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§761 Nikolai Lenin’s developed successor Joseph Stalin (1917-1953): I-45.

I-45 (§761):

Sector of sects great premium to the denouncer:
Beasts on the theatre, the scenic play rehearsed:
Of the ancient fact ennobled the inventor,
By sects the world being confused and schismatic.

(Secteur de sectes grand preme au delateur:
Beste en theatre, dressé le jeu scenique:
Du faict antique ennobli l'inventeur,
Par sectes monde confus & scismatique.)

NOTES: Secteur: = sector. « secteurlat. sector coupeur (cutter) ← secare couper (to cut).» (Ibuki); « sector, m. [secō], a cutter(Smith-Lockwood); « secō, to cut; to divide, separate.» (Smith-Lockwood).

Sector of sects: = Stalin, he who is at any cost going to reveal his rivals in sole power in the Party to be fractional, to be in a sect, to be against the Party, to be opposing the Party he masters in order to expel and destroy them.

As far as the expression ‘secteur de sectes (sector of sects)’ is concerned, V. Ionescu’s interpretation seems right in relating it to Nikolai Lenin, who in speech was worth “sectarian” (Ionescu, 1976, p.442-445), and in deed, too, because he established the Russian regime upon a narrow and steep basis of the Soviet Bolshevik Party, excluding all the other parties and forces. However, all the other elements in addition to this predicted in the quatrain are inevitably referring to his immediate and developed successor Joseph Stalin, who shall expel and destroy all his rivals in sole power as ‘fractionalists’ (those in sects in the party) one after another within the Communist Party itself.

Sector of sects: « Soon Stalin was resurrecting the old Trotsky-Lenin rows. At the thirteenth Party Congress in May 1924 he branded Trotsky with the Leninist term of ‘fractionalist [= sectarian]’. Trotsky refused to retract his criticism that Stalin was becoming too powerful. But he could not dispute Lenin’s condemnation of internal opposition and, like a man accused of heresy by the Inquisition, he was disarmed by his own religious belief. ‘Comrades’, he admitted, ‘none of us wishes to be right or can be right against the party. The party is in the last resort always right... I know that one cannot be right against the party. One can only be right with the party and through the party, since history has created no other paths to the realization of what is right.’ Since Stalin was already in control of the party, Trotsky’s words forged the ice-pick that crushed his skull sixteen years later. By the end of 1924 Stalin, with Kamenev and Zinoviev doing the dirty work, had created the heresy of ‘Trotskyism’ and related it to Trotsky’s earlier disputes with Lenin, who had been embalmed and put into his apotheosis-tomb five months earlier. In January 1925 Stalin was thus able to strip Trotsky of the army control with the full approval of the party... With Trotsky destroyed, Stalin turned on his Leftist allies. Early in 1925 he stole Kamenev’s Moscow party from under his nose by suborning his deputy, Uglanov. In September he brought in Bukharin and the Right to help in a frontal attack on Zinoviev – Kamenev, and had them decisively defeated at the Party Congress in December. Immediately afterwards, Stalin’s most trusted and ruthless henchman, Molotov, was sent to Leningrad with a powerful squad of party ‘heavies’, to smash up Zenoviev’s party apparatus there and take it over – essentially the same methods, but on a larger scale, that Al Capone was employing to extend his territory in Chicago at that very time. Frightened, Zinoviev now joined forces with Trotsky, the man he had helped to break. But it was too late: they were both immediately expelled from the party, and at the fifteenth Party Congress in December 1926, Kamenev’s protest was shouted down by the massed ranks of carefull drilled Stalinists who now filled the party’s ranks. Consciously echoing Lenin, Stalin came out into the open against his old allies: ‘Enough comrades, an end must be put to this game.... Kamenev’s speech is the most lying, pharasaical, scoundrelly and roguish of all the opposition speeches that have been made from this platform.’ The moment the Left was beaten and disarmed, Stalin began to adopt their policy of putting pressure on the peasants to speed industrialization, thus preparing the means to destroy Bukharin and the Right. The big clash came on 10 July 1928 at a meeting of the Central Committee, when Bukharin argued that while the kulak himself was not a threat – ‘we can shoot him down with machineguns’ - forced collectivization would unite all the peasants against the government. Stalin interrupted him with sinister piety, ‘A fearful dream, but God is merciful!’ God might be, but the General-Secretary. The next day, a scared Bukharin speaking on behalf of his allies Rykov, the nominal head of the government, and Tomsky, the hack ‘trade union leader’, had a secret meeting with Kamenev and offered to form a united front to stop Stalin. He now realized, he said, that Stalin was not primarily interested in policy but in sole power: ‘He will strangle us. He is an unprincipled intriguer who subordinates everything to his appetite for power. At any given moment he will change his theories in order to get rid of someone [Sector of sects].’ None of these nervous men had the numerical support in the key party bodies to outvote Stalin; or the means, in the shape of trained men with guns, to overrule him by force; or the skill and resolution – both of which he had shown in abundance – to destroy him by intrigue. In 1929 they were all dealt with: Rycov ousted from the premiership, Tomsky from the trade union leadership, and both, plus Bukharin, forced publicly to confess their errors (Kamenev and Zinoviev had already done so). They could now be tried and murdered at leisure.» (Johnson, 1991, p.264-266); « Immediately Zinoviev and Kamenev were dead [August 1936], Stalin ordered Yagoda to execute more than 5,000 party members already under arrest. This was the beginning of the Great Terror. Soon after this was done, Stalin sent from Sochi, where he was on holiday, the sinister telegram of 25 September 1936: ‘We deem it absolutely necessary and urgent that Comrade Yezhov be nominated to the post of People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs. Yagoda has definitely proved himself to be incapable of unmasking the Trotskyite-Zinovievite block [a sect]. The
OGPU (Special Government Political Administration) is four years behind in this matter.’ This was followed by the systematic purge of the secret police, carried out by teams of two to three hundred party zealots secretly recruited by Yezhov. Next Stalin eliminated his old Georgian friend Ordzhonikidze, the last Politburo member allowed to call him by his nickname ‘Koba’ or to argue with him: he was given the choice of shooting himself or dying in the police cells. After February 1937 Stalin could kill anyone, in any way he wished [Sector of sects]. At the CC plenum at the end of the month, it ‘instructed’ Stalin to arrest Bukharin and Rykov. Bukharin pleaded tearfully for his life. Stalin: ‘If you are innocent, you can prove it in a prison cell!’ The CC: ‘Shoot the traitor!’ The two men were taken straight off to prison and death; Yagoda was later heard to mutter, ‘What a pity I didn’t arrest all of you before, when I had the power.’ (It made no difference: of the 140 people present, nearly two-thirds would shortly be murdered.) From the end of 1936 to the second half of 1938, Stalin [Sector] struck at every group [sects] in the regime. In 1937 alone he killed 3,000 senior secret police officers and 90 per cent of the public prosecutors in the provinces.» (Johnson, id., p.300-301).

Preme: = Récompense (recompense, reward, prize, award) ; « Preme (?). Récompense? – Faire les bons, non seulement par crainte de pene, mais aussi par exhortation de preme (To do good, not only for fear of pain, but also for exhortation to premium). 1554. L
E CARON, Claire, 41b (Vaganay, Mots).» (Huguet). By the way, the ? marks in Huguet now should be eliminated in view of the convergence of the two usages of the term in question by LE CARON and NOSTRADAMUS !

Great premium to the denouncer: « A tragedy in the House of the elite: There is a high-class residence called the House on Embankment in the central district of Moscow commanding the Kremlin and the Saviour-Christ Cathedral. It is the eleven-storied building on a block of 40,000 m2 beside the Moscow River, its magnificence having been very attractive for a long time. It was built by means of the modern architecture of highest level in 1927-31 by an architect drilled in Italy Boris Iofan [1891-1976] on the initiative of Alexei Rykov in the premiership since 1924. It was properly called the Government House for the residence of the high officials of the Revolutionary Regime with the most advanced equipment... But soon this house of ‘dream’ was changed to the house of ‘tragedy’. In the second half of 1930s it was swallowed up in the midst of the wave of Great Purge under the autocratic regime of Stalin and its residents were disappearing one after another like a comb with its teeth falling rapidly. The life in the House with wonderful furniture and facilities was from the beginning under strict surveillance by the authority. At its entrances, 25 in number, were always posted the state police agents, the residents depositing them their keys when they went out, and the visitors being accompanied by them into the room. In 1932 the authority for security began to take residents away or to search within. It culminated in 1937-38. Much more than 800 named residents were identified as ‘vanished’, one third, at least, of the residents in all, of which 344 were shot. The most dreadful was the fact that the dwellers of the apartment were secretly informing against each other. At that time the secret information was recommended and it was guilty to neglect it [Great premium to the denouncer]. Anyone was condemned as ‘an anti-Soviet activity’, ‘ an enemy of the People’ or ‘a spy’.» (Endo, VI, September 30, 2017).

Beasts on the theatre, the scenic play rehearsed: « Stalin had already begun to perfect the dramaturgy of terror. Drawing on his monkish memories, he arranged party meetings to provide a well-rehearsed antiphonal dialogue between himself and his claque [the scenic play rehearsed], with Stalin suggesting moderation in dealing with ‘party enemies’ and the claque insisting on severity. Thus, reluctantly demanding the expulsion of Trotsky and Zinoviev, Stalin said he had been against this before and had been ‘cursed’ by ‘honest Bolsheviks’ for being too lenient. The claque: ‘Yes – and we still do curse you for it’. In May–July 1929 [sic][1928] Stalin staged the first of his show-trials [Beasts on the theatre], against a group of Donbass mining engineers charged with ‘sabotage’. The script was written by the
OGPU official Y.G.Yevdokimov, one of Stalin’s creatures, and featured the twelve-year-old son of one of the accused, who denounced his father and called for his execution. The actual head of OGPU, Menzhinsky, opposed this trial, as did some Politburo members. But this was the last time Stalin met genuine opposition from within the secret police or security apparatus. Towards the end of the year he ordered the shooting of the senior OGPU official Yakov Blyumkin, the first party member to be executed for an intra-party crime. Thereafter the trials went exactly as Stalin planned them, down to the last indignant crowd-scene, like some gigantic production by the Soviet cineaste Sergei Eisenstein. While the trial of the ‘Industrial Party’ was taking place the next year, the body of the court shouted, at carefully arranged intervals, ‘Death to the wreckers!’ and in the streets outside, thousands of workers marched past shouting ‘Death, death, death!’. By 1929 Stalin had the all-purpose term Stakhtyites (wreckers) for anyone he wished to destroy. As he put it, ‘Bourgeois wrecking is an indubitable sign that capitalist elements are gathering strength for new attacks on the Soviet Union.’» (Johnson, id., p.266-267).

Of the ancient fact ennobled the inventor:
« While goading on the witch-hunting and building up the paranoia and hysteria, Stalin was contriving his own apotheosis as the heir of the deified Lenin. As early as 1924-5, Yuzovka, Yuzovo and Tsaritsyn became Stalino, Stalinsky, Stalingrad; but it was the fiftieth birthday celebrations at the end of 1929 which marked the real beginning not only of Stalin’s unfettered personal rule but of the Stalin cult [ennobled the inventor] in all its nightmare maturity, with names like Stalinabad, Stalin-Aul, Staliniri, Stalinissi, Stalino, Stalinogorsk, Stalinsk, Mount Stalin, sprouting all over the Soviet Empire, and with the first appearance of Stalinist litanies: Man of Steel, the Granite Bolshevik, the Brass-hard Leninist, the Iron Soldier, the Universal Genius, a form of ruler-worship which went back to the Egyptian pharaohs [Of the ancient fact ennobled the inventor]. » (Johnson, id., p.267).

By sects the world being confused and schismatic
: « Vanished treasuries for foreign maneuvers and for pocketbooks of the heads of the government. Lenin and his regime in power through the Russian Revolution founded the Communist International (Comintern) in March 1919 as the leading centre of international communist movements and planned to export ‘Revolution’ into the European countries [By sects the world being confused and schismatic]. It was financially supported by the heritage of the Imperial Russia. The Imperial Russia was the first class country in the world in gold production, her gold reserve before the Great War having amounted to 1,311 tons. It is known to us that much gold had flowed out of Russia after the Revolution and at the first stages of Soviet Union. It was brought mainly into Sweden in secret and thence distributed to another destinations. It was called ‘gold of steam locomotives’ or ‘gold of Comintern’ according to the means of carriage and to the purpose of use. The former was for the payment of the steam locomotives Russia had ordered from Sweden, and the latter for the support to the maneuvers and campaigns of each country’s communist party joining the Comintern. Comintern obliged each member party to absolutely obey the Russian Communist Party for its promise of monetary support to the member... » (Endo, XXXIX, November 10, 2017).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.
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§762 Personality Cult and Show-trials (1928-1940): III-26.

III-26 (§762):

Kings and princes shall set up their simulacra,
Shallow augurs elevated to the haruspices:
Horns, golden victims, and those of sky and of pickles:
[As such] [the accused] shall be interpreted [by] the soothsayers.

(Des roys & princes dresseront simulacres,
Augures, creuz eslevés aruspices:
Corne, victime d’orée, & d'azur, d'acre:
Inrerpretés seront les extispices.)

NOTES: Kings: Cf. « It shall be a King [Lenin] who shall give the opposite.» (§756, V-52).

Kings and princes: = « princes ignorants (ignorant princes) » (§757, IV-18). 

Kings and princes shall set up their simulacra: « As the essential arm of the success of the revolution, the personality cult was exploited already when Lenin was alive, and his portrait was posted up everywhere, even on the plates.» (
Trémolières IV, p.34); « The personality cult of Stalin was such that the communists of all over the world celebrated his anniversary. In France, the Communist Party organized in 1949, for the seventieth anniversary of the ‘builder of the peace’, a vast collection of presents.» (Trémolières IV, p.56). 

Aruspices: From the Latin « haruspex, a soothsayer, diviner (among the Etruscans) who foretold future events from the inspection of the entrails of victims
(Smith-Lockwood). 

Extispices: From the Latin « extispex, one who inspects the entrails, a diviner
(Smith-Lockwood). 

Augures, creuz eslevés aruspices: The construction will be as follows: Augures creuz eslevés [à] aruspices (Shallow augurs elevated to the haruspices), the preposition à having been elliptic for the sake of a prophetic embroilment (Cf. A l'Entrée des Prophéties, §5, Catégorie d: Ellipse de prépositions pour embrouiller prophétiquement).

Shallow augurs elevated to the haruspices: = Little gifted professionals and scholars shall be promoted to government offices through their loyalty to the Soviet Regime. As for the two analogous terms haruspice and extispice, they designate through their original meaning of ‘one who inspects the entrails those in charge of Soviet justice or secret police who inspect even people’s internal sentiment to get rid of the fear of counter-revolutionary elements, whereas that of augur concerns external crimes as its etymology teaches us: ‘a member of a college of priests at Rome, who foretold the future by observing the flight or notes of birds, the feeding of the sacred fowls, lightning, certain appearances of quadrupeds, and any unusual occurrences’ (
Smith-Lockwood).

« In May–July 1929 [sic] [1928] Stalin staged the first of his show-trials, against a group of Donbass mining engineers charged with ‘sabotage’. The script was written by the
OGPU official Y.G.Yevdokimov, one of Stalin’s creatures, and featured the twelve-year-old son of one of the accused, who denounced his father and called for his execution... » (Johnson, 1991, p.266); « On March 10, 1928, an exposure was announced about the ‘counter-revolutionary complot’ involving technical engineers and foreign facilities in Shakhty, Donbass mine.» (Wada, et al., 1997, p.147); « On May 18, 1928 in Moscow, an unexpected person having taken the seat of the chief justice, announced the court open. It was Andrei Vyshinskii [1883-1954], president of Moscow University, since assisting Stalin in the Great Terror. In the dock were 53 accused, the management and the engineers including the Germans of the Donbass mine, prosecuted for having organized an ‘underground counter-revolutionary group’ in conspiracy with foreign ‘anti-Soviet Centers’ and projected the explosion of coal mines, etc. This was the first of the show-trials. The outcome has been determined since quite before the trial just as the General Secretary of the Communist Party Stalin definitely spoke against them on April 13 at the party conference in Moscow. Stalin’s intent was to use the judges and prosecutors faithful to his designed ‘judgment’ and to make believe publicly its fairness. Vyshinskii was the fittest for the job, having delivered lectures on law appraising Stalin at Moscow University, inexperienced as a justice. His vocabulary, expressions, eloquence and logical discourse unique in deriving culpability fully satisfied Stalin. The second show-trial was staged in December 1930 against 8 persons, who had been close to the late Vladimir Lenin, involving the executive of Gosplan (State Planning Commission). Into the accused did get a collaborator of the investigating agency, who testified that a large range of personalities were projecting destructive activities in each economic section. The aim of these show-trials were not to punish the actual criminals, but to imprint a fear of enemies’ omnipresence upon the elite and the public and to show them to be duly sentenced. Thus it was Vyshinskii that exploited the route to the Great Terror by Stalin.» (Endo, XLVII, November 21, 2017); « Stalin promotes Vyshinskii indebted to him for his conversion from the Mensheviki to the Bolsheviki. Andrei Vyshinskii, who supported Stalin in his Great Terror as Prosecutor in chief and was famed for the public opinion that all but Stalin did fear him, had an unprecedented past among the leaders of the Bolsheviki. Vyshinskii and Stalin met in 1907 in a prison of Baku, in the southern Caucasus, about the end of the Imperial Russia. A Georgian Stalin was playing then an active part as a militant Bolshevik in the Caucasus, whereas Vyshinskii was belonging to the Mensheviki, a moderate Marxist group splitting with the Bolsheviki, but he was yet working sanguinarily among the nonpartisan militants. He was the only man who did not fear Stalin in their controversies about the revolution in the prison, which left a deep impression in Stalin. He was still a Menshevik, when he met again Stalin after the October Revolution of 1917 and was raised by Stalin as one of the administration of the Provision Commissariat of the People. In February 1920 when the Civil War was becoming serious between the Bolsheviki and their opponents, he was admitted to the Communist Party thanks to Stalin’s mediation. “ Stalin fully understood that « this event should have been left as a delicate pickle in the consciousness of an ex-Menshevik.»... Vyshinskii would be a slave to his master to crash his enemies.” Thus did imagine a Russian historian Arkajii Waksberg the mind of Stalin, a mediator of Vyshinskii’s late conversion. Even when the Mensheviki became a target of excessive oppression later, Stalin did not touch Vyshinskii himself and manipulated him freely in favor of his preponderance over him. ‘Wishing to join the foundation of a new system’, Vyshinskii became a lawyer and was elected president and professor in law of Moscow University going through a prosecutor of the Supreme Court. And he was charged with the justice in chief of the ‘coal mine trial’ of 1928. At this moment Stalin already intended to purge his political rivals. All the trials of 1930s against the old leaders of the Party such as Kamenev, Zinoviev, Bukharin, Rykov were plausible court-plays with Stalin’s prepared sentence staged by Vyshinskii, who was charged with prosecutor in chief of Russian Republic since 1931, then of the Soviet Union since 1935 [till 1940 when he was nominated the First Vice Secretary of Foreign Affairs]. ‘Confession is the queen of evidences’: this theory of jurisprudence by Vyshinskii left to his posterity an immeasurable negative heritage.» (Endo, XLVIII, November 22, 2017).

Corne, victime d’orée, & d'azur, d'acre: Inrerpretés seront les extispices
: These verses are to be interpreted as if we were analyzing a certain kind of entrails as follows: Horns, golden victims, and those of sky and of pickles: [As such] [the accused] shall be interpreted [by] the soothsayers: = The judges or the secret police shall interpret the accused as ‘anti-revolutionaries (horns)’, ‘bourgeois (golden victims)’, ‘idealists, anti-materialists (those of sky)’ or ‘harmful criticizers (those of pickles)’: « The most dreadful was the fact that the dwellers of the apartment were secretly informing against each other. At that time the secret information was recommended and it was guilty to neglect it. Anyone was condemned as ‘an anti-Soviet activity’, ‘ an enemy of the People’ or ‘a spy’ [horns].» (Endo, VI, September 30, 2017); « By 1929 Stalin had the all-purpose term Stakhtyites (wreckers) [horns] for anyone he wished to destroy. As he put it, ‘Bourgeois wrecking [golden victims] is an indubitable sign that capitalist elements are gathering strength for new attacks on the Soviet Union.’» (Johnson, id., p.267);

Those of sky: = « Those well versed in spiritual things » (§757, IV-18): Those well versed in spiritual things Shall be reproved by ignorant governors: Punished through the Decree, chased as criminals: « The most disturbing and, from the historical point of view, important characteristic of the Lenin terror was not the quantity of the victims but the principle on which they were selected. Within a few months of seizing power, Lenin had abandoned the notion of individual guilt, and with it the whole Judeo-Christian ethic of personal responsibility. The watershed was Lenin’s decree of January 1918 calling on the agencies of state to ‘purge the Russian land of all kinds of harmful insects’. This was not a judicial act: it was an invitation to mass murder. Many years later, Alexander Solzhenitsyn listed just a few of the groups who thus found themselves condemned to destruction as ‘insects’. They included ‘former zemstvo members, people in the Cooper movements, homeowners, high-school teachers, parish councils and choirs, priests, monks and nuns, Tolstoyan pacifists [those of sky], officials of trade-unions’ – soon all to be classified as ‘former people’. Quite quickly the condemned group decree-laws extended to whole classes and the notion of killing people collectively rather than individually was seized upon by the Cheka professionals with enthusiasm.» (Johnson, 1991, p.70).

« Immediately Zinoviev and Kamenev were dead [August 1936], Stalin ordered Yagoda to execute more than 5,000 party members already under arrest. This was the beginning of the Great Terror. Soon after this was done, Stalin sent from Sochi, where he was on holiday, the sinister telegram of 25 September 1936: ‘We deem it absolutely necessary and urgent that Comrade Yezhov be nominated to the post of People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs [Shallow augurs elevated to the haruspices]. Yagoda has definitely proved himself to be incapable of unmasking the Trotskyite-Zinovievite block [a sect]. The
OGPU is four years behind in this matter.’ This was followed by the systematic purge of the secret police, carried out by teams of two to three hundred party zealots secretly recruited by Yezhov. Next Stalin eliminated his old Georgian friend Ordzhonikidze, the last Politburo member allowed to call him by his nickname ‘Koba’ or to argue with him: he was given the choice of shooting himself or dying in the police cells. After February 1937 Stalin could kill anyone, in any way he wished. At the CC plenum at the end of the month, it ‘instructed’ Stalin to arrest Bukharin and Rykov. Bukharin pleaded tearfully for his life. Stalin: ‘If you are innocent, you can prove it in a prison cell!’ The CC: ‘Shoot the traitor!’ The two men were taken straight off to prison and death; Yagoda was later heard to mutter, ‘What a pity I didn’t arrest all of you before, when I had the power.’ (It made no difference: of the 140 people present, nearly two-thirds would shortly be murdered.) From the end of 1936 to the second half of 1938, Stalin struck at every group in the regime. In 1937 alone he killed 3,000 senior secret police officers and 90 per cent of the public prosecutors in the provinces.» (Johnson, 1991, p.300-301).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§763 Fall of Russian Empire; End of Ottoman Empire (1917-1928): III-95.

III-95 (§763):

The Moorish law shall be seen to fail:
After another much more seductive law shall have failed,
The Dnieper shall be the first to fail:
Pardon and the language shall become more attractive.

(La loy Moricque on verra defaillir:
Apres une autre beaucoup plus seductive,
Boristhenes premier viendra faillir:
Pardons & langue une plus attractive.)

NOTES: Moricque: = « Morisque. Moresque.» (Huguet); The French word Moricque is the adjective of the French noun « More (= the Moor).» (§602, IV-85); « MORE. V. MAURE. » (Petit Robert); « MAURE, MAURESQUE ou MORE, MORESQUE. n. et adj. (du lat. maurus; esp. Moro). Hist. De l’ancienne Mauretania, région du nord de l’Afrique. Maures islamisés; Maures d’Espagne (From the ancient Mauretania, region of the northern Africa. Islamized Moors; Moors of Spain).» (Petit Robert).

La loy Moricque: = la loy moresque = « The Moorish law.» (Ovason, 1997, p.306) = the Ottoman Empire. The word ‘loy (law)’ in this case can be more comprehensive than usually, meaning a ‘regime’ as is the case of the second line: ‘une autre [loy] beaucoup plus seductive’ (another much more seductive [law], i.e. the Russian Empire).

Boristhenes: = The river of Dnieper in the Russian Empire till 1917; « Βορυσθένης, Borysthène, fl. de la Sarmatie européenne (auj. Dniéper).» (Pillon). Cf. Edmonds, 2000, p.39.

Pardon: Forgiveness, pardon. This word evokes, on the other hand, punishment or penalty, thence one may infer the penal code.

David Ovason (1997, p.306-308) gives us a sufficiently reasonable solution of the quatrain, except about the text « Pardons (Forgiveness, pardon) », which he replaces wrongly by « Par dons (By gifts) ».

The Moorish law shall be seen to fail: After another much more seductive law shall have failed, The Dnieper shall be the first to fail: Pardon and the language shall become more attractive: « The quatrain deals with a period of a few years when both the Russian Imperium and the old Ottoman Empire came to an abrupt and perhaps unexpected end. The weakened Ottoman Empire could be said to have fallen in October 1923, when the republic of Turkey was proclaimed in Ankara [The Moorish law shall be seen to fail]. The Sultanate, upon which the old Ottoman Empire had depended, had been abolished almost a year later, but the ratification by the national assembly seems to have been the final nail in the coffin of the Ottomans. In 1928, a short while after the Ottoman Empire had become technically defunct, the Turkish state was declared secular. This move had required that the Shariya law, the loi Moricque (Muslim Law) should be abandoned, in favour of one more attractive to the aspirations of the Turkish nation. This occurred in 1926, when Muslim religious law was put aside in favour of a civil code based on a number of European laws [Pardon shall become more attractive]. This farsighted decision was the first stage in a progressive attempt to both secularize the state and establish firm communication with the Western world, at the expense of the old Ottoman ties to the Arabic East. This is probably why Nostradamus could visualize the replacement model (the Roman alphabet). In 1928, the Roman alphabet was adopted to replace the Arabic script, and attempts were made to revitalize old Turkish words to take the place of the Arabic and Persian which had crept into the Ottoman language [the language shall become more attractive].» (Ovason, id., p.307-308).

« The word Boristhenes was the old name for the river Dnieper, which arises in the hills of Valdai, to the west of Moscow, and flows through Smolensk and Kiev, to fall into the Black Sea near Nikolaev, at the top of the huge peninsula that is the Crimea. The name was, therefore, a convenient symbol for Nostradamus to indicate what had to fall before the decline in the Moorish law could take place. The thing which had to fall was the arch-enemy of the Ottomans – Imperial Russia. We may suggest that Russian Imperium fell in 1914 [sic][1917], with the Revolution [another much more seductive law shall have failed, The Dnieper shall be the first to fail].» (Ovason, id.).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§764 Sanguinary dictator Stalin; reformist dictator Ataturc (1923-1938): III-60.

 III-60 (§764):

All over Asia great proscription,
Even in Mysia, Lysia and Pamphylia:
Blood to shed by absolution:
By a young king full of felony.

(Par toute Asie grande proscription,
Mesmes en Mysie, Lysie & Pamphylie:
Sang versera par absolution
D'un jeune noir rempli de felonnie.)

NOTES: « III-60 (1917ff.) After the October-Revolution of 1917 in Russia the large fortunes and every property of capitals were nationalized. About at the same time in Asia Minor under Kemal Pascha land reforms took place. The third verse, considered only by itself, may allude to Lenin, the leader of the bloody October-Revolution, who had been left off the list of investigation by the Germans and brought back to Russia in a sealed wagon. But “the black-hairy” of the verse 4 evidently refers to young Stalin, who had never met with the death penalty for his revolutionary and terrorist activities; moreover Stalin was already in his youth known as especially reckless and is to be acknowledged as the author of all the later activities of purge in the state and the party of the Soviet Russia: many and many “purges”, in which above all almost all the old colleagues of Stalin were liquidated.» (Centurio, 1953, p.80).

Proscription: = « Hist. rom. Mise hors la loi, condamnation prononcée sans jugement contre des adversaires politiques; Mesure de banissement prise à l’encontre de certaines personnes, en période d’agitation civile ou de dictature (Rom. Hist. Outlawry, condemnation pronounced without judgment against political adversaries; Measure of banishment taken against certain persons, at the period of civil agitation or dictatorship).» (Petit Robert).

Absolution
: = « Effassement d’une faute par pardon; Cathol. Rémission des péchés accordée par le prêtre après la confession (Effacement of a fault by forgiveness; Cathol.
Remission of the sins accorded by the priest after the confession).» (Petit Robert).,

Mysia, Lysia and Pamphylia: = « The three provinces of the western and the south-western Turkey.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.470).

Noir: An anagram of Roi, King (Torné-Chavigny,1861,p.13). In fact, of 27 examples of this word, 21 (= 77.8%) are for king as Philippe II (3 times ), François II, Charles IX, Henri IV, Louis XVI, Napoléon Ier (6 times), Louis XVIII, Charles X, Napoléon III, François-Joseph Ier et al., and only 6 are for the color black (I-77, VI-10, VI-36, VII-14, IX-60, X-91). The character ‘N’ of ‘noir’ does not have a meaning of ‘negation’ as Ionescu does wish so, but the nuance in totality of the word ‘noir (black)’ has a certain earthly negativity of all the kings on earth as Torné-Chavigny explains so.

A young king: = Stalin (1879-1953) aged forty-five, yet young compared with his predecessor Lenin (1870-1924) aged fifty-four when he was dead in 1924. Lenin, too, is said to be “un Roy, a King” (§756, V-52) and his death “mort senile, aged death” (§765, III-59). By the way, in the quatrain I-35 (§13), Henry II of France (March 1519 - July 1559) aged 40 is called ‘the old lion’ compared with his rival of jousting on 30 June 1559 Gabriel de Lorges, the Count of Montgommery aged 27, called ‘the young lion’.

All over Asia great proscription, Even in Mysia, Lysia and Pamphylia: Blood to shed by absolution: By a young king full of felony: V. Ionescu (1976, p.470-473) gives us a fully developed solution of the quatrain, whose brief conclusion is here: « In the Asian countries they shall effect great proscriptions. Even in Turkey, they shall carry out anti-religious and anti-monarchical reforms, when Kemal Ataturc shall have appeared as a dictator. In Russia, the largest country in Asia, because of Stalin, the new dictator, full of astuteness of feline beasts, they shall hold profane ceremonies, where “the absolution” by sanguinary sacrifices shall be given after the “confessions”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.473).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§765 The Great Terror of Stalin (1924-1938): III-59.

III-59 (§765):

The barbarous empire usurped by the third estate,
Which shall put to death the greatest part of its blood:
By the aged death by him a quarter stricken,
For fear that the blood should not be dead by the blood.

(Barbare empire par le tiers usurpé
La plus grand part de son sang metra à mort:
Par mort senile par luy le quart frapé,
Pour peur que sang par le sang ne soit mort.)

NOTES: Barbarous empire: = the Imperial Russia = « une autre [loy] beaucoup plus seductive (another much more seductive law » (§763, III-95).

Le tiers
: = « The third estate; the proletariat.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.470-471).

The barbarous empire usurped by the third estate: The Russian Revolution of October by the Bolsheviki. 

Mort senile
: The aged death of Nikolai Lenin aged fifty-four in 1924, the term ‘aged’ indicating the two things: 1° Lenin really aged compared with his real successor Joseph Stalin aged forty-five in 1924 (cf. §764, III-60: a young king); 2° Lenin in incapacitation in his last days: « Certainly, Lenin never showed the slightest regrets about his lifework, though in the last two-and-a-half years of his existence he was a sick, angry, frustrated and ultimately impotent creature. It is argued that, towards the end, he recognized Stalin as the emergent monster he undoubtedly was, and sought desperately to build up Trotsky’s influence as a countervailing force. There is however one suggestive and sinister element. As part of his dehumanizing process, Lenin had insisted from the beginning of his rule that the party organs take an interest in the health of senior party men, and issue them (on medical advice) with orders about leave, hospitalization and rest. In mid-1921 Lenin began to experience severe headaches. On 4 June the Orgburo ordered him to take leave; he disobeyed it. He took a month’s leave in July, and began to work less thereafter; there were further orders, from the Politburo, in August. He resumed normal work on 13 September for nearly three months, but in early December his health got worse and he spent more time at his country house at Gorky outside Moscow. In the early weeks of 1922 there were more orders to do little or no work, and he was supposed to visit Moscow only with the permission of the Party Secretariat. His impress was on the tenth Party Congress throughout but ostensibly he only chaired a few committees. He had just left Moscow for a further rest when he had his first stroke on 25 May 1922. He was then completely out of action for months, and when he returned to work on 2 October, the Secretariat, in the name of the Central Committee, enforced a strict regime and prevented him from getting access to papers. There is no doubt at all that Stalin was the most active agent of this medical restriction, and on 18 December he had himself formally appointed supervisor of Lenin’s health. This led directly to the Lenin-Stalin breach... On 4 January 1923 Lenin dictated a postscript to his ‘testament’: ‘Stalin is too rude... intolerable in a Secretary-General’. I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post’. On the night of 5 March Lenin wrote to Stalin, rebuking him for abusing his wife on the phone and telling him to apologize or face ‘the rupture of relations between us’. Four days later came the second, debilitating stroke which robbed Lenin of speech, movement and mind. A final stroke killed him in January 1924 but by then he had long since ceased to count.» (Johnson, 1991, p.86-88). 

Him
(luy): = Stalin, Lenin’s successor = a young king (§764, III-60).

Which shall put to death the greatest part of its blood By the aged death by him a quarter stricken For fear that the blood should not be dead by the blood
: Under the Bolshevik Regime after Lenin’s death, his successor Stalin shall be led to the Policy of Great Terror for fear that his terror should not be annihilated by eventual counter-terrors: « The decision to collectivize by force was taken suddenly, without any kind of public debate, in the last weeks of 1929. It was typical of the way in which the pursuit of Utopia leads the tiny handful of men in power abruptly to assault a society many centuries in the making, to treat men like ants and stamp on their nest. Without warning, Stalin called for an ‘all-out offensive against the kulak... We must smash the kulaks, eliminate them as a class... We must strike at the kulaks so hard as to prevent them from rising to their feet again... We must break down the resistance of that class in open battle.’ On 27 December1929, the Feast of the St John the Apostle, he declared war with the slogan ‘Liquidate the kulaks as a class!’ It was the green light for a policy of extermination, more than three years before Hitler came to power, twelve years before the ordering of the ‘Final Solution’. Collectivization was a calamity such as no peasantry had known since the Thirty Years’ War in Germany... The result was what the great Marxist scholar Leszek Kolakowski has called ‘probably the most massive warlike operation ever conducted by a state against its own citizens’. The number of peasants actually shot by the regime is not yet known and may not be discoverable even when, and if, scholars ever get at the Soviet archives. Churchill said that, in Moscow in 1942, Stalin told him coolly that ‘ten millions’ of peasants had been ‘dealt with’. According to one scholarly estimate, in addition to those peasants executed by the
OGPU or killed in battle, between 10 and 11 million were transported to north European Russia, to Siberia and Central Asia; of these one-third went into concentration camps, a third into internal exile and a third were executed or died in transit [Which shall put to death the greatest part of its blood, by him a quarter stricken].» (Johnson, id., p.270-271);

« Hitler learnt from Lenin and Stalin how to set up a large-scale terror regime. But he had much to teach too. The regime he set up in January 1933 had one major anomaly: the
SA [storm trooper]. Hitler did not fully control it, and Roehm [its creator] had visions which did not fit into Hitler’s plan. The SA, already very large before the take-over, expanded rapidly after it. By the autumn of 1933 it had a million active, paid members, and reserves of 3.5 million more. Roehm’s object was to make the SA the future German army, which would overthrow the Versailles settlement and secure Germany’s expansionist aims. The old army, with its professional officer class, would be a mere training organization for a radical, revolutionary army which he himself would take on a voyage of conquest. Hitler was determined to reject this Napoleonic scheme. He had a high opinion of the regular army and believed it would put through rearmament quickly and with sufficient secrecy to carry the country through the period of acute danger when the French and their allies were still in a position to invade Germany and destroy his regime. Even more important, he had not the slightest intention of sharing power with Roehm, let alone surrendering it to him. From March 1933, when he began to assist the rise of Himmler, he had a secret phone-link to him, it is clear that Hitler had a gigantic crime in mind to resolve the dilemma which Roehm’s SA presented to him. By spring 1934 the aged Hindenburg was clearly nearing the end. Hitler wished to succeed him, uniting presidency and chancellorship in one. The army and navy commanders agreed that he should do this, provided he emasculated the SA and destroyed its pretensions, and it is typical of the naïvety they always showed in negotiating with Hitler that they gave him something vital in return for a ‘concession’ which he needed to make anyway, and in which army co-operation was essential. Hitler went ahead with his purge, an act of pure gangsterism, as soon as Himmler had achieved monopoly of the political police. He determined to murder all his immediate political enemies at once, so that the ‘evidence’ of conspiracy, manufactured by Heydrich’s intelligence bureau, produced unlikely conjunctions worthy of a Stalin show-trial. Himmler and Heydrich prepared the final list, Hitler simply underlining in pencil those to be shot; Heydrich signed the warrants, which read simply: ‘By order of the Führer and Reich Chancellor – is condemned to death by shooting for high treason’... Early on 30 June 1934 Hitler himself shook Roehm awake at the sanatorium of the Tegernsee, and then retired to the Munich Brownhouse. The Barvarian Justice Minister was not prepared to order mass shooting on the basis of a mere typed list, and Roehm and his associates were not actually murdered until 2 July, the political police carrying it out... a law was passed on 3 July, authorizing the deeds ex post facto. Not the least significant aspect of this turning point was the presentation, to the SS [Schutzstaffel] men who had carried out the murders, of daggers of honour. The SS was thus launched upon its monstrous career of legalized killing. The Roehm affair, with the state openly engaged in mass murder, with the connivance of its old military élite and the endorsement of the electorate, directly foreshadowed the extermination programs to come.» (Johnson, id., p.296-299);

« It was the sheer audacity of the Roehm purge, and the way in which Hitler got away with it, which encouraged Stalin to consolidate his personal dictatorship by similar means. Hitherto, the party élite had permitted him [Stalin] to murder only ordinary Russians. Even to expel a senior party member required elaborate preparations. In 1930, Stalin had been openly criticized by Syrtsov, a Politburo candidate, and Lominadze, a Central Committee member. He had wanted both of them shot but the most he managed was their expulsion from the
CC. Two years later he had called for the shooting of Ryutin, who had circulated privately a two-hundred-page document criticizing his dictatorship. Sergei Kirov, who had succeeded Zinoviev as boss of Leningrad, had insisted that Ryutin be spared and sent to an ‘isolator’, or special prison for top party men. By summer 1934, Kirov’s influence was still growing, and he appeared to be the man most likely to succeed Stalin – or oust him. The success of the Roehm purge inspired Stalin to do away with internal party restraints once and for all, and in the most ingenious manner: by having Kirov murdered, and using the crime as an excuse to strike at all his other enemies. Kirov was shot in mysterious circumstances on 1 December 1934, in the middle of the Smolny Institute, the former girls’ school from which Lenin had launched his putsch and which had remained party HQ in Leningrad ever since. It was a heavily guarded place and it was never explained how the assassin, Leonid Nikolaev, got through the security cordon. What is even more suspicious is that, a few days before, Kirov’s bodyguard had been removed on the orders of Yagoda, the NKVD head. In 1956 and again in 1961 Khrushtchev hinted strongly that Stalin was responsible, and the circumstantial evidence seems overwhelming... From the end of 1936 to the second half of 1938, Stalin struck at every group in the regime. In 1937 alone he killed 3,000 senior secret police officers and 90 per cent of the public prosecutors in the provinces. Stalin’s first military victim was a cavalry general, Dmitry Shmidt. [Marshal] Tukhashevsky and seven other senior generals followed on 11 June 1937, and thereafter 30,000 officers, about half the total, including 80 per cent of colonels and generals. The purge of the party itself was the most prolonged and severe. In Leningrad, only two out of its 150 delegates to the seventeenth Party Congress were allowed to live. The losses in the Moscow party were as great. About one million party members were killed in all.» (Johnson, id., p.299-301);

« An
NKVD man who had been in Stalin’s bodyguard testified that Yezhov came to Stalin almost daily in the years 1937-9, with a thick file of papers; Stalin would give orders for arrests, the use of torture, and sentences (the last before the trial). Stalin carried out some interrogations himself. He annotated documents ‘arrest’; ‘arrest everyone’; ‘no need to check: arrest them’, Stalin’s signature is appended to over 400 lists from 1937 to 1939, bearing the names of 44,000 people, senior party leaders, officials of the government, officers and cultural figures. During these years something like 10 per cent of Russia’s vast population passed through Stalin’s penitential machinery. Famous Tsarist prisons, such as the Lefortovskaia, which had been turned into museums and peopled with waxwork figures, were put into service again, the wax replaced by flesh and blood. Churches, hotels, even bathhouses and stables were turned into gaols; and dozens of new ones built. Within these establishments, torture was used on a scale which even the Nazis were later to find it difficult to match. According to Medvedev [Roy, the independent Soviet Marxist historian], NKVD recruits, aged eighteen, ‘were taken to torture-chambers, like medical students to laboratories to watch dissections’. In these circumstances, the death-rate was almost beyond the imagining of civilized men. Medvedev puts the figure of the great terror victims summarily about at 4-500,000. He thinks the total number of victims in the years 1936-9 was about 4.5 million. Men and women died in the camps at the rate of about a million a year during this and later periods, and the total of deaths caused by Stalin’s policy was in the region of 10 million.» (Johnson, id., p.302-305).

« The victims of the Stalinism: In the Stalinist Russia, the detentions in the concentration camps and the deportations were so massive that they concern about one citizen per eight [12.5%]. It adds to these 15 million interned Soviet people about 1,500,000 kulaks and 3 million persons belonging to the deported during the World War II. Several hundred thousand people were dead at the time of the Great Terror (1937-1938), and nearly two millions in their deportation to the concentration camps. Moreover, the number of the Ukrainian victims of the programmed famine of the years 1932-1933 is estimated to be nearly five millions. [by him a quarter stricken]» (
Trémolières IV, p.57).

Discussion:
The interpretation of the quatrain by Ionescu (1976, p.469-470), though correct as to its general theme: the Great Purge, does not succeed in explaining all the points in detail, losing himself in his alleged anagrams.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§766 The Communist Russia in a long misery (1917-1991): VI-5.

VI-5 (§766):

It shall be so great a famine along the Arctic Circle,
By a pestiferous wave and a long rainfall:
All the regions of the Russian hemisphere
Shall live without law, except politics.

(Si grand famine par unde pestifere,
Par pluye longue le long du polle arctique:
Samarobryn cent lieux de l'hemispere,
Vivront sans loy, exempt de pollitique.)

NOTES: Le polle: = the Greek « πόλος (polos), pivot sur lequel tourne une chose, d’où axe du monde, pôle, p. suite, étoile polaire; cercle décrit autour de cet axe (par un astre, par le soleil), d’où le ciel, la voûte céleste. [Pivot on which turns something, thence pivot of the universe, pole, consequently, the polar star, circle described round this pivot (by a star, by the Sun), thence the heaven, the celestial vault.]» (Bailly).

Le polle arctique
: = the Arctic Circle.

Famine
: Frequently the word famine (famine), with its analogous faim (hunger), is in the Prophecies of Nostradamus a metaphor for the collective sufferings of war or warlike disasters. In fact, of 37 usages of the words famine or faim in his Prophecies, 25 are figurative and 12 literal. In this case, the word seems to mean double as Ionescu interpreted it: « Very great shall be the poverty and the dearth (famine) brought about by the communist revolution (unde pestifere).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.431).

Unde
(wave): The words unde, onde, undant, inundation, inunder, inonder are from the Latin UNDA: débordant, troublant; cf.« Onder, v.a., inonder (to overflow).» (Godefroy). Cf. « L’ONDE. – This word is for invasion, overflowing of inimical armies. Holy Scripture designates equally the invading peoples by this expression: the waters.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.81). In fact, of 18 usages of the words: onde, unde, undant, inundation, inunder and inonder, 11 figurative for revolution, invasion, social revolt or trouble (I-69, II-43, II-93, III-6, III-70, IV-71, IV-77, V-31, VI-5, VII-36 et IX-33), and only 7 literal (I-2, I-63, II-86, V-27, V-95, VI-79 et VIII-16).

Pestifere (pestiferous): The word peste (plague), as well as the words pestilence, pestilent and pestifere (pestiferous), is figurative, non literal, for most of the expressions indicative of natural phenomena such as " earthquake, rain, tempest, dryness, inundation", etc. are not literal for Nostradamus, but figurative, describing metaphorically wars, revolts, social troubles, collective distress, etc., conditioned principally by human comportments (cf. Introduction §5). In fact, of 38 usages of the words « peste », « pestilence », « pestilent » and « pestifere », 32 are figurative for the warlike and social disasters and menaces, only 5 literal (II-19, II-37, II-46, II-53 and II-65) and one for the real seism (VIII-84); the term plague in this quatrain signifies a sort of moral or mental and social disorder such as pernicious political ideology (Stalinism), inhuman collective mentality (Nazism).

Pluye
(rainfall): Eaux (waters) and pluie (rainfall) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus symbolize mostly the tumultuous, revolutionary or belligerent facts (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.111; p.204. 1862, p.38-39). In fact, of 12 usages of the word PLUIE/PLUYE, 9 are figurative in this sense (I-70, II-1, II-18, II-31, III-42, III-52, VI-5, VI-44 and IX-99), 2 are in the sense of abundance (II-46 et III-18) and only l is literal (IV-67).

It shall be so great a famine along the Arctic Circle, By a pestiferous wave and a long rainfall
: « For Stalin, industrialization was the key to the future. The road to it lay [in] forcing the peasant to pay for it just as he had paid for it through taxation in tsarist days. A violent new departure in Soviet policy was probably detonated by a grain crisis in 1927. From 1928 onwards, two ‘Five Year Plans’ announced and carried out an industrialization programme whose roots lay in what was in effect a war against the peasants, who were to be dragooned into providing food at less than cost to the cities. The party now at last conquered the countryside though by means which in practice, though not in theory or presentation, ignored the Plans. To make the peasants give up their grain, land in all the main grain-growing regions was brought into huge collective farms. There was tenacious resistance, sometimes far from passive. The crushing of it was undertaken by the secret police and army. Millions of poorer peasants- as well as the better-off smallholders, the Kulaks, who were now vigorously denounced – were killed or starved to death in what was virtually a second civil war [By a pestiferous wave and a long rainfall] while their grain was carried off to feed the industrial cities, where bread rationing was introduced in 1929. Famine, particularly in the Ukraine, followed massacres and massive deportations [It shall be so great a famine]. In seven years, 5 million families disappeared from European Russia. It seems likely that the huge round-ups of the collectivizations also launched what was to become a very distinctive feature of Soviet society, its development of the old tsarist system of forced labour on an unprecedented scale. In 1929 the term ‘labour camps’ began to be used, and the mass arrests of the next few years appear to have provided a population of 2.5 million prisoners in labour camps and other special settlements by 1933. This total was to rise even higher. It provided a labour force under the direct management of the security services that carried out huge construction tasks; on the eve of the Second World War whole industrial areas (often in particularly unpleasant environments) depended on slave labour while new industrial cities had been constructed by it, and the security service is said to have been responsible for about a quarter of the building work of the whole Soviet Union.» (Roberts, J. M., 1999, p.298-299);

« Stalin was soon blaming his henchmen for going too far (a few years later he was to tell a British prime minister that collectivization had been a trial as harsh as the Second World War). Even official Soviet figures admitted that in every year down to 1940 gross agricultural output was lower than it had been in 1928. The livestock population had been virtually halved as angry peasants slaughtered their animals rather than give them up to the authorities. But the aim of getting food from the land at less than the true cost of production by holding down the peasant’s consumption was achieved. Although grain production fell, violence assured that deliveries to the state organs went up in the 1930s, and the towns were fed. The police apparatus kept consumption down to the minimum in them. A fall in real wages pressed heavily on all Soviet citizens [so great a famine along the Arctic Circle; All the regions of the Russian hemisphere], but by 1937, 80 per cent of the industrial output of the USSR came from plant built since 1928. The urban labour force tripled in about the same time... Whatever the true figures, for everyone except the party bureaucrats and directing élite, whose privileges increased, consumer goods remained in short supply and housing was woefully inadequate [so great a famine along the Arctic Circle; All the regions of the Russian hemisphere]. This was only partially offset by improvements in educational and social services. Above all, industrialization confirmed the authoritarian and, indeed, totalitarian aspect of the regime. Very little space was left for private life in the USSR. Methods of government even more brutal but also more effective than those of the old autocracy make Stalin a somewhat paradoxical claimant to Marxist orthodoxy, which taught that the economic sub-structure of society determined its policies. The Soviet Union he created precisely inverted this; Stalin showed that if the will to use political power was there [without law, except politics], the economic sub-structure might be revolutionized by force.» (Roberts. J. M., id., p.299-300);

« It now seems odd that for a time there was a fashion to say that the United States and the USSR were growing more and more alike. The once-popular theory of ‘convergence’ gave undue emphasis to one undoubted truth: that the Soviet Union was a developed economy. In the 1960s many people in many other countries still thought socialism a plausible road to modernization because of that. It was overlooked that the Soviet economy was also by many standards inefficient. Soviet industrial growth, though in the 1950s supposedly faster than that of the United States, had been most evident in heavy industry. The individual consumer in the Soviet Union remained poor by comparison with his American (or, increasingly, Western European) counterpart, and would have been even more visibly so but for a costly and inefficient system of subsidies for basic commodities. Russian agriculture, which had once fed the cities of Central Europe and paid for the industrialization of the tsarist area, was a continuing failure; paradoxically, the USSR often had to buy American grain... ... the basic fact that the per capita GDP of the Soviet Union in the 1970s still lagged far behind that of the United States.» (Roberts, id., p.663-664).

A long rainfall: = §756, V-52: « long under such an ensign ». The quatrain VI-74 (§924) exactly predicts the end of the Russian Soviet Regime after 73 years of lasting (or 73 years and 9 months, i.e. November 7, 1917: The November Revolution - August 24, 1991: The Dissolution of the Soviet Communist Party).

Samarobryn
: = Probably, in the context of ‘along the Arctic Circle, an arbitrary composition of « Samara » and « Britvin » in the USSR, symbolizing by synecdoche the entire country along the Arctic Circle; « Samara, river of Russia (Ekaterinoslav), which sources from the point 3 leagues south of the city of Britvin, and joins the Dnieper, almost opposite Ekaterinoslav (modern Dnipropetrovsk), after about 65 leagues of course.» (MacCarthy). This neologism may mislead some of the interpreters of Nostradamus (e.g., Le Pelletier, II, p.464; Boswell, 1941, p.313; Fontbrune, 1996, p.233) because of his orthographic ingenuity to liken it to the real Samarobriva, an old name for Amiens, in France, but this line « does not fit the context.» (Leoni, 1982, p.280).

Cent lieux
: = All the places, the number 100 having a nuance of complete fullness.

Hemispere
: « Hemispere. Hémisphère (hemisphere.» (Huguet).

Samarobryn cent lieux de l'hemispere
: = All the regions of the Russian hemisphere.

All the regions of the Russian hemisphere Shall live without law, except politics
: « The huge industrial investments, the researches in the nuclear and spatial domain, the support given to the countries of the Third World for the purpose of imposing them a communist regime, and in general the propagandist and subversive actions in the Occidental countries have been done to the detriment of the material welfare of the people. Nostradamus remarks with a tone of bitter irony that the people shall suffer too much from the politics in the absence of legality. In all the institutions, in the education, in the cities and villages, in the factories and in the sectors of cultural life, everywhere it is obligatory to learn the Dialectic Marxism, the political economy, and all of creations are to bear a political impress, to express ‘a new humanity’ and to serve the noble cause of ‘the one-hour advanced construction of the Communism’.» (Ionescu, id., p.432).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§767 The discovery of Pluto (1930.2.18): I-84.

I-84 (§767):

The Moon obscured in the profound darkness,
Her brother having passed from the ferruginous colour:
The great hidden for a long time in its seclusion,
Shall make fade the iron in the sanguinary wound.

(Lune obscurcie aux profondes tenebres,
Son frere passe de couleur ferrugine:
Le grand caché long temps sous les latebres,
Tiedera fer dans la plaie sanguine.)

NOTES: Son frere (her brother): = « le Soleil (the Sun).» (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.165).

Passe: = passé (having passed) (Ionescu, 1983, p.230). Ionescu’s interpretation of the phrase ‘Son frere passe de couleur ferrugine’ as the Sun’s advancing beyond Mars in the longitude (id., p.233) is not literally pertinent because the astronomic situation he tells is inferred only from his horoscope (planetary configuration) devised upon the date of Pluto’s discovery (id., p.229) and a simple phrase denoting an attribute ‘couleur ferrugine (the ferruginous colour)’ cannot exclusively designate the planet Mars rather than the colour of the Sun itself, and moreover the planet Mars is evidently and substantially referred to in the fourth line as ‘fer dans la plaie sanguine (the iron in the sanguinary wound)’.

The ferruginous colour: = the colour of the Sun in sunset. Ionescu’s identification of this phrase with Mars (id. p.233) is not pertinent.

Latebre: « latebre, s.m., lieu retiré (a secluded place), secret (a secret), cachette (a hiding-place); adj., caché (hidden).» (Godefroy).

Tiedera: = « tiédira, rendra tiède (shall fade, shall make fade).» (Brind’Amour, id.).

The iron in the sanguinary wound: = the planet Mars, Mars in alchemy corresponding to the metal iron and symbolizing in mythology wars and weapons (the French fer [the English iron also] having the sense of a sword).

V. Ionescu ingeniously disclosed the theme of the quatrain as the discovery of Pluto in 1930 (Ionescu, 1983, p.228-241), but his interpretation seems a priori starting from the horoscope (planetary configuration) of January 23, 1930, when Pluto’s move had been photographed compared with the photo six days later (January 29), but in detail he does not always follow faithfully the literal expressions of the quatrain, which we should explain at first.

In the beginning, the theme of the quatrain is to be identified as ‘a starry matter in the night without moonlight’ because the first hemistich describes the invisibility of the Moon [The Moon obscured in the profound darkness] and the aftertime of the sunset [Her brother having passed from the ferruginous colour], the two indispensable conditions for a starry observation**.

In the second place, the question is as to a planetary star because the fourth line stages the planet Mars [the iron in the sanguinary wound] as its lesser rival.

Now, the planet in question is the most recently discovered after a long time hiding [hidden for a long time in its seclusion] to be compared with Mars in the quatrain.

It is not but Pluto, discovered on February 18, 1930 at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, after Uranus in 1781 (cf. §341, VIII-69) and Neptune in 1846 (cf. §613, IV-33) and named as such in its publicity on March 13, 1930. In fact in mythology, Pluto is the King of Hades, far superior in its omni-negative potency to Mars, only a dominator of arms and wars, a sector of the approaches to Hades; « HADES. In the classical Greek mythology, Hades – or Pluto – as well as Zeus [Jupiter] and Poseidon [Neptune], is a son of Cronus and of Rhea. After the victory of the Gods over the Titans, he received as his share the underground empire of the dead, the hells, whilst Zeus obtained the Heaven and Poseidon the Sea. The name of this divinity became that of his residence by extension: the Hades, in common Greek, designates hells, the abode of the dead.» (Monloubou).

** The times of the sunset and the rise (the set) of the Moon of the days concerned: February 23 – 29, 1930 in Flagstaff, Arizona (35° 12′ N, 111° 38′ W, 2106m H, GMT-07:00), were as follows: The sunset: 17:53 – 17:59; The rise (the set) of the Moon: 02:30 (13:00) – 07:41 (17:57).

« New Horizons NASA's Mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt
Discovery of Pluto
Percival Lowell, Search for Planet X: The story of Pluto's discovery begins with Percival Lowell, the founder of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Lowell was obsessed with the notion of a "trans-Neptunian" planet, which he believed could be detected from the effect it would have on Neptune's orbit. After all, the planet Neptune had been discovered in 1846 by examining irregularities in the orbit of Uranus. Astronomers reasoned that the mystery planet's apparent gravitational influence on Uranus and Neptune could be used to calculate where in the sky it should be found. Lowell was one of several people (William H. Pickering was another) who hunted for Planet X by computing orbits and carefully searching the sky where they concluded the new planet ought to be. Lowell founded an observatory and funded three separate searches for Planet X. He died in 1916 without discovering it, but the search continued at the observatory. In 1929, a special camera-equipped telescope with a 13-inch objective lens was built specifically for this search.

Clyde Tombaugh, The Discoverer of Pluto: Observatory director Vesto Slipher hired a young man from Kansas to conduct the third search — a move that led to Clyde Tombaugh becoming the first American to discover a planet. Amateur astronomer Tombaugh was hired to expose photographic plates with this new camera by night, and to carefully compare the plates by day using an instrument called a blink comparator. On February 18, 1930, Tombaugh finally found what he was looking for: a tiny spot of light moving slowly against the fixed pattern of stars in the constellation Gemini****. Tombaugh set about to search the ecliptic plane for a new planet. As it turns out, Lowell's calculations were based on flawed data about the perturbations of Uranus' orbit. Despite that, one of the two locations predicted by Lowell's calculation (the favored one, in fact) happened to be right where Pluto was found. Tombaugh was fortunate to find Pluto after only searching for a few months. According to Tombaugh and Moore's 1980 book, "Out of the Darkness: The Planet Pluto," he took pictures in pairs, a few days apart, and looked for anything that moved. Any planets would appear to shift against the backdrop of stars because Earth had moved to a new viewing angle over the intervening days. The discovery plates were taken only six days apart, on January 23 and 29, 1930. After Pluto's discovery, Tombaugh began a laborious search of the entire ecliptic and turned up no additional objects in the outer solar system.

Pluto Gets a Name: Planet X was subsequently christened Pluto in 1930, a name suggested by Venetia Burney, an 11-year-old girl in Oxford, England. This name was favored by the astronomers of Lowell Observatory because its first two letters were the initials of Percival Lowell. In hindsight, the discovery had nothing to do with Lowell's calculations based on perceived perturbations to the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. We now know that those perturbations were not real, and that Pluto's mass is much too small to have produced such perturbations in any case. The discovery owes more to the remarkable persistence and diligence of Clyde Tombaugh in his careful search of the sky. The New Horizons Science Operations Center is named for Clyde Tombaugh.

© 2016 The Johns Hopkins University/ Applied Physics Laboratory LLC. All rights reserved. [
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/Participate/learn/What-We-Know.php?link=Discovery-of-Pluto ] »

« The Space Review in association with SpaceNews
Pluto at 75: a uniquely American anniversary by S. Alan Stern  Monday, February 14, 2005

Seventy-five years ago this month, in February of 1930, our solar system’s ninth planet, Pluto, was discovered. The discovery of Pluto—2,500 kilometers wide and fully a billion kilometers beyond Neptune—was made by Clyde Tombaugh (1906–1997), a plucky, twenty-four-year-old American astronomer working at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona when he made the landmark find. News of the long-anticipated discovery of “Planet X” rocketed around the world in the spring of 1930, making Tombaugh instantly famous, and garnering a high-profile scientific achievement for what was by then routinely called the “the American Century.” Diminutive Pluto, lying beyond both the rocky inner planet and outer gas giant planet zones of our solar system, was for many years an apparent misfit among the planets. Even after its large satellite, Charon, was discovered in 1978, Pluto’s classification and scientific value seemed problematic. Today, in 2005, that is no longer the case. The ninth planet is the biggest, the brightest, and the first-discovered member of the solar system’s third major architectural zone—the distant and icy Kuiper Belt... The discovery of the Kuiper Belt has fueled a revolution in our understanding of the origin, architecture, and richness of the deep outer solar system. Together, Pluto-Charon and the Kuiper Belt constitute an exciting frontier for scientific exploration, rich with possibilities for illuminating the origin of the planets, the formation of planetary satellites and double planet pairs, the interior properties and surface evolution of icy worlds, and the physics of tenuous atmospheres. In fact, so valuable are the Pluto-Charon system and its Kuiper Belt companions, that their exploration was ranked as the highest priority new mission to launch in this decade by the National Academy of Sciences in its Planetary Decadal Survey report to NASA... the scientific wonderland of Pluto, its giant moon Charon, and the Kuiper Belt is the destination for NASA’s New Horizons mission, which plans to launch in early 2006. If all goes as planned, New Horizons will cross the entire span of the solar system in record time and conduct flyby reconnaissance studies of the Pluto-Charon system in 2015 and then one or more Kuiper Belt objects before 2020. In accomplishing this historic feat, America will complete the reconnaissance of all the known planets, and provide a new and vivid demonstration of the historic kinds of space exploration that only it has the technical prowess to achieve.

A planetary scientist, Dr. Alan Stern is the Principal Investigator of the New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt mission and director of the Department of Space Studies at the Southwest Research Institute.
[
http://www.thespacereview.com/article/319/1 ] »

**** « In 1915, Lowell drastically revised the preferred region of search to longitudes of around 85 degrees in the extreme eastern portion of the constellation Taurus. This region is right in the heart of the Milky Way, and the plates taken were extremely rich with star images. Pluto was in this region then. In the examination of these plates, the Pluto images were missed. After the discovery of Pluto in 1930, the better orbit computations gave close approximations of where to retrieve the Pluto images on old plates. Lampland [C.O.Lampland shared with Percival Lowell the 1914-16 trans-Neptunian search.] found the images of Pluto on one-hour exposure plates taken by Gill [Dr. Lampland supervised the new search. The plates were taken by T.B.Gill and E.A.Edwards. From April 1914 to July 1916, nearly one thousand plates were taken over a considerable sky area.] on 19 March and 7 April 1915. The images were quite weak, which was to be expected.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], 1980, p.89-90).

« When the photographing began in April [1929], my instructions from Dr. V.M.Slipher were, ‘Do the regions in Gemini and proceed eastward along the Ecliptic as rapidly as possible.’ The Gemini region was already about 90 degrees west of the opposition point [of the Sun]. It was not until the end of the June lunation that I succeeded in catching up to the opposition point, which sweeps eastward through the constellations at a rate of 30 degrees each month. This is caused by the Earth’s motion of revolution around the Sun... Now in September, the constellation of Capricornus was too far west of opposition. This break would have to be retrieved next year. As the skies cleared in September, I started photographing in the constellations of Aquarius and Pisces. These were lovely regions with hundreds of spiral galaxies to view and not so populous in stars, only about 50,000 per plate. The regions were 60 degrees from the equator of the Milky Way. I could blink a pair of plates in three days of work. I knew that Uranus was in Pisces, but I did not want to know exactly from its listed position in the American Ephemeris. I wanted to test myself on the surprise of encounter. When the Moon stopped my night work, I started blinking these new plates in daytime, field by field, strip by strip, panel by panel. Suddenly, upon turning to the next eyepiece field (1-by-2-centimeters), there was Uranus. being of the sixth magnitude, it was a real wallop. I almost ducked my head. I stopped and measured its shift in position with a millimeter scale. It was exactly as I had calculated it would be on those plates. Now my confidence was complete. From now on, for the next several years, I was obsessed with the planet search... Each succeeding month, I was getting closer and closer to the constellation of Gemini. It was also the region where Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781. In November, I was going through the star fields in western Taurus. The stars thickened in number. The search was approaching the Milky Way. By the end of November, I had blinked about ten pairs of plates. The last two contained as many stars as all of the other eight together. I had sifted through about one million stars.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], id., p.115-123).

« In the January 1930 lunation, I rephotographed the entire Gemini region. On 21 January 1930, I set the 13-inch (33-centimeter) telescope on Delta Geminorum again. A good night seemed to be in prospect. The sky was very clear. Within ten minutes after the shutter was opened to begin the exposure, a strong northeast wind sprang up. In another ten minutes, it was a howling gale. The guide star, Delta Gem, began to fuzz up badly into a diffuse patch, making it hard to guide. Then terrific gusts swept up the east side of Mars Hill [where is Lowell Observatory]. The star image would swell up to several apparent diameters of Jupiter. With succeeding gusts, the image would swell up so badly that it became invisible. I muttered, ‘I can’t see anything to guide on.’ It was a most helpless situation. After the gust had passed, the guide star became visible again, but it was still swollen and in violent, agitated motion. I had never seen such terrible seeing, nor have I seen such in the years since. I thought of terminating the exposure and closing the dome. I was getting worried about the gusts snapping the ropes that held the doors of the slit open, although the ropes were strong and new. With that kind of seeing, the plate was spoiled anyway but I decided to finish out the exposure just to see how bad the images would be after I developed the plate. I had more plates to take, but to do so would be futile, so I closed the dome. After developing the plate the next day, I viewed the dripping plate with a magnifier. The images were swollen to several times their normal diameter. Also, the dilution resulted in a loss of about 1.5 magnitudes. Nevertheless, that horrible plate did record the image of Pluto, but I did not know it then. Some astronomical textbooks state that Pluto was discovered on 21 January 1930. Nonsense! Only on the date that the images are recognized as those of a planet does it constitute a discovery. I have written many letters to authors (many astronomers) to get them to correct the error for their next book edition.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], id., p.123-124).

« On 23 January, I photographed the Delta Gem region again. It was a good plate. I was unable to photograph the region again until 29 January. This six-day interval was twice as long as I preferred. This was the pair that I would blink later. During that lunation, I photographed the western regions of Gemini again... On the morning of 18 February, I placed the 23 January and 29 January Gem plates on the Blink-Comparator, starting on the eastern half. This was a most fortunate decision. Had it been otherwise, Pluto might not have been discovered in 1930... A terrific thrill came over me. I switched the shutter back and forth, studying the images. Oh! I had better look at my watch and note the time. This would be a historic discovery. Estimating my delay at about three minutes, it would place the moment of discovery very close to four o’clock [in the afternoon]. For the next forty-five minutes or so, I was in the most excited state of mind in my life. I had to check further to be absolutely sure. I measured the shift with a metric rule to be 3.5 millimeters. Then I replaced one of the plates with the 21 January plate. Almost instantly I found the image 1.2 millimeters east of the 23 January position, perfectly consistent with the shift on the six-day interval of the discovery pair. Now I felt 100 percent sure.» (Tombaugh [and Moore], id., p.124-127).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§768 The discovery of radioactivity and nuclear chain-reaction (1896-1939): I-27.

I-27 (§768):

The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak Gyes struck by Heaven,
Not far from there is hidden the treasure,
That had been clustered for long centuries,
Who shall have found it shall die: the eye burst by a spring.

(Dessoubz de chaine Guien du ciel frappe,
Non loing de la est caché le tresor,
Qui par longs siecles avoit este grappé,
Trouve moura: l'oeil crevé de ressort.)

NOTES: Dessoubz: = « dessousn. Underpart, underside, lower part, bottom; Wrong side (envers [verso, back]); Pl. Underclothing, underclothes; Fig. Mystery, the seamy side.» (Dubois); « dessousn. the face (overt side) of cards [the side with images and characters]; [the cards being put down face down]; [forestry] lower branches (of a tree).» (Ibuki).

Chaine: This word as well as chaisne in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (I-27, I-65, II-21, III-79bis, IV-84, VII-24 and IX-56) has always the meaning of chain (chaîne), and in this quatrain also that of oak (chêne).

Dessoubz de chaine: = The lower branches, the surface and the inner parts (underclothes and mystery) of an oak, namely all of its branches and leaves in a chainwork.

Guien: = the Greek « Γύης, Gyès, un des Géants aux cent bras (Gyes, one of the Giants with a hundred arms).» (Bailly); = the Latin « Gyās, a giant with a hundred arms.» (Smith-Lockwood). This is a prophetical and ingenious way of designating a nucleus of uranium having around it a large number of electrons corresponding to its many protons. The tree of an oak already on the scene suggests through its acorns this smallest globe of an atom, amazingly represented by a Giant who « symbolizes a telluric energy of great amplitude... We are therefore entitled to conclude that Nostradamus wishes to indicate by the name ‘Guien’ a gigantic force born of a matter, a nuclear energy.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.751-752). And the element of uranium has been introduced by the word ‘le ciel (Uranus, the heaven)’ as V. Ionescu used to explain so (Ionescu, 1976, p.752; 1993, p.153); « uranium n. [< Gk. ouranos heaven]» (Obunsha).

Dessoubz de chaine Guien (The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak Gyes): The phrase ‘The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak’ and the word ‘Gyes’ are in apposition, Gyes being imagined in this context as an oak of the sort, a truly gigantic figure.

Guien du ciel frappe: = Guien du ciel frappé = the atom of uranium struck by Heaven. This phrase supposes a story in mythology: « Nor were the heights of heaven more secure: Giants, it’s said, to win the gods’ domain, Mountain on mountain reared and reached the stars. Then the Almighty Father [Jupiter] hurled his bolt And shattered great Olympus and struck down High Pelion piled on Ossa. There they lay, Grim broken bodies crushed in huge collapse, And Earth, drenched in her children’s weltering blood, Gave life to that warm gore; and to preserve Memorial of her sons refashioned it In human form. But that new stock no less Despised the gods and relished cruelty, Bloodshed and outrage – born beyond doubt of blood.» (Ovid, 1986, I, 151-162.).  

The branches and leaves in a chainwork of an oak Gyes struck by Heaven: The verse in totality means the nuclear chain reaction, the meaning of the key word Gyes being at the same time a singular atom (an acorn) and the whole network of numberless atoms (an oak tree) of uranium.

There: = In the atom of uranium.

Not far from there is hidden the treasure: This treasure is physically the nuclear energy (E) emitted in the process of fission of a large nucleus with a certain mass (m1) into two smaller nuclei with a smaller sum of mass (m2), expressed in the formula: E = (m1-m2)c2, based upon Einstein’s theory of equivalence of mass and energy: E = mc2, where (m1-m2) is called ‘a mass defect’ and (m1-m2)c2 ‘a binding energy’. And this energy is not straightway in a large nucleus though not without it, disclosing itself only in the fission of the large nucleus into two smaller ones, namely in the transubstantiating process of the former’s collapse and the latter’s generation.

That had been clustered for long centuries: The heavier elements like gold, silver, uranium, etc. are said to be created in the explosion of a supernova, the last stage of evolution of massive stars, of which the greatest being with a shortest lifetime of about 2.7 million years (Nomoto and Williams, 1997, p.154 and p.131), which is to be the least of the said ‘long centuries’.

Trouve moura
: = Trouvé mourra = Qui l’aura trouvé mourra (who shall have found it shall die).

l'oeil (the eye): The white of the eye suggesting the leukocyte of blood.

Ressort (spring): = Radioactive rays.

Trouve moura: l'oeil crevé de ressort (who shall have found it shall die: the eye burst by a spring): A Polish scientist in France Marie Curie (1867-1934) who had studied deeper, after the discovery of radiation of uranium by Becquerel in 1896, and confirmed more the phenomena of radioactivity of uranium, thorium, polonium and radium (the new term radioactivity was her creation) shall die of leukemia, her leukocytes had been damaged because of her quotidian exposition to radioactive rays in her lifetime study in laboratory (cf.
Trémolières III, p.309).

Nuclear fission and chain reaction: « 1939Nuclear Fission was discovered by a German physico-chemist Otto Hahn (1879-1968) and Nuclear Chain Reaction by a Hungarian physicist in USA Leo Szilard (1898-1964).» (Asimov, 1996, pp.352, 404-405); « Szilard drafted (1939) a letter of Einstein recommending the President of USA to exploit atomic bombs.» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary, Compl., p.94).

The first nuclear reactor (Chicago Pile 1): « 1942. The idea of Szilard about the nuclear chain reaction had not been put into practice, while, in 1941, it started the Manhattan Project – exploitation of atomic bombs, and Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) was charged with the Project aiming at the realization of such a chain reaction... On December 2, 1942, 3:45 p.m., in the squash court at the University of Chicago, the chain reaction became self-sustaining and was stopped. It has just started the atomic age. This reactor was the first nuclear one.» (Asimov, id., p.412).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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