§783 Franco in revolt shall annihilate the Republic (1936-1939): VIII-26.

VIII-26 (§783):

Those after Cato the Elder found in Barcelona,
The place and territories made unprotected and ruin being,
The great who holds, doesn’t hold, shall want Pamplona.
At the armed abbey of Monferrat drizzle being.

(De Catones trouves en Barsellonne,
Mys descouvers lieu terrouers & ruyne,
Le grand qui tient ne tient vouldra Pamplo
Par labbage de Monferrat bruyne.)

NOTES: De Catones (Those after Cato the Elder): « CATON, subst. mas., t. d’hist. anc., nom de deux fameux Romains remarquables par la sévérité de leurs mœurs. - On le dit familièrement d’un homme sage ou qui affecte de l’être: c’est un Caton; il fait le Caton (term of ancient history, name of two famous Romans remarkable for the severity of their morals. It is said familiarly about a sage man or one who pretends to be so: he is a Caton; he pretends to be a Caton).» (Landais); « Männer, die die Charakterstärke des alten Cato in Rom besaßen, der kategorisch die Vernichtung Hannibals gefordert hatte (Those men, who had the strong character of the old Cato in Rome, who had demanded categorically the annihilation of Hannibal).» (Centurio, 1953, p.175) = The Nationalists led by Francisco Franco, who shall demand the Republican unconditional surrender to end the Civil War in 1939. The interpretation of the term as “ceux que l’on voyait graves et sévères en paroles, et en fait désordonnés et vicieux (those one saw grave and severe in speech, and in deed dissolute and vicious)” (Fontbrune, 1980, p.91) neglects another meaning, more original, of it.

Terrouer: = « terroier, s.m., territoire, possession territoriale (territory, territorial possession).» (Godefroy). The interpretation of this term as “de frayeur (by fright)” (Fontbrune, id.) or “d’épouvante (of terror)” (Guinard, 2011, p.53) can’t be supported grammatically, the form “terrouer” with an alleged adverbial or adjective meaning being unable to be derived morphologically from the Latin verb “terreo (to terrify)” they invoked.

Pamplo: = « Pamplonne. (Pamplona.).» (№10). Pamplona in northern Spain was one of the cities whose Nationalist risings were successful in July 1936 (cf.
Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 15, Chart 1).

: = L’abbage = L’abbaye + bagage (the abbey + baggage), the abbey representing a magnificent building like an abbey and baggage something related to the army. In short, the neologism abbage means Alcazar (in Arabic a castle) in Toledo.

Monferrat: A metaphor in a very familiar Italian place-name for Toledo as an invulnerable town (an iron-grille mountain), « montagna » and « ferrat » meaning in Italian “mountain” and “iron grille” respectively; « The invulnerable fortress, this is another name of Toledo.» (Kawanari, 1999, p.22).

Bruyne (drizzle): representing figuratively something uncertain in prospect. The 8 usages in all of the words
bruine/bruyne/bruyneux in the Prophecies of Nostradamus have three kinds of meaning: 1° the weather of drizzle (IV-46, VI-25 et IX-100); 2° the situation without favourable perspective (II-83 et VIII-26); 3° to be under shelter (V-35, VI-27 et VI-37), this quatrain falling under the second.

Those after Cato the Elder found in Barcelona, The place and territories made unprotected and ruin being: While the second hemistich of the quatrain treats of the prelusive stage of the Spanish Civil War, the second concerns the conclusive stage: In Barcelona were found the Nationalists on 28 January 1939, the city and the surrounding territories having been conquered by them = On the front of Barcelona the army taken by diligence (§782, VI-64): In Catalonia the Republican army defeated by the Nationalists diligently commanded by General Franco; « Ebro 24 July-16 November 1938. Having managed to defend Valencia against Nationalist attacks, the Republicans attempted to restore contact with Catalonia with an offensive over the Ebro River. The attack, led by communist General Juan Modesto, once again took the Nationalists by surprise, bringing the Republicans early success. Eighty thousand Republican soldiers crossed the river in boats and attacked General Juan Yagüe’s Nationalist troops, inflicting substantial damage. Upon reaching the town of Gandesa, however, the Republicans met fierce resistance. The rocky terrain offered little cover for the fighters, and German and Italian planes were easily able to target Republican positions [The place and territories made unprotected]. Determined to annihilate the Republicans, General Franco ordered large reinforcements to join the battle, which was to last for over three months. Ebro was the last major battle of the Spanish Civil War. Following the defeat, the Republicans continued to concede territory to the Nationalists until 1 April 1939, when General Franco declared the war over, signifying the end of the Spanish Republic [ruin being].» (Grant, 2011, p.797); « Franco in April [1938] cut Republican Spain in two. Thereafter it was really a matter of time only, with Franco taking no chances and insisting on overwhelming superiority. By the autumn Stalin had tired of the war, had extracted the last ounce of propaganda value out of it, had completed his purges and was already thinking of a new deal, either with the Western democracies or, more likely, with Hitler. He had also got all the Republic’s gold. So he cut off aid, and Franco was able to open his last Catalonian offensive, just before Christmas, confident that the end was near. Barcelona fell on 28 January 1939, and Madrid on 28 March.» (Johnson, 1991, p.338).

The great who holds, doesn’t hold, shall want Pamplona
: Franco followed by the Nationalists, only the south and the north of Spain separately in hand, shall try to bring the former (centered in Cadiz) into contact with the latter [represented by Pamplona] geographically and militarily through taking Badajoz between them (cf. Tateishi, 2000, p.293, Chart of July 1936): « Badajoz 14 August 1936. The attack on the Spanish city of Badajoz was one of the first major victories for the Nationalist rebellion against the Republic in the Spanish Civil War. By July 1936 the Nationalist military rebellion against the Spanish Republic had gathered momentum. Soldiers of the Army of Africa, commanded by General Francisco Franco, had been airlifted by German and Italian planes to join the Nationalist offensive in southern Spain. Badajoz was the final remaining Republican outpost on the Portuguese border, isolated from the Republican territory. Under General Franco’s instructions, Lieutenant Colonel Juan Yagüe led a Nationalist force, consisting largely of Foreign Legionaries and Moroccan mercenary fighters, in an offensive against the city. Badajoz was defended by Republican militiamen, who had taken control of the city’s medieval fortress. On 14 August the attack began with heavy artillery and bombing, which enabled the Nationalist forces to breach the defense. The professional Nationalist soldiers faced fierce resistance from the militia force, but at last took control of Badajoz.» (Grant, id., p.783).

At the armed abbey of Monferrat drizzle being
: The so-called ambiguous significance of the battle of Toledo: « Toledo 20 July-27 September 1936. Early in the Spanish Civil War, the siege of Toledo’s Alcázar was a hugely symbolic victory for the Nationalists. The fortress, controlled by Nationalist soldiers, was besieged by Republican militiamen for two months, before General Franco’s Army of Africa arrived to relieve the defenders. Following the Nationalist military rebellion, the Spanish Republican government sent a militia force of around 8,000 men to take the city of Toledo in July 1936. The Nationalist force in Toledo took a number of hostages (family members of known leftists) and retreated into the city’s Alcázar, a half-palace half-fortress [the armed abbey of Monferrat] that had served as a military academy since the nineteenth century. Around 1,000 Nationalist soldiers commanded by Colonel José Moscardó, the military governor of Toledo, defended the Alcázar against a Republican attack that lasted for around seventy days. The Nationalist resistance held out against heavy bombing and artillery fire until the Army of Africa, commanded by General Franco, arrived to provide relief and defeat the Republicans. While strategically the Alcázar was of little value to either side [drizzle being], symbolically it was very important. The victory was the subject of a huge Nationalist propaganda campaign; the liberation was restaged for news cameras on the next day. Franco’s decision to relieve the troops at Toledo, rather than advance to Madrid as many had expected, was taken largely because he recognized the propaganda value of the Alcázar. Franco emerged as the principal leader of the Nationalists and was proclaimed Generalissimo.» (Grant, id., p.782).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

§784 From Valencia to Barcelona; The end of the Republic (1931-1939): X-14.

X-14 (§784):

A small voting-Urn, Valencia without its own design,
Being bold timid by fear taken vanquished,
Accompanied by several blond villains,
At Barcelona determined to be prisoners.

(Urnel Vaucile sans conseil de soy mesmes
Hardit timide par crainte prins vaincu,
Acompaigné de plusieurs putains blesmes
A Barcellonne aux chartreux convaincu.)

NOTES: The first hemistich of this quatrain seems to be composed of the first and third lines: A small voting-Urn, Valencia without its own design, Accompanied by several blond villains, and the second of the second and fourth: Being bold timid by fear taken vanquished, At Barcelona determined to be prisoners.

Urnel (A small voting-Urn): From the Latin « urnula, petite urne (a small urn).» (Nimmo) (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.458); « urna, a water-pot, water-jar; a voting-urn.» (Smith-Lockwood) (cf. Ionescu, id.).

Urnel: = « la République (the Republic).»
(Fontbrune, 1939, p.164)

: = « VANCILE: anagramme de VALENCI (an anagram of VALENCI.» (Fontbrune, id.).

Urnel Vaucile: = « La république de Valence (The republic of Valencia).»
(Fontbrune, id.); « Thus Nostradamus suggests a Republic that did not last long, and in fact, this Republic lasted only eight years in Spain... Valencia, the city where the Republican Government settled on November 7, 1936. It retired to Barcelona on October 31, 1937, and there remained until January 26, 1939, when it finished with capitulation.» (Ionescu, id.).

Conseil: = « Vx. Résolution mûrement pesée; Les principes qui dirigent une personne (Arch.
A maturely weighed resolution; The principles that direct a person).» (Petit Robert).

A small voting-Urn, Valencia without its own design: « The thirteen points in outline of May, 1938, by the premier of the Republic Negrín made clear her end of war in proposing the withdrawal of foreign troops, the decision of regime by referendum, the guarantee of the freedom of religion, agrarian reforms, etc., tried to elicit a change of policy toward Spain from Great Britain and France in insisting upon her moderate policies, and offered to Franco the conditions of peace. But neither Great Britain and France nor Franco did respond to his propositions, and his clear definition of the end of war could not strengthen the Republican unity. Rather, the manoeuvres of Negrín through his strong leadership aroused repulsive reaction from his parties. In the middle of August the Leftist Catalonian Republicanism and the Vasco-Nationalist Party quitted the cabinet and the relation of the Central Government with the Catalonian Autonomous Government deteriorated.» (Tateishi, 2000, p.304-305); « Reasons for the nationalist victory were that Franco was extremely skilful in holding together the various right-wing groups (army, church, monarchists and Falangists); the republicans were much less united (anarchists and communists actually fought each other for a time in Barcelona).» (Lowe, 1988, p.175).

Putain: = « (adj.) Mauvais. – En putains jours... (Bad, evil. – In bad days...).» (Huguet). The term in this quatrain is used as the substantive (a villain)

Blesme: = « Blond. – et la frizure blonde De ses cheveux... (Blond. – and the golden curls Of his hairs... ) D
U BELLAY, 4e Liv. de l’Eneide (M.-L., I, 367.)» (Huguet).

Plusieurs putains blesmes (Several blond villains): = Several Russian agents of Stalin in Spain, the majority of the Russians being blond; « It was one of Spain’s many misfortunes at this time that her Civil War coincided with the climax of Stalin’s great terror. Many of the Barcelona murders had little to do with Spain’s internal politics but were, rather, the backlash of events in Moscow and Leningrad. Thus Robles was executed because, as interpreter of General Jan Antonovich Berzin, head of the Russian military mission to Spain, he knew too much about Berzin’s recall and liquidation as part of Stalin’s purge of the army. Stalin was having his leading agents killed all over the world in 1937-8. And, as in Russia, virtually all the creatures who helped him to take over the Left in Spain, and then to terrorize it, were murdered in turn. The head of the
NKVD’s foreign department was cornered in his own office in Paris in February 1938 and forced to take cyanide. Of those who organized arms supplies to Spain, Evhen Konovalek was killed in Rotterdam in May 1938, Rudolf Clement was found, a headless corpse, in the Seine, and Walter Krivitsky, boss of Soviet military intelligence in Western Europe, was chased for three years by Stalin’s hit-men until they got him in Washington on 10 February 1941. In addition to General Berzin, Stalin murdered Michael Koltzov, the famous Pravda Spanish correspondent, Arthur Stashevsky, head of the economic mission to Spain, and Antonov Ovseenko, Consul-General in Barcelona, who was told he was being recalled to Moscow to be made Minister of Justice, a joke characteristic of Stalin’s gallows-humour.» (Johnson, 1991, p.335).

Being bold timid by fear taken vanquished At Barcelona: « Toledo 20 July-27 September 1936. Following the Nationalist military rebellion, the Spanish Republican government sent a militia force of around 8,000 men to take the city of Toledo in July 1936. Around 1,000 Nationalist soldiers commanded by Colonel José Moscardó, the military governor of Toledo, defended the Alcázar against a Republican attack that lasted for around seventy days [Being bold]. The Nationalist resistance held out against heavy bombing and artillery fire until the Army of Africa, commanded by General Franco, arrived to provide relief and defeat the Republicans. Franco emerged as the principal leader of the Nationalists and was proclaimed Generalissimo.» (Grant, 2011, p.782).

« Teruel 15 December 1937-20 February 1938. Having discovered that Franco was planning another major offensive on Madrid, the Republicans decided to launch a preemptive attack on the Aragon front in Teruel. The offensive – mounted in extreme weather conditions – took the Nationalist forces, commanded by Colonel Rey d’Harcourt, by surprise. German and Italian aircraft were grounded by ice, and Nationalist reinforcements were prevented from quickly reaching Teruel. Consequently, as at Brunete [6-26 July 1937] and Belchite [24 August-7 September 1937], the Republicans were initially successful and took the town... Following some of the war’s fiercest fighting, the Republicans were forced to retreat [Being bold timid].» (Grant, id., p.795).

« Cape Palos 5-6 March 1938 On 5 March 1938 a strong force of three Nationalist cruisers supported by destroyers and minelayers put to sea to escort an inbound convoy. At 1:00
AM on 6 March the Nationalist ships steamed headlong into Vice-Admiral Ubieta’s Republican force of cruisers, destroyers, and Soviet-supplied torpedo boats. Dodging a Republican torpedo attack, the Nationalist squadron tried to disengage, preferring to delay the action until daybreak, but Ubieta pursued and, at 2:15 AM, his ships opened fire off Cape Palos, near Cartagena. As the cruisers fought an inconclusive and inaccurate long-range gunnery duel, three Republican destroyers crept unobserved into torpedo range of them. Each ship fired a spread of four torpedoes [Being bold], at least two of which hit the Nationalist cruiser Baleares, flagship of Vice-Admiral Vierna, between her two forward turrets. The explosion detonated her forward magazines and wrecked the forepart of the ship, including her bridge, which disintegrated with the loss of all inside, including Vierna, but the Nationalist blockade remained intact.» (Grant, id., p.795).

« Ebro 24 July-16 November 1938. Having managed to defend Valencia against Nationalist attacks, the Republicans attempted to restore contact with Catalonia with an offensive over the Ebro River. The attack, led by communist General Juan Modesto, once again took the Nationalists by surprise, bringing the Republicans early success. Eighty thousand Republican soldiers crossed the river in boats and attacked General Juan Yagüe’s Nationalist troops, inflicting substantial damage [Being bold]. Upon reaching the town of Gandesa, however, the Republicans met fierce resistance. The rocky terrain offered little cover for the fighters, and German and Italian planes were easily able to target Republican positions [Being timid by fear taken]. Determined to annihilate the Republicans, General Franco ordered large reinforcements to join the battle, which was to last for over three months. Ebro was the last major battle of the Spanish Civil War. Following the defeat, the Republicans continued to concede territory to the Nationalists until 1 April 1939, when General Franco declared the war over, signifying the end of the Spanish Republic [vanquished].» (Grant, id., p.797);

« After the destruction of the
POUM, Republican morale declined steadily. In these circumstances, Franco opted for a war of attrition throughout the appalling winter of 1937-8, and in April he cut Republican Spain in two. Thereafter it was really a matter of time only, with Franco taking no chances and insisting on overwhelming superiority. By the autumn Stalin had tired of the war, had extracted the last ounce of propaganda value out of it, had completed his purges and was already thinking of a new deal, either with the Western democracies or, more likely, with Hitler. He had also got all the Republic’s gold. So he cut off aid, and Franco was able to open his last Catalonian offensive, just before Christmas, confident that the end was near. Barcelona fell on 28 January 1939 [Being vanquished At Barcelona], and Madrid on 28 March. Franco had fought the war without passion, and when he heard it was over he did not even look up from his desk.» (Johnson, id., p.338).

Chartreux: « CHARTREUX, EUSE. Religieux de l’ordre de Saint-Bruno (A monk or a nun of the monastery of Saint-Bruno).» (Petit Robert). Upon this vocable of French dictionaries is modelled by Nostradamus the French word « les chartreux », semantically derived from « Chartre. Prison, cachot (A prison, dungeon).» (Huguet), with the meaning of « the prisoners ».

Convaincre: « Convaincre à: Décider à.» (Huguet); « Décider à means « to determine ».» (Dubois).

Aux chartreux convaincu[s]: [The defeated Republicans were] determined « to be prisoners.»: « Franco determined to end the destructive process of corruption by amputating the agonized limb of Spanish collectivism. His feelings towards the Left anticipated those of the wartime Allies towards Nazism: he got unconditional surrender first, then de-Communized, but in a manner closer to the drumhead purges of liberated France than the systematic trials in Germany. It was not a Lenin-style totalitarian massacre by classes: the Law of Political Responsibilities of 9 February 1939 dealt with responsibility for crimes on an individual basis (the only exception was Freemasons of the eighteenth degree or higher). Strictly speaking, there was no death penalty for political offences as such. But there was a great rage in the conquerors – the Interior Minister, Suñer, wanted revenge for his brothers who had been shot in Republican prisons, and he was typical of thousands – and it was not difficult to pin capital crimes on Republican officials of all degrees. Mussolini’s son-in-law Ciano reported from Spain in July: ‘Trials going on every day at a speed which I would call summary.... There are still a great number of shootings. In Madrid alone between 200 and 250 a day, in Barcelona 150, in Seville 80.’ Some tens of thousands thus died, but the figure of 193,000 sometimes given for the total is wrong, since many death-sentences passed by courts were commuted. Franco made it clear on 31 December 1939 that many long prison sentences (fifteen years was usual) would have to be served: ‘It is necessary to liquidate the hatred and passions left us by our past war. But this liquidation must not be accomplished in the liberal manner, with enormous and disastrous amnesties, which are a deception rather than a gesture of forgiveness. It must be Christian, achieved by means of redemption through work accompanied by repentance and penitence.’» (Johnson, id., p.339).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§785 General Franco escaped from the Canary Islands to Tetuan to prevail in Spain (1936-1975): III-54.

III-54 (§785):

The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain,
That shall later come to bleed with a long wound.
Passing troops beyond the high mountains
Devastating all and next shall reign in peace.

(L'un des plus grands fuira aux Hespaignes,
Qu'en longue plaie apres viendra saigner.
Passant copies par les hautes montaignes,
Devastant tout & puis en paix regner.)

NOTES: The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain: « Franco Faces the Revolution ON THAT SUNDAY AFTERNOON OF FEBRUARY 16, 1936, THE mobs, faithful to the watchword of the revolution, poured out into the streets. Completely ignoring the true results of the elections, they proclaimed themselves the victors. They had been thus instructed. Three hours after the end of the balloting, they were to give themselves up to jubilant and frenzied demonstrations, demanding complete power, the liberation of the prisoners of October, 1934, and the heads of certain politicians. The night augured serious street fighting... The Popular Front thus assumed power. The decree sending General Coded and General Franco away from Madrid was not delayed. One was sent as the Commander-General of the Balearics, and the other to the Canary Islands. Azaña repeated anew that by sending them away to distant posts he was removing them from temptation. Before departing to his destiny, General Franco called on Alcalá Zamora and Azaña. His interview with the former was of long duration. Franco pointed out the dangers threatening Spain, and the lack of equipment with which to oppose the victorious revolution. Alcalá Zamora smiled between blindness and simplicity. "The revolution,” he said, "was crushed in Asturias.” "Remember, Mr. President,” answered Franco, "what it cost to suppress it in Asturias. If the assault is repeated throughout the entire nation, it will be very difficult to suppress it, because the army does not have the necessary equipment, and because generals determined that it shall not be suppressed have been reinstated in command. Gold braid means nothing when he who displays it has no authority, prestige, or competence, the indispensable foundations of discipline,” Alcalá Zamora minimized all this, refusing to comprehend that language of loyalty and honour. He gesticulated incredulously. He shook his head from side to side. The general arose. The President of the Republic gave him leave. “Don’t worry General. Don’t worry. In Spain there will be no Communism.” “One thing that I am sure of,” answered Franco, “and which I can answer truthfully, is that whatever the contingencies that may arise here, wherever I am there will be no Communism.” His interview with Azaña was shorter and more brusque. In those days the Premier spent his time pacifying the people with the promise of a moderate and semi-bourgeois revolution. Franco’s predictions were received with a self-satisfied and sardonic smile. “ You are making a mistake in sending me away,” the general pointed out regretfully, “because I could be of more service to the army and to the peace of the country by remaining in Madrid.” Azaña answered, “I have no fear of insurrections. I knew all about Sanjurjo’s, and I could have prevented it, but I preferred to see it end in disaster.” He himself was the revolution, and he cared little for the advice of generals. Franco, neither with the idea of conspiracy nor because of hostility towards the régime, but having in mind Spain alone, and the dangers confronting her, decided to hold several interviews which he considered necessary. He held one with General Mola and General Varela, to whom he entrusted the task of maintaining permanent connections with the generals of those divisions which deserved full confidence and with those military elements of the highest responsibility whom, by reason of their positions of command, it would be expedient to keep enlightened on the march of events, so as to be prepared for any emergency which might arise. He named a person in whom he had full confidence to maintain through him the contacts which he considered indispensable, from his post in the Canary-Islands. From the Canary Islands General Franco witnessed the drama unfolding itself in Spain. Every day the chaos was more profound, and the havoc greater. When the elections were repeated in Cuenca, the conservative parties again offered him a place on their lists, but Franco declined it publicly. Political passions were fanned to a white heat, and he believed that nothing noble or effective could be expected from the existing parliament. Nor did he believe in the genuineness of the voting. “When the funds of the workers’ organizations,” he said, “are devoted to political bribery, the purchase of arms and munitions, and the hiring of gunmen and assassins, democracy, as represented by universal suffrage, has ceased to exist.” Early in July he received news regarding the march of conspiracy, and the information that he, as the general most qualified, had been chosen for the command of the troops in Africa. He was also consulted upon the policy to be followed in several other places, especially in the Spanish capital.» (Joaquín Arrarás, 1938, p.164-174).

« From Tenerife to Tetuán SHORTLY AFTER HIS ARRIVAL AT SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE, Franco realized that he was a prisoner of the Popular Front. The political satraps who had decreed his removal from Spain had done so with another Elba in mind. But this was an Isle of Elba on which paid assassins hovered and spied on the exile as government agents. He was watched day and night, his mail was censored, his telephone messages were intercepted, and he was surrounded by a veritable ring of spies organized by the hostile authorities on the island. Hostile pens and voices assailed the general. The municipal government of Realejo Alto directed all the municipalities of the province to ask the government to dismiss Franco as a dangerous element. A friend warned the general, “There are plans on foot to take your life.” “Two years ago,” he answered, “Moscow sentenced me to death.” On the night of July 13 occurred the last criminal attempt to take his life. The assassins attempted to scale the walls of the garden and from there reach the central pavilion, where Franco's sleeping quarters were located. The assailants were three. When they were climbing the wall, one of the sentinels in the garden challenged them, and as they made no response he fired on them and put them to flight. The guard stationed outside also fired, but the malefactors escaped. The civil authorities of the island hastened to the commandancy to find out what had happened. The wife and daughter of the general were also guarded by a special guard, for their lives, too, were threatened. On July 14, the diplomat José Antonio de Sangróniz arrived at Santa Cruz de Tenerife to inform the general, with whom it was so difficult to communicate, of the latest news about the movement, and to set the date for its inauguration. The aeroplane which was to carry Franco to Tetuán was to arrive at Las Palmas on the following day. “Now we must plan the escape [The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain]," said the general. “I have announced, with the authorization of the ministry, an inspection tour of the islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. It will be the pretext.” On the following night the general carried on long conversations with his friends concerning future developments. He had just ciphered some letters with the aid of a little book which he always had with him. “The time is ripe’ exclaimed the general, “and we cannot delay much longer, because the advances of anarchy have been considerable, and very soon they will have forestalled the possibilities of a popular reaction which still pulsates in Spain.” On the morning of the 16th, the telegraph wires carried sad and unexpected news to Tenerife. General Amado Balmes, military commander of Las Palmas, had been killed by the bullet of a revolver which he was trying out in the target field of that city. He was the first victim of the movement, for the general had for many days been experimenting with firearms, “so that when the moment arrived the youths would be provided with a useful weapon and not something useless.” Balmes was in close touch with Franco. He knew what was being planned in all its details, he was in full agreement, and was to be substitute general commandant. Franco, saddened by the news, called the War Ministry to tell them that he planned to go to Las Palmas to attend the burial. On asking for this permission, the general turned to those who were around him, and said, “Probably they will take advantage of this occasion to dismiss me.” But that was not the case. The sub-secretary of war, in the name of the minister, authorized him to make the trip, and at twelve-thirty o’clock that night General Franco, with his wife and daughter, embarked on the inter-insular ship Viera y Clavijo. His adjutants accompanied him, four officers as guards, two infantrymen and two artillerymen, and the fiscal judge, Martínez Fusset. After attending the funeral of General Balmes, at noon on the 17th, Franco spent all his time receiving calls at his hotel, where he virtually incarcerated himself. At three o’clock in the morning the adjutants and guarding officers were awakened abruptly by the fiscal judge Martínez Fusset, who brought sensational news. “The troops in Africa have rebelled,” he said; “we must take extreme precautions.” All put on their clothing without delay and went out into the hallway, where Franco soon appeared, for he already knew what was happening, having been informed at two-fifteen by the commandant at Tenerife. Franco drew up a manifesto and dictated the first orders as the “Rebel” leader to assure the triumph of the movement in the Canaries. He remained in the commandancy until eleven o’clock when he went out to find an aeroplane that awaited him, where again there were farewells and applause for the leader. The general repeated his watchword, “Blind faith in victory!” An automobile carried him to the pier where he was awaited by the tugboat which was to take him to the aerodrome at Gaudo. There was a moment of delay, while Franco said good-bye to his wife and daughter. “Tell them,” he told one of his officers, “that I have gone to make an inspection and that I will see them soon.” The motors began to roar. The general bade farewell, one by one, to those who surrounded him. Their eyes gleamed with hope, and they were pale with emotion. The general, serene, repeated his counsels. With him embarked the military aviator Villalobos and his adjutant Franco Salgado. The aeroplane sped down the runway and was soon in the air. It disappeared in the distant blue of the sky. It was exactly two-ten p.m., July 18, 1936, a moment memorable in Spanish history. After a short stop in Agadir, the plane continued on to Casablanca, where it landed at nine-thirty p.m. From the aerodrome the travellers went to a small hotel in the vicinity, where, after eating, they engaged in a conversation which was carried on almost entirely by General Franco, who discussed the subject which was nearest to his heart, abounding with hope, Spain and Its future. During those hours of the night and early morning, meaningful hours for the future of Spain, he gave every promise of desiring good government. It was three o’clock in the morning and Franco gave no thought to sleep. At four o’clock in the morning they left for the aerodrome, and a half-hour later they were again in the air. Sunrise found them over the Beni-Arós mountains, brightened by blending rose-coloured and golden hues. Franco recognized by name the roughest parts of the mountains, the steep cliffs, and the crests. The sky was radiant. At seven o’clock that morning Tetuán loomed in the distance, dazzling in the rays of the sun, Tetuán! The aerodrome was swarming with people. The plane circled low and Franco recognized friends. Finally they landed. The motor still roared, and there was cheering and applause. Franco emerged smiling, Lieutenant-Colonel Yagüe was at the side of the plane. Legionnaires rendered homage. At the offices of the High Commissary there gathered the leaders and officers of the Regular Army, of the Legion, and of the mejalas, the men who soon were to stir Spain with their valour, heroes who wept on hearing Franco’s voice, a voice that already appeared to have been silenced by exile, to be forgotten forever. It was the voice of Spain; a voice from her heart and steeped in the nation’s past. "We were coming to a point,” said Franco, ""when we were ashamed of being Spaniards and of wearing our uniforms, which represented our honour, our pride, and our spiritual patrimony! Now we are on our way. Each one to his post, to fulfil his duty. For Spain everything we may do will seem very little. The offering of our lives for its cause is a glorious deed if the nation will have reconquered its soul and its glory, and will have come to see itself face to face again.” The officers listened with stout hearts, their muscles quivering, and tears in their eyes. Their emotion finally burst forth in cheering and applause. From there, the general went to address the Banners of the Legion formed in Dar Rifien. Just as he was leaving, an officer notified him, “My general, some suspicious ships are cruising in the vicinity of Ceuta and they do not answer to the signals which are made to them.” “Have them repeated,” Franco ordered, “and if they do not answer, fire on them.” During the night the voice of Franco, a victorious voice, reached Spain from end to end through the miracle of radio: “On taking over the command of this glorious and patriotic army here in Tetuán, I send to the loyal garrisons and their country the most enthusiastic greetings. Spain has been saved. You may pride yourselves on being Spaniards. “Have blind faith. Never doubt. Gather energy, without pausing, for the nation demands it. The movement is marching on. There is no human force which will stop it. I greet you with a strong and hearty embrace. Long live Spain!” Franco then prepared to spend his third sleepless night devoted to hard work. When the first news of the military uprising in Morocco reached Madrid, Azaña, President of the Republic, felt the same uneasiness that he had experienced on that morning of August 10, 1932, the occasion of General Sanjurjo’s insurrection. Just as he had then called upon the governor of Coruña, now he asked insistently, “What is Franco doing?” In his desire to calm the nerves of the president, Casares Quiroga answered, “He is well guarded on the Canary Islands.”» (Joaquín Arrarás, id., p.185-196).

Under ordinary circumstances, the phrase « The one of the greatest shall escape to Spain » means “the flight from abroad to Spain” and cannot mean “from in Spain to Spain”, namely “from the Spanish Canary Islands to the Spanish Morocco”. However, the particular situation in which General Franco was a kind of political prisoner in the Canary Islands permits the phrase to be applied to him in July 1936 as E. Cheetham explains well: « In 1936 General Franco was exiled from Spain to the Canary Islands as military governor. He then flew (fuira) to Morocco and back to Spain to start the rebellion that led to the Spanish Civil War.» (Cheetham, 1973, p.143)

Qu’: = Qui (Who, that), whose antecedent is Spain. The nominative relative pronoun “qui” is replaced frequently by “que” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus according to the exceptional usages of the
XVIth century: « As regards the relative pronoun, the most noteworthy feature is the use of que for qui in the nominative, first as a singular, and later as a plural pronoun as well.» (Rickard, p.70). Cf. ung monarque qu'en paix & vie ne sera longuement (§490, I-4), Celui qu'aura la charge de destruire temples & sectes (§261, I-96), Le chef qu'aura conduit peuple infini (§428, I-98) and L'arbre qu'avoit par long temps mort seché (§603, III-91) and also I-99, II-10, III-94, V-38, VI-15, VI-19, VIII-28, VIII-88, IX-29, X-10 and X-22.

That shall later come to bleed with a long wound... Devastating all: « Spanish Civil War, 1936-9; The Civil War began by a revolt of military commanders in Spanish Morocco on July 18th, 1936. The Government remained in control of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia; Cadiz, Saragossa, Seville and Burgos declared for the insurgent nationalists. Spain became an ideological battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries... Some three-quarters of a million lives were lost in the course of the Civil War.» (Palmer, p.262-263); « ... the French Revolution to enter and thus crucified the country for fifteen years of civil war, ... Now the invasion by post-Christian totalitarian culture had brought another three years of martyrdom. On the Nationalist side, 90,000 had been killed in action; 110, 000 Republican soldiers were dead; there were a million cripples; 10,000 died in air-raids, 25,000 from malnutrition, 130,000 murdered or shot behind the lines [to bleed with a long wound]; now 500,000 were in exile, half never to return. The destruction of treasure had been immense, ranging from the famous library of Cuenca Cathedral to Goya’s earliest paintings in his birth-place, Fuentodos [Devastating all].» (Johnson, 1991, p.339).

: = « T. de guerre, troupes, forces militaires (Term of war, troops, military forces).» (Godefroy).

To bleed with a long wound. Passing troops beyond the high mountains
: « ... the long wound of the Spanish Civil War raged over the mountainous Spanish countryside... » (Hogue, 1997, p.262).

Passing troops beyond the high mountains
: “The one of the greatest” as a subject rules over the following predicatives: fuira (shall escape), passant (passing), devastant (devastating) and regner (shall reign). As the victor in the Civil War, General Franco and the Nationalists took all the territories full of high mountains of Spain in the end. They began to occupy the Canary Islands, Morocco, Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Granada, Cordoba, Caceres, Saramanca, Avila, Segovia, Zamora, Valladolid, Saragossa, Teruel, Huesca, Pamplona, Vitoria, Burgos, Mallorca and Ibiza, while the Government remained in control of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Gijon, Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena, Badajoz and Albacete (cf. Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 15, Chart 1).

14 August 1936. The Republican city of Badajoz in the valley of the Guadiana was taken by a Nationalist force of Lieutenant Colonel Juan Yagüe under General Franco’s instructions coming from Seville beyond the mountains of Sierra Morena (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart
C; Grant, 2011, p.783).

13 September 1936. San Sebastian was occupied by the Nationalist soldiers passing the Basque mountains (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart

3° 27 September 1936. Colonel José Moscardó, the military governor of Toledo, a town itself situated on the rock 530 meters above sea level, commanding around 1,000 Nationalist soldiers defended the Alcázar against a Republican attack that lasted for around seventy days. The Nationalist resistance held out against heavy bombing and artillery fire until the Army of Africa, commanded by General Franco, arrived passing the mountains of Sierra Morena, Guadalupe and Meseta (Table mountains) of Toledo to provide relief and defeat the Republicans. (cf. Duby, id.; Grant, id., p.782).

17 October 1936. Oviedo in Asturias was occupied by the Nationalists passing the mountains of Leon (cf. Duby, id.).

8-23 November 1936. Around 20,000 Nationalist soldiers from the mountains of Sierra Morena, Guadalupe and Gredos under the command of General José Varela attacked in vain Madrid by the delay of their offensive owing to Franco’s decision to liberate first the Alcazar of Toledo. (cf. Duby, id.; Grant, id., p.784).

In the summer of 1937. The Basque countries were crushed by the Nationalist force passing the mountains in Cantabria (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart

15 April 1938. The Nationalist force passing the mountains of Gudar in Aragon attained the city of Vinaroz on the Mediterranean to split in two the Republican territories (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart

23 December 1938 – February 1939. Catalonia was entirely conquered by the Nationalist force, whose some contingents past the Catalan mountains of Guara and Cadi (cf. Duby, p.127, Chart

And next shall reign in peace: « Franco was determined to keep out of war, which he saw as the supreme evil, and especially a war waged by Hitler in association with Stalin, which he felt incarnated all the evils of the century. He declared strict neutrality in September 1939. He advised Mussolini to keep out too. As the price for entering the war he pitched his demands impossibly high: Oran, the whole of Morocco, huge territories in West Africa, massive quantities of war supplies and equipment to attack Gibraltar and defend the Canaries. When he met Hitler at Hendaye on 23 October 1940 he not only increased these demands but greeted his German benefactor with icy coldness verging on contempt. As he was himself a professional soldier, and Hitler an amateur – not even a gentleman, a corporal! – he treated Hitler’s customary military tour d’horizon with unconcealed contempt. They talked, wrote Hitler’s interpreter Paul Schmidt, ‘to or rather at one another’ until two in the morning and failed to agree on anything whatever. Hitler later told Mussolini he would rather have two or three teeth out than go through that again.» (Johnson, 1991, p.366);

« When Franco [1892-1975] handed over his authority in summer 1974 to Juan Carlos (crowned King in November 1975 immediately after Franco’s death), he had held effective power for thirty-eight years, an achievement even Philip II might have respected. He was probably right in thinking that a Republican victory would have produced another civil war and that his regime was the one ‘which divides us least’, for there were two bitterly divided monarchical factions, a fascist and a traditional conservative faction as well as the mortal enmity between the
CP and other Republicans. In October 1944, after the liberation of France, 2,000 republicans ‘invaded’ across the Pyrenees, expecting a general insurrection: nothing happened. A Republican government was formed in 26 August 1945: a non-event. The Allies would not act against Franco because they would not want civil war in Spain. To please them he gave up the fascist salute (which he had never liked) but would not ban the Falange, much as he deplored its posturings, because it was a safety-valve for the extremist Right, and controllable. In essence Franco was a non-political figure, who ruled through men acceptable to the Church, the landed classes and business. That was what the army wanted and the army had a veto on policy which long antedated Franco. Franco, like the army, was a negative force. He kept the state immobile and unadventurous; he prevented professional politicians from doing things. He described himself dourly to senior army officers as ‘the sentry who is never relieved, the man who receives the unwelcome telegrams and dictates the answers, the man who watches while others sleep.’ If he had been a younger man he might have devised a plebiscitary framework. As it was, on 6 July 1947 he submitted a ‘Law of Succession’, embodying the monarchical principle, to a vote. Out of an electorate of nearly 17,200,000, 15,200,000 cast their votes and 14,145,163 voted ‘Yes’, under conditions which observers testified to be fair. With that out of the way Franco educated and coached Juan Carlos as his successor. In the meantime, within the framework of negative government, the economy modernized itself with the help of market forces. In the twenty years 1950-70, Spain was transformed. Those living in towns over 20,000 rose from 30 per cent to nearly 50 per cent of the population. Illiteracy dropped from 19 to 9 per cent in thirty years, and in a mere fifteen years the student population doubled. Spain was in some ways more successful in modernizing its backward south than Italy. Physically and visually the landscape of Andalusia was transformed in the quarter-century 1950-75, and the rapidly falling rural population benefited more, in terms of real wages, than the industrial workers of the swelling towns. But the important change was in expectation: surveys showed that workers could expect much better jobs, in pay and prestige, than their fathers; that a man had higher expectations at forty than at twenty. The old hopelessness of Spain, the source of its sullen misery and occasionally of its frantic violence, had gone. During the 1950s and 1960s, in effect, Spain became part of the general modern European economy, sharing its successes and failures and its overall prosperity: the Pyrenees ceased to be a cultural-economic wall.» (id., p.608-609).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§786 The failure of the League of Nations (1920-1946): I-100.

I-100 (§786):

For a long time in the sky shall be seen a gray bird,
The place being near Dole and Tuscany,
Holding in its beak a verdant bough,
Shall die soon, and the great shall end the war.

(Long temps au ciel sera veu gris oiseau
Au pres de Dole & de Tousquane terre,
Tenant au bec un verdoiant rameau,
Mourra tost grand, & finira la guerre.)

NOTES: Dole: « The county seat of the arrondissement of Jura, [France,] near Switzerland and the name of the mountain quite close to Lake Leman, by which the city of Geneva is situated.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.474).

Tuscany: « Synecdoche: Tuscany (a part), for Italy (the whole).» (id.).

Great: « Ellipsis: great for the great power, namely America.» (id.).

Mourra tost grand, & finira la guerre: « The construction: “Mourra tost et (le) grand (pouvoir) finira la guerre (Shall die soon and [the] great [power] shall end the war).”» (id.).

« For a long time they shall see in the sky the pigeon of peace (a gray bird), above the palace of the League of Nations, between Dole and Italy – holding in its beak a bough of olive (a verdant bough). But this bird shall die [soon] and the war shall break out. America – the great power – shall be one that shall intervene and end the war.» (id.).

A gray bird... shall die soon: « League of Nations. An international organization created in 1920 to preserve peace and settle disputes by arbitration or conciliation... The League succeeded in settling a number of international disputes, notably in the Balkans and South America. It was able to assist the refugees from Russia and Turkey in the 1920s, although the general refugee problem of the 1930s was beyond its resources. It also helped the Danubian states to obtain reconstruction loans, and, through the International Labour Organization, secured more equitable working conditions among its member-states. The League was ultimately responsible for the system of mandates, for the judicial administration of Upper Silesia, and for the maintenance of the Free City of Danzig. It failed to prevent Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China, Italian aggression against Abyssinia or the Russian attack on Finland in 1939, despite the fact that all six of these countries were member-states. In the pre-war crisis of 1938-39 the Great Powers tended to ignore the existence of the League. During the war the League sought to continue its non-political activities so far as was possible. It was formally dissolved in April 1946, handing over its remaining responsibilities to the United Nations Organization.» (Palmer, p.157-158).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§787 The failure of the League of Nations; the Allies against the Germans in Italy (1920-1946): VI-20.

VI-20 (§787):

The feigned union shall be of brief duration;
Some changed, reformed the greater part:
Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy,
When a new leopard shall have Rome.

(L'union feincte sera peu de duree,
Des uns changés reformés la pluspart:
Dans les vaisseaux sera gent enduree,
Lors aura Rome un nouveau liepart.

NOTES: The feigned union: An ineffective international organization of the League of Nations (1920-1946).

Sera peu de duree: = Sera [de] peu de durée, the preposition [de] being left out by a prophetic embroilment as Augures, creuz eslevés [à] aruspices (§762, III-26). Cf. A l'Entrée des Prophéties, §5, Catégorie d: Ellipse de prépositions pour embrouiller prophétiquement.

The feigned union shall be of brief duration: = A gray bird... shall die soon (§786, I-100): « League of Nations. An international organization created in 1920 to preserve peace and settle disputes by arbitration or conciliation... In the pre-war crisis of 1938-39 the Great Powers tended to ignore the existence of the League... It was formally dissolved in April 1946.» (Palmer, p.157-158)

Some changed: = « When Congress refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, the U.S.A. dissociated itself from the League and never became a member. Germany belonged to the League only from 1926 to 1933, Russia from 1934 to 1939. Brazil withdrew from the League in 1926, Japan in 1933, Italy in 1937.» (Palmer, p.158)

Reformed the greater part
: Most of the member-states of the League in the World War II rallied to the Allies pivoting on Great Britain, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., that developed into the new post-war organization of the United Nations including the U.S.A. as one of its most influential powers. In fact, of 63 member-states in all of the League between its beginning in 1920 and its end in 1946, 47 states rallied to the Allies in declaring war upon Germany (cf. Ploetz, 1998, p.757).

Those in the vessels: = The Anglo-American invading armies of Sicily in 1943; « Invasion of Sicily 9 July -17 August 1943. The Anglo-American invasion and capture of Sicily was a vital stepping-stone for the campaign in Italy, although the Allies were at fault in failing to prevent the Axis from successfully evacuating their best divisions from the island to continue the defensive battle on the mainland. While the British wanted to pursue an offensive against Italy after the Allied capture of Tunisia, their U.S. partners were less enthusiastic, but the British prevailed. The invasion of Sicily, the first part of the plan, was a massive undertaking – in Europe, second only to D-Day – involving 2,600 Allied ships [the vessels] and sustained air support. The invading force was made up of two armies – the U.S. Seventh Army and the British Eighth Army – and once ashore the Allies pressed forward in an attempt to destroy and capture the Axis units on the island. The few German troops on Sicily were quickly reinforced to a total of four elite divisions, along with a substantial Italian force. Commanded by Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, the Germans skillfully used the island’s mountainous terrain to carry out an effective delaying operation. The Allies, especially the British, advanced cautiously against the Germans. Although Hitler insisted that Sicily must be held at all costs, Kesselring soon realized that he must abandon the island if his German formations and their valuable weapons and equipment were not to be lost to the Allies. On the night of 11-12 August the Germans began a well-executed withdrawal that saw 40,000 German and 60,000 Italian troops cross over to the mainland with minimal hindrance from the Allies.» (Grant, 2011, p.856); « Finally the Big Three [Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt] called from Yalta for the remaining neutrals to declare war on Germany before 1 March 1945 and thus gain a ticket of admittance to the founding conference of the United Nations at San Francisco.» (Campbell, 1985, p.147). In response to this call, 12 countries declared war anew upon Germany by 27 March 1945 (Ploetz, id.).

Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy
: « Salerno 9-16 September 1943. The signing of the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 might have seemed to support Churchill’s claim that Italy was the “soft underbelly of Europe,” but the fierce and intelligent resistance displayed by the Germans at Salerno was a portent of things to come. While Field Marshal Montgomery’s British Eighth Army had an easy, unopposed landing at Reggio di Calabria, the Allied amphibious assault against mainland Italy in the Gulf of Salerno did not go as planned. Under the command of Lieutenant General Mark Clark’s U.S. Fifth Army, the landing force was drawn from the British X Corps, which would hit the beaches at Salerno, and the U.S. VI Corps, acting as a flank guard and landing farther to the south. The X Corps troops faced little resistance as they reached the beaches on 9 September 1943, but once ashore they came under sustained attack from the German XIV Panzer Corps. The U.S. VI Corps faced similar problems, unable to push forward from its beachhead. When, on 12 September, the Germans mounted a concerted counterattack, it seemed possible that the Allies might lose their tenuous hold on the Italian mainland. But the arrival of reinforcements – including a parachute drop by two battalions of the U.S. 82d Airborne Division – and the mass redeployment of Allied airpower to the Salerno front turned the tide. On 16 September the Germans disengaged from the battle and began to withdraw to a specially prepared defensive line farther north; meanwhile, U.S. troops on the right of the beachhead made contact with units from the Eighth Army advancing from the south. As the Germans fell back, the Allies occupied the key port of Naples.» (Grant, id., p.858);

« Monte Cassino 17 January-18 May 1944. The struggle for Monte Cassino in World War II sucked Allied troops on the Italian front into a brutal battle that lasted four bloody months. While Allied material strength was to decide the day ultimately, the Germans again demonstrated their determination and skill in defensive operations. Allied progress up the “boot” of Italy had ground to a halt during the winter of 1943 to 1944, thwarted by the German Gustav Line [Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy]. The towering hill of Monte Cassino – topped by a historic monastery – was the linchpin in the line, which the Allies were determined to capture... The fourth battle, spearheaded by the Polish Corps, finally took the hill. The Germans had already decided to retire to a new defensive line farther north, and when the lead Polish troops gained the summit of the hill on 18 May, they found it unoccupied.» (Grant, id., p.861);

« Anzio 22 January-25 May 1944. Intended as a daring outflanking move that would open up the way to the capture of Rome, the Anzio landings degenerated into World War II deadlock: the Allies unable to drive forward from their bridgehead and the Germans without the means to push the invaders back into the sea. Having failed to break through the German Gustav Line the Allies proposed to land an amphibious force on the (western) Italian coast behind German lines. A combined U.S.-British operation, under the command of Major General John Lucas’s U.S.VI Corps, it lacked the resources to be effective. The landing on 22 January did, however, achieve complete surprise and were virtually uncontested. Responding with their customary alacrity, the Germans soon had the Allied troops corralled within a tight perimeter. The geography favored the Germans, too; they held a ring of high ground above the Allied position and poured down a massive volume of artillery fire on the soldiers holding the marshy ground below. Both sides reinforced their positions, which further encouraged a tactical stalemate [Those in the vessels shall be endured by the enemy], conditions reminiscent of World War I. Lucas was made a scapegoat and replaced by Major General Lucien Truscott, but he too could not little to break the deadlock. It was only the slow, relentless pressure applied on land and in the air throughout Italy that forced the Germans to give way. On 25 May, with the Germans in retreat, the men from the Anzio bridgehead met up with Allied troops fighting their way up from the south. On 5 June, the Allies marched into Rome unopposed.» (Grant, id.); « ... Rome fell on 4 June, but by autumn 1944 the Germans were again making a stand, this time on the Gothic Line just north of Florence.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.135).

A new leopard: The two examples of « liepard (leopard, panther) » in the quatrain I-23 (§832) refer to Mussolini (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.530), and here « un nouveau liepart (a new leopard, a new panther) », who shall occupy Rome anew in place of the Italian chief, refers to Hitler designated in the cited quatrain as “sanglier (a wild boar)”. Besides, the alternative character “T” of the irregular orthography “liepart” (‘lie-’ itself instead of LEO being naturally derived from “lion”) seems to suggest the ‘T’ of ‘Hitler’. The identification by Ionescu of ‘a new leopard’ with ‘a leopard’ of the quatrain I-23, thence with Mussolini (Ionescu, id.), is utterly erroneous. Because of this he could not give any interpretation about the quatrain I-23 in its entirety.

When a new leopard shall have Rome
: « Hitler, by contrast, had wasted no time in taking steps to counter the likelihood that the new Italian Government would seek peace and abandon the alliance with Germany. On the day of the coup d’état in Rome, July 25 [1943], Rommel had arrived in Greece to take command there, but just before midnight he received a telephone call telling him that Mussolini had been deposed, and that he was to fly back at once to Hitler’s headquarters in the East Prussian forests. Arriving there at noon next day he ‘received orders to assemble troops in the Alps and prepare a possible entry into Italy’... So by the beginning of September eight German divisions under Rommel were established inside Italy’s Alpine frontier-wall as a potential support or reinforcement to Kesselring’s forces in the south. Moreover the 2nd Parachute Division, a particularly tough force, was flown from France to Ostia, close to Rome. General Student, the Commander-in-Chief of the German airborne forces, went with it. When interrogated after the war, he said: “The Italian High Command was given no previous warning of its arrival, and was told that the division was intended for the reinforcement of Sicily or Calabria. But my instructions, from Hitler, were that I was to keep it near Rome, and also take under my command the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division, which had moved down there. With these two divisions I was to be ready to disarm the Italian forces around Rome.” The presence of these divisions nullified the Allies’ plan to drop one of their own airborne divisions, the 82nd American (General Matthew Ridgway), on Rome itself to support the Italians in holding the capital... Marshal Badoglio had kept five Italian divisions concentrated in the Rome area despite the Germans’ efforts to persuade him to send some of these divisions to help in defending the coast in the south... On September 3, the invasion was opened by Montgomery’s Eighth Army crossing the narrow Straits of Messina, from Sicily, and landing on the toe of Italy. That same day the Italian representatives secretly signed the armistice treaty with the Allies. But it was arranged that the fact should be kept quiet until the Allies made their second and principal landing – which was planned to take place on the shin of Italy, at Salerno, south of Naples.» (Hart, 1971, p.451-452).

« At midnight on September 8 the Anglo-American Fifth Army under General Mark Clark began to disembark in the Gulf of Salerno – a few hours after the B.B.C. had broadcast the official announcement of Italy’s capitulation. The Italian leaders had not been expecting the landing to come so soon, and they were warned about the delivery of the broadcast only late in the afternoon. Badoglio complained, with some justification, that he was caught unready to co-operate, before his preparations were complete. But the Italians’ state of unreadiness and trepidation had already become so evident to General Maxwell Taylor, who had been sent to Rome secretly by Eisenhower, that Ridgway’s intended airborne descent on Rome had been cancelled after Eisenhower had received that morning a warning message from Taylor that the prospects were poor. The broadcast announcement of the Italian capitulation also took the Germans by surprise, but their action in Rome was prompt and decisive, despite the simultaneous emergency in the south produced by the landing at Salerno. The outcome might well have been different if Italian action had matched Italian acting, which had gone a long way to conceal intentions and lull Kesselring’s suspicions during the preceding days. A piquant account of this is given in a narrative written by his Chief of Staff, General Westphal: “On September 7 the Italian Minister of Marine, Admiral Count de Courten, called on Field-Marshal Kesselring to inform him that the Italian Fleet would put out on the 8th or 9th from Spezia to seek battle with the British Mediterranean Fleet. The Italian Fleet would conquer or perish, he said, with tears in his eyes. He then described in detail its intended plan of battle.” These solemn assurances made a convincing impression. The next afternoon Westphal and another general, Toussaint, drove to the headquarters of the Italian Army in Monterotondo (sixteen miles north-east of Rome). “Our reception by General Roatta was very cordial. He discussed with me in detail the further joint conduct of operations by the Italian 7th and German 10th Armies in Southern Italy. While we were talking a telephone message came through from Colonel von Waldenburg with the news of the broadcast announcement of the Italian capitulation to the Allies... General Roatta assured us that it was merely a bad propaganda manœuvre. The joint struggle, he said, would be continued just as had been arranged between us.” Westphal was not altogether convinced by these assurances and when he got back to the German headquarters at Frascati late in the evening he found that Kesselring had already signalled to all subordinate commands the code-word ‘Axis’ – the pre-arranged signal which meant that Italy had quitted the Axis and that the appropriate action must be taken to disarm the Italians immediately. The subordinate commands applied a mixture of persuasion and force according to the situation and their own disposition. In the Rome area, where the potential odds against him were heavy, Student used shock tactics. “I made an attempt to seize the Italian General Headquarters by dropping on it from the air. This was only a partial success. While thirty generals and a hundred and fifty other officers were captured in one part of the headquarters, another part held out. The Chief of the General Staff had got away, following Badoglio and the King, the night before.” Instead of trying to overcome Student’s couple of divisions, the Italian commanders hastened to withdraw out of reach, falling back eastward to Tivoli with their forces, and leaving their capital in the hands of the Germans.» (Hart, id., p.452-454).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§788 The two dictators: their ambition and destruction (1922-1945): IV-59.

IV-59 (§788):

The two personalities with ardent fervour,
Of ambitions shall be besieged and destroyed in exchange for two full cups:
The filed strong one, and an old dreamer,
Shall show their trace of Higher Descent to the Genevans.

(Deux assiegés en ardante ferveur,
De soif estainctz pour deux plaines tasses:
Le fort limé, & un viellart resveur,
Aux Genevois de Nira monstra trasse.

NOTES: « IV-59 (1937) Hitler and Mussolini quench their thirst with the two equal cups, namely Nazism and Fascism. The old dreamer, the group of nations in Geneva, shall soon see the traces of the Aryans and the acts of violence of the dictators. On December 10, 1937, writes Tardieu in the ‘Gringoire’: ‘In Germany they are waiting for Mussolini’s visit to Hitler. In Geneva they shall see an assembly of the rest of the League of Nations.’» (Centurio, 1953, p.102).

Deux assiegés (The two besieged): = The two persons who are destined to be besieged later. This figure of Nostradamus is truly prophesying = « Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany » (Lamont, 1944, p.149) = « Hitler and Mussolini » (Ionescu, 1976, p.490).

Deux assiegés en ardante ferveur, De soif estainctz pour deux plaines tasses: The construction is as follows: Deux [personnes] en ardante ferveur de soif [seront] assiegés [et] estainctz pour deux plaines tasses (The two personalities with ardent fervour, Of ambitions shall be besieged and destroyed in exchange for two full cups), “estainctz (extinguished in the plural)” predicating “deux (the two)”, not “soif (thirst)”.

Two full cups: Their territorial expansion by military aggression following their first « conquest by acquiring Ethiopia and Czechoslovakia » (Lamont, id.); « Mussolini sought to revive Italian national pride and to increase his own personal power by extending Italy’s territory on the Adriatic and enlarging its African empire. His invasion of Ethiopia provoked outrage from countries worldwide.» (Edmonds, 2000, p.47; Chart Expansion of Italy 1922-39); « One of Hitler’s priorities was to regain territory lost to Germany after the First World War and to unite all German-speaking people. In 1938 Germany annexed Austria and, following the signing of the Munich Agreement with the UK and France, the Sudetenland. German troops took control of the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 and their attack on Poland in September 1939 caused the outbreak of the Second World War.» (Edmonds, id., p.46; Chart Expansion of Nazi Germany 1933-39).

Shall be besieged and destroyed: « Mussolini, Benito (1883-1945); ... He declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940, when France was already defeated. On the following October 28th his troops invaded Greece but were repulsed and, soon after, suffered reverses in Libya and East Africa. These defeats weakened Mussolini’s prestige, especially as the Fascists had always sought to inculcate admiration for the glories of war. By the summer of 1941 Mussolini had become virtually a German pensionary but it was not until July 25th, 1943, that a coup by King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal Badoglio forced him to resign. He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Apennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy.» (Palmer, p.194-195); « The collapse of Hitler’s hold on Italy: On the German side, Field-Marshal Kesselring had returned from convalescence in January, but in March he was called to the Western Front on being appointed to succeed Field-Marshal von Rundstedt as Commander-in-Chief there. Vietinghoff now definitely replaced him as C.-in-C. of Army Group C in Italy. Most of Vietinghoff’s forces had been committed to the front line, and he had few reserves – and less fuel – to check an Allied penetration. It was no longer possible to stabilise the front or to extricate his forces, and the only hope of saving them was by retreat – a long retreat. But Hitler had already rejected General Herr’s proposals for an elastic defence, by tactical withdrawals from one river to the next – which might have stultified the British Eighth Army’s offensive. On April 14, just before the American offensive was launched, Vietinghoff appealed for permission to retire to the Po before it was too late. His appeal was rejected, but on the 20th he took the responsibility of ordering such a retreat himself. By then it was far too late. The Allies’ three armoured divisions, in two sweeping moves, had cut off and surrounded most of the opposing forces. Although many Germans managed to escape by swimming that broad river, they were in no condition to establish a new line. On the 27th the British crossed the Adige and penetrated the Venetian Line covering Venice and Padua. The Americans, moving still faster, took Verona a day earlier. The day before that, April 25, a general uprising of the partisans took place, and Germans everywhere came under attack from them. All the Alpine passes were blocked by April 28 [Shall be besieged] – the day on which Mussolini and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were caught and shot by a band of partisans near Lake Como [and destroyed]. German troops were now surrendering everywhere, and the Allied pursuit met little opposition anywhere after April 25. By the 29th the New Zealanders reached Venice and by May 2 were at Trieste – where the main concern was not the Germans but the Yugo-Slavs.» (Hart, 1971, p.670-674).

« Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945); ... His demands on Poland led to the Second World War (September 1939), which he considered he had won in the West when German troops entered Paris (June 22nd, 1940 [Armistice]). In 1941 he moved his troops eastward, but in attacking Russia he encountered heavy opposition and personally assumed command in the field on December 19th, 1941. A series of failures after Stalingrad, culminating in the Allied landings in Normandy, undermined the Army’s confidence in Hitler and led to the attempted assassination of July 20th, 1944. At the end of the war Hitler was cornered in the ruins of Berlin.» (Palmer, p.127-128); « The collapse of Germany: Hitler had stripped his Western Front , and diverted the major part of his remaining forces and resources to hold the line of the Oder against the Russians, in the belief that the Western Allies were incapable of resuming the offensive after the supposedly crippling blow of his Ardennes counter-offensive coupled with V-weapon flying bomb and rocket bombardment of the Antwerp base. So most of the available equipment coming out from the German factories or repair shops was sent eastward. Yet at that very time the Western Allies were building up overwhelming strength for an assault on the Rhine. In this massive effort the main striking role was assigned to Montgomery, the U.S. Ninth Army being employed under him in addition to his own two, the First Canadian and Second British Armies. This decision was strongly resented by most of the American generals who felt that Eisenhower was yielding to the demands of Montgomery and the British at the expense of their own prospects. Indignation spurred them to more vigorous efforts on their sectors to show what they could do, and in the event these efforts achieved striking results, as the strength put into them, though smaller than what Montgomery was amassing, much exceeded what the Germans had left to oppose them. On March 7 the tanks of Patton’s Third Army broke through the weak German defences in the Eifel (the German end of the rugged Ardennes), and reached the Rhine near Coblenz after a sixty-mile drive in three days. For the moment they were blocked, as the Rhine bridges had been blown up before they arrived. But a little farther north, a small armoured spearhead of the neighbouring U.S. First Army had found a gap and raced through it so quickly that the bridge at Remagen, near Bonn, was reached and brilliantly captured before it could be blown. Reserves were rushed up and secured a vital bridgehead. By March 21, Patton had swept the west bank clear of the enemy along a seventy-mile stretch between Coblenz and Mannheim, cutting off the German forces in that sector before they could withdraw to the Rhine. Next night, Patton’s troops crossed the river almost unopposed at Oppenheim, between Mainz and Mannheim. When the news of this surprise stroke reached Hitler, he called for immediate countermeasures, but was told that no resources remained available, and that the most that could be despatched to help fill the gap was a mere handful of five machines just repaired at a tank depot a hundred miles away. ‘The cupboard was bare’, and the American advance beyond the Rhine became a procession. By this time Montgomery had completed his elaborate preparations for the grand assault on the Rhine near Wesel 150 miles downstream. Here he had concentrated twenty-five divisions, after a quarter of a million tons of ammunition and other supplies had been amassed in dumps on the west bank. The thirty-mile stretch of river where he planned to attack was held by only five weak and exhausted German divisions... At midnight on April 12, the news reached Hitler that President Roosevelt had died suddenly. Goebbels telephoned him, and said: ‘My Führer, I congratulate you. Fate has laid low your greatest enemy. God has not abandoned us.’ This was the ‘miracle’, it seemed, for which Hitler had been waiting – a repetition of the death of the Empress of Russia, at the critical moment of the Seven Year War in the eighteenth century. So Hitler became convinced that what Mr Churchill called the ‘Grand Alliance’ between the Eastern and Western powers would now break up through the clash of their rival interests. But the hope was not fulfilled and Hitler was driven a fortnight later to take his own life, as Frederick the Great had been about to do, just when his ‘miracle’ had come to save his fortunes and his life. Early in March Zhukov had enlarged his bridgehead over the Oder, but did not succeed in breaking out. Russian progress on the far flanks continued, and Vienna was entered in the middle of April. Meanwhile the German front in the west had collapsed, and the Allied armies there were driving eastward from the Rhine with little opposition. They reached the Elbe, sixty miles from Berlin, on April 11. Here they halted. On the 16th Zhukov resumed the offensive, in conjunction with Koniev, who forced the crossing of the Neisse. This time the Russians burst out of their bridgeheads, and within a week were driving into the suburbs of Berlin – where Hitler chose to remain for the final battle. By the 25th the city had been completely isolated by the encircling armies of Zhukov and Koniev [Shall be besieged], and on the 27th Koniev’s forces joined hands with the Americans on the Elbe. But in Berlin itself desperate street-by-street resistance was put up by the Germans, and was not completely overcome until the war itself ended, after Hitler’s suicide, with Germany’s unconditional surrender [and destroyed].» (Hart, 1971, p.677-680).

The filed strong one: « In this text, Hitler is named “le fort limé (the filed strong one)”, the strong one sharpened with a file like the edge of a sword. It is a plastic image of his warlike character.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.490).

Viellard: = Vieillard; « Viellard, See Vieillard.» (Huguet).

An old dreamer: « The expression “un viellard resveur (an old dreamer)” should not be taken literally. It must be understood as “a dreamer of the ancient times”. Therefore it is an allusion to Mussolini’s Utopian dreams of restoring the glory of the ancient Rome.»
(Ionescu, id.).

: = « Trasseure. Trace (Trace, track, footprint, footstep, trail, remains.). – Trace ou Trassure.» (Huguet).

De Nira trasse: = « Aryan tracts.» (Lamont, id.); « About the term “Nira”, it is an anagram of “Iran”. Iran is considered by many historians as the original region of the Aryan peoples. And “Nira” is also an anagram for “Arian”. “To show the trace of Aryans” is to show oneself as descendants of the ancient Aryans.» (Ionescu, id., p.491).

Monstra: = « for monstrera by syncope.» (Ionescu, id., p.490).

The Genevans: = The « League of Nations.» (Lamont, id.).

Shall show their trace of Higher Descent to the Genevans: « A Chief well armed and another one dreaming of the glory of the past shall oppose the League of Nations by the doctrine of the superiority of the Arian race.» (Ionescu, id., p.491).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§789 The Weimar Republic; Hitler in power (1919-1939): III-76.

III-76 (§789):

In Germany shall be born diverse sects,
Approaching much to the happy paganism,
The captive heart and small revenues,
shall return to the payment of the true tithe.

(En Germanie naistront diverses sectes,
S'approchans fort de l'heureux paganisme,
Le cueur captif & petites receptes,
Feront retour à payer le vray disme.)

NOTES: The first hemistich of the quatrain deals with the Weimar Republic with proportional representation in failure in Germany and the second concerns Hitler’s totalitarian policies with success.

Paganism: = « PAGANIISME. n.m. Nom donné par les chrétiens de la fin de l’empire romain aux cultes polythéistes (Paganism. A name given by the Christians of the end of the Roman Empire to the polytheistic cults).» (Petit Robert).

Happy: = Irresponsible; « happy a. (as suf.) irresponsible about (
TRIGGER-happy).» (Sykes).

In Germany shall be born diverse sects, Approaching much to the happy paganism: « The parliamentary system laid down in the new Weimar constitution had weakness, the most serious of which was that it was organised on a system of proportional representation so that all political groups would have a fair representation. Unfortunately there were so many different groups that no party could ever win an overall majority. For example in 1928 the Reichstag (lower house of parliament) contained at least eight groups of which the largest were the Social Democrats (153), conservatives or nationalists (78), and the Catholic Centre Party (62). The communists had 54 seats, while the smallest groups were the Bavarian People’s Party (16) and the National Socialists (12). A succession of coalition governments was inevitable, with the Socialist Democrats having to rely on co-operation from left-wing liberals and Catholic Centre; no party was able to carry out its programme.» (Lowe, 1988, p.127).

« The Weimar Republic was constantly plagued by economic problems, which the government failed to solve permanently: (i) In 1919 Germany was close to bankruptcy because of the enormous expense of the war which had lasted for longer than most people had expected. (ii) Her attempts to pay reparations instalments made matters worse. In August 1921, after paying the £50 million due, she requested permission to suspend payments until her economy recovered. France refused and in 1922 Germany could not manage the full annual payment. (iii) In January 1923 French troops occupied the Ruhr (an important German industrial area) in an attempt to seize goods from factories and mines. The German government ordered the workers to follow a policy of passive resistance, and German industry in the Ruhr was paralysed. The French had failed in their aim, but the effect on the German economy was catastrophic and the mark collapsed. The normal rate of exchange was 4 marks to the dollar, but even before the Ruhr occupation reparations difficulties had caused the mark to fall in value so that by 1922 a dollar would buy 191.8 marks. By July 1923, with the Ruhr at a standstill, a dollar would buy 160,000 marks, and at the end of November 1923 the mark was completely worthless at 4,200,000 million to the dollar. It was only when the new Chancellor, Gustav Stresemann, introduced a new currency known as the Rentenmark, in 1924, that the financial situation finally stabilised. The economic situation improved dramatically in the years after 1924, largely thanks to the Dawes Plan of that year which provided an immediate loan from the USA equivalent to £40 million, relaxed the fixed reparations payments and in effect allowed Germany to pay what she could afford; French troops withdrew from the Ruhr. The currency was stabilised, there was a boom in such industries as iron, steel, coal, chemicals and electricals, and wealthy landowners and industrialists were quite happy with the republic. But behind this success there was a fatal weakness. (iv) The prosperity was much more dependent than most people realised on American loans. (v) Following the Wall Street Crash (October 1929 the world economic crisis was developed. The USA stopped ant further loans and began to call in money of the short-term loans already made to Germany. This shook the currency and caused a run on the banks, many of which had to close. The industrial boom had led to world-wide over-production, and German exports, along with those of other countries, were severely reduced. Factories had to close, and by the middle of 1931 unemployment was approaching four million. Sadly for Germany, Gustav Stresemann, the politician best equipped to deal with the situation, died of a heart attack in October 1929 at the early age of 51. (vi) The government of Chancellor Brüning (Catholic Centre Party) reduced social services, unemployment benefit, and salaries and pensions of government officials, and stopped reparations payments. High tariffs were introduced to keep out foreign foodstuffs and thus help German farmers, while the government bought shares in factories hit by the slump. However, these measures did not produce quick results: unemployment continued to grow and by the spring of 1932 it stood at over six million. The government came under criticism from almost all groups in society, especially industrialists and the working class who demanded more decisive action. The loss of working-class support because of increasing unemployment and the reduction of unemployment benefit was a serious blow to the republic. By the end of 1932 the Weimar Republic had thus been brought to the verge of collapse. Even so it might have survived if there had been no other options.» (Lowe, id., p.129-133).

The captive heart and small revenues, shall return to the payment of the true tithe: The Germans by their support to the attractive Nazi policies recovered economic strength so as to be able to pay their ordinary tithe, which they could not afford under the Republic government because of small income or mass unemployment: « Hitler and the Nazi party offered what seemed to be an attractive alternative just when the republic was at its most incapable. The fortunes of the Nazi party were linked closely to the economic situation: the more unstable the economy, the more seats the Nazis won in the Reichstag: March 1924 – 32 seats (economy still unstable after 1923 inflation); December 1924 – 14 seats (economy recovering after Dawes Plan); 1928 – 12 seats (comparative prosperity); 1930 – 107 seats (unemployment mounting – Nazis second largest party); July 1932 – 230 seats (massive unemployment – Nazis largest single party). There is no doubt that the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, fostered by the economic crisis, was one of the most important factors in the downfall of the republic.» (Lowe, id, p.133).

« What was it about the Nazis that made them so popular? (i) They offered national unity, prosperity and full employment by ridding Germany of what they claimed were the real causes of the troubles – Marxists, the ‘November criminals’ (those who had agreed to the armistice in November 1918 and later the Versailles Treaty), Jesuites, Freemasons and, above all, Jews. Great play was made in Nazi propaganda with the ‘stab in the back’ myth (In 1919, the view was widespread that the army had not been defeated: it had been betrayed – ‘stabbed in the back’ – by the democrats who had needlessly agreed to the Versailles Treaty. What most Germans did not realise was that it was Ludendorff who had asked for an armistice while the Kaiser was still in power. However, the ‘stab in the back’ legend was eagerly fostered by all enemies of the republic [id., p.127].). (ii) They promised to overthrow the Versailles settlement, so unpopular with most Germans, and to build Germany into a great power again. This would include bringing all Germans (in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland) back into the Reich. (iii) The Nazi private army, the SA (Sturmabteilung – Storm Troopers), was attractive to young people out of work [The captive heart]; it gave them a small wage [small revenues] and a uniform. (iv) Wealthy landowners and industrialists encouraged the Nazis because they feared a communist revolution and they approved of the Nazi policy of hostility to communists. (v) Hitler himself had extraordinary political abilities. He possessed tremendous energy and will power and a remarkable gift for public speaking which enabled him to put forward his ideas with great emotional force. (vi) The striking contrast between the governments of the Weimar Republic and the Nazi party impressed people: the former were cautious, respectable, dull and unable to maintain order, the latter promised strong, decisive government and the restoration of national pride – an irresistible combination. (vii) Without the economic crisis though, it is doubtful whether Hitler would have had much chance of attaining power; it was the widespread unemployment and social misery which gained the Nazis mass support, not only among the working classes but also among the lower-middle classes – office workers, shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers and small-scale farmers.» (Lowe, id, p.133-134).

« A small clique of right-wing politicians with support from the Reichswehr decided to bring Hitler into a coalition government with the conservatives and nationalists. The main conspirators were Franz von Papen and Kurt von Schleicher. Their reasons for this momentous decision were: (i) They were afraid of the Nazis attempting to seize power by a Putsch. (ii) They believed they could control Hitler better inside the government than if he remained outside it. (iii) The Nazi votes in the Reichstag would give them a majority, which might make possible a restoration of the monarchy, and a return to the system which had existed under Bismarck (Chancellor 1870-90), in which the Reichstag had much less power. Though this would destroy the Weimar Republic, they were prepared to go ahead because it would give them a better chance of controlling the communists.» (Lowe, id, p.134-135).

« There was some complicated manoeuvring involving Papen and Schleicher who persuaded President Hindenburg, now completely senile, to dismiss Chancellor Brüning and appoint Papen himself as Chancellor. They hoped to bring Hitler in as Vice-Chancellor, but he would settle for nothing less than himself as Chancellor. In January 1933, therefore, they persuaded Hindenburg to invite Hitler to become Chancellor with Papen as Vice-Chancellor, even though the Nazis had by then lost ground in the elections of November 1932. Papen still believed Hitler could be controlled and remarked to a friend: ‘In two months we’ll have pushed Hitler into a corner so hard that he’ll be squeaking.’ In fact, therefore, Hitler was able to come to power legally because all the other parties including the Reichswehr failed to recognise the danger from the Nazis and therefore failed to unite in opposition.» (Lowe, id, p.135).

« The legal basis of his power was the Enabling Law which was forced through the Reichstag on 23 March 1933. This stated that the government could introduce laws without the approval of the Reichstag for the next four years, ignore the constitution and sign agreements with foreign countries. All laws would be drafted by the Chancellor and come into operation the day they were published... How was it achieved? The method was typical of the Nazis. The Kroll Opera House (where the Reichstag had been meeting since the fire [on the night of 27 February 1933]) was surrounded by the black-shirted SS troops, and MPs had to push their way through solid ranks to get into the building. The 81 communist MPs were simply not allowed to pass (many were in jail already). Inside the building rows of brown-shirted SA troops lined the walls. It took courage to vote against the bill in such surroundings with the SS outside chanting ‘We want the bill, or fire and murder’. When the Catholic Centre Parry decided to vote in favour, the result was a foregone conclusion: it passed by 441 votes to 94 (all Social Democrats).» (Lowe, id, p.137).

« Hitler’s policies were popular with many sections of the German people. Hitler was successful in eliminating unemployment. This was probably the most important reason for his popularity with the masses. When he came to power the unemployment figure still stood at over six million but as early as July 1935 it had dropped to under two million and by 1939 it had disappeared completely. How was this achieved? The public works schemes provided thousands of extra jobs. A large party bureaucracy was set up now that the Nazi party was expanding so rapidly, providing thousands of extra office and administrative posts. There were purges of Jews and anti-Nazis from the civil service and many other jobs connected with law, teaching, journalism, broadcasting, the theatre and music, leaving large numbers of vacancies. Conscription was reintroduced in 1935. Rearmament was begun in 1934 and gradually speeded up. Thus Hitler had provided what the unemployed had been demanding in their 1932 marches: work and bread (Arbeit und Brot).» (Lowe, id, p.140-141).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved.

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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