gouraud and Liggett, outstripping the Argonne to the north and since well linked, advanced on a large front, in gaining a thrust of 5 to 10 km. On 4th, all the American line moved forward, in carrying the forest of Dieulet, while the right corps of Gouraud’s army passed the Canal of Ardennes; its left corps did not succeed in jumping over it. In 4 days, Gouraud’s army has advanced by 20 km toward Sedan. The second position of German withdrawal was all over. » (Gauvain et al., 1922, p.329);

« Valenciennes having been taken and surpassed, the battle was engaged on [November] 4th between the Escault to the north and the Sambre to the south. It was engaged on the left wing by the right of the 1st army (22nd corps and Canadian corps), and further to the south by the 3rd army (6th and 18th corps on the left, 4th on the center, 14th corps on the right). The 4th corps took le Quesnoy, and the 14th traversed the forest of Mormal, outflanking Landrecies to the north. On 5th in the morning, the victorious British took 20,000 prisoners and 450 canons. The Sambre was jumped over from Landrecies to Oisy, and the German armies began a large movement of retreat.» (id., p.328; cf. id., p.319, Chart: The Victory).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§746 The Western Front (1914-1918): IV-12.

IV-12 (§746):

The greater camp in march shall be forced to recoil,
Hardly shall be pursued further:
The army shall be camped anew, its legion being reduced,
Then shall be utterly driven out of France.

(Le camp plus grand de route mis en fuite,
Gueres plus outre ne sera pourchassé:
Ost recampé, & legion reduicte,
Puis hors des Gaules du tout sera chassé.)

NOTES« IV-12 (November 1918) The retreat of the German troops and their complete withdrawal to the border after the truce in November 1918 are here predicted.» (Centurio, 1953, p.89).

Ost
: = « arm
ée (army).» (Godefroy).

Recampé: « Recamper.
Se recamper. Camper de nouveau (to camp anew). Recampé. Campé de nouveau (camped anew).» (Huguet).

This quatrain seems to be molded on the following summary of the main military phases of the Western Front in the Great War (1914-1918): « The Great War. World War I [Aug 1914-Nov 1918] was also known as the Great War. Although it was a global conflict, the Focus was Europe, where the Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey – fought an alliance led by France, Britain and Russia. The US entered the war on the Anglo-French side in 1917. From the outset, the decisive area of conflict was Germany’s Western Front. The Germans [The greater camp (because of their scrupulous preparations)] invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg, overcoming Belgian resistance at Liege and Antwerp. French and British forces were driven into retreat southward after clashes at Mons and Charleroi [The greater camp in march]. At the Marne, however, French commander General Joseph Joffre rallied his forces for a counter-offensive and the Germans were pushed back [shall be forced to recoil]. After a desperate struggle at Ypres in autumn 1914, the rival armies dug into trenches that stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland. Massive resources were committed to offensives – by the Germans at Verdun and the Western Allies at the Somme – without breaking the stalemate [Hardly shall be pursued further]. Up to 1918, only a voluntary withdrawal by the Germans to the fortified Hindenburg Line [The army shall be camped anew] significantly changed the position of the armies. From March 1918 a series of large-scale German offensives broke through Allied defences and advanced the front line toward Paris. But, aided by the arrival of US troops [(on the contrary) its legion being reduced], the Allies halted the Germans at the Marne. A successful British offensive at Amiens in August initiated the “Hundred Days”, a series of advances that pushed the fighting back close to the German border [Then shall be utterly driven out of France].» (
DKHistory, p.344).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§747 The Austro-Serbian conflict; American exploit in the Great War (1914-1918): VIII-48.

VIII-48 (§747):

Saturn in the Cancer, Jupiter with Mars
In February Kaldondon earthsalvation,
A leap of the Garrison assailed in three quarters,
Near Serbia a conflict, a mortal warfare.

(Saturne en Cancer, Jupiter avec Mars
Dedans Fevrier Chaldondon salvaterre,
Sault Castallon assailly de trois pars,
Pres de Verbiesque conflit mortelle guerre.)

NOTES: V. Ionescu (1976, p.374-380) gives us an indispensable list of important comments on the extremely difficult points of this quatrain, but we try at first to determine the result of the convergence of the possible astronomical conditions mentioned in the qautrain through astronomic calculations by means of a software StellaNavigator (Paris, 1555-1911: LMT, 1912-1940: GMT, 1941-2000: LST).

1° There were 28 cases of the astronomic condition of Saturn in the Cancer during the period: 1555-2000 as follows:
1561.7.19-1562.1.4;
1562.4.3-1563.9.2;
1564.1.11-1564.5.22;
1591..6.7-1593.7.18;
1620.7.17-1621.2.13;
1621.3.16-1622.8.30;
1650.5.25-1652.7.7;
1679.7.6-1681.8.17;
1682.3.12-1682.4.18;
1709.5.12-1710.10.22;
1710.12.2-1711.6.26;
1738.6.24-1740.8.5;
1767.8.8-1767.12.29;
1768.4.25-1769.9.23;
1770.1.3-1770.6.11;
1797.6.11-1799.7.23;
1826.7.22-1827.1.30;
1827.3.31-1828.9.4;
1855.10.5-1855.10.20;
1856.5.27-1858.7.10;
1885.7.6-1887.8.18;
1914.8.24-1914.12.7;
1915.5.11-1916.10.17;
1916.12.7-1917.6.24;
1944.6.20-1946.8.2;
1973.8.1-1974.1.7;
1974.4.18-1975.9.17;
1976.1.14-1976.6.5;

2° The term: Fevrier (February) with majuscule initial in French (Février in place of février) may mean a kind of signs, namely the Sun’s longitude in February, then the solar longitude in February of the years concerned with the cases above are as follows:
1563.2.1-1563.2.28 (321°36ʹ32″-349°40ʹ41″);
1564.2.1-1564.2.29 (321°21ʹ35″-350°25ʹ40″);
1592.2.1-1592.2.29 (311°27ʹ27″-340°40ʹ8″);
1593.2.1-1593.2.28 (312°13ʹ29″-340°25ʹ37″);
1621.2.1-1621.2.13 (312°25ʹ54″-325°33ʹ59″);
1622.2.1-1622.2.28 (312°10ʹ55″-340°23ʹ21″);
1651.2.1-1651.2.28 (312°8ʹ54″-340°21ʹ37″);
1652.2.1-1652.2.29 (311°53ʹ52″-341°6ʹ55″);
1680.2.1-1680.2.29 (312°6ʹ11″-341°19ʹ23″);
1681.2.1-1681.2.28 (312°52ʹ15″-341°4ʹ54″);
1710.2.1-1710.2.28 (311°49ʹ23″-340°3ʹ0″);
1711.2.1-1711.2.28 (311°34ʹ37″-339°48ʹ28″);
1739.2.1-1739.2.28 (311°46ʹ24″-340°0ʹ27″);
1740.2.1-1740.2.29 (311°31ʹ48″-340°46ʹ7″);
1769.2.1-1769.2.28 (312°30ʹ28″-340°44ʹ21″);
1770.2.1-1770.2.28 (312°16ʹ2″-340°30ʹ1″);
1798.2.1-1798.2.28 (312°27ʹ53″-340°42ʹ9″);
1799.2.1-1799.2.28 (312°12ʹ59″-340°27ʹ18″);
1828.2.1-1828.2.29 (311°10ʹ4″-340°25ʹ44″);
1857.2.1-1857.2.28 (312°8ʹ31″-340°23ʹ40″);
1858.2.1-1858.2.28 (311°53ʹ39″-340°8ʹ52″);
1886.2.1-1886.2.28 (312°6ʹ6″-340°21ʹ28″);
1887.2.1-1887.2.28 (311°51ʹ31″-340°7ʹ4″);
1916.2.1-1916.2.29 (310°48ʹ18″-340°5ʹ15″);
1917.2.1-1917.2.28 (311°34ʹ47″-339°50ʹ52″);
1945.2.1-1945.2.28 (311°47ʹ3″-340°3ʹ22″);
1946.2.1-1946.2.28 (311°32ʹ24″-339°48ʹ42″);
1975.2.1-1975.2.28 (311°29ʹ33″-339°46ʹ28″);
1976.2.1-1976.2.29 (311°15ʹ8″-340°32ʹ20″).

3° The pertinence of a possible condition: « Jupiter in February » under the condition 2° is to be discerned by its longitude in February of the years concerned as follows:
1563.2.1-1563.2.28 (85°43ʹ11″-86°9ʹ52″);
1564.2.1-1564.2.29 (120°53ʹ50″-118°27ʹ31″);
1592.2.1-1592.2.29 (253°25ʹ50″-257°22ʹ36″);
1593.2.1-1593.2.28 (279°51ʹ54″-285°22ʹ58″);
1621.2.1-1621.2.13 (42°15ʹ15″-43°38ʹ14″);
1622.2.1-1622.2.28 (76°15ʹ14″-76°44ʹ10″);
1651.2.1-1651.2.28 (246°7ʹ2″-249°18ʹ43″);
1652.2.1-1652.2.29 (272°26ʹ12″-277°42ʹ29″);
1680.2.1-1680.2.29 (33°4ʹ20″-37°26ʹ30″);
1681.2.1-1681.2.28 (66°26ʹ58″-67°53ʹ35″);
1710.2.1-1710.2.28 (238°34ʹ52″-241°8ʹ54″);
1711.2.1-1711.2.28 (265°0ʹ58″-269°40ʹ17″);
1739.2.1-1739.2.28 (24°1ʹ2″-28°49ʹ4″);
1740.2.1-1740.2.29 (56°42ʹ44″-59°2ʹ38);
1769.2.1-1769.2.28 (231°3ʹ25″-232°52ʹ51″);
1770.2.1-1770.2.28 (257°45ʹ1″-261°50ʹ33″);
1798.2.1-1798.2.28 (15°15ʹ23″-20°37ʹ38″);
1799.2.1-1799.2.28 (47°8ʹ45″-50°14ʹ50″);
1828.2.1-1828.2.29 (223°11ʹ41″-224°24ʹ8″);
1857.2.1-1857.2.28 (6°28ʹ36″-12°16ʹ44″);
1858.2.1-1858.2.28 (37°39ʹ29″-41°30ʹ14″);
1886.2.1-1886.2.28 (185°47ʹ5″-183°38ʹ39″);
1887.2.1-1887.2.28 (215°20ʹ6″-215°44ʹ28″);
1916.2.1-1916.2.29 (357°37ʹ48″-3°58ʹ44″);
1917.2.1-1917.2.28 (28°18ʹ51″-32°49ʹ35″);
1945.2.1-1945.2.28 (176°52ʹ28″-174°10ʹ17″);
1946.2.1-1946.2.28 (207°12ʹ5″-206°52ʹ51″);
1975.2.1-1975.2.28 (349°20ʹ11″-355°44ʹ24″);
1976.2.1-1976.2.29 (19°8ʹ15″-24°25ʹ54″).
Thus, there is no case of pertinence of the condition 3°.

4° The pertinence of a possible condition: « Mars in February » under the condition 2° is to be discerned by its longitude in February of the years concerned as follows:
1563.2.1-1563.2.28 (269°34ʹ12″-289°35ʹ20″);
1564.2.1-1564.2.29 (51°19ʹ32″-66°44ʹ31″);
1592.2.1-1592.2.29 (10°15ʹ11″-30°37ʹ34″);
1593.2.1-1593.2.28 (250°18ʹ54″-268°42ʹ51″);
1621.2.1-1621.2.13 (217°14ʹ59″-222°33ʹ37″);
1622.2.1-1622.2.28 (357°14ʹ3″-17°59ʹ45″);
1651.2.1-1651.2.28 (198°30ʹ8″-201°5ʹ58″);
1652.2.1-1652.2.29 (343°57ʹ57″-6°13ʹ10″);
1680.2.1-1680.2.29 (315°9ʹ47″-338°3ʹ54″) [a];
1681.2.1-1681.2.28 (174°12ʹ8″-166°54ʹ7″);
1710.2.1-1710.2.12 (302°33ʹ20″-311°49ʹ23″);
1710.2.12-1710.2.28 (311°49ʹ23″-324°32ʹ24″) [b];
1711.2.1-1711.2.28 (142°25ʹ49″-132°17ʹ38″);
1739.2.1-1739.2.28 (67°49ʹ57″-77°6ʹ54″);
1740.2.1-1740.2.28 (290°6ʹ35″-311°31ʹ48);
1740.2.28-1740.2.29 (311°31ʹ48″-312°29ʹ49) [c];
1769.2.1-1769.2.28 (46°45ʹ50″-61°21ʹ46″);
1770.2.1-1770.2.28 (278°29ʹ53″-299°29ʹ16″);
1798.2.1-1798.2.28 (250°14ʹ56″-268°25ʹ51″);
1799.2.1-1799.2.28 (29°23ʹ47″-47°1ʹ53″);
1828.2.1-1828.2.29 (236°12ʹ17″-252°33ʹ31″);
1857.2.1-1857.2.28 (343°29ʹ30″-5°6ʹ32″);
1858.2.1-1858.2.28 (221°59ʹ58″-233°51ʹ13″);
1886.2.1-1886.2.28 (174°59ʹ47″-168°2ʹ28″);
1887.2.1-1887.2.13 (330°28ʹ30″-340°7ʹ4″) [d];
1887.2.13-1887.2.28 (340°7ʹ4″-352°28ʹ55″);
1916.2.1-1916.2.29 (143°35ʹ33″-133°2ʹ37″);
1917.2.1-1917.2.28 (317°41ʹ42″-339°49ʹ22″)[e];
1945.2.1-1945.2.28 (289°44ʹ42″-311°15ʹ22″);
1946.2.1-1946.2.28 (106°56ʹ23″-104°24ʹ38″);
1975.2.1-1975.2.28 (277°29ʹ28″-298°19ʹ27″);
1976.2.1-1976.2.29 (75°28ʹ9″-82°57ʹ3″).
Thus, only 5 cases [a,b,c,d and e] are discerned to be pertinent. And as a matter of course, a possible condition of a conjunction of Jupiter with Mars in February (Jupiter with Mars In February) is to be rejected. So, the combined astronomical conditions [a, b, c, d or e] of « Saturn in the Cancer » and « Mars In February » can determine the date of the events predicted by the quatrain.

Now, the determinant of the date in question is the last phrase of the forth line: « a mortal warfare », which excludes the years 1680, 1740 and 1887 as peaceful and shows the years 1710 and 1917 as mortal because the year 1710 sees Europe struggling for Spanish Royal Succession and that of 1917 is yet the fourth year of the Great War spanning 5 years.

And the second determinant of the date in question is the phrase: « Near Serbia a conflict », which will lead undoubtedly to the Great War.

Near Serbia a conflict (Pres de Verbiesque conflit): = A conflict in Serajevo, near Serbia. The French term « verbiesque » seems to be a new-coined adjective of VERBIAGE (Verbiage, wordiness, all talk, just words - Dubois), and its form with majuscule initial « Verbiesque » is considered to be a proper name, probably a placename (near which a conflict...). Then, we can recognize in it the French name Serbie (Serbia) as V. Ionescu proposes it (1976, p.376) besides Serive, a vague silhouette of Serajévo (Sarajevo, Serajevo), here contrary to Ionescu’s excessive interpolation that its initial V is the fifth Roman numeral signifying the fifth zodiacal sign: the Lion... We will discover later on a more meaning in the word « Verbiesque » according to its origin and by developing another useful comment given by Ionescu.

Jupiter: Jupiter is not an astronomical factor in this quatrain, but something else having a certain relation with Kaldondon and earthsalvation. And In the Prophecies of Nostradamus, the term Jupiter, otherwise without its astronomical meaning, signifies the United States of America, whose legal holiday Thanksgiving Day is celebrated on Thursday, the day of Jupiter: « JEUDI [THURSDAY]. n.m. (Juesdi,
XIIe, lat. Jovis dies « jour de Jupiter [day of Jupiter] »).» (Petit Robert): « I-50 [§865]: De l’aquatique triplicité naistra Un qui fera le jeudi pour sa feste: TRANSLATION: Of the Aquatic triplicity (Pisces, Scorpio, Cancer) will be born one who will make Thursday its holiday. INTERPRETATION: The United States of America is the only country that has Thursday for holiday. On July 4, 1776, she declared her independence, which places her birth in the sign of Cancer. Incidentally Franklin Delano Roosevelt is the only official, now in office, with whom Thursday is associated, since his decision of Thanksgiving Day [on the fourth Thursday of November in place of the last allotted by President Lincoln after its inauguration as such by President Washington] caused a storm of protest.» (Lamont, 1944, p.319); « X-71 [§340]: Lors qu’on viendra pour jeudi venerer: TRANSLATION: When they will come to honor Thursday. INTERPRETATION: As we have seen previously, Nostradamus applies Thursday to America, Thanksgiving day and indirectly to Fraklin Delano Roosevelt.» (id., p.324).

In fact, of 7 usages in all of the term Jupiter in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 4 are in its proper sense of a planet (I-51, IV-33, VI-35 and X-67), and 3 are figurative, two of the latter referring to USA (VIII-48 and IX-55). It is strikingly obvious that the term Jupiter in the quatrain IX-55 (§753): « ... Mercury, Mars, Jupiter in France » cannot signify the planet, but « USA in France », namely « the American Expeditionary Forces in France » in 1917-1918.

Now, the date of February 3rd, 1917 is when USA broke off the diplomatic relations with Germany because of Germany’s declaration to neutrals of her policy of unrestricted naval warfare announced on January 31st 1917 (Williams, 1968, p.462). So, the verses: « Saturn in Cancer, Jupiter with Mars In February » may mean that USA in February 1917 has resolved to join the Allies in the Great War against the Central Powers represented by Germany. And in this context too, the term Mars has besides its proper meaning of a planet another traditional figurative nuance of military forces. Then, the verse « Jupiter with Mars » clearly expresses the United States’ military engagements in the Great War in progress.

Kaldondon (Chaldondon): = The two good gifts (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.378). This is a compound neologism from the Greek and Latin etymologies: « 
καλóς (kalos), beautiful, good, of fine quality.» (Liddell & Scott) + « dōnum, a gift, present.» (Smith-Lockwood).

Earthsalvation (salvaterre): This neologism salvaterre with a meaning of “earthsalvation, earthsavior” consists in a composition of a Latin word « salvus, -a, -um (to be well or in good health) » (Smith-Lockwood), whence salvation, and a French word « terre (earth) ».

Jupiter Kaldondon earthsalvation: = Jupiter [shall bring us] Kaldondon and earthsalvation: « In fact, on 3rd February 1917, the United States broke off the relations with the Central Powers. This action will bring to the world a double gift: a peace and the League of Nations, which was destined to guard the peace.» (Ionescu, id.).

A leap
(sault): = « saut. Leap, bound, jump (bond); Sudden movement (or) transition.» (Dubois). Here it is a military operation.

Garrison (Castallon): The neologism castallon is a deformation of a Latin word « castellānī. pl. the occupants of a castle, the garrison.» (Smith-Lockwood) with a suffix –on, which makes a diminutive (e.g. aiglon, chaînon) or an augmentative (e.g. ballon, caisson) (Suzuki). Here, the suffix is augmentative in order to make a garrison into an army and Castallon with majuscule initial will represent a certain country’s army.

The Garrison assailed in three quarters ([le] Castallon assailly de trois pars): The three points make a triangle and it has inside its center, which suggests the main Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) against the surrounding armies of the Allies: « These Central Powers have been in fact sieged on the three fronts: the Front of the West, that of the East and that of the South [Italian and Balkan fronts].» (Ionescu, id., p.377).

A leap of the Garrison
(Sault Castallon): = German and Austro-Hungarian first offensives in 1914. By the way, The irregular orthography Castallon of Castellani may imply that ALL of Castallon will suggest Allemagne (Germany) and A of it Austo-Hungary.

Finally, it is worth remarking that the phrase « Pres de Verbiesque » may mean a postwar near future, for the preposition « près (near) » is capable of expressing a proximate past (e.g. §781, VI-19: Pres de l'assault, i.e. Immediately after the assault) or future in time (e.g. « Heure indue? Monsieur voit qu’il est aussi près du matin que du soir (An undue hour? ... it is as near the morning as near the evening) » (B
EAUMARCH.) (Petit Robert)) besides a proximity in space and the word « Verbiesque » with its original sense of verbiage, wordiness, all talk, just words and majuscule initial can designate an International Organization of conference in general, the League of Nations to come after the Great War as Ionescu comments so (Ionescu, id., p.378). This is why Nostradamus employed the seemingly odd word Verbiesque at first to make a message of Near Serbia as the original place of the Great War.

Pres de Verbiesque conflit mortelle guerre (Near Serbia and near Something for verbiage a conflict, a mortal warfare): = The Great War shall occur near Serbia to conclude a postwar International Organization of talking in general.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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