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§815 The Allied three operations of landing (1941-1944): IX-97.

IX-97 (§815):

The armies from the sea divided in three parts,
For the second the rations shall fail,
The desperate seeking for the Elysian Fields,
The firsts entering a breach shall have a victory.

(De mer copies en trois parts divisees,
A la seconde les vivres failleront,
Desesperez cherchant champs Helisees,
Premiers en breche entrez victoire auront.)
(№10)

NOTES: The armies from the sea divided in three parts: This quatrain seems to concern the Allied three operations [divided in three parts] of landing [The armies from the sea] in WWII, namely, those of Overlord on Normandy in June 1944 (called the first in the quatrain), of Torch on North Africa in November 1942 (called the second) and of Husky on Sicily in July 1943 or of Dragoon on Provence in August 1944 (either is qualified to be the third, otherwise ‘Husky’ being able to be a strategical extension of the second or ‘Dragoon’ to be considered as a corollary of the first).

For the second: = For the Allied forces in North Africa where the Allied landing is to be effected in November 1942.

Failleront: = failliront (to shall fail); « faillir. Fut. S.I. falrai, etc. – ou faillerai, etc. – ou faillirai, etc. (the third person plural future of faillir. Falront, – or failleront, – or failliront)» (Daele).

For the second the rations shall fail, The desperate seeking for the Elysian Fields: « Soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union [22 June 1941], Rommel had began to plan a new attack on the besieged port of Tobruk, which had become the key to the war in North Africa. He needed it to supply his troops and to eliminate the threat to his rear. Tobruk was now held by the British 70th Division, reinforced with a Polish brigade and a Czech battalion. During the desert summer, with its mirage shimmer of the desert under a blazing sky, a sort of phoney war had developed, with little more than the odd skirmish along the wire of the Libyan frontier. British and German reconnaissance patrols chatted to each other by radio, on one occasion complaining when a newly arrived German officer forced his men to open fire after a tacit ceasefire had been arranged. For the infantry on both sides, life was less amusing under such conditions, with just a litre of water a day for drinkung and washing. In their trenches, they had to cope with scorpions, sand-fleas and the aggressive desert flies which swarmed over every piece of food and every inch of exposed flesh. Dysentery became a major problem, especially for the Germans. Even the defenders of Tobruk were short of water, as a Stuka had wrecked the desalination plant. The town itself was badly battered by shellfire and bombing, and the harbour half full of sunken ships. Only the determination of the Royal Navy kept them supplied. Members of the remaining Australian brigade began bartering war loot for beer as soon as a ship arrived.» (Beevor, 2012, p.223-224).

The Operation ‘Torch
: « The Allied landings in French North Africa took place on November 8, 1942. This entry into north-west Africa came a fortnight after the launching of the British offensive on Rommel’s position at Alamein, in the extreme north-east of Africa, and four days after the collapse of that position. At the ‘Arcadia Conference’ in Washington at Christmas 1941 – the first Allied conference following the Japanese stroke at Pearl Harbor which brought the United States into the war – Mr Churchill put forward the ‘North-west Africa Project’ as a step towards ‘closing and tightening the ring around Germany’. He told the Americans that there was already a plan, ‘Gymnast’, for a landing in Algeria if the Eighth Army gained a sufficiently decisive success in Cyrenaica for it to push westward to the Tunisian border. President Roosevelt favoured the project, being quick to see its political advantages in grand strategy, but his Service advisers were dubious about its practicability while anxious les lest it should interfere with the prospect of an early and more direct attack against Hitler’s hold on Europe. The most they were willing to agree was that study of the operation, now rechristened ‘Super-Gymnast’, should continue... The American Chiefs of Staff reacted to this contention with renewed objections to ‘Gymnast’ – Marshall’s condemnation of it as ‘expensive and ineffectual’ was supported by Admiral King’s declaration that it was ‘impossible to fulfil naval commitments in other theatres and at the same time to provide the shipping and escorts which would be essential should that operation be undertaken’. They also agreed in viewing the British refusal to attempt a landing in France in 1942 as clear evidence that the British did not really want to risk it even in 1943. So Marshall, readily supported by King, proposed a radical change of strategy – that unless the British accepted the American plan for an early cross-Channel attack ‘we should turn to the Pacific and strike decisively against Japan; in other words assume a defensive attitude against Germany, except for air operations; and use all available means in the Pacific’. But the President objected the idea of delivering such an ultimatum to his British allies, expressed his disapproval of the proposed strategic switch, and told his Chiefs of Staff that unless they could persuade the British to undertake a cross-Channel operation in 1942 they must either launch one into French North Africa or send a strong reinforcement to the Middle East. He emphasised that it was politically imperative to take some striking action before the year ended... In choosing north-west Africa as the alternative, rather than a reinforcement to the Middle East, Marshall’s prime reason, according to Harry Hopkins, was ‘the difficulty of mixing our troops with the British in Egypt’. While a mixture would also occur in the case of a combined operation in north-west Africa, it was obvious that American reinforcements to the Middle East would have come under a British Commander-in-Chief. The adoption of ‘Super-Gymnast’ was formulated at two further meetings of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, American and British, in London on July 24 and 25 – and promptly endorsed by Roosevelt. On Churchill’s initiative the operation was rechristened ‘Torch’, as a more inspiring name. It was also agreed that the supreme command should be given to an American – an ointment to the sore feelings of the American Service chiefs that Churchill was very ready to provide – and on the 26th Eisenhower was told, by Marshall, that he was to have the post.» (Hart, 1971, p.310-312).

« World War II : War in North Africa El Alamein 23 October – 4 November 1942 The Battle of El Alamein marked the beginning of the end for the Axis in North Africa. The charismatic Field Marshal Rommel was comprehensively defeated by the British Eighth Army, and Allied material superiority meant that he had little chance of rallying his broken forces. Following on from the defensive success at Alam Halfa, Montgomery built up his forces to fight the key battle for North Africa. The British had built a defensive line at El Alamein because the Quattara Depression to the south was impassable to mechanized forces. A narrow choke point prevented the German panzers from operating on their preferred southern flank with open terrain. Now that the British had moved over to the offensive, the proposed battlefield also suited the Eighth Army, whose main strength lay in its artillery and infantry formations. By mid-October 1942, Montgomery could deploy approximately double the number of men and tanks available to Rommel’s German-Italian army. The British also enjoyed the invaluable advantage of air superiority over the battlefield. Aware that an attack was imminent, Rommel had prepared his defenses as best he could, sowing hundreds of thousands of antitank and antipersonnel mines along his front to slow any British advance. Rommel returned to Germany to recuperate from illness shortly before the British offensive was launched, command passing to a subordinate. Montgomery’s plan comprised a diversionary attack to the south, spearheaded by Free French troops, while the main attack would come in the northern sector, close to the coast. The British would break into the Axis line and force them to counterattack. In the process, the British would weak down the enemy’s offensive capability... Rommel, meanwhile, had flown back to North Africa to resume command, and he immediately mounted spirited counterattacks... But progress by the infantry, especially the Australian and New Zealand Divisions, opened up corridors through the Axis defenses that the British could exploit. On 2 November Rommel signaled to Hitler that the battle was lost. Although initially refused permission to retreat, Rommel began the withdrawal of his German units, leaving his Italian allies – who lacked motor transport – to be mopped up by the British. By 4 November the motorised elements of the Axis were in full retreat, and because of the sluggish British follow-up they were allowed to escape virtually unscathed. But this was of limited strategic importance because the British victory at El Alamein was confirmed by Operation Torch, the Anglo-American landings in North Africa on 8 November. The Axis forces were now being squeezed in the Allied vice, and their expulsion from North Africa was only a question of time.» (Grant, 2011, p.846-847).

The firsts
: = Those of the first part of landing, namely that in Normandy.

The firsts entering a breach shall have a victory: « World War II: Western Front Normandy Landings 5–6 June 1944 On 4 June, U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, made the decision to launch Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Europe in World War II. Bad weather forced a one-day postponement, but a short period of acceptable weather meant 6 June was marked as D-Day. Allied soldiers and sailors were already loaded in more than 3,400 ships and began moving across the English Channel. More than 130,000 men were to land on five beaches spread along 50 miles (80 km) of Normandy coast. Before dawn on 6 June, 1,000 air transports and gliders dropped one British (6th) and two U.S. (82d and 101st) airborne divisions – some 18,000 paratroopers – behind the beaches, with the mission to seize key roads and bridges and seal the invasion area from German reinforcements. Although darkness, poor weather, and pilot confusion caused many paratroopers to land in the wrong locations, the men assembled in small groups and fought their way to their objectives. British gliders brought their troops in on target to seize the important bridges at Caen and Orne. Before sunrise on 6 June, British Royal Air Force planes also began prelanding bombing, Allied deception operations had worked well... At the day’s end, the Allies held small but growing beachheads, while Allied airpower prevented German reserves from arriving. The successful Allied landing opened the door, into Europe, which led to the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany [The firsts entering a breach shall have a victory].» (Grant, 2011, p.864-865).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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§816 The Operation ‘Neptune/Overlord’ (1944.6.6): I-29.

I-29 (§816):

When the terrestrial and aquatic fish
Shall be set on the sand through strong waves,
Its form strange, sweet and yet horrible,
Soon the enemies by sea to the walls.

(Quand le poisson terrestre & aquatique
Par forte vague au gravier sera mis,
Sa forme estrange suave & horrifique,
Par mer aux murs bien tost les ennemis.)

NOTES: « A clear account of the D-Day invasion of the Normandy beaches, with an exact description of the amphibious tanks and ducks employed by the Allies.» (Roberts, 1969, p.10).

Le poisson terrestre & aquatique
(the terrestrial and aquatic fish): = « Les embarcations amphibies (the amphibious boats).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.554); « It is clear that the text of Nostradamus refers to the landing in Normandy on 6 June 1944 and the featuring of the amphibious tanks and ships is quite remarkable, for these machines played, in fact, a decisive role in this operation of the Allies.» (Ionescu, id., p.555); « “The United States entered the Second World War with the fully developed theory of amphibians, which was finally adopted by the other great Allies. On the contrary, the German failure to develop an adequate doctrine of amphibians and their tactical possibilities was the major cause of the fall of Hitler...” (Encyclopedia Britannica, ‘Amphibious Warfare’, vol. I, p.822).» (quoted Ionescu, id., p.554); « This invasion across the English Channel was an extremely hazardous operation. Apart from the risks run in the actual assault upon Hitler’s Fortress Europe, the crossing of almost 100 miles of treacherous sea was in itself fraught with danger. At the end of that crossing the assault craft bearing the troops which were to seize the beachhead, and the amphibious ‘swimming’ tanks with them, had to come in on a tide attaining half-flood 40 minutes after first light...» (Maule, 1972, p.372); « The Allies had plenty more surprises for the Germans on D-Day, not the least being a variety of specialized tanks designed to overcome minefields, obstacles and concrete fortifications. Since 1943 the British 79th Armoured Division had been an experimental formation working out ideas for all kinds of ingenious armoured vehicles: amphibious tanks, flame-throwing tanks, bull-dozing tanks and many others. While the swimming tanks and the first infantry went ashore, the Allies were equipped with multiple rocket vessels, and artillery and mortars at the bows of landing crafts. This was to give them close fire-cover throughout the dangerous period when the enemy would be manning their guns again in the lull after the naval bombardment...» (Maule, id., p.381); « Thanks to ceaseless day-and-night efforts by the crews of scores of DUKWs (amphibious trucks) which had crawled clear of the sea as the storm broke, a growing stream of supplies was brought in from the big off-shore transports...»
(Maule, id., p.395).

Gravier: = « Graviere 1. Gravier, sable (Gravel, sand). – Les Islaelites estoient innombrables comme la graviere de la mer (... innumerable like the sand of the sea).
FOSSETIER, Cron. Mag., II, 2 v° (G.).» (Huguet); « At Omaha beach, however, it was a far less happy story. There the firm 300 yards of sandy foreshore culminated in a steep shingle bank, most of it backed by a sea wall...» (Maule, id., p.388).

Par forte vague au gravier sera mis, Sa forme estrange suave & horrifique: « ... lancées en vagues massives arriveront sur les plages de Normandie, leur forme étrange et insolite paraîtra bien plaisante aux Français et effrayante aux Allemends (... being thrown in the massive waves shall arrive at the shores of Normandy, their strange and insolent form appearing truly sweet for the French and fearful for the German).» (Ionescu, id., p.554).

Par forte vague (through strong waves): « But however brilliant the Allied invasion plan, the final intangible of the weather on the chosen day was an uncontrollable yet vital factor. As D-Day, for which June 5 had been named, drew nearer, the fine, sunny days of May gave place to dull, rainy weather. Weatherships and aircraft out in the Atlantic reported depressions approaching, with accompanying high winds and low cloud. The experts predicted that these depressions would envelop the Channel area all through June 5 to 7, and that the sailing of the invasion fleet would be highly dangerous. When the first-wave troops had already embarked on June 4, the weather worsened to a storm, and General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the supreme commander, had no option but to postpone the invasion. Nevertheless, with the wind-lashed Channel still turbulent, that night the meteorologists gave reason to hope the storm might decrease sufficiently for landings next day. On the strength of this forecast, Eisenhower ordered the invasion fleet to sail... Although the Germans had known that an invasion was imminent, they were taken by surprise. The stormy weather had proved to be a blessing in disguise. Certain that no landings could be attempted with such high seas running, three of the senior commanders were away from their headquarters, including Rommel himself... The sea was heaving sickeningly, a cold wind lashing the invaders with spray, as they went in soon after dawn...» (Maule, id., p.375-381);

« Late in 1943, the British Admiralty became responsible for preparing the sea, swell and surf forecasts for Operation OVERLORD, the world's largest amphibious assault. To do so, as of 1 February 1944, the Admiralty's Naval Meteorological Service activated a Swell Forecast Section. There follows a first-hand account of how this unit prepared the requisite wave predictions for D-Day (6 June 1944), the Big Storm (19-22 June 1944), and over-the-beach supply operations following the destruction of the artificial harbor at the OMAHA beachhead. The same British and American meteorologists were then posted to the Joint Meteorological Centre, Colombo, Ceylon to assist in the invasion of Rangoon, Burma (Operation DRACULA).» (Bates, 2010, p.1).

« Sea, Swell and Surf Forecasting for D-Day Once General Eisenhower became the Supreme Allied Commander (SAC) at SHAEF [Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionay Force], he persuaded the Combined Chiefs of Staff and its superiors, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, that the initial OVERLORD assault required five beachheads spread over 50 miles of Normandy coastline rather than the original three beachheads. This expansion brought about three changes worth noting here. First, the maritime assault phase now had its own name, NEPTUNE. Second, the launch date for NEPTUNE/OVERLORD was postponed from early May to early June. Third, as of early April, the SHAEF complex of 1,300 personnel would move from central London's Norfolk House into a newly constructed cantonment within the 1,100 acre Bushy Park located next to the four-century old palace known as Hampton Court.» (Bates, id., p.9).

« General Eisenhower was noted for allowing his staff members to perform their "dog work" without interruption from above. Even so, after being reared on the stark Kansas prairie, he was a "weather worrier" with a tendency to pop in informally and personally inspect the weather charts. Furthermore, during Monday, April 17th, "Ike" announced to the admirals, generals and air marshals assembled for the regular weekly command briefing (Stagg, 1971): ... when the time comes to start OVERLORD, we are going to have to rely very much on the weather forecast, so I want to hear what our weather experts can do. Each Monday until then Group Captain Stagg will tell us what he thinks the weather will be for the rest of the week.» (Bates, id., p.11).

« During the first four weeks of May, 1944, English weather was unusually benign. Over the North Atlantic Ocean, the upper atmosphere featured a "high index zonal flow" pattern with only minor north-south perturbations embedded therein. Thus, even during May 28th, the day that Stagg and Yates were moving from London to Southwick Park, Stagg's five-day forecast stated "mainly quiet wind conditions would continue for the coming week," i.e., through Sunday, June 4th, or the day just prior to launching the long awaited invasion of France.» (Bates, id., p.13).

« General Eisenhower made the tense situation worse during Friday, June 2nd. With the proposed D-Day just three days away, "Ike" advised Stagg that he now required weather briefings during both morning and evening hours.» (Bates, id., p.15).

« Time Line: Ocean Wave Advisories for the Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force
1943 Monday, 29 May 1000 DBST [Double British Summer Time (Two hours in advance of Greenwich time)]: SAC weather briefing by team of Stagg-Yates-Fleming.
Friday, 2 June
1000 and 2130 DBST: SAC weather briefing as above.
Saturday, 3 June 2130 DBST: SAC weather briefing as above for proposed D-Day of pending Monday but meteorological conditions appear doubtful.
Sunday, 4 June 0430 DBST: SAC weather briefing as above. D-Day postponed 24 hours. 2130 DBST: SAC weather briefing advises improving situation during pending Tuesday so SAC offers a tentative "Go."
Monday, 5 June 0415 DBST: SAC weather briefing confirms improving weather pattern so Eisenhower orders full "Go" for NEPTUNE on 6 June. 1915 DBST: Eisenhower visits Fleming's weather shack. Stagg advises: "I hold to my forecast!"» (Bates, id., p.34).

« Table 3. SHAEF 5-Day Wave Forecast for 5/9 June 1944*
Swell: In western approaches to English Channel, and south of 50 degrees N up Channel as far as the Cherbourg Peninsula: 6 to 7 feet Monday, decreasing to 4 to 5 feet Tuesday, 3 to 4 feet remainder of period, westerly direction throughout.
Sea: Monday, 5 June:
(a) Western approaches to English Channel: 8-10 feet mixed sea and swell.
(b) Near the English Coast, in the Channel: 3-4 feet west of Portland Bill, 2-3 feet in the east.
(c) French Coast (except western Cherbourg Peninsula): 5-6 feet decreasing to 3-4 feet.
(d) Southernmost North Sea: 5-7 feet.
Tuesday, 6 June, D-Day, Areas as above.
(a) 3-4 feet wind waves.
(b) 2-3 feet becoming 3-4 feet in the west.
(c) and (d) 3-4 feet except for 2-3 feet in southwestern Bay of Seine.
Wednesday to Friday, 7, 8, and 9 June.
(a) 5-7 feet mixed sea and swell.
(b) 2-3 feet, risk of 4 feet.
(c) 3-5 feet, but 2-4 feet in Bay of Seine.
* Prepared at 2200 DBST, Sunday, 4 June 1944, by 1st Lt. John Crowell, AC.» (Bates, id., p.16).

« Table 4. Observed Wave Conditions at NEPTUNE Beachheads, 6-7 June 1944*
6 June 1944 (D-Day) 0300 DBST OMAHA: Troop unloading area 10 nautical miles offshore experiences gusty northwesterly winds of 12-18 knots. Wave heights of 3-4 feet with occasional interference waves up to 6 feet. Choppiness makes personnel transfer difficult.
0540-0640 DBST ALL BEACHES: Skirted Sherman tanks (DD-Dual Drive, treads and propellers) launched even though operational limit is 1-foot high waves.
Consequences:
UTAH: Launched 0.6 miles offshore into 2-foot waves. 27 out of 28 tanks reach shore.
OMAHA: Launched 3.5 miles offshore into 3-4 foot waves. 27 out of 29 tanks sink.
GOLD & JUNO: Launched 0.4 miles offshore into 3-foot waves. 42 out of 58 tanks reach beach.
SWORD: Launched 2.2 miles offshore into waves less than 2 feet high. 24 out of 24 tanks reach beach.
1200 DBST UTAH: Surf less than 2 feet high. OMAHA: Transport unloading area continues with choppy waves 3 to 4 feet high; surf 2 feet high.
1800 DBST OMAHA: Surf 1 to 2 feet high; offshore waves 2-3 feet high. Wind remains northwesterly 12-18 knots.
7 June 1944 (D-plus-One) 1200 DBST OMAHA: Offshore waves still 2-3 feet high... northwesterly wind speed of 10 knots or less. Surf 1-2 feet high.
* Pritchard, D.W., 1st Lt., AC. Memorandum to Regional Control Officer, 21st Weather Squadron dto 30 June 1944.
Fletcher, David. Swimming Shermans: Sherman DD Amphibious Tank of World War II. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2006.» (Bates, id., p.18).

The enemies: = The enemies, having proceeded by sea [par mer], were the Allies against the overland German garrisons.

The walls: = The walls of Paris, “walls (murs)” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus very often referring to those of some great or principal city in question. In fact, of 24 examples in all of the term: Mur/Murs (Wall/Walls), 19 refer to the walls of a town or a city (of Paris: I-29, III-6, III-7, III-50, V-18, V-81 and IX-39; of Berlin: II-57 and III-84; of Valence II-63 [au mur], of Saint-Quentin and La Fère III-33, of Calais IV-52, of Turin and Milan IV-90, of Marmande VIII-2, of Genoa IX-26, of Toulouse IX-37, of Bourges IX-93, of Moscow IX-99 and of Rome X-65), one to the buildings (X-89) and 4 to a function of obstacle or protection (II-63 [le grand mur], III-56, VI-51 and X-45).

Soon the enemies by sea to the walls: « The breakout of Allied forces from Normandy in August led rapidly to the liberation of Paris. After French Resistance fighters began an uprising in the city on 19 August, General Charles de Gaulle’s Free French forces, fighting as part of Eisenhower’s Allied armies, raced for Paris [Soon the enemies by sea to the walls]. A column of French tanks reached central Paris on 25 August. As the Germans withdrew, celebrations in Paris began, and so too did reprisals against alleged collaborators. Around 9,000 French people were summarily executed and tens of thousands subjected to public humiliation – for example, women were paraded with shaved heads – before De Gaulle formed a provisional government and restored order.» (DKHistory, p.400-401). Ionescu’s interpretation of the last line as « A la suite de cette action sur mer (par mer), les armées allemandes seront bientôt retirées dans leurs fortifications (aux meurs bient tost les ennemis) (Following this action on the sea, the German armies shall be soon driven into their fortifications).» (Ionescu, 1987, p.351) is not pertinent because the only one phrase par mer cannot signify the event: A la suite de cette action sur mer and his variant meur (meaning literally maturité (maturity) according to Godefroy, then meaningless in the context of this quatrain) in place of mur is not authentic according to many reliable versions of the text (№ 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§817 The Operations ‘Overlord’, ‘Husky’ , ‘Shingle’ and ‘Dragoon’ (1943-1944): VII-10.

VII-10 (§817):

By the ‘Overlord’ into Normandy limitrophe of Le Mans,
By sea and land a doughty and valiant commander
Of the grand army of Gauls and Normans.
Passing Capri, Barcelonne, an isle pillaged.

(Par le grand prince l’imitrophe du Mans,
Preux & vaillant chef de grand exercite:
Par mer & terre de Gallotz & Normans,
Caspre passer Barcelone pillé isle.)

NOTES: Le grand prince
l’imitrophe [= limitrophe] du Mans: The Allied Operation ‘Overlord’ (= a supreme lord = le grand prince) landing Normandy, bordering Le Mans (Maine), on June 6, 1944.

Preux & vaillant chef de grand exercite: Par mer & terre de Gallots & Normans: The construction will be as follows: Par mer & terre Preux & vaillant chef de grand exercite de Gallots & Normans (By sea and land a doughty and valiant commander Of the grand army of Gauls and Normans).

Exercite: « s.m., armée (an army).» (Godefroy).

A doughty and valiant commander of the grand army of Gauls and Normans: General Eisenhower: « EISENHOWER, Dwight (David) (1890-1969 American: Supreme Commander Allied Forces in Europe; General of the Army; ‘Ike’ ‘Ike’ saw himself as leader of multi-national crusade against ungodly Nazi tyranny. Realized that in modern war political and military strategy go together and require continual integration. Treated his famous associates – even the outspoken Montgomery and explosive Patton – with unfailing kindliness and courtesy, but could be a stern critic when the situation demanded. Possessed true hall-mark of good soldier – lucidity of mind... High staff appointments in Washington, 1940-42. Chief of War Plans Division, US General Staff, 1942. Commander of all US Forces in European Theatre of Ops., June 1942. Commander of Allied Forces in NW. Africa, Nov. 1942. Displayed considerable statesmanship in negotiating temporary ‘arrangement’ with former Vichy leader, Adm. Darlan, at Algiers. Took full responsibility for rash US invasion of Tunisia, leading to disastrous battle of Kasserine Pass, Feb. 1943; Commander of all Allied Forces in North Africa, Feb. 6, 1943. Promoted to gen, Feb. 11, 1943; given overall command of Allied forces for Sicily invasion, July 1943. Directed covert negotiations with representatives of Italian armed forces leading to unconditional surrender of Italy, Sept. 8, 1943. Appointed SAC of British and US expeditionary forces for the liberation of France, Dec. 24, 1943...» (Argyle, 2009, p.146 ).

« World War II: Western Front Normandy Landings 5–6 June 1944 On 4 June, U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, made the decision to launch Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Europe in World War II. Bad weather forced a one-day postponement, but a short period of acceptable weather meant 6 June was marked as D-Day.» (Grant, 2011, p.864); « As of June 1st, additional inspections became the order of the day. What had been labeled the "Polar Front" by Dr. Jacob Bjerknes back in 1919 now featured a series of cyclonic disturbances stretching as far back as the Rocky Mountains that were certain to affect the British Isles adversely within the coming week. Moreover, spaced roughly 1,200 nautical miles apart, these wavelets increased in size and intensity as they moved eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean with a speed of roughly 700 nautical miles per day. General Eisenhower made the tense situation worse during Friday, June 2nd. With the proposed D-Day just three days away, "Ike" advised Stagg that he now required weather briefings during both morning and evening hours. Yates recalled:
  At periodic intervals each day Stagg and I reported to the Supreme Commander who in every case had assembled his Deputy, Chief of Staff, the Commander in Chief of Army, Navy, and Air and their deputies. During these briefings, Admiral Ramsay ... had present his meteorological officer for personal advice. No other meteorologists were present. The normal procedure was for Stagg to present with appropriate aids an analysis of the synoptic situation and then in general terms present the forecast for the period in question. I followed with more specific information on the impact of the forecast on the operations of the strategic and tactical units of the Air Force, troop carriers, paratroop units, and, if any, the impact upon the Army operations. Admiral Ramsay's Met officer usually volunteered information on the operational implications of the sea and swell portions of the forecast. We were then queried at length by all members of the group. The briefings to Supreme Commander usually lasted from thirty minutes to an hour.

From Saturday morning, June 3rd, onwards for 48 hours, the forecasters' duty time became a blur. At the 1930 DBST conference that evening Dunstable [British Met Office] and Admiralty argued that the warm sector of a deepening cyclonic area west of the Shetland Islands would cause adverse weather over the English Channel on the proposed D-Day. WIDEWING [U.S. Weather Central] steadfastly claimed the opposite. Upon pondering over Stagg's briefing Eisenhower asked that Stagg come back at 0430h the next morning with a finalized opinion. As the author listened to the telephonic weather conference at 0300 DBST, Sunday, June 4th, the weary Stagg sounded totally exhausted, Yates somewhat better, and Fleming ice-cold. Privately, however, Yates had ordered WIDEWING'S Irving Krick to join the majority's prognosis that the proposed D-Day of June 5th would feature rain, high seas, and low clouds within the assault area. Then, after listening to this updated forecast, as of 0430 DBST Eisenhower ordered this massive invasion involving 500,000 personnel postponed for 24 hours.» (Bates, 2010, p.13-15).

« However, within just a few hours the forecasters were beginning to revise their line of thinking. By noontime, the HMS Hoste, a weather observing frigate requested earlier by Commander Fleming for posting 600 nautical miles west of northern Ireland, was reporting by MOST SECRET MOST IMMEDIATE 3-hourly messages that atmospheric surface pressure was rising steadily. Then at noontime stations on Ireland's west coast reported a major cold front moving eastwards at 30 knots that was certain to pass through the Normandy assault area during early Monday, June 5th. Thus, when the Centrals reconvened during the early evening, all of them were projecting with various degrees of confidence that the offending cyclone off the Shetlands would move towards Norway, the Polar Front's following cyclones deepening off Newfoundland would track northeastwards towards southern Greenland, and a modicum of high atmospheric pressure might return to the English Channel sometime thereafter. Accordingly, at the SHAEF 1930 DBST weather conference, the new 5-day forecast postulated that a stormy Monday would be followed by 36 hours of steadily improving weather. Even so, arrival of the next band of inclement weather following mid-day, Wednesday, June 7th, remained uncertain. So on Sunday night at 2130 DBST as the harried SHAEF commanders once again were questioning the Stagg-Yates-Fleming trio, Southwick Park's officer-in-charge observed: " ... the trees in the copse were swaying in the rising wind and the clouds were scudding across." Even so, based on Stagg's optimistic outlook and understanding that the wind field would still be strong enough for landlubbers making the cross-channel passage extremely seasick, Eisenhower chose a provisional "WE GO" compared to his "NO GO" of 24 hours before. Then after obtaining some rest, "Ike" six hours later would listen to the updated weather prediction and make a final operational decision. As he reported later (Eisenhower DD. 1948. Crusade in Europe, p.250. Doubleday, Garden City):

At three-thirty the next morning our little camp was shaking and shuddering under a wind of almost hurricane proportions and the accompanying rain seemed to be traveling in horizontal streaks ... It seemed impossible that in such conditions there was any reason for even discussing the situation.

Thus, it was not until 0400 DBST on Monday, 5 June 1944, that the SHAEF meteorological team offered up "The Most Important Weather Forecast in the History of the World" (Hogben L. 1994 Diary: The most important weather forecast in the history of the world. London Review of Books 16 (10):21). Later, Commander Fleming described what occurred:

After Stagg had given his forecast and answered questions arising from it, Eisenhower asked each of his C's-in-C for his views. First, Ramsay indicated that he was prepared to resume the operation - he had no misgivings at all. Then Montgomery said he was ready to go as long as the Navy could get him there; Leigh-Mallory was, however, by no means happy and stated that in some ways conditions would be borderline, if not worse. Finally, Eisenhower, having considered all the pros and cons, closed the conference and launched the invasion with three simple words: "Okay! Let's go!

Immediately, via scrambled telephone Admiral Ramsay signaled the commanders of his Western and Eastern Naval Task Forces to begin full scale operations as of 0610 and 0654 DBST respectively, i.e., within the next two hours.» (Bates, id., p.15-17).

« World War II: Western Front Normandy 7 June – 25 July 1944 Each day after the 6 June invasion in World War II, the Allies poured troops and thousands of tons of supplies over the beaches, which caused a bottleneck. It was imperative that the Allies capture a port and expand the limited beachhead before the German reserves established a strong defensive line. Initially, Allied ground commanders focused on relieving isolated airborne units, sorting out the confusion on the beaches, and consolidating their battle line. Meanwhile, Allied air forces controlled the roads and kept the German reserves from massing for effective counterattacks. On 8 June, the First Army began an offensive with V Corps to capture the port of Cherbourg and take control of the Carentan area. Progress was slow, the fighting difficult and costly in casualties. V Corps continued the bloody war in the hedgerows. On the left, British commander General Sir Bernard Montgomery found progress difficult... Montgomery’s men wage a difficult street-by-street fight to take Caen. It fell on 9 July and St. Lo on 18 July, but Allied forces remained crowded in the small beachhead... On 24 July, First Army launched Operation Cobra, a six-division attack – following concentrated bombing by hundreds of bombers – to create a gap in the German line... The town of Vire fell after ten days of hard fighting, and the Americans continued to advance south, pushing aside the German blocking efforts. Coutances was liberated on 30 July, which opened the way to the Breton ports. In August, Lieutenant General George Patton arrived to command the U.S. Third Army. He moved rapidly into Brittany to seize the ports. A joint American-Canadian effort to pinch off the German salient at Falaise-Argentan was slow, but cost the Germans heavy losses. This forced them to make a general withdrawal toward the Seine River with Allied units in pursuit. By 25 August, the Allies were at the Seine, and the stage was set for the invasion of the German homeland.» (Grant, 2011, p.866).

The grand army: « The Allied Supreme Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, led over 3 million men with 13,000 aircraft, 2,500 landing craft, 1,200 warships and a range of new equipment. This included the obstacle-crossing and bunker-busting tanks of the British 79th Armoured Division, used only on the Anglo-Canadian beaches, as well as amphibious tanks used by all attack formations. Follow-up forces would benefit from the Mulberry Harbours and have their fuel needs supplied by PLUTO (Pipe Line Under The Ocean).»
(Sommerville, 2008,p.154).

Gallotz
: = les Gaulois, les Français (the French people).
Cf. VI-62: gallotz and VII-10: Gallotz; « GALLO, GALLOT ou GALLEC. n.m. (XIVe; du breton gall: lat. gallus). Dialecte français parlé en Bretagne (A French dialect spoken in Brittany).» (Petit Robert); « gallot, -ote -n., -adj. = gallo.» (Ibuki); « gallo, f. gallèse, quelquefois gallote [de bret. gall français, lat. Gallus Gaulois]n. qui parle le gallot (A speaker of Breton), habitant de la Bretagne Est (Inhabitants of East Brittany). –adj. pays gallo (a Breton country), parler gallo (a Breton dialect).» (Ibuki).

Normans
: = The Allied troops from the North, i.e., from the British Isles to Normandy, “Norman” signifying originally “homme du Nord (a man of the North)” (Petit Robert). Cf. VI-97 (§889): Normans in the same usage as here.

Gauls and Normans
: Gauls and Normans composing the grand army are the Allied multi-national troops from the British Isles southward to Normandy across the English Channel, “Gauls” designating the Free French soldiers and “Normans” those of other various countries: « JUNE 6, 1944 Sea War Allied Invasion of Normandy. D-Day Forces Allied: Troops landed: 75,215 British and Canadians from sea, 7,900 airborne; 57,500 Americans from sea, 15,500 airborne.» (Argyle, 2009, p.157); « Nearly 5,000 landing ships and assault craft were escorted by six battleships, four monitors, twenty-three cruisers, 104 destroyers and 152 escort vessels, as well as the 277 minesweepers clearing channels ahead. Most were British, American and Canadian, but there were also French, Polish, Dutch and Norwegian warships.» (Beevor, 2010, p.74); « One of Admiral Ramsay’s greatest concerns was a mass attack on the invasion fleet by German U-boats from their bases in Brittany. Naval anti-submarine forces were deployed, but the main task of covering the south-western approaches fell on 19 Group of Coastal Command mainly flying B-24 Liberators and Sunderland flying boats. The group included one Czech, one Polish, one New Zealander, two Australian and three Canadian squadrons. Even the RAF’s own 224 Squadron was a mixed bag of nationalities, with 137 Britons, forty-four Canadians, thirty-three Anzacs, two Americans, a Swiss, a Chilean, a South African and a Brazilian.» (Beevor, id., p.76); « The D-Day air offensive was another multinational operation. It included five New Zealander, seven Australian, twenty-eight Canadian, one Rhodesian, six French, fourteen Polish, three Czech, two Belgian, two Dutch and two Norwegian squadrons. Other units from these Allied countries were assigned to ‘anti-Diver’ missions, attacking the V-bomb launch sites in northern France.» (Beevor, id., p.79).

An isle pillaged
: « JULY 10, 1943 Sea War: Med. ALLIES INVADE SICILY (Operation Husky).» (Argyle, 2009, p.135); « World War II: Italian Campaign Invasion of Sicily 9 July – 17 August 1943. The Anglo-American invasion and capture of Sicily was a vital stepping-stone for the campaign in Italy, although the Allies were at fault in failing to prevent the Axis from successfully evacuating their best divisions from the island to continue the defensive battle on the mainland. While the British wanted to pursue an offensive against Italy after the Allied capture of Tunisia, their U.S. partners, were less enthusiastic, but the British prevailed. The invading force was made up of two armies – the U.S. Seventh Army and the British Eighth Army – and once ashore the Allies pressed forward in an attempt to destroy and capture the Axis units on the island. The few German troops on Sicily were quickly reinforced to a total of four elite divisions, along with a substantial Italian force. The Germans skillfully used the island’s mountainous terrain to carry out an effective delaying operation. The Allies, especially the British, advanced cautiously against the Germans... On the night of 11-12 August the Germans began a well-executed withdrawal that saw 40,000 German and 60,000 Italian troops cross over to the mainland with minimal hindrance from the Allies.» (Grant, 2011, p.856).

Caspre: This unknown term other than câpre (caper) is more happily identified in its orthography and context with the island of Capri (Caprée) in the gulf of Naples than with Calpre (= Gibraltar as in I-77 and III-78) (cf. Le Pelletier, II, p.197; Hogue, 1997, p.507) or with Caprera (cf. Dufresne, 1989b, p.67).

Passing Capri
: In the Operation ‘Shingle’, Italy, Jan., 1944. « By January, 1944, the most pessimistic American predictions seemed to have come true. The British Army, which had crossed from Sicily and fought up the toe of Italy was on the Adriatic side, and the American Army under Mark Clark, which had captured Naples, was on the Mediterranean side. These two armies were designated the 15th Army Group and were under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander. The opposing German army, under Field-Marshal Kesselring, had made maximum use of increasingly difficult mountainous countryside as it fought a series of bitter delaying actions back to the immensely strong Gustav Line – a line of massive steel and concrete fortifications and minefields ranging across Italy from the Mediterranean coast 40 miles north of Naples to Ortona on the Adriatic coast. Winter set in early in 1943. As the year declined, the soaring 6,000 foot mountain spine down Italy was thickly blanketed with snow, and the Allied advance became bogged down barely 70 miles north of Salerno, before the Gustav Line. The way out of this stalemate seemed fairly obvious – to make a landing in force farther up the coast. But the conquest of Italy was a low-priority operation, and there was a great shortage of landing craft to put the tanks, guns and men ashore. The inadequate fleet that had been allocated for Sicily and Salerno was anyway under orders to return to Britain for the Normandy invasion. By the year’s end Operation Overlord had also drawn away seven experienced British and American divisions and the great leaders whose names had featured prominently in the African and Sicilian victories – Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Air-Marshal Tedder and Admiral Cunningham. At this point Winston Churchill intervened. He insisted that a ‘wildcat’ should be flung ashore north of the Gustav Line ‘to tear out the heart of the Boche’. And he got this way. A plan with the code name ‘Shingle’ was quickly developed. It prepared for a landing at Anzio, which lay some 60 miles behind the Gustav Line and gave easy access to Route 6. The Anzio invasion was mounted from an American base, although it had been Churchill’s original intention that his ‘wildcat’ should be an all-British animal. The two divisions selected for the landing were the American and the British. The special troops aiding these divisions were also half British (the 2nd Special Service Brigade of two Commandos) and half American (a formation of Rangers and a parachute regiment). Behind them, at Naples, waited the American 1st Armoured Division and 45th Infantry Division to follow up as soon as the landing had been consolidated. » (Maule, 1972, p.296-299).

« The plan was straightforward: the British, American and French assailing the Gustav Line were to exert themselves to the utmost to break through and engage the enemy so heavily that any reserves would be drawn into the battle and thus diverted from Anzio. When the enemy was compelled to send back troops to seal off the Anzio force, the Allies expected to break through. The assault on the Gustav Line opened on January 17. That night the British 10th Corps launched a powerful attack across the lower Garigliano River, while the Free French Expeditionary Corps pushed into the mountains north of Cassino. The next day, the American 2nd corps launched an attack upon the River Rapido. The Allies hoped to force a breach through the enemy fortifications within 48 hours, so that an armoured spearhead could thrust out along the road to Rome. If thing went right at Anzio, this spearhead would be met by the advanced guard of the landing force, surging up to the Alban Hills from the beachhead. The British wrested a small bridgehead from the enemy and after two days had enlarged it into a four-mile salient, but they could go no farther. The French managed to dent the line to a depth of several miles. The Americans, after suffering terrible losses, crossed the Rapido upstream from the planned bridgehead. But nowhere did the Allies seriously breach the Gustav Line or break into the Liri Valley. Thus, the Anzio force was on its own from the moment it landed. The invasion fleet of 253 vessels, carrying 36,000 men with their tanks, guns and supplies, put out from Naples during the afternoon of January 21, swinging southwards past Capri [Passing Capri] to confuse any enemy spies. At nightfall it turned to head for Anzio, and the first wave of landing craft surged in at 2 a.m. Complete surprise was achieved, and with the dawn the whole landing operation was in full swing...» (Maule, 1972, p.299-300).

Barcelone: = Barcelon (VI-56, §818) = « Barcelonne, a village and a commune of France, prefecture of Drôme (Dauphiné), 18 km [south-east] of Valence.» (Bescherelle). Of 9 examples in all of the term Barcin/Barchinon/Barcelonne/
Barcelone/Barcelon/Barcellonne/Barsellonne
, only the two quoted above refer to Barcelonne in Drôme, France, and the remaining 7 to Barcelona in Spain.

Passing Barcelonne: In the Operation ‘Dragoon’ (Provence). August 15, 1944; « The invasion of southern France, Operation Anvil, had been key to American planning ever since August 1943. Churchill had fought the idea, did not want to divert troops from the Italian front, mainly because he dreamed of invading Austria and the Balkans to prevent a post-war Soviet frontier running all the way down to the Adriatic. President Roosevelt outmanoeuvred the British at the Teheran Conference in November 1943. Without warning Churchill, he told Stalin about the plan to invade southern France as well as Normandy. Stalin approved the idea immediately. To the exasperation of Roosevelt, Marshal and Eisenhower, the British never stopped trying divert Anvil, renamed Operation Dragoon, away from southern France... Events proved the Americans resoundingly right. The landings of 151,000 Allied troops along the Côte d’Azur from Nice to Marseilles were practically unopposed, the major port of Marseilles was secured and the invasion provoked a rapid German withdrawal from central and south-western France.» (Beevor, 2010, p.444-445);

« Campaign of Provence and of the Rhône 19 August–11 September. After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. The 1st French Army of General Lattre de Tassigny undertakes the mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles. These cities fall on 27 and on 28 August 1944 respectively. Montpellier is free on 29. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28. On the other hand, the Americans, soon rallied by the units of the 1st French Army, make use of the Napoleon route and the valley of the Rhône in pursuit of the Germans. Grenoble falls on 22 August, Valence [near Barcelonne] on 23 [Passing Barcelonne], Briançon on 26, Lyons on 3 September 1944. On 12 September, the Allied forces landed in Normandy and those landed in Provence perform their junction at Montbard...» (Kaspi, 1980, p.444).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§818 Tetralogy of Winston Churchill (3) (1944): VI-56.

VI-56 (§818):

Narbon shall frighten the armed fear of the enemy,
So strongly, the Westerns shall doo, too:
Parpignan evacuated on account of the bombproof tanks,
When darbon Barcelon by sea shall deliver pikes.

(La crainte armee de l’ennemy Narbon,
Effrayera si fort les Hesperiques:
Parpignan vuide par l’aveuglé darbon,
Lors Barcelon par mer donra les piques.)

NOTES: Narbon: = Narbon.
(§804, IV-94) = Narbon (§809, III-92) = Narbon (§822, II-59) = Winston Churchill.

Les Hesperiques: = The USA. The Western to the Greek, i.e. Rome, Spain to the Romans and the United States of America to the English (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.392, p.578).

La crainte armee de l’ennemy Narbon Effrayera si fort les Hesperiques: The construction will be as follows because the expression crainte (fear) indicates the enemy’s suffering from Narbon and the USA: Narbon shall frighten the armed fear of the enemy So strongly, the Western shall do, too; i.e. Great Britain [Narbon] allied with the military giant U.S.A. shall so strongly terrify the enemy [the Nazi Germany] that it shall see itself in fear, militarily overwhelmed: “The Combined Bomber Offensive. Through the years running up to the outbreak of war a vigorous debate went on in military and political circles about the efficacy of strategic bombing, that is long range attacks on the enemy’s heartland to attack his means to wage war and the will of his people to do it... In the event it was the Western Allies, Britain and the USA, who built up a massive bomber arm and used it to pound Germany by day and by night fulfilling those pre-war prophecies of massive civilian casualties, if not without cost to the men of RAF Bomber Command and USAAF, the United States Army Air Force who prosecuted this campaign. In the Far East, with Japan brought in range from November 1944, again the USAAF waged long range strategic warfare culminating in the atomic bombs attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki which ended the war and heralded a new, terrible kind of confrontation... At the Casablanca Conference of 21 January 1943 the future course of the Allied ‘Combined Bomber Offensive’ was mapped out. The RAF was by now joined by the confident USAAF, its commanders proud of the abilities of their heavily gunned B-17 Flying Fortresses and B-24 Liberators to make raids in daylight over defended targets. Through 1942 the US Eighth Air Force had been building up its bases in Britain and making attacks on targets in France and occupied Europe. At Casablanca the so-called ‘Casablanca Directive’ was drafted calling for the US to mount attacks by day while Bomber Command would operate at night; operational command devolved on Britain’s Air Marshal Harris and US General Ira Eaker while broad target objectives such as U-boat construction, aircraft factories, transportation and oil plant were codified... But the RAF’s proven ability to ‘rub out’ German towns was not in itself proving a war winning weapon, however ferocious the attacks, and meanwhile RAF Bomber Command was being shot out of the sky by the ever more technically sophisticated, numerous and skilled German nightfighter force. In the four and a half months of the ‘Battle of Berlin’ from November 1943 to March 1944, the RAF suffered 1077 bombers lost and 1682 damaged on 20,224 sorties. At this rate Bomber Command, not German industry, would soon cease to exist. Through 1943 however the USAAF also suffered. At the end of 1943 therefore it looked as if the bombing offensive mounted by the Allies had failed, beaten by the technical resources and determination of the German night fighter force just as the German U-boats were beaten by the Allied escort forces in the Atlantic.” (Campbell, 1985, p.124-127).

“ Three factors came to the rescue – first was the introduction of the remarkable North American P-51 Mustang long range escort fighter able to fly to Berlin and back from British bases, which allowed the USAAF to rapidly gain daylight air superiority over Western Europe and deep into Germany itself, allowing the Eighth Air Force from England and the Fifteenth Air Force operating from Italy to roam almost at will. Then in May 1944 the USAAF began a concerted offensive against the German synthetic oil industry. In June 1944, Bomber Command joined in by night with its immense bomb carrying capacity and improved navigational techniques. The oil offensive crippled the Luftwaffe’s sortie rate, accelerating the winning of air superiority. Lastly the invasion of Europe pushed back the German night fighter defences with it. Oil and communications were the priority targets in the last months of war. Cutting German communications in the area before the advancing Russians was the rationale behind Operation Thunderclap, the attack on Dresden made on the night of 14 February 1945. This, the most destructive raid of the European war, ignited a firestorm in the old town packed with refugees while the Americans joined in the next day with over 400 aircraft of the Eighth Air Force.” (Campbell, id., p.127-128).

L’aveuglé: = Le blindé = Bombproof tanks.

Darbon: = Dard + bon, i.e. the dards of Narbon, the army of the Allies, ‘darbon’ qualifying ‘l’aveuglé’.

Parpignan: = Perpignan, a synecdoche for the SE France occupied by German troops since November 1942, “a” for “e” hinting “allemagne (German)”.

Parpignan evacuated on account of the bombproof tanks: The German garrisons shall evacuate the South of France menaced by the landing on Normandy of the Allies in June 1944. In fact, the German garrisons in Perpignan, in the Pyrenees, in Landes, in Bordeaux and in La Rochelle are retreating towards Dijon and Sombernon when the Allies are going to land Provence after D-Day (cf. Universalis92, p.39: Chart - Liberation of France).

Barcelon: Signifying, Spain being neutral in WWII, the so called three places of France: Barcelonne (Drôme), Barcelonne-du-Gers (Gers) and Barcelonnette (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) representing some of the principal zones of the Maquis (cf. id., Chart) joining the operation, and at the same time the army of Free France among the Allies in the operation.

When Barcelon by sea shall deliver pikes: Expressing the Maquis and the Free France Army [Barcelon] in collaboration with the Operation Dragoon [by sea] of the Allies to land Provence in August 1944: “ Allied landing on Provence August 15. When the Allies have decided to accomplish well the Operation Overlord, namely a landing on the coasts of Normandy, they were anticipating a second operation, complementary to the first and less important, which would be the Operation Anvil (renamed Dragoon the 1st August 1944). It was planned to gain a foothold on the south coast of France, to take Toulon and Marseilles, to push on toward the north in order to link with the troops that should have landed Normandy. It is a classical manœuver of pincers. The American and British staffs fixed, cleared of the constraints of war in Italy since the fall of Rome (June 4), the day of landing on 15 of August. The total plan was to be executed by the VIIth American Army, which General Patch commands. The theater of operations was situated between Cavalaire and Agay, at the foot of the Maures and of the Esterel. In the midst of the Allied forces, the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny, occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels, among which were found the French units. They had a mission of fighting in the second echelon and of taking Toulon and Marseilles. The attack of August 15 was a success. The Germans had no more means of resisting at the same time the two invasion armies. The exploitation following the attack was equally an exceptional success. Toulon was liberated from 23 to 27 August, twelve days earlier than the Allied staff’s prevision; Marseilles during 28-29 August, twenty-six days earlier than scheduled.” (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443).

*** First published on this BLOG on February 5 11:29:00, 2014 ***
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§819 The Atlantic Wall and its failure (1944): III-9.

III-9 (§819):

Bordeaux, Rouen and La Rochelle united
Shall hold around the Atlantic:
The English, the Bretons and the Flemish conjoined
Shall chase them as far as near Roanne.

(Bourdeaux, Rouen & la Rochele joints
Tiendront au tour la grand mer oceane:
Anglois, Bretons & les Flamans conjoints
Les chasseront jusques au-pres de Roane.)

NOTES: Each interpreter has a merit to be respected: « III-9 (June to August 1944) The breakthrough of Avranches: ... The German troops flee as far as the Rhein [Rouane interpreted as Rhénane (province)].» (Centurio, 1953, p.70); « III, 9. The occupied zone from Rouen to Bordeaux. The Atlantic Wall. The Liberation. Rouen - 1944. Bordeaux, Rouen and La Rochelle reunited (in the occupation) shall hold the French oceanic coasts (the Atlantic Wall), the Anglo-Americans, the French and the Belgians united shall repulse them as far as Rouen.» (Fontbrune, 1980, p.322); « III.9 : 1944. Bordeaux, Rouen and La Rochelle demarcate the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, the ancient “Mer Océane (Oceanic Sea)”, held by the Germans. The Anglo-Americans and the Belgians, allied, shall chase those who occupied these cities as far as near Roanne, to Lyons, capital of the Resistance.» (Luni, 1998, p.155); « 3/9 - 1944. This probably refers to the Allied landings in 1944, and to the eventual driving out of the German Axis forces from French territory.» (Halley, 1999, p.167).

Oceane: =
« océane adj.f. mer océane (lat. mare oceanum la mer d’Océanos, Okéanos) Océan; l’Atlantique (= l’océan Atlantique) [Ocean; the Atlantic (= the Atlantic Ocean)].»
(Ibuki).

Au tour: « autour
(au tour, cf. aux environs [in the neighbourhood]), adv. et prép.: autour.
[adv. and prep.: around].» (Daele).

Bordeaux, Rouen and La Rochelle united Shall hold around the Atlantic: = The Atlantic Wall of the continental coast occupied by the Germans: « As the hour of invasion loomed the Germans had massed 41 divisions in Northern France and the Low Countries; 18 further divisions were poised south of the Loire [Bordeaux and La Rochelle] to surge northwards. The 15th Army, with 19 divisions, was positioned around Calais and Boulogne, where the invasion was expected. The 7th Army, of 10 divisions, was in Normandy [Rouen]... The German troops massed along northern coast were backed by the formidable fortifications of Hitler’s vaunted Atlantic Wall. The energetic Field-Marshal Rommel, switched to this front in January under Field-Marshal von Rundstedt, the supreme commander in the west, had lost no time in preparing a hostile reception for his vanquishers in Africa. With a work force of half a million slave labourers he had constructed a forest of steel-and-concrete wrecking devices under water and along the heavily mined beaches. beyond them were deep-dug gun emplacements covering every conceivable landing place, tank traps, festoons of barbed wire, fortified weapon pits and thick-walled pill-boxes. Behind the coast lay minefields, and still farther back forests of posts had been planted across the flat fields to wreck any airborne landings. To add to the difficulties of airborne assault, the flat, marshy lands behind the Normandy coast had been extensively flooded, particularly around the base of the Cotentin peninsula, below the major port of Cherbourg. Rommel aimed to defeat any Allied invasion on the beaches; as Montgomery put it, ‘He’ll do his best to Dunkirk us’.» (Maule, 1972, p.374-375).

« The Atlantic Wall, which supposedly stretched from Norway to the Spanish frontier.» (Beevor, 2010, p.32); « The key question, of course, was where the Allies would attack... the most likely areas would be those well within range of Allied airbases in southern and eastern England. This meant anywhere from the coast of Holland all the way down the Channel to Cherbourg at the tip of the Cotentin peninsula... The most obvious target of all was the Pas-de-Calais. This offered the Allies the shortest sea route, the greatest opportunity for constant air support and a direct line of advance to the German frontier less than 300 kilometres away. This invasion, if successful, could cut off German forces further west and also overrun the V-1 launching sites, which would soon be ready. For all these reasons, the main defences of the whole Atlantic Wall had been concentrated between Dunkirk and the Somme estuary. The second most likely invasion area consisted of the Normandy beaches to the west. Hitler began to suspect that this might well be the Allied plan, but he predicted both stretches of coast so as to make sure that he could claim afterwards that he had been right...» (Beevor, id., p.33-34).

The English, the Bretons and the Flemish conjoined: The English, the Bretons and the Flemish are of the Allied multi-national troops from the British Isles southward to Normandy across the English Channel, “the Bretons” designating the Free French soldiers and “the Flemish” those of Netherlands and Belgium: « JUNE 6, 1944 Sea War Allied Invasion of Normandy. D-Day Forces Allied: Troops landed: 75,215 British and Canadians from sea, 7,900 airborne; 57,500 Americans from sea, 15,500 airborne.» (Argyle, 2009, p.157); « Nearly 5,000 landing ships and assault craft were escorted by six battleships, four monitors, twenty-three cruisers, 104 destroyers and 152 escort vessels, as well as the 277 minesweepers clearing channels ahead. Most were British, American and Canadian, but there were also French, Polish, Dutch and Norwegian warships.» (Beevor, 2010, p.74); « One of Admiral Ramsay’s greatest concerns was a mass attack on the invasion fleet by German U-boats from their bases in Brittany. Naval anti-submarine forces were deployed, but the main task of covering the south-western approaches fell on 19 Group of Coastal Command mainly flying B-24 Liberators and Sunderland flying boats. The group included one Czech, one Polish, one New Zealander, two Australian and three Canadian squadrons. Even the RAF’s own 224 Squadron was a mixed bag of nationalities, with 137 Britons, forty-four Canadians, thirty-three Anzacs, two Americans, a Swiss, a Chilean, a South African and a Brazilian.» (Beevor, 2010, p.76); « The D-Day air offensive was another multinational operation. It included five New Zealander, seven Australian, twenty-eight Canadian, one Rhodesian, six French, fourteen Polish, three Czech, two Belgian, two Dutch and two Norwegian squadrons. Other units from these Allied countries were assigned to ‘anti-Diver’ missions, attacking the V-bomb launch sites in northern France.» (Beevor, id., p.79).

The English, the Bretons and the Flemish conjoined Shall chase them as far as near Roanne: « The invasion of southern France, Operation Anvil, had been key to American planning ever since August 1943. Churchill had fought the idea, did not want to divert troops from the Italian front, mainly because he dreamed of invading Austria and the Balkans to prevent a post-war Soviet frontier running all the way down to the Adriatic. President Roosevelt outmanoeuvred the British at the Teheran Conference in November 1943. Without warning Churchill, he told Stalin about the plan to invade southern France as well as Normandy. Stalin approved the idea immediately. To the exasperation of Roosevelt, Marshal and Eisenhower, the British never stopped trying divert Anvil, renamed Operation Dragoon, away from southern France... Events proved the Americans resoundingly right. The landings of 151,000 Allied troops along the Côte d’Azur from Nice to Marseilles were practically unopposed, the major port of Marseilles was secured and the invasion provoked a rapid German withdrawal from central and south-western France. Even Hitler was forced to recognize the necessity, wrote General Warlimont, ‘especially when the first paratroop and airborne operations proved immediately successful. This was the only occasion I can recall when Hitler did not hesitate too long before deciding to evacuate territory.» (Beevor, 2010, p.444-445);


« The breakthrough in Normandy with the 15 August landings in the south of France triggered a hasty withdrawal not only by the Germans, but also by Vichy’s hated paramilitary force, the Milice. Over the next few days, Luftwaffe and naval personnel from ports in southern and western France, Organisation Todt officials, supply and clerical personnel from military depots, security police – in fact the whole apparatus of the German occupation built up over four years – pulled out. A running battle was fought across France against the Milice. Well aware of their fate if they stayed behind, these criminal paramilitaries sought safety in eastern France and then Germany. Vehicles, bicycles and horses were seized as well as food to help them on their way. German forces in the south-west ordered their men to escape in ‘march groups’. Few got through. Most succumbed to hunger and exhaustion and were forced to surrender to the FFI [the Forces Françaises de l’Intérieur] or the Americans.» (Beevor, id., p.447).

Jusques au-pres de Roane (as far as near Roanne): The nominated city of Roanne (Loire) is the central point near which the axes of retreat of the German troops from southern and western France ran to Colmar (Haut-Rhin), their point of rally (cf. Duby, p.104 Chart A. Libération de la France et de l’Europe occidentale).   
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©  Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§820 The Allied landing in Provence; Liberation of Paris (1944): III-99.

III-99 (§820):

In the grassy fields of Alleins and of Vernègues,
Of Mt. Lubéron near the Durance,
A camp on two sides the conflict shall be so harsh:
Mesopotamia shall collapse in France.

(Aux champs herbeux d'Alein & du Varneigne,
Du mont Lebron proche de la Durance,
Camp de deux pars conflict sera sy aigre:
Mesopotamie defallira en la France.)

NOTES: « Alleins and Vernègues are two villages a few miles north-east of Salon. The Lubéron mountains sit on the north side of the Durance river. In 1944, Provence suffered bitter close-quarter fighting between the Allies and Nazis. In other quatrains a Mesopotamia... in France refers to the Marne and Seine river region of Paris and the Ile de France district. In this case the Mesopotamia device may poetically depict Paris and the French people under their own Babylonian Captivity by the Nazis between 1940 and 1944.» (Hogue, 1997, p.292).

In the grassy fields of Alleins and of Vernègues, Of Mt. Lubéron near the Durance: “Grassy” hinting a summer season, may evoke us the Allied landing in Provence in August 1944: « On 15 August took place in Provence the Allied second landing.»
(Universalis92, p.39).

Pars: Pl. of part; « part, pl. parz, pars; sf.: part, partie, côté (portion, part, side).»
(Daele). Cf. I-73, II-69, II-72, III-5, III-56, IV-80, VIII-48, IX-20, IX-97 and X-71.

A camp on two sides the conflict shall be so harsh: « The landing Corps, under the high command of Sir Maitland Wilson, including the 1st French Army commanded by Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, was levied upon the armies combatting in Italy. The armada departed from Naples, Taranto, Malta, Oran and Ajaccio. At the night of 14 to 15, the commandos immobilise the batteries of the coast. At dawn, the airborne formations are released in the north of the Maures. Then the first American waves of assault take rapidly the regions of Saint-Tropez, Sainte-Maxime and Saint-Raphaël. The next day land the three French divisions that march for Toulon. On 18 August, the German commandant orders the retreat. On 28 August, the German garrisons of Toulon and Marseilles lay down the arms.» (Universalis92, p.39); « The theater of operations was situated between Cavalaire and Agay, at the foot of the Maures and of the Esterel. In the midst of the Allied forces, the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny, occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels, among which were found the French units. They had a mission of fighting in the second echelon and of taking Toulon and Marseilles. The attack of August 15 was a success. The Germans had no more means of resisting at the same time the two invasion armies. The exploitation following the attack was equally an exceptional success. Toulon was liberated from 23 to 27 August, twelve days earlier than the Allied staff’s prevision; Marseilles during 28-29 August, twenty-six days earlier than scheduled.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443).

Mesopotamia: = Paris. ‘Mesopotamia’ represents l’île de la Cité, which symbolises Paris, surrounded by the two ramifications of the Seine. In this regard, the interpretation of Torné-Chavigny (1861, p.192) followed by Hogue, who situates Paris between the Seine and the Marne, is not pertinent because the two rivers in question do not embrace Paris sufficiently tight in an acute angle. The other usage of the term by Nostradamus: « the free city, constituted and seated in another exiguous mezopotamia » (№3,
Adresse à Henri II, p.12) suggests that the point in question is l’île de La Cité. The other two examples in the quatrains III-99 and VIII-70 have the same signification as III-99, whereas that of the quatrain III-61 refers to Montpellier, a meridional city situated between the Lez to the east and the Mosson to the west.

Defallir: = Défaillir; « fallir, See faillir(Daele); « défaillir. To become feeble, to weaken; to fail.» (Dubois).

Mesopotamia shall collapse in France: Paris, under the German occupation, shall be liberated through the Allied landings in France (Normandy and Provence); « On 19 August, the eve of the fighting breakout from the Falaise pocket, General de Gaulle arrived from Algiers at Eisenhower’s headquarters. ‘We must march on Paris,’ he told the supreme commander. ‘There must be an organized force there for internal order.’ Not surprisingly, de Gaulle was afraid that the Communists of the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans would provoke a rising and try to establish a revolutionary government. He, meanwhile, had been infiltrating his own officials into occupied Paris to create a skeleton administration and take over ministries. The following day in Rennes, de Gaulle heard that an insurrection had started in the capital. He immediately sent General Juin with a letter to Eisenhower insisting that Leclerc’s division should be sent straight there. The Paris police had gone on strike five days earlier, in protest at a German order to disarm them. On 19 August, the Parisian police, armed with their pistols but dressed in civilian clothes, took over the Préfecture de la Police and hoisted the tricolore. Generalleutnant Dietrich von Choltitz, the German commander of Paris, felt obliged to send in troops, and a very inconclusive engagement took place. Choltitz had been told by Hitler to defend the city to the last and destroy it, but other officers had persuaded him that this would serve no military purpose. On 20 August, a Gaullist group seized the Hôtel de Ville as the start of their strategy to take over key government buildings. The Communists, believing their own propaganda which decreed that power lay in the streets, failed to see that they would be outmanoeuvred... On 22 August, Eisenhower and Bradley became persuaded that they would have to go into Paris after all. Eisenhower knew that he would have to sell the decision to General Marshal and Roosevelt as a purely military one. The President would be angry if he thought that US forces were putting de Gaulle in power. De Gaulle, on the other hand, tried to ignore the fact that the United States had anything to do with the Liberation of Paris. Bradley flew back in a Piper Cub to give Leclerc the good news that he could advance on Paris. The reaction among his soldiers was one of fierce joy. Orders from General Gerow that they were to leave the next morning were ignored, and the 2ème Division Blindée set off that night. After some hard fighting in the outer suburbs on 24 August, Leclerc sent a small column ahead into the city through the backstreets. Soon after they reached the Place de l’Hôtel de Ville that night, cyclists spread the word across the city and the great bell of Notre Dame began to peal. General von Choltitz and his officers knew immediately what it signified. Next morning, the 2ème Division Blindée and the US 4th infantry Division entered the city to a riotous welcome, interspersed with some fighting. In reality this was little more than a few sharp skirmishes round German-held buildings – enough for Choltitz to have pretended to resist before he signed the surrender. With their picked men installed in the ministries, the Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Française was more or less in control. Both the Communists and Roosevelt had been presented with a fait accompli.» (Beevor, 2010, p.613-615).
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©  Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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