FC2ブログ

§821 German occupation of the whole France (1942-1943): I-71.

I-71 (§821):

The marine tower taken and retaken thrice
By the Spaniards, Barbarians and Ligurians:
Marseilles, Aix and Arles taken by those of Pisa, Avignon by those of Turin,
And the vast land shall be pillaged by German fire and sword.

(La tour marine troys foys prise & reprise,
Par Espagnols, barbares, Ligurins:
Marseille & Aix, Arles par ceux de Pise
Vast, feu, fer, pillé Avignon des Thurins.)

NOTES: The construction of the quatrain will be as follows: La tour marine troys foys prise & reprise, par Espagnols, barbares, Ligurins: Marseille & Aix, Arles par ceux de Pise, Avignon des Thurins, vast, feu, fer, pillé.
= The marine tower taken and retaken thrice by the Spaniards, Barbarians and Ligurians: Marseilles, Aix and Arles taken by those of Pisa, Avignon by those of Turin and the vast land shall be pillaged by German fire and sword.

« France is attacked by the Axis.» (Roberts, 1969, p.24); « [This quatrain] can be applied to the German-Italian occupation of France during the Second World War; but Spain stays neutral.» (Hutin, 1972, p.132).

The marine tower
: This will be that of Marseilles, the only marine city of those cited in the quatrain.

The marine tower taken and retaken thrice by the Spaniards, Barbarians and Ligurians:
The marine tower taken by the Spaniards:
namely, in 1590.
Cf. III-88 (§224): De Barcelonne par mer si grand armee, Toute Marseille de frayeur tremblera: Isles saisies... (From Barcelona by sea so grand an army, Marseilles in entirety shall tremble with fear: Islands [of If and Pomègues] taken...): « Charles-Emmanuel entered Provence without obstacle on October 14, 1590. The Duke of Savoy entered Marseilles, and received the honnours admitted to the crowned heads. Next day, he came to recognize the castle of If, and embarked five days later to pass to Spain, saying that he was going to demand aids of the king his father-in-law, for the success of the arms of the leaguers... Everywhere the leaguers were defeated, when the Duke of Savoy entered the roadstead of Marseilles, with 15 galleys, 1,000 men of infantry and 50,000 écus. The intentions of the Duke became suspect to Casaux and his party, who did not wish to deliver the city to the enemies of France. The Spanish fleet inspired the fears, and the magistrates dispatched a deputation to Charles-Emmanuel to compliment him and to supplicate him not to enter the port with more than one galley. I’ll enter there by myself, he replied, if it’ll please the Marseillais. At the same time, his galley leaving the others, plied its oars for the city; but it has hardly entered the port when the others followed it... Biogr. Michaud).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.69-70).

The marine tower taken by Barbarians: Namely in 1794 by the Jacobins. Cf. I-72(§385): Repression of counterrevolution in Midi (1793-1794): Marseilles totally changed, its inhabitants too, Drive and pursuit as far as close to Lyons. Narbonne, Toulouse because of Bordeaux outraged: The killed, captives nearly of a million: « 16 January 1794. A revolutionary law declared the city of Marseilles rebel and without name, in order to punish it for having wished to oppose the excess of the Jacobinism. Barras and Fréron appeared there, after having satisfied their rage of revenge in Toulon. They gave an order that all the places which served the sections as assembly should be razed. At once the hammer stroke the portico of Saint-Féréol, and this city saw several of its beautiful buildings broken, after having seen the heads of its richest shipowners fallen down... Barras ruled as long as for six months over the rubbish of cities and over the scaffolds of his compatriots.» (Montgaillard, IV, p.175-176).

The marine tower taken by Ligurians: = Marseilles [...] taken by those of Pisa.

Marseilles, Aix and Arles taken by those of Pisa, Avignon by those of Turin
: Which means the Italian occupation of the southern France east of the Rhône in 1942: « 1942 Oct. 23rd, [British] Eighth Army’s attack on Rommel’s line begins battle of El Alamein; Nov. 4th, Rommel in full retreat; 8th, Allied landings in French North Africa under Dwight D. Eisenhower; 9th, Germans move into unoccupied France.» (Williams, 1968, p.584); « NOVEMBER 11, 1942 Vichy France – Operation Anton: German and Italian Forces occupy Vichy France; Italians seize Corsica.» (Argyle, 1980, p.111); « On 11 November 1942, the Germans and the Italians share out the southern France, each partaking of each side of the Rhône.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.320).

In this bipartite sharing, Italy was in theory (according to the first agreement) to partake of all the regions of the east of the Rhône: « Ce ne fut que le 13 november [1942] à 4h 50 (télégramme 19528/op) que l’état-major de l’armée de terre avertit Vercellino [le général italien commandant la 4e armée à se déployer dans Sud-Est de la France] que des accords conclus avec l’OKW [Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (commandement suprême des forces armées allemandes)] fixaient la ligne de démarcation sur le Rhône (It was only on November 13 [1942] at 4:50 (telegram 19528/op) that the staff of the ground army informed Vercellino [the Italian general commanding the 4th army to deploy in the south-eastern France] of the accords concluded with the OKW [supreme commander of the German armed forces] which fixed the line of demarcation along the Rhône).» (Panicacci, 2010, p.112).

But the stronger Germany wished to practically get under control Lyons, Marseilles, Avignon, Arles and Aix, etc. (cf. Panicacci, 2010, p.108 Carte 2.- L’occupation généralisée du Sud-Est (1942-1943).), which were in principle of Italian partition, seeing their military importance in view of the Allies victorious on the other side of the Mediterranean: « En décembre 1942, les Allemands préparent les plans de défense de la côte méditerranéenne.
Parmi ces plans, la nouveauté stratégique réside dans l’apparition des Italiens dans le plan d’occupation de la France. L’ancienne zone non occupée est compartimentée en deux zones nouvelles. Le Rhône sert de frontière entre les deux pays de l’Axe. Le tracé commence au sud-ouest de Genève, suivant une voie ferrée de la frontière suisse jusqu’à Bellegarde, Châtillon-en-Michaille et Nantua (Ain), avant de rejoindre Maillat, Poncin (Ain), [Ambérieu (Ain): arrangé par l’auteur à la place d’Ambérieu (Rhône) du texte], La Verpillière, Heyrieu, Vienne (Isère) et Ambérieu (Rhône) (sic). La nouvelle limite épouse ensuite le cours du Rhône, s’infléchit vers l’est pour relier la côte méditerranéenne à La Ciotat. Lyon et Avignon se trouvent en zone allemande. Sur la rive gauche du Rhône, au-delà d’Avignon, des zones de contrôle forment une autre ligne de surveillance. Les Italiens opèrent les contrôles et les Allemands y placent des troupes supplémentaires (In December 1942, the Germans prepare the plans of defense of the Mediterranean coast. Among these plans, the strategic novelty resides in the appearance of the Italians in the plan of occupation of France. The previous free zone is compartmented into two new zones. The Rhône serves as border between the two countries of the Axis. The line begins in the south-west of Geneva, following a railway of the Swiss border to Bellegarde, Châtillon-en-Michaille and Nantua (Ain), before joining again Maillat, Poncin (Ain), [Ambérieu (Ain): arranged by the author in place of Ambérieu (Rhône) of the text], La Verpillière, Heyrieu, Vienne (Isère) and Ambérieu (Rhône) (sic). The new limit then joins the stream of the Rhône, bends east to unite with the Mediterranean coast at La Ciotat. Lyons and Avignon are in the German zone. On the left bank of the Rhône, beyond Avignon, the zones of control form another line of surveillance. The Italians operate controls and the Germans settle there supplementary troops).» (Alary, 2010, p.368-369); « La présence des Allemands à Marseille leur permettait de contrôler Toulon plus facilement. Les Allemands ne pouvaient pas laisser la défense de Marseille et de son hinterland à des troupes italiennes dépourvues de divisions blindées, d’armement antiaérien, d’artillerie lourde et possédant des effectifs incomplets (The presence of the Germans in Marseilles permitted them to control Toulon more easily. The Germans could not leave the defense of Marseilles and its hinterland to Italian troops defective in armoured divisions, antiaircraft armament, heavy artillery and with incomplete effectives).» (Panicacci, id., p.120).

Vast
: = Vaste = A vast, a vast land; « Vaste (subst.). Vaste étendue (a vast extent). – Tandis que nous estions sur le vaste de ces plaines molles (Whereas we were on the vast of these muddy plains), ... B
EROALDE, Hist. vér., p.8.» (Huguet).

The vast land shall be pillaged by German fire and sword: And then, on the occasion of Italian surrender in 1943, the whole of France excepting Corsica and the French North Africa was occupied by the German forces: « SEPTEMBER 3, 1943 Diplomacy – Italian Armistice Terms: signed at Cassibile in Sicily (not made public till Sept. 8).» (Argyle, 1980, p.139); « SEPTEMBER 8, 1943 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. Eisenhower makes public announcement in Algiers. Italian Armistice Terms: 13 points inc. immediate cessation of hostilities; Italy to deny all facilities to Germany; all PoWs to be handed over and none at any time sent to Germany; Immediate transfer of all warships and aircraft to designated points; merchant shipping to be requisitioned by Allies; Allies to establish bases wherever they wish on Italian territory and Italian forces to protect bases until arrival of Allied forces. Italy to surrender Corsica. Home Front: Italy – Operation Achse (‘Axis’): German Forces Seize All Strategic Points in ITALY and forcibly disarm Italian forces.» (Argyle, 1980, p.139); « September 8, 1943. The Germans install themselves in the eight prefectures of France occupied till then by the Italians [The vast land shall be pillaged by German fire and sword].» (Kaspi, 1980, p.376).
________________________________________
©  Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
スポンサーサイト



§822 Tetralogy of Winston Churchill (4) (1944): II-59.

II-59 (§822):

The French Army by the support of the great guard,
Of the great Neptune, and its tridents, soldiers:
Gnawed Provence to aid a great band,
War aggravated Narbon by javelins and darts.

(Classe Gauloise par apuy de grande garde,
Du grand Neptune, & ses tridens souldars:
Rongée Provence pour soustenir grand bande,
Plus Mars Narbon par javelotz & dards.)
(№10)

NOTES: Classe Gauloise: = ‘The French Fleet’ (Lamont, 1944, p.244). In fact, of 41 examples in all of the term ‘classe’ in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 35 refer to ‘a military force, army, fleet’ and the remaining 6 (I-35, V-2, V-8, VI-64, VI-77 and VII-33) to ‘a group of persons, things, etc.’, there being no other usage.

The main theme of this quatrain will be: « Le débarquement allié en Provence (août 1944) (The Allied landing in Provence in August 1944).» (Hutin, 1972, p.151).

The French Army by the support of the great guard, Of the great Neptune, and its tridents, soldiers: Gnawed Provence to aid a great band
: “ Allied landing on Provence August 15. When the Allies have decided to accomplish well the Operation Overlord they were anticipating a second operation, complementary to the first, the Operation Dragoon. It was planned to gain a foothold on the south coast of France, to take Toulon and Marseilles, to push on toward the north in order to link with the troops that should have landed Normandy [to aid a great band]. In the midst of the Allied forces [the great guard, Of the great Neptune, and its tridents, soldiers], the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny [the French Army], occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels [the great guard, Of the great Neptune, and its tridents, soldiers], among which were found the French units [ the French Army]. They had a mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles.” (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443).

Plus Mars: Aggravation of war.

Narbon: = Narbon. (§804, IV-94) = Narbon (§809, III-92) = Narbon (§818, VI-56) = Winston Churchill.

Javelotz & dards: V1 and V2, German modernest flying weapons cruising or rocketting like javelins and darts. “ Cruise missiles and ballistic missiles are part of the everyday military vocabulary of the 21st century; their ultimate ancestors were the German Fi-103 and A-4, which saw much use in WWII. Both types had a variety of codenames and designations: most are commonly known by the V designation (V for Vergeltungswaffe, or “retaliation weapon”).” (Sommerville, 2008,p.187).

War [having been] aggravated[,] Narbon [= London bombed] by V1 and V2: “ V1 FLYING BOMB The Fieseler 103, or V1 flying bomb, was a small pilotless aircraft powered by a pulse-jet engine, fitted with an auto-pilot to guide it to its target. Tested from 1942, it was put into action in June 1944, a few days after the D-Day landings. In the early stages most of the missiles fired were targeted on London. Of the roughly 8,600 launched before the French bases were overrun by Allied armies, about a quarter reached their targets... V2 ROCKET The A4/V2 ballistic missile was an altogether more hightech weapon. Its liquid-fuel rocket carried it 80km into the stratosphere before it fell at supersonic speed onto its target. Unlike the V1 it could not be intercepted by fighter aircraft or anti-aircraft gunfire. About 3,500 were fired at London and other cities from September 1944, carrying in all less explosive power than a single large Allied bombing raid on Germany in the same period. More slave labourers died in the Nazi factories making the V2 than were killed by the missile attacks.” (Sommerville, id.).

Discussion:
The interpretation of the quatrain by Vlaicu Ionescu (1976, p.558-560; 1987, p.356-358) is full of misunderstandings because he falsely identified its theme:

1° The true themes of this quatrain are, as explained above, “ the Operation Dragoon ” next to “ the Operation Overlord ” of the Allies and German attacks on London by means of V1 and V2. But, Ionescu in his interpretation featured mainly the Operation Overlord and the British-Russian alliance, totally disregarding the “ Allied landing in Provence August 15, 1944: « When the Allies have decided to accomplish well the Operation Overlord they were anticipating a second operation, complementary to the first, the Operation Dragoon. It was planned to gain a foothold on the south coast of France, to take Toulon and Marseilles, to push on toward the north in order to link with the troops that should have landed Normandy. In the midst of the Allied forces, the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny, occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels, among which were found the French units. They had a mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443). In this context, therefore, there is no misunderstanding the terms “Classe Gauloise” (the French Army) and “Provence” (the south coast of France).

2° Ionescu, then, committed grave mistakes in interpreting the terms “classe” and “Provence” related to the second Operation. He pedantically refers the term classe to the Greek
χλάσις meaning brisure (break, crack), which leads him to the interpretation that classe Gauloise (French break) is the breach of the French front made by the invasion of the Allies in Normandy, and the term Provence to the Latin provincia in the sense of “office, governmental charge, administration and commandment in a foreign territory in the name of a central government”, which he identified with the American Commandment in Great Britain guided by General Eisenhauer, itself dependent upon Washington. Moreover, he gave us a curious comment about the term rongée, itself too clear to be commented as the feminine of rongé qualifying the feminine proper name Provence: « Roman: ronger = penser, ruminer une idée, faire des plans (to think, to ruminate on an idea, to make plans)». In reality, before appealing clumsily to a Greek term χλάσις, Nostradamus employs twice the authentic term ‘breche’ (VIII-49 and IX-97) to designate a breach. Moreover, the term ‘apuy (= appui = support)’ is to clarify the Prophet’s patriotic interest about the military formation in the Operation Dragoon, where the French played a significant role as if they were the principals supported by the Americans: « The landing Corps, under the high command of Sir Maitland Wilson, including the 1st French Army commanded by Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, was levied upon the armies combatting in Italy. The armada departed from Naples, Taranto, Malta, Oran and Ajaccio. At the night of 14 to 15, the commandos immobilise the batteries of the coast. At dawn, the airborne formations are released in the north of the Maures. Then the first American waves of assault take rapidly the regions of Saint-Tropez, Sainte-Maxime and Saint-Raphaël. The next day land the three French divisions that march for Toulon. On 18 August, the German commandant orders the retreat. On 28 August, the German garrisons of Toulon and Marseilles lay down the arms.» (Universalis92, p.39); « The theater of operations was situated between Cavalaire and Agay, at the foot of the Maures and of the Esterel. In the midst of the Allied forces, the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny, occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels, among which were found the French units. They had a mission of fighting in the second echelon and of taking Toulon and Marseilles. The attack of August 15 was a success. The Germans had no more means of resisting at the same time the two invasion armies. “The American burst is irresistible, writes de Lattre. Is it necessary to say with what passion the French received the news of the successes gained by their allies of the VIth Corps ? Aboard all the vessels, the joy is the same... France is there... With several more hours and her sons coming to liberate her will throw themselves in her arms.” In fact, the exploitation following the attack was equally an exceptional success. Toulon was liberated from 23 to 27 August, twelve days earlier than the Allied staff’s prevision; Marseilles during 28-29 August, twenty-six days earlier than scheduled.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443).

3° About Mars, he says that it is a synonym of iron and represents Stalin whose name originally signifies acier (steel). But, of 41 examples of Mars in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 22 express the most popular symbolic meaning: “war, force, arms, warrior”, next to which comes the meaning of the planet (17 times) and the remaining two examples represent the month of March. Then, the case of the quatrain under analysis is fully understandable by this most popular supposition.

4° About Narbon, he tried to identify it with Winston Chuchill, proposing the anagram of “Narbon = bonnar = bonnaire = débonnaire (which is said to be a name of Churchill in the quatrain II-19 [II-9]) = of noble race ”. But, if it is true that Winston Churchill was of distinguished family, this qualification does not suffice such an identification. And he himself did not give any interpretation about the quatrain II-9. In the most probable prospect, the same term debonnaire of the quatrains II-9 and X-90 refers identically to Louis XVIII, undoubtedly of the noblest family of France, and the two quatrains II-9 (§452) and X-90 (§583) tell us unanimously the same thing: Napoleon I (le maigre [the meager man]; le tyran inhumain [the inhuman tyrant]) is to be displaced by Louis XVIII (un beaucoup plus debonnaire [a man of far nobler family]; scavant & debonnaire [an expert and noble person]). On the other hand, the term in the plural of the quatrain III-5: deux grands debonaires is to express something utterly different.

5° Ionescu is categorically confused in interpreting javelotz & dards (javelins and darts) as “armes, outillages, aliments et argent (arms, instruments, aliments and money)” because javelins and darts, signifying originally cruising and dashing weapons, represent a particular kind of modern weapons used against the Great Britain and put into action from the time of the Operations Overlord and Dragoon. It is just what is called V1 and V2 of the German Army: “ V1 flying bomb was a small pilotless aircraft powered by a pulse-jet engine, fitted with an auto-pilot to guide it to its target. Tested from 1942, it was put into action in June 1944, a few days after the D-Day landings. In the early stages most of the missiles fired were targeted on London. Of the roughly 8,600 launched before the French bases were overrun by Allied armies, about a quarter reached their targets. V2 ballistic missile was an altogether more hightech weapon. Its liquid-fuel rocket carried it 80km into the stratosphere before it fell at supersonic speed onto its target. Unlike the V1 it could not be intercepted by fighter aircraft or anti-aircraft gunfire. About 3,500 were fired at London and other cities from September 1944.” (Sommerville, id.).

*** First published on this BLOG on February 5 11:54:00, 2014 ***
________________________________________
©  Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§823 Operation ‘Overlord’ and the full liberation of France under General de Gaulle (1940-1945): V-34.

V-34 (§823):

From the deepest of the English occident:
Where is the head of the Britannic Isle:
Shall come into Gironde an army via Blois,
With wine and salt, ammunitions hidden in the barrels.

(Du plus profond de l'occident Anglois:
Ou est le chef de l'isle britannique:
Entrera classe dans Gyronde par Blois,
Par vin & sel, feuz cachés aux barriques.)

NOTES: The analytic bench mark of the quatrain is the phrase “le chef de l’isle britannique (the head of the Britannic Isle)”, which, in correlation with that of the quatrain X-66 (§796) “le chef de Londres (the head of London)”, is to identify George VI reigning during WWII. Therefore, Hutin is right in gross as to its theme in saying “Libération de la France par les Américains, venus du plus profond de l’Occident Anglois (Liberation of France by the Americans, having come from the deepest of the English Occident).” (Hutin, 1972, p.213).

But, in truth and in detail, the last stages of the liberation of France, including the area of the Gironde, are due to the French Army of General
DE GAULLE, himself returning from England, after 4 years’ exile there, on the occasion of the Operation ‘Overlord’ in June 1944. And the expression “the deepest of the English occident” seems to refer to Wales, more northern (deeper, more esoteric) than Cornwall, the most western of England but more southern (exposed, exoteric) than Wales, and the word Galles, Wales in French, is the most reminiscent of the name of de Gaulle. Therefore, Dufresne’s interpretation of the phrase as “Portsmouth” (Dufresne, 1995, p.134) is not pertinent because Portsmouth was only one of the English marine bases for Normandy landings (cf. Sommerville, 2008, p.154 Chart: D-DAY PLANS), whereas he supposes it as the overall base and it is not the most western but in the centre of the southern English coast.

The following historical description explains well such a situation: « LIBERATION OF FRANCE September 11, 1944-May 8, 1945. The end of the liberation of France. In the South-West, where the Allied armies have not advanced, the liberation is the fact of the FFI [les Forces Françaises de l’Intérieur (the French Forces of the Interior), (which is integrated in the French Army of de Gaulle on 8 June and its commandments are dissolved by decree on 19 September 1944)] who occupy little by little the cities and install there the authorities issuing from the Resistance [le Comité français de libération nationale (CFLN, the French Committee of national liberation under the presidency of General de Gaulle) incorporates the responsibles of the internal Resistance on 6 November 1943], like in Toulouse since August 20 [1944]. In the North and the East, the Allied offensive goes on... It is more difficult to beat the Germans on the Atlantic coast. The siege of Royan lasts seven months, until 20th of April 1945. The German garrisons who hold Lorient, Saint-Nazaire and La Rochelle capitulate only on 9 May 1945, next day of the armistice.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.452-453).

An army: = General de Gaulle’s Government’s Army:
« 1940 Aug: 7th, Britain signs agreement with Free French under Charles de Gaulle.» (Williams, 1968, p.574).
« 1942 July 13 The Free France and the Resistance are associated under the name of “combatant France”. Recognition of the combatant France by Great Britain.» (Jouette, p.290; p.294).
« 1943 May 15 Constitution of CNR (the national Council of the Resistance). May 30 De Gaulle arrives at Alger. June 3 At Alger, constitution of CFLN. December Foundation of FFI.» (Jouette, p.298-304).
« 1944 January 12 Meeting of Churchill with de Gaulle at Marakech. March 15 CNR publishes its program. April 13 In Algeria, the 2nd armoured division embarks for Great Britain. June 3 At Alger, the CFLN takes the name of GPRF (the Provisional Government of the French Republic). De Gaulle is its president. June 6 Operation ‘Overlord’. June 8 The FFI are integrated in the French Army. June 14 De Gaulle disembarks in France on the shore of Courseulles (Calvados): his first contact with the French soil since 1940. He leaves again for London in the evening. Coulet is the first commissioner of the Republic installed in Bayeux. July 6/10 De Gaulle visits the USA and obtains the agreement that the Americans renounce in favour of France the Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories. August 1 The 2nd armoured division of General Leclerc begins to land in Normandy. August 2 Churchill at the House of Commons: “In the course of these last four years, I have not always been agreed with General de Gaulle, but I have never forgotten that he has been the first to rise against the common enemy.” August 15 The Allies land in Provence... with the Ist French Army (General de Lattre de Tassigny). August 20 A truce, accepted by von Choltitz, commandant of the Grand-Paris, is decided by CNR of Paris. Arrival at Cherbourg of de Gaulle, coming from Alger. August 25 End of the liberation of Paris by the division Leclerc. De Gaulle goes to the station of Montparnasse. August 26 Triumphal procession along the Champs-Élysées by de Gaulle, Leclerc... September 1 Installation of GPRF in Matignon. Creation of the French Air Corps in Salon-de-Provence. September 2 FFI liberates Bordeaux, Chambéry, Tonnerre. In Paris, de Gaulle presides the first Council of GPRF in France. September 15 Liberation of Langres, Gray, Nancy by the French Army. September 19 The commandments of FFI are dissolved by a decree.» (Jouette, p.306-320).
« 1944 Oct: 23rd, Allies recognize General Charles de Gaulle’s administration as the provisional government of France.» (Williams, 1968, p.592).
« 1944 October 25 The first press conference held by General de Gaulle. October 28 GPRF decides the disarmament of the groups issuing from the Resistance. November 10/13 Trip to Paris of Churchill and Eden. December 29 Mobilization of the class 1943.» (Jouette, p.322-324).
« 1945 January 5 Bombardment on the German pocket of Royan (Charente-Maritime). January 15 A German attack from the pocket of La Rochelle. February 27 Mobilization of the classes 1940, 1941 and 1942. February 28 Signature in Washington of the accord renewing the Lend-Lease for France. April 14 General de Larminat begins to bombard Royan occupied by the Germans. April 18 The last Germans of Royan capitulate. The city is destroyed. May 1 The island of Oléron is liberated. The last German combatants in France have put down their arms on the eve. May 7 The armistice is signed at Reims. May 8 Official radio announcement of the Allied victory and the end of war in Europe by Truman, Churchill and de Gaulle at the hour of 15. May 8 Rochefort and La Rochelle are liberated. May 10 Liberation of Saint-Nazaire. May 11 The last German forces of the pockets of the West capitulate.» (Jouette, p.326-338).

Gironde: expressing by metonymy Royan, the city upon the north shore of the Gironde, and its neighbouring places such as Rochefort, La Rochelle and the island of Oléron (cf. Dufresne, id., p.135).

Shall come into Gironde an army via Blois: The expression « via Blois (par Blois)» signifies that the regions along the Loire (cf. Universalis92, p.36 Chart: L’assaut de la forteresse Europe – 1943-1945) were liberated in the Normandy campaign by the Allies including the French, but the region of the Gironde is to be liberated by the French only. Both are the same Free France Army under General de Gaulle.

« JUNE 6, 1944 Sea War Allied Invasion of Normandy. D-Day Forces Allied: Troops landed: 75,215 British and Canadians from sea, 7,900 airborne; 57,500 Americans from sea, 15,500 airborne.» (Argyle, 2009, p.157); « Nearly 5,000 landing ships and assault craft were escorted by six battleships, four monitors, twenty-three cruisers, 104 destroyers and 152 escort vessels, as well as the 277 minesweepers clearing channels ahead. Most were British, American and Canadian, but there were also French, Polish, Dutch and Norwegian warships.» (Beevor, 2010, p.74); « The D-Day air offensive was another multinational operation. It included five New Zealander, seven Australian, twenty-eight Canadian, one Rhodesian, six French, fourteen Polish, three Czech, two Belgian, two Dutch and two Norwegian squadrons. Other units from these Allied countries were assigned to ‘anti-Diver’ missions, attacking the V-bomb launch sites in northern France.» (Beevor, id., p.79).

With wine and salt, ammunitions hidden in the barrels: These verses express the gigantic troops and provisions of the Allies: « World War II: Western Front Normandy 7 June – 25 July 1944 Each day after the 6 June invasion in World War II, the Allies poured troops and thousands of tons of supplies over the beaches, which caused a bottleneck. It was imperative that the Allies capture a port and expand the limited beachhead before the German reserves established a strong defensive line.» (Grant, 2011, p.866); « The Allied Supreme Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, led over 3 million men with 13,000 aircraft, 2,500 landing craft, 1,200 warships and a range of new equipment. Follow-up forces would benefit from the Mulberry Harbours and have their fuel needs supplied by PLUTO (Pipe Line Under The Ocean) [ammunitions hidden in the barrels].» (Sommerville, 2008,p.154).

The interpretation of the quatrain by Dufresne (id, p.134-135) is full of insights, but with no regard to General de Gaulle, the half-hidden principal of the quatrain.

As to General Charles de Gaulle, cf. X-41 (§830), III-100 (
§855), VIII-90 (§856), III-14 (§906) and III-72 (§907).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§824 British 8th and US 5th Armies aim for Austria via Italy in WWII (1941-1945): V-48.

V-48 (§824):

After the great affliction of the sceptre,
Two enemies shall be defeated by them:
The army of Africa shall come to aim for the Pannonians,
By sea and land shall be horrible events.

(Apres la grande affliction du sceptre,
Deux ennemis par eulx seront deffaictz:
Classe d’Affrique aux Pannons viendra naistre,
Par mer & terre seront horribles faictz.)

NOTES: Hutin’s comment: « Les opérations militaires en Afrique du Nord (Seconde Guerre mondiale) ? [The military operations in North Africa (WWII) ?] » (Hutin, 1972, p.216) may make us catch a glimpse of the true theme of the quatrain: After the British fighting alone against the Nazis, the Allied victories in North Africa lead to the liberation of Italy, British 8th Army of North Africa attaining Friuli-Venezia-Giulia via Sicily, Calabria and the Adriatic coast and US 5th Army reaching Brenner Pass via Salerno and Rome, both immediately in front of South Austria (cf. Hart, 1971, p.524-525 Chart: The Slow Advance through Italy; p.676 Chart: The Allies Meet).

The sceptre: The King George VI of the UK = the head of London (le chef de Londres) (§796, X-66) = the head of the Britannic Isle (le chef de l’isle britannique) (§823, V-34).

Les Pannons (The Pannonians): = Les habitants de la Pannonie (The inhabitants of Pannonia), Pannonia being « a region of ancient Europe. It corresponds to a part of Low-Austria [Austria beneath the Ens], to a part of Hungary, to a part of Slavonia, and to a part of Austrian Croatia. Different nations inhabited it. Their principal cities were Vindobona [Vienna], Carnuntum, ... » (Bescherelle). Cf. Duby, p.25, Chart B. In this quatrain, the term seems to indicate the Austrians (the Nazis in Austria), for whom the Allied forces from North Africa via Italy aimed in 1943-1945 in order to strike them.

Naistre: « naistre, pointer, poindre.» (Godefroy); Pointer: = « Frapper de la pointe d’une arme; piquer avec (une arme).» (Petit Robert); Pointer: = « - v.t. diriger, - SYN. → braquer. – v.i. = se pointer (vers) – se pointer v.pr. se diriger (vers).» (Ibuki); Poindre: = « V. tr. Piquer, Blesser; V. intr. Apparaître, Commencer à apparaître.» (Petit Robert); The specific usage of the term naistre in such a context seems to involve that it has a double meaning as defined lexically: to strike (frapper de la pointe d’une arme) and to aim for (se diriger vers).

After the great affliction of the sceptre: = In the islands so horrible a tumult, They shall hear tell of nothing but a military intrigue: So great shall be the insult of the predators, That they shall come to fall into line with the grand alliance (§807, II-100): « Throughout 1941, Britain fought on against the Nazis. The chief threat to Britain at this stage in the war lay in the Battle of the Atlantic – German attempts to cut off the country’s seaborne supplies of food and war material. In May, the German battleship Bismarck sortied into the Atlantic. After sinking the Royal Navy battle cruiser HMS Hood, Bismarck was tracked down, halted by torpedoes dropped from Swordfish aircraft, and then sunk by British battleships. The British and Canadian navies were less successful at protecting merchant convoys against German submarines, however, and losses were soon mounting. The British people felt the effect of this in reduced food rations. Britain did not hesitate to ally itself with the Soviet Union, despite Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s strong dislike of Soviet communism. But the British really needed the US to enter the war. President Roosevelt made no pretence of neutrality. In March, he introduced Lend-Lease to supply Britain with military equipment paid for by the US government. In August, Roosevelt and Churchill met at Placentia Bay in Newfoundland, Canada, where they agreed the Atlantic Charter, a statement of joint war aims embodying liberal democratic principles. At the Arcadia Conference in Washington at the end of the year, Britain and the US agreed a military strategy that gave priority to defeating the Germans. The two countries also agreed to unify their military command under the Combined Chiefs of Staff.» (DKHistory, p.392-393).

Two enemies shall be defeated by them
: The Germans and the Italians (Two enemies) are expelled out of North Africa by the British Eighth Army (by them) commanded by Montgomery: « 1942 AUGUST 5 North Africa – Churchill visits 8th Army; decides to replace Auchinleck. AUGUST 7 Gen. Gott, 8th Army CinC designate, killed when plane shot down. AUGUST 18 Gen. Alexander appointed CinC Middle East, in place of Auchinleck; Lt.-Gen. Montgomery replaces Ritchie as General Officer Commanding 8th Army. NOVEMBER 2 ALLIED VICTORY AT EL ALAMEIN. Op. Supercharge: 8th Army compels Axis army to withdraw from Alamein Line and pursues it to Tobruk (Nov. 13), Benghazi (Nov. 20) and El Agheila (Nov. 24). DECEMBER 13 Rommel retreats from El Agheila as 8th Army resumes advance. DECEMBER 14 Rommel skillfully evades 8th Army trap at El Agheila (Dec. 14-18).» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-116); « 1943 JANUARY 12 North Africa – Montgomery sends ‘Personal Message’ to men of 8th Army, calling for supreme effort to drive Italians from Tripoli – their last African stronghold: ‘Our families and friends... will be thrilled when they hear we have captured that place’. Leclerc’s Free French now in complete control of S. Libya (Fezzan). JANUARY 15 Sea War: Med. – ‘Inshore Squadron’ of British Mediterranean Fleet delivers supplies to 8th Army, advancing along N. African coast (Jan. –Feb.). JANUARY 16 North Africa 8th Army and Free French, advancing from S. Libya, join forces. JANUARY 23 8TH ARMY CAPTURES TRIPOLI. JANUARY 27 Churchill arrives in Cairo for talks with Alexander. FEBRUARY 4. 8th Army enters Tunisia. FEBRUARY 9 Sea War: Med. – First of 7 troop convoys leave S. Italy with powerful reinforcements for Axis forces in Tunisia (Feb. 9- March 22): Malta-based RAF aircraft sink 10 ships; specially laid minefields and British subs. also score numerous successes (3 subs. lost). MARCH 6 North Africa BATTLE OF MÉDENINE: in his last battle in Africa, Rommel attacks 8th Army but is defeated with heavy losses from antitank guns. MARCH 9 Von Arnim succeeds Rommel in Tunisia; Rommel leaves Africa. MARCH 20 BATTLE OF MARETH: (March 20-28). 8th Army attack Axis forces holding the ‘African Maginot Line’, along Tunisia-Libya border. NZ Corps makes flanking attack. MARCH 23 Germans counterattack at Mareth; 8th Army withdraws. MARCH 28 8th Army captures Mareth; Axis forces abandon Mareth Line... MAY 6 FINAL BRITISH OFFENSIVE IN TUNISIA. 1st Army, reinforced with 7th Armd. and 4th Indian divs. from 8th Army, smashes through Medjerda Valley defences, in Medjez-el-Bab sector; Axis forces stunned by 600-gun preparatory barrage and ceaseless daylight bombing raids. MAY 7 British occupy Tunis. MAY 12 END OF ALL ORGANIZED AXIS RESISTANCE IN TUNISIA. Col.-Gen. von Arnim surrenders to British forces. 150,000 (approx.) Axis troops captured since April. MAY 13 Surrender of Marshal Messe, cdr. of Italian 1st Army. MAY 16 Gen. Alexander informs Churchill: ‘Sir, it is my duty to report that the Tunisian Campaign is over.’ JUNE 12 Occupied North Africa – King George VI arrives in Morocco.» (Argyle, 1980, p.118-131).

The army of Africa [British 8th Army] shall come to aim for the Pannonians: « 1943 JULY 10 Sea War: Med. ALLIES INVADE SICILY (Op. Husky): Armada of 3,000 ships lands 12 divs. of 8th Army (Montgomery) and US 7th Army(Patton). Naval forces – 6 battleships, 2 carriers, 18 cruisers, 7 subs. and 210 other warships – escort invasion fleet and bombard coastal defences and communications. AUGUST 17 Sicily END OF SICILIAN CAMPAIGN. Americans and British enter Messina. Axis forces evacuated: 39,569 Germans and 62,000 Italian troops, with all their equipment and supplies, transported across Strs. of Messina in small craft. SEPTEMBER 3 Sea War Med. INVASION OF CALABRIA (S. Italy): 13th Corps (8th Army) crosses from Sicily to Reggio di Calabria preceded by 900-gun barrage (Op. Baytown). SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – British capture Salerno. Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. SEPTEMBER 11 British 8th Army capture Brindisi. SEPTEMBER 17 Patrols of Allied 5th and 8th Armies link up near Agropoli, S. of Salerno.» (Argyle, 1980, p.135-140).

« On September 3 [1943], the invasion was opened by Montgomery’s Eighth Army crossing the narrow Straits of Messina, from Sicily, and landing on the toe of Italy. That same day the Italian representatives secretly signed the armistice treaty with the Allies. But it was arranged that the fact should be kept quiet until the Allies made their second and principal landing – which was planned to take place on the shin of Italy, at Salerno, south of Naples. At midnight on September 8 the Anglo-American Fifth Army under General Clark began to disembark in the Gulf of Salerno – a few hours after the B.B.C. had broadcast the official announcement of Italy’s capitulation.» (Hart, 1971, p.452-453);

The army of Africa
[US 5th Army] shall come to aim for the Pannonians
: « 1943 JANUARY 5 North Africa US 5th Army formed in Tunisia under Lt.-Gen. Mark W. Clark.» (Argyle, 1980, p.118); « SEPTEMBER 9 Sea War: Med. ALLIES LAND AT SALERNO: US 5th Army (Lt.-Gen. Mark Clark) and British 10th Corps land at Salerno, S. of Naples (Op. Avalanche).» (Argyle, 1980, p.139).

« By January, 1944, the most pessimistic American predictions seemed to have come true. The British Army, which had crossed from Sicily and fought up the toe of Italy was on the Adriatic side, and the American Army under Mark Clark, which had captured Naples, was on the Mediterranean side. These two armies were designated the 15th Army Group and were under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander. The opposing German army, under Field-Marshal Kesselring, had made maximum use of increasingly difficult mountainous countryside as it fought a series of bitter delaying actions back to the immensely strong Gustav Line – a line of massive steel and concrete fortifications and minefields ranging across Italy from the Mediterranean coast 40 miles north of Naples to Ortona on the Adriatic coast. Winter set in early in 1943. As the year declined, the soaring 6,000 foot mountain spine down Italy was thickly blanketed with snow, and the Allied advance became bogged down barely 70 miles north of Salerno, before the Gustav Line. The way out of this stalemate seemed fairly obvious – to make a landing in force farther up the coast. But the conquest of Italy was a low-priority operation, and there was a great shortage of landing craft to put the tanks, guns and men ashore. The inadequate fleet that had been allocated for Sicily and Salerno was anyway under orders to return to Britain for the Normandy invasion. By the year’s end Operation Overlord had also drawn away seven experienced British and American divisions and the great leaders whose names had featured prominently in the African and Sicilian victories – Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Air-Marshal Tedder and Admiral Cunningham. At this point Winston Churchill intervened. He insisted that a ‘wildcat’ should be flung ashore north of the Gustav Line ‘to tear out the heart of the Boche [German]’. And he got this way. A plan with the code name ‘Shingle’ was quickly developed. It prepared for a landing at Anzio, which lay some 60 miles behind the Gustav Line and gave easy access to Route 6. The Anzio invasion was mounted from an American base, although it had been Churchill’s original intention that his ‘wildcat’ should be an all-British animal. The two divisions selected for the landing were the American and the British. The special troops aiding these divisions were also half British (the 2nd Special Service Brigade of two Commandos) and half American (a formation of Rangers and a parachute regiment). Behind them, at Naples, waited the American 1st Armoured Division and 45th Infantry Division to follow up as soon as the landing had been consolidated.» (Maule, 1972, p.296-299).

« The plan was straightforward: the British, American and French assailing the Gustav Line were to exert themselves to the utmost to break through and engage the enemy so heavily that any reserves would be drawn into the battle and thus diverted from Anzio. When the enemy was compelled to send back troops to seal off the Anzio force, the Allies expected to break through. The assault on the Gustav Line opened on January 17. That night the British 10th Corps launched a powerful attack across the lower Garigliano River, while the Free French Expeditionary Corps pushed into the mountains north of Cassino. The next day, the American 2nd Corps launched an attack upon the River Rapido. The Allies hoped to force a breach through the enemy fortifications within 48 hours, so that an armoured spearhead could thrust out along the road to Rome. If thing went right at Anzio, this spearhead would be met by the advanced guard of the landing force, surging up to the Alban Hills from the beachhead. The British wrested a small bridgehead from the enemy and after two days had enlarged it into a four-mile salient, but they could go no farther. The French managed to dent the line to a depth of several miles. The Americans, after suffering terrible losses, crossed the Rapido upstream from the planned bridgehead. But nowhere did the Allies seriously breach the Gustav Line or break into the Liri Valley. Thus, the Anzio force was on its own from the moment it landed. The invasion fleet of 253 vessels, carrying 36,000 men with their tanks, guns and supplies, put out from Naples during the afternoon of January 21, swinging southwards past Capri to confuse any enemy spies. At nightfall it turned to head for Anzio, and the first wave of landing craft surged in at 2 a.m. Complete surprise was achieved, and with the dawn the whole landing operation was in full swing...» (Maule, 1972, p.299-300).

« 1944 MAY 11 Italy 5TH AND 8TH ARMIES ATTACK GUSTAV LINE (Op. Diadem) on 48-km front. During the previous 8 weeks 8th Army has been secretly transferred from the Adriatic sector to Cassino. 8th Army secures bridgeheads over R. Rapido and 5th Army over the Garigliano. Americans capture the much-contested Damiano Hill; French capture Monte Faito (777 m). Gen. Alexander issues Order of Day to Allied Armies: ‘We are going to destroy the German armies in Italy... no armies have ever entered battle before with a more just and righteous cause.’ MAY 12 Germans launch fierce counterattacks along Gustav Line. MAY 14 French break through at Monti Aurunci, N. of Gaeta. MAY 15 Germans begin withdrawing from ‘Gustav’ Line to ‘Adolf Hitler’ (‘Dora’) Line, immediately S. of Rome. MAY 17 Kesselring orders evacuation of Cassino garrison. MAY 20 Allies attack ‘Dora’ Line; Canadians break through, May 22. MAY 25 Allied column, from Anzio meets US 2nd Corps (5th Army) near Latina. 8th Army crosses R. Melfa in strength. MAY 30 5th Army breakthrough ‘Adolf Hitler’ Line at Valmontone. June 1 8th Army captures Frosinone. JUNE 3 German forces evacuate Rome. JUNE 4 ALLIED 5TH ARMY ENTERS ROME. JUNE 15 8th Army breaks through at Arezzo and reaches R. Arno (July 15-16). 5th Army approaches R. from SW. Italian Govt. returns to Rome. JULY 17 8th Army crosses the Arno. JULY 18 Polish troops of 8th Army take Ancona. JULY 19 Leghorn captured by 5th Army. JULY 24 Americans reach Pisa. SEPTEMBER 2 5th Army captures Pisa. 8th Army breaks through Gothic Line near Rimini. SEPTEMBER 8 5th Army launches major attack on Gothic Line. SEPTEMBER 26 8th Army begins crossing R. Uso (ancient Rubicon). » (Argyle, 1980, p.155-169).

« On October 2 [1944], Mark Clark’s renewed offensive towards Bologna opened, this time along Route 65. All four divisions of his 2nd Corps were thrown in, but the defending Germans fought with such tenacity that during the next three weeks the American advance averaged no more than a mile a day, and on October 27 the offensive was abandoned. By the end of October, the Eighth Army advance had also petered out, after only five more rivers had been crossed, and the Po was still fifty miles distant. The only notable changes of the period were command changes. Kesselring was injured in a motor accident and replaced by Vietinghoff. McCreery replaced Leese – who was being sent to Burma – in command of the Eighth Army. Towards the end of November, Maitland Wilson was sent to Washington, and succeeded by Alexander, while Mark Clark took over the Army Group in Italy. The Allied situation at the end of 1944 was very disappointing in comparison with the high hopes of the spring, and the summer. Although Alexander still showed optimism about an advance into Austria [to aim for the Pannonians], the slow crawl up the Italian peninsula made such distant horizons appear increasingly unrealistic. Maitland Wilson himself admitted as much in his report of November 22 to the British Chiefs of Staff. The disbelief, and discontent, of the Allied troops was manifested in a growing rate of desertions. A final Allied offensive in 1944 sought to gain Bologna and Ravenna as winter bases. The Canadians, in the Eighth Army, succeeded in capturing Ravenna on December 4, and their success led the Germans to send three divisions to check the Eighth Army’s further progress. That seemed to offer the Fifth Army a better chance. But this was forestalled by an enemy counterattack in the Senio valley on December 26 – prompted by Mussolini with the idea of emulating Hitler’s counteroffensive in the Ardennes, and largely carried out by Italians who remained loyal to him. This attack was soon, and easily, stopped. But the Eighth Army was now exhausted, and very short of ammunitions, while the Germans were known to have strong reserves near Bologna. So Alexander decided that the Allied armies should go on the defensive, and prepare for a powerful spring offensive.» (Hart, 1971, p.541-542).

« The three months’ pause since the close of the Allies’ autumn offensive had brought a great change in the spirit and outlook of their troops. They had seen the arrival of new weapons in abundance – amphibious tanks, ‘Kangaroo’ armoured personnel carriers, ‘Fantails’ (tracked landing vehicles), heavier-gunned Sherman and Churchill tanks, flame-throwing tanks, and ‘tank-dozers’. There was also plenty of new bridging equipment, and huge reserves of ammunition. In Mark Clark’s Army Group (entitled the 15th) the right wing, facing the German 10th Army, was formed by the Eighth Army under McCreery, and comprised the British 5th Corps (of four divisions); the Polish Corps (of two divisions); the British 10th Corps, now almost a skeleton consisting of two Italian combat groups, the Jewish Brigade, and the Lovat Scouts; and the British 13th Corps which was really the 10th Indian Division. The 6th Armoured Division was in Army reserve. To the west was the Fifth Army, now commanded by Truscott, which comprised the American 2nd Corps (of four divisions), and 4th Corps (of three divisions), with two more divisions in Army reserve. They included two armoured divisions, the 1st U.S. and the 6th South African. The aim, and primary problem, of the Allied planners was to overrun and wipe out the German forces before they could escape over the River Po. The Allied offensive was to be launched on April 9... The Allies’ three armoured divisions, in two sweeping moves, had cut off and surrounded most of the opposing forces. Although many Germans managed to escape by swimming that broad river, they were in no condition to establish a new line. On the 27th the British crossed the Adige and penetrated the Venetian Line covering Venice and Padua. The Americans, moving still faster, took Verona a day earlier. The day before that, April 25, a general uprising of the partisans took place, and Germans everywhere came under attack from them. All the Alpine passes were blocked [to aim for the Pannonians] by April 28 – the day on which Mussolini and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were caught and shot by a band of partisans near Lake Como. German troops were now surrendering everywhere, and the Allied pursuit met little opposition anywhere after April 25. By the 29th the New Zealanders reached Venice and by May 2 were at Trieste – where the main concern was not the Germans but the Yugo-Slavs.» (Hart, 1971, p.671-674); « LAST BATTLES IN ITALY After the capture of Rome in June 1944, Allied troops had been taken from Italy for the invasion of southern France. The remaining Allied units continued a slow advance into early 1945. In April they renewed their attacks, now with more success. German forces in Italy surrendered on 2 May, and on 4 May the advancing Allied troops linked up at the Brenner Pass [to aim for the Pannonians] with US Seventh Army coming down through Bavaria.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.195).

« Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona... On 3 May the 85th and 88th Divisions sent task forces north over ice and snow three feet deep to seal the Austrian frontier and to gain contact with the American Seventh Army, driving southward from Germany. The 339th Infantry under Lt. Col. John T. English reached Austrian soil east of Dobbiaco at 0415, 4 May; the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon, 349th Infantry, met troops from VI Corps of Seventh Army at 1051 at Vipiteno, nine miles south of Brennero. The 338th Infantry came up Highway 12 later in the day and placed a frontier guard at Brennero on the Austro-Italian frontier. To the west the 10th Mountain Division reached Nauders beyond the Resia Pass on the 5th and made contact with German forces which were being pushed south by Seventh Army; here a status quo was maintained until the enemy headquarters involved had completed their surrender to Seventh Army. On the 6th the mountain troops met the 44th Infantry Division of Seventh Army. Inasmuch as Eighth Army had met Marshal Tito’s forces on 1 May at Monfalcone and the 473d Infantry had encountered French troops on 30 April near Savona on the Italian Riviera, the Allied armies in Italy had now made complete contact with friendly forces on the western, northern, and eastern frontiers of Italy and controlled all major routes of egress... Though the Fifth Army’s zone of occupation in northern Italy included all of the large cities in continental Italy except Venice and Trieste, very little trouble arose in the area... Only in the Trieste area did real trouble arise. The problem of relations with Yugoslav forces was handled by Eighth Army and by higher headquarters, but required the use of Fifth Army troops. The 91st Division moved to Venezia Giulia on 4 May, the 10th Mountain Division on 19 May, and II Corps on 21 May. During the week 14-21 May, 5,300 tons of ammunition were placed in the Udine area, enough to support 2 infantry divisions, 2 tank battalions, 2 tank destroyer battalions, 2 155mm howitzer battalions, and 1 155mm gun battalion for 5 days. When our general line was advanced to the east on 22-23 May, a flare-up of Yugoslav protests and threats ensued and resulted in a alert for the 85th Division. By mid-June the situation had quieted down, and the 85th Division was relieved from its alert status on 14 June. An agreement had been reached by this time establishing a general line of demarcation along the Isonzo River; joint American and British occupation continued in the area west of the river.» (Starr, 1986, p.436-441).

By land shall be horrible events
: Above mentioned.

By sea shall be horrible events: In addition to the items above quoted, « 1942 AUGUST 10 Sea War: Med.OP. PEDESTAL. 14-ship British convoy leaves Gibraltar for Malta under heavy escort – only 4 transports and burning tanker Ohio reach Malta. From Aug. 11-14 they are battered by Axis aircraft, subs. and motor torpedo boats. Ships sunk: carrier Eagle, cruisers Cairo and Manchester, destroyer Foresight and 7 merchant vessels. Ships badly damaged: carrier Indomitable, 2 cruisers, 1 destroyer and 7 merchant vessels. 2 Italian subs. rammed and sunk by British destroyers. AUGUST 13 Cruisers Bolzano and Muzio Attendolo are torpedoed by British sub. Unbroken, off Lipari Is. NOVEMBER 7 U-boats and Italian subs. attack Allied Task Forces engaged in Op. Torch (Nov. 7-15): 7 transports sunk and 3 damaged; destroyers Martin and Isaac Sweers (Dutch) sunk. 5 U-boats and 1 Italian submarine lost. NOVEMBER 27 SCUTTLING OF FRENCH FLEET. German plan to capture fleet intact at Toulon is foiled by Admiral de Laborde, who orders all crews to destroy their ships.» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-115); « 1943 JANUARY 8 Sea War: Med. – British Force K (2 cruisers, 4 destroyers) harries last convoys between S. Italy and Tripoli, sinking 14 ships of all sizes (nights between Jan. 8-9 and 20-21). JANUARY 22 Force K bombards Rommel’s retreating forces E. of Tripoli. FEBRUARY 1 Cruiser–minelayer Welshman sunk by U-617 off Crete. U-118 lay minefield in Strs. of Gibraltar (4 ships sunk, 3 damaged). MARCH 8 HMS Lightning sunk by German MTB S.55. MARCH 24 Sub. Thunderbolt sunk by Italian corvette. MAY 1 Italian and German vessels lay minefields off W. coast of Greece, Sicily and Sardinia – 3,156, 1,036 and 4,248 mines resp. (May 1- July 20). JULY 16 Carrier Indomitable hit by Italian torpedo planes. Italian sub. Dandolo torpedoes cruiser Cleopatra. Night engagements off Sicily between German and British MTBs with Italian cruiser Scipione Africano: 5 German boats damaged and MTB 305 sunk. JULY 19 German and Italian minelayers begin intensive operations around Italian coast. AUGUST 31 Nelson and Rodney shell Italian coast near Reggio di Calabria. SEPTEMBER 8 Surrender of Italian fleet: 5 battleships, 8 cruisers and 11 destroyers leave their bases for Malta (Sept. 8-9). SEPTEMBER 12 U-boats commence ops. off Salerno bridgeheads: but sink only 3 ships during numerous attacks. DECEMBER 12 British destroyers Tynedale and Holcombe sunk by U-593 (Dec. 12 and 13). DECEMBER 21 Old German cruiser Niobe sunk by British MTBs (night Dec. 21-22). 1944 JANUARY 22 Sea War: Med.ANZIO LANDINGS. Allied 5 Corps lands near Anzio and Nettuno, S. of Rome (Op. Shingle) in bold attempt to outflank Germans at Cassino. Landing craft equipped with rocket launchers deluge the weak defences.» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-148).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§825 Paris deserted occupied; Narrow success of Operation ‘Overlord’ (1940-1944): VI-43.

VI-43 (§825):

For a long time shall be without being dwelt,
Where the Seine and the Marne are watering around
Even the martial men of the Thames tried,
The guards shall be deceived in thinking to lay at rest.

(Long temps sera sans estre habitee,
Ou Seine & Marne autour vient arrouser
De la Tamise & martiaulx temptee,
Deceuz les gardes en cuidant reposer.)

NOTES: Ou: = Où (where).

Temptee: « tempter. Tenter (To attempt, to try).» (Daele).

Cuider: = « croire (To think, to believe).» (Suzuki).

Shall be without being dwelt, Where the Seine and the Marne are watering around: = « The first two lines are a slight exaggeration, if applicable to Paris in the closing days of the Battle of France. By 10 [sic] June [1940] Paris was declared an open city. The Germans arrived to find it nearly deserted; over four-fifths of the population had fled. Line 3 and 4 move us a few years ahead to the British raids of Hitler’s Atlantic Wall.» (Hogue, 1997, p.465-466).

For a long time
: = For several months (May to Autumn, 1940); « MAY 15 [1940] Home Front: FrancePANIC IN PARIS on reports of German breakthrough at Sedan. Many thousands of civilians leave city; Government departments burn secret files; Premier Reynaud telephones Churchill: ‘We are beaten; we have lost the battle!’» (Argyle, 1980, p.28); « JUNE 13 France – Paris declared an ‘open city’; all French forces withdraw S. of the capital. Oil stores in suburbs set on fire. Germans reach N. outskirts in the evening. Germans capture Le Havre. JUNE 14 FranceGERMAN FORCES ENTER PARIS. General von Bock, Commanding Officer Army Group B, reviews victory parades in Place de la Concorde and at Arc de Triomphe. Germans capture intact Renault tank factory at Billancourt and Schneider-Creusot armament works. Only 700,000 people remain in city out of pop. of 5 M. French Govt. leaves Tours for Bordeaux.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « During theses days [10 May – 10 June 1940], 6 millions to 8 millions of civilians refuged south.» (Shibata, 1995, p.291).

« Most of the people who had left Paris in summer returned home by autumn, and they restored their ordinary life ... in the conspicuous atmosphere of German occupation in the streets.» (Shibata, id., p.309-310).

Even the martial men of the Thames tried
: = « Before its launching, the invasion of Normandy looked a most hazardous venture. The Allied troops had to disembark on a coast that the enemy had occupied during four years, with ample time to fortify it, cover it with obstacles and sow it with mines. For the defence, the Germans had fifty-eight divisions in the West, and ten of these were panzer divisions that might swiftly deliver an armoured counterstroke. The Allies’ power to bring into action the large forces now assembled in England was limited by the fact that they had to cross the sea, and by the number of landing craft available. They could disembark only six divisions in the first seaborne lift, together with three airborne, and a week would pass before they could double the number ashore. So there was cause to feel anxious about the chances of storming what Hitler called the ‘Atlantic Wall’ – an awesome name – and about the risks of being thrown back in the sea. Yet, in the event, the first footholds were soon expanded into a large bridgehead, eighty miles wide. The enemy never managed to deliver any dangerous counterstroke before the Allied forces broke out from the bridgehead. The break-out was made in the way and at the place that Field-Marshal Montgomery had originally planned. The whole German position in France then quickly collapsed. Looking back, the course of invasion appears wonderfully easy and sure. But appearances are deceptive. It was an operation that eventually ‘went according to plan’, but not according to timetable. At the outset the margin between success and failure was narrow. The ultimate triumph has obscured the fact that the Allies were in great danger at the outset, and had a very narrow shave...» (Hart, 1971, p.543).

The guards shall be deceived in thinking to lay at rest
: = « On D-Day precious hours were wasted in argument on the German side. The nearest available part of the general reserve was the Ist S.S Panzer Corps, which lay north-west of Paris. But Rundstedt [Commander-in-Chief in the West] could not move it without permission from Hitler’s headquarters... Jodle [Chief of High Command of the German Armed Forces Operations Staff], reluctant to disturb Hitler’s late morning sleep, took it upon himself to resist Rundstdt’s appeal for the release of the reserves. They might have been released earlier if Rommel [in executive charge of the forces on the Channel coast] had not been absent from Normandy. For, unlike Rundstedt, he often telephoned Hitler direct and still had more influence with him than any other general. But Rommel had left his headquarters the day before on a trip to Germany. As the high wind and rough sea seemed to make invasion unlikely for the moment he had decided to combine a visit to Hitler, to urge the need of more panzer divisions in Normandy, with a visit to his home near Ulm for his wife’s birthday [thinking to lay at rest]. Early next morning, before he could drive on to see Hitler, a telephone call told him that the invasion had begun. He did not get back to his headquarters until the evening – by which time the invaders were well established ashore. The commander of the army in that part of Normandy was also away – directing an exercise in Brittany. The commander of the panzer corps that lay in reserve had gone on a visit to Belgium. Another key commander is said to have been away spending the night with a girl [thinking to lay at rest]. Eisenhower’s decision to proceed with the landing despite the rough sea turned out greatly to the Allies’ advantage.» (Hart, id., p.549-550).

N.B. The role of Ultra in WWII:
« Ever since I had joined the Secret Service in 1929 I had realized that amongst those who trod the carpeted corridors of power in Whitehall it was fashionable to smile in tolerant disbelief at anything the Secret Service told them. It was frustrating to see the information on German rearmament being quietly ignored. As my efforts with Hitler and company had had the full backing of Admiral Sir Hugh Sinclair (to me the Chief), he complained to the Prime Minister when he saw no use was being made of my knowledge. In 1935 I was finally summoned to appear before a Cabinet Committee to substantiate my reports. They were accepted by the committee. When Baldwin retired, Lord Swinton took over as Air Minister from Lord Londonderry, and I got all the help and backing I wanted… » (Winterbotham, 1975, p.22).

« In 1938 a Polish mechanic had been employed in a factory in Eastern Germany which was making what the young man rightly judged to be some sort of secret signalling machine. As a Pole, he was not very fond of the Germans anyway and, being an intelligent observer, he took careful note of the various parts that he and his fellow were making. He got in touch with our man in Warsaw. In due course the young Pole was persuaded to leave Warsaw and was secretly smuggled out under a false passport with the help of the Polish Secret Service; he was then installed in Paris where, he was given a workshop. With the help of a carpenter to look after him, he began to make a wooden mock-up of the machine he had been working on in Germany. There had been a number of cypher machines invented over the years and our own backroom boys had records and drawings of most of them. It didn’t take them long to identify the mock-up as some sort of improved mechanical cypher machine called Enigma. The name Enigma was given to the machine by the German manufacturers... It was Denniston himself [Commander Alastair Denniston, Chief of the Government Code and Cypher School] who went to Poland and triumphantly, but in the utmost secrecy, brought back the complete, new, electrically operated Enigma cypher machine which we now knew was being produced in its thousands and was destined to carry all the secret signal traffic of the great war machine. It is difficult to explain this cypher machine in a few words so I do not intend to try to describe the working of the complicated system of electrically connected revolving drums around which were placed letters of the alphabet. A typewriter fed the letters of the message into the machine, where they were so proliferated by the drums that it was estimated a team of top mathematicians might take a month or more to work out all the permutations necessary to find the right answer for a single cypher setting; the setting of the drums in relation to each other was the key which both the sender and the receiver would no doubt keep very closely guarded. No wonder the Germans considered that their cypher was completely safe. Despite the fact that we had an actual machine, were we now faced with an impossible problem? By August 1939 Denniston and his Government Code and Cypher School had moved to Bletchley Park, a secluded country house which the Chief had previously acquired as a wartime hideout; with them went the machine.» (Winterbotham, id., p.27-28).

« Early in 1939 I set up the first Scientific Intelligence Unit in my Air Section of the Secret Intelligence Service [S.I.S.].» (Winterbotham, id., p.24); « In September 1939 the SIS were also evacuated to Bletchley Park, some fifty miles north of London near the main road and railway to the north-west. A number of wooden huts had been erected on the wide lawns at Bletchley and it was in Hut No. 3 that I and my small staff set up office. We lived , however, in billets in the surrounding country, and it was in another big house that I found I had a number of backroom boys as fellow boarders. I had known several of them when we all worked in the same building in London. Between them there was little they did not know about cyphers, and now that we had actually got one of Hitler’s latest Enigma cypher machines, it was possible to understand with some accuracy its function and complexity. We could now at least get the machine accurately duplicated. There had come to Bletchley some of the most distinguished mathematicians of the day. Alexander, Babbage, Milner Barry, Gordon Welchman, names to whisper in the world of chess. They had been persuaded by Denniston to leave their comfortable universities and join with our own backroom boys to try to prove or disprove the theory that if a man could design a machine to create a mathematical problem, then man could equally well design a machine to solve it… It is no longer a secret that the backroom boys of Bletchley used the new science of electronics to help them solve the puzzle of Enigma. I am not of the computer age nor do I attempt to understand them, but early in 1940 I was ushered with great solemnity into the shrine where stood a bronze-coloured column surmounted by a larger circular bronze-coloured face, like some Eastern Goddess who was destined to become the oracle of Bletchley. It must have been about the end of February 1940 that the Luftwaffe, the German Air Force, had evidently received enough Enigma machines to train their operators sufficiently well for them to start putting some practice messages on the air. The signals were quite short but must have contained the ingredients the bronze goddess had been waiting for. Menzies [Colonel Stewart Menzies, Chief of the British Secret Service succeeding Sinclair when he died at the end of 1939] had given instructions that any successful results were to be sent immediately to him, and it was just as the bitter cold days of that frozen winter were giving way to the first days of April sunshine that the oracle of Bletchley spoke and Menzies handed me four little slips of paper, each with a short Luftwaffe message dealing with personnel postings to units. From the Intelligence point of view they were of little value, except as a small bit of administrative inventory, but to the backroom boys at Bletchley Park and to Menzies, and indeed to me, they were like the magic in the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. The miracle had arrived.» (Winterbotham, id., p.30-34).

« I felt it was necessary at this point to distinguish our particular Enigma Intelligence completely from other types which came under the headings of Secret or Most Secret (the American category of Top Secret had not yet arrived on the scene), so I had a talk with each of the directors to see if we could decide on a name by which it would be known to all those persons on this list I kept of authorized recipients. The title of Ultra Secret was suggested, but the final agreement was just to call it Ultra. Having been in at the birth, I had now conducted the christening of a source of Intelligence which was so deeply to affect our conduct of the war. As our successes in breaking Ultra increased, it became obvious that these signals carried the very highest command traffic, from Hitler and his Ober Kommando Wehrmacht (OKW) High Command, from the Chiefs of the Army, Air and navy Staffs, and from Army, Airfleet and Armoured Group Commanders. The German Abwehr, which dealt with spies and counter-espionage, used a different cypher of their own which was also broken. To that vast majority of people who were either too young to realize what was going on in World War II and who have been nurtured on the Allied victory over the Nazis, the story which follows may well provoke the question why, if we knew so much about the enemy’s strength and intentions, did we not finish him off more quickly. It is perhaps difficult for those younger generations to realize that in 1940 we were totally defeated in France, and that all that stood between us and total surrender was the disarmed remains of the British Army evacuated from Dunkirk, and the Royal Air Force, pitifully small compared with the vast air fleets of the Luftwaffe. To those of us who knew the score, the total surrender of Britain depended on whether the RAF could prevent the Luftwaffe wiping out or grounding our air squadrons. If they had done so, no Royal Navy ship could have survived in, or under, the waters of the English Channel whilst the Luftwaffe held control of the air. The decisive part that Ultra played in saving us from defeat will become apparent in the chapters that follow. Invasion, however incompetently mounted and carried out, would have been invincible with all the airborne and seaborne troops and armament the Germans could have sent against our thinly held coast. For two long years we were virtually fighting the great German war machine with our wits. It was our wits and brains which produced the Ultra intelligence that provided the key to Air Marshal Dowding’s strategy of keeping the Luftwaffe at bay and saving the RAF from the knockout blows aimed at it by Goering during the Battle of Britain. It was Ultra which told of all the preparations which were going on for Operation Sea Lion, the invasion of Britain. Later on it was the same Intelligence which enabled General Auchinleck in North Africa to fight Rommel and his Afrika Korps like an elusive boxer, bobbing up where Rommel least expected him, delivering a hard punch, then away again to mount a swift attack somewhere else. It was Auchinleck’s skill that brought Rommel to a standstill at the very gateway to Egypt. Had he not done so, the whole of the Mediterranean would have been lost to us, together with our scattered Imperial Forces in the Middle East, our oil, our naval bases and our route to India. Even when, after Alamein, the pendulum at last began to swing our way a little, the advance knowledge of the enemy’s movements, strength and likely behavior gained through Ultra still did not enable us to achieve any quick results: we just did not have the men, machines and resources. Let no one be fooled by the spate of television films and propaganda which has made the war seem like some great triumphant epic. It was, in fact, a very narrow shave, and the reader may like to ponder, whilst reading this book, whether or not we might have won had we not had Ultra.» (Winterbotham, id., p.42-44).

« Many accounts of the Battle of the Atlantic have been written, but up until now none of them have been able to reveal the role of Ultra. One of the most dramatic examples occurred in the Bismarck affair. The sinking of HMS Hood on 24 May 1941 left a sense of shock with everyone. Then came the news that the great German battleship had made her escape on 25 May and we all knew that contact with her had been lost. Early on 25 May Admiral Lutyens, thinking that he was still being shadowed by a British warship, sent a long signal to his Naval Headquarters in Germany. It listed all his difficulties but mainly the loss of fuel from his earlier battle and he asked what he was to do now. It was this signal, picked up by us, which gave way once more his position. I remember the thrill that went through the office as the next signal came over the telephone from Hut 3 that Bismarck had been ordered to Brest where all available air and submarine protection was to be given to her. Later we were to know that the Admiralty had already made plans to cope with either her return northwards to Germany or southwards to France, but now her position was certain. On 26 May at 10.30 a.m. the Bismarck was again sighted. The rest of the story is well known.» (Winterbotham, id., p.108-109); « 1941 May: 24th, H.M.S. Hood sunk by Bismarck off Greenland; 27th, Bismarck is sunk by Royal Navy west of Brest.» (Williams, 1968, p.578).

« Lieutenant General Freddie Morgan had been chosen by the Allied statesmen and chiefs of staff, after the Casablanca Conference, to act as COSSAC, or Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander, for the purpose of setting up a planning organization for invasion of France by the Allies. As early as March 1943 he took up his post in the now empty Norfolk House where Eisenhower had previously set up his headquarters before Operation Torch in North Africa. I had discussed with him the provision of Ultra for his planning operations. The story of the V
1 flying-bomb has been told by a number of well qualified people, but so far the part played by Ultra in the Intelligence investigation into the nature of Hitler’s secret weapon, together with the location of the experimental station where it was being developed, and the actual launching and performance data, has not hitherto been disclosed… It was in April 1944 that Ultra finally came up with the orders from Hitler himself to establish a special headquarters near Amiens in France to control the V1 operation, and everything clicked into place. The new headquarters was to be commanded by Colonel Wachtel and was called the 155th Flak Regiment. Since the signal was also addressed to General Heinemann, commanding the LXVI Corps, it was evident that the new regiment would come under his administrative command. At the end of May 1944 an Ultra signal from Wachtel to Heinemann reported that fifty sites were ready for launching. This finally determined Churchill to press for the start of Overlord in June at all costs. Time was obviously going to be very precious. It was on D-Day, June the sixth, that Wachtel received a signal ordering him to prepare for an immediate all-out offensive to start on June the twelfth. As it turned out, it was not until the thirteenth that the first V1 landed.» (Winterbotham, id., p.147-149).

« There was no noticeable increase in the signals of importance to Overlord during March, but by April we learned from an OKW signal that Rommel had been given command of Army Group B, which was responsible for the defence of the coast from Holland right round Normandy and Brittany, as far south as Nantes. Army Group G area, which comprised most of the southern half of France, looked after the West Coast from Nantes to the Spanish border. As soon as Rommel got his command he started to throw his weight about. Evidently the results of his inspection of the coast defences were unsatisfactory, for in April he started sending impassioned requests for materials and labour to make a proper job of Hitler’s much-vaunted Atlantic Wall. It was evidently considered by Rommel as being largely inadequate, but signal as he might, and did, for cement, steel, timber and guns, nothing much appeared to happen. Eventually, Rommel warned the OKW that what was being done was being accomplished by the troops themselves, which meant that their state of readiness was badly impaired. The signals outlining Rommel’s constant demands were now being backed up by aerial photography and the two together gave us a fairly good time-table of the construction of the beach and coastal defences we should meet later. It became obvious from the aerial photographs that despite his incessant bullying of Berlin for more of everything, he had made a pretty good job with what he had got. During the spring of 1944 the Germans made what was to be probably the most important decision of all those affecting the Allies and the Overlord plans. The decision arose from a clash of views between Hitler, Rundstedt, Rommel, Guderian and Schweppenburg, who commanded a group of four panzer divisions which made up the panzer reserve stationed near Paris. The discussions between those top level commanders were mostly conducted personally with Hitler in Berlin, but fortunately there were times when he was away at his eastern headquarters at Rastenburg, and it was the exchange of just one or two signals on these occasions which gave us the vital clues we needed… Rommel evidently refused to budge an inch from the dispositions he proposed to make and it was at this point that he sent a signal to Hitler at Rastenburg, reinforcing his previous views that the panzer divisions should be deployed behind the Normandy beaches and repudiated Guderian’s idea of keeping the armoured reserve near Paris. He stressed the point that the vast air superiority of the enemy would make the rapid movement of the armour impossible. This was the vital clue we wanted… and in May we at last picked up a signal to Rundstedt from Hitler which confirmed that the four panzer divisions, which constituted the reserve, would be held where they were, as an assault force, under the direct control of the OKW. This, of course, was the plum we had been waiting for; had the final decision gone the other way it would have seriously jeopardized the chances of success of operation Overlord as it then stood. There continued to be no signs of a move by any of the infantry divisions of the Fifteenth Army from the Pas de Calais area… Rommel had lost control of the main armoured force, and he never had control of the coast batteries which belonged to the German Navy along with a few odd destroyers and motor boats which seldom put to sea; his air force – Luftflotte 3 – we knew was down to about fifty operational aircraft. Both General Sperrle, commanding the Luftflotte, and the Fliegerkorps commander whose two fighter squadrons, in fact, made up the whole air fleet, eventually gave up asking for more aeroplanes; none ever arrived in reply to Sterrle’s signals… » (Winterbotham, id., p.153-157).

_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§826 Liberation of France and Germany through a significant decision of General Eisenhower (1940-1945): III-79.

III-79 (§826):

The fatal sempiternal order by chain
Shall come to turn by a significant order:
The chain of the port of Marseilles shall be broken:
The city taken, the enemy at the same time.

(L'ordre fatal sempiternel par chaisne,
Viendra tourner par ordre consequent:
Du port Phocen sera rompue la chaisne,
La cité prinse, l'ennemi quand & quand.)

NOTES: Conséquent (consequent): = Significant, important.

Quand & quand: « (En fonction d’adv.) en même temps (as a function of adverb: at the same time).»
(Petit Robert).

A significant order: « Before its launching, the invasion of Normandy looked a most hazardous venture. The enemy never managed to deliver any dangerous counterstroke before the Allied forces broke out from the bridgehead. The break-out was made in the way and at the place that Field-Marshal Montgomery had originally planned. The whole German position in France then quickly collapsed. Looking back, the course of invasion appears wonderfully easy and sure. But appearances are deceptive. It was an operation that eventually ‘went according to plan’, but not according to timetable. At the outset the margin between success and failure was narrow. The ultimate triumph has obscured the fact that the Allies were in great danger at the outset, and had a very narrow shave...» (Hart, 1971, p.543); « On D-Day precious hours were wasted in argument on the German side... Rommel had left his headquarters the day before on a trip to Germany. As the high wind and rough sea seemed to make invasion unlikely for the moment he had decided to combine a visit to Hitler with a visit to his home near Ulm for his wife’s birthday. The commander of the army in that part of Normandy was also away in Brittany. The commander of the panzer corps in reserve had gone on a visit to Belgium. Another key commander is said to have been away spending the night with a girl. Eisenhower’s decision to proceed with the landing despite the rough sea [a significant order] turned out greatly to the Allies’ advantage.» (Hart, id., p.549-550); « Normandy Landings 5–6 June 1944 On 4 June, U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, made the decision to launch Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Europe in World War II. Bad weather forced a one-day postponement, but a short period of acceptable weather meant 6 June was marked as D-Day. At the day’s end, the Allies held small but growing beachheads, while Allied airpower prevented German reserves from arriving. The successful Allied landing opened the door, into Europe, which led to the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany.» (Grant, 2011, p.864-865); « Monday, 5 June 0415 DBST: SAC weather briefing confirms improving weather pattern so Eisenhower orders full "Go" [a significant order] for NEPTUNE on 6 June. 1915 DBST: Eisenhower visits Fleming's weather shack. Stagg advises: "I hold to my forecast!"» (Bates, 2010, p.34).

The fatal sempiternal order by chain: « JUNE 22 ARMISTICE BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY signed at Compiègne by Ge. Keitel (Germany) and Gen. Huntziger (France). Signing ceremony takes place in Marshal Foch’s old railway carriage, previously used for signature of armistice, Nov. 11, 1918. Armistice terms: Germany to occupy two-thirds of Metropolitan France including entire Channel and Atlantic coastlines; all major industrial areas; Alsace-Lorraine and Paris. French armed forces to be disarmed and demobilized, with exception of token defence forces; French Fleet to be disarmed and demobilized under German and Italian supervision; France to pay costs of German army of occupation. French PoWs to remain in Germany until signature of peace treaty. 3 French armies (400,000 men) surrender in Vosges pocket, W. of Maginot Line. Germans occupy Lorient.» (Argyle, 1980, p.35).

Shall come to turn by a significant order: « Eisenhower’s decision to proceed with the landing despite the rough sea turned out greatly to the Allies’ advantage [Shall come to turn by a significant order].» (Hart, id., p.550); « The successful Allied landing opened the door, into Europe, which led to the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany [Shall come to turn by a significant order].» (Grant, 2011, p.864-865).

The chain of the port of Marseilles shall be broken: « Le débarquement allié en Provence (été 1944) (The Allied landing in Provence, in summer, 1944).» (Hutin, 1972, p.179); « The landings of 151,000 Allied troops along the Côte d’Azur from Nice to Marseilles were practically unopposed, the major port of Marseilles was secured and the invasion provoked a rapid German withdrawal from central and south-western France [Shall come to turn].» (Beevor, 2010, p.445); « After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat [Shall come to turn] on 19 August 1944. The 1st French Army of General Lattre de Tassigny undertakes the mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles. These cities fall on 27 and on 28 August 1944 respectively. Montpellier is free on 29. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28. On the other hand, the Americans, soon rallied by the units of the 1st French Army, make use of the Napoleon route and the valley of the Rhône in pursuit of the Germans. Grenoble falls on 22 August, Valence on 23, Briançon on 26, Lyons on 3 September 1944. On 12 September, the Allied forces landed in Normandy and those landed in Provence perform their junction at Montbard...» (Kaspi, 1980, p.444).

The city taken, the enemy at the same time: The simultaneous fall of the city and the enemy leads us to the case of Berlin and Hitler in 1945: « APRIL 16 [1945] Russian FrontZHUKOV OPENS OFFENSIVE ON BERLIN. APRIL 21 BATTLE OF BERLIN. ZHUKOV’S TROOPS ENTER SUBURBS. Konev attacks North of Dresden. APRIL 22 Battle of Berlin: Russians capture Weissensee district. Hitler decides to remain in Berlin. APRIL 24 Battle of Berlin: Konev’s and Zhukov’s troops link up in South suburbs. APRIL 25 Battle of Berlin: Zhukov and Konev forces near Potsdam to complete their ‘iron ring’ around the city. APRIL 26 Russian/Western FrontRUSSIAN AND AMERICAN FORCES LINK UP at Torgau on the Elbe. APRIL 27 Russian Front – Battle of Berlin: Russians capture suburbs of Potsdam, Spandau and Rathenow; central districts of Neukölln and Tempelhof. APRIL 29 Battle of Berlin: Hitler marries Eva Braun and dictates ‘Political Testament’; Russians capture Moabit power station and Anhalter railway terminal. APRIL 30 Battle of Berlin: Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide in Führerbunker beneath Reichs Chancellery, Berlin, at 3.30 pm. Cremated with burning petrol in Chancellery Garden. Russian artillery bombards Chancellery; advancing infantry now only 2 blocks away. MAY 1 Battle of Berlin: Goebbels and wife Magda poison their 6 children before committing suicide. Russians capture Charlottenburg and Schoeneburg districts. Home Front: Germany DÖNITZ ANNOUNCES DEATH OF HITLER (‘fighting in Berlin’); becomes second Führer of the Reich. MAY 2 Russian Front/ Western FrontSTALIN ANNOUNCES FALL OF BERLIN in Order of the Day No. 359: ‘Troops of the 1st Byelorussian Front, commanded by Marshal Zhukov... have today May 2 completely captured Berlin... hotbed of German aggressions.’ MAY 7 DiplomacyUNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF GERMANY. General Jodle signs instrument of surrender at 2.41 am in schoolroom at Rheims.» (Argyle, 1980, p.183-185).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§827 D-Day, Liberation of Belgium and Allied Victory over the Nazis (1944-1945): IV-81.

IV-81 (§827):

The bridge of barks shall be promptly made,
The army of the ‘Overlord’ shall pass Belgium:
Into the depths not far from Brussels,
Further pass to have cut off
[the Nazis] with weapons on 7th [of May, 1945].

(Pont on fera promptement de nacelles,
Passer l'armee du grand prince Belgique:
Dans profondrés & non loing de Brucelles,
Oultre passés detrenchés sept à picque.)

NOTES: The following summary in a sufficient way explains the quatrain: « The invasion of France (known as the Second Front) began on ‘D-Day’, 6 June 1944 [= Operation ‘Overlord’, i.e. ‘le grand prince’]. It was felt that the time was ripe now that Italy had been eliminated, the U-boats controlled and Allied air superiority achieved; the Russians had been urging the Allies to start this second front ever since 1941 to relieve pressure on them. The landings took place from sea and air on a 60-mile stretch of Normandy beaches between Cherbourg and Le Havre. There was strong German resistance, but at the end of the first week, aided by prefabricatedMulberryharbours [The bridge of barks shall be promptly made] and by PLUTO (pipelines under the ocean) carrying motor fuel, 326,000 men with tanks and heavy lorries had landed safely; eventually over three million Allied troops were landed. Within a few weeks most of northern France was liberated (Paris on 25 August), putting out of action the sites from which the German V1 and V2 rocket missiles had been launched with devastating effects on south-eastern Britain. Brussels and Antwerp were captured [The army of the ‘Overlord’ shall pass Belgium] in September.» (Lowe, 1988, p.263-264).

« The assault on Germany itself followed, but the end was delayed by desperate German resistance and disagreements between the Americans and British. Montgomery wanted a rapid thrust to reach Berlin before the Russians, but the American General Eisenhower favoured a cautious advance along a broad front. The British failure at Arnhem in Holland (September 1944) seemed to support Eisenhower’s view, though in fact the Arnhem operation (an attempt by parachute troops to cross the Rhine and outflank the German Siegfried Line) might have worked if the troops had landed nearer the two Rhine bridges. Consequently Eisenhower had his way and Allied troops were dispersed over a 600-mile front, with unfortunate results: Hitler was able to launch a last offensive through the weakly defended Ardennes towards Antwerp; the Germans broke through the American lines and advanced 60 miles, causing a huge bulge in the front line (December 1944). Determined British and American action stemmed the advance and pushed the Germans back to their original position [
Into the depths not far from Brussels]. But the Battle of the Bulge, as it became known, was important because Hitler had risked everything on the attack and had lost 250,000 men and 600 tanks, which at this stage could not be replaced. Early in 1945 Germany was being invaded on both fronts; the British still wanted to push ahead and take Berlin before the Russians, but supreme commander Eisenhower refused to be hurried, and Berlin fell to Stalin’s forces in April. Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered [Further pass to have cut off the Nazis with weapons on 7th of May, 1945].» (Lowe, id., p.264-265).

Profondrés: A plural substantive of p.p. of profonder or profondir (to deepen) = depths.

Detrencher
: = « détrancher „zerschneiden (to cut)‟, verstärktes trancher (intensive of cut, to cut off).» (
Gamillscheg).

Discussion:
Ionescu’s interpretation (1976, p.557-558) duly contains the four relevant points:
1° D-Day,
2° Liberation of Belgium,
3° Battle of the Bulge and
4° German defeat in the end.

But, in detail his explanation roughly misses the mark:
1° He interprets “pont de nacelles” as a pontoon (un pont de milliers de petits bateaux – amphibies), but it designates the artificial harbours, which were specially prefabricated to be swiftly (promptement) constructed and not made improvisationally: à l’improviste (promptement) as he meant: « MULBERRY HARBOURS Since the speed with which supplies and reinforcements could be landed was crucial, and capturing a port would be difficult, the Allied planners decided to solve the problem by taking their own “Mulberry Harbours” with them. Huge breakwaters, causeways and piers were built in Britain, floated across the Channel and then sunk in place off Normandy in the first couple of weeks after D-Day. two Mulberries were built. One was wrecked in a storm on 19 June, but the other remained in use until late 1944.»
(Sommerville, 2008, p.155).

2° He does not refer to the code name ‘Overlord’ suggested by the term “le grand prince”, which he interprets as ‘great commander in chief (la commande du grand chef)’.

3° The word “sept (seven)” is arbitrarily converted by him into “secte (a sect)”, which is said to designate the Nazis, which, however, is too obvious in the context to be mentioned.
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§828 The vicissitudes of Marshal Pétain, of the Anglo-Americo-Soviet Alliance (1940-1945-): IV-32.

IV-32 (§828):

Somewhere and sometimes an animal shall give rise to a fish:
The law common to the opposite shall be constituted:
An aged shall hold tight, then removed from the medium.
The maxim: All are common to the friends left far behind.

(Es lieux & temps chair au poiss. donrra lieu:
La loy commune sera faicte au contraire:
Vieux tiendra fort, puis oste du milieu
Le πάντα κοῖνα φιλῶμ mis fort arriere.)

NOTES: This quatrain describes France of Pétain’s time and the future of the regime (Lamont, 1944, p.120).

Poiss.: = Poisson (Hutin, 1972, p.191).

Donner lieu à
: = « Fournir l’occasion. Voir Occasionner, produire, provoquer. (To give the occasion for. Cf. To occasion, to produce, to provoke).» (Petit Robert); « To give rise to, to be the occasion for.» (Dubois).

Somewhere and sometimes an animal shall give rise to a fish:
It takes place happenings in this world hardly imagined.

The law common to the opposite shall be constituted:
meaning the Alliance of the Anglo-Saxon and the Soviets against the Nazis: « In this personal struggle for survival, Stalin was greatly helped at every stage by the Western democracies. It can be said that, if Hitler’s policy saved the regime, Churchill and Roosevelt saved Stalin himself. When Hitler attacked, there were some cool heads who argued that Western aid to Russia should be on a basis of simple material self-interest, highly selective and without any moral or political commitment. George Kennan minuted to the State Department, Russia should be regarded as a ‘fellow-traveller’ rather than ‘a political associate’. This was sensible. On a moral plane Stalin was no better than Hitler; worse in some ways. Britain had no obligations whatever to Russia. Up to the very moment of the German invasion, the Soviet regime had done its best to assist Hitler’s war-effort, fulfilling its raw-materials delivery contracts scrupulously. As late as early June 1941 the RAF was still contemplating bombing the Baku oilfields, which were supplying the Wehrmacht. But at this point Churchill was close to despair about the long-term prospects for the war, and the likelihood of a successful German thrust right into the Middle East. When Hitler turned on Russia instead, his relief was so intense that he reacted in an irrational manner. here was the opportunity to combine Anglo-Saxon industrial power with Russian manpower, to bleed the German army to death! It was exactly the same impulse which had prompted his Gallipoli scheme in the Great War, whose success, he still believed, would have altered the whole course of the world history. The evening of the German invasion Churchill, without consulting his War cabinet, committed Britain to a full working partnership with Russia. Eden was even more enthusiastic, under the influence of his secretary, Oliver Harvey, a pro-Soviet Cambridge intellectual, who regarded the Gulag Archipelago as the necesssary price for Russian modernization. To launch the new alliance [The law common to the opposite shall be constituted] Churchill chose as his emissary his friend Lord Beaverbrook. He brushed aside pleas from the specialists of the British embassy, who shared Kennan’s view, and who wanted hard bargaining, ‘trading supplies against detailed information about Russian production and resources’. Beaverbrook laid down the policy as ‘to make clear beyond a doubt the British and American intention to satisfy Russian needs to the utmost in their power, whether the Russians gave anything or not. It was to be a Christmas Tree party. The aid was given unconditionally, being passed directly to Stalin’s personal autocracy. No questions were ever asked about what he did with it. The Soviet people were never officially informed of its existence. Thus Britain and America supplied the means by which Stalin bolstered his personal power, and he repaid them in the ready coin of his soldiers’ lives. Churchill and Roosevelt were content with this arrangement [The law common to the opposite shall be constituted].» (Johnson, 1991, p.384-385).

Vieux
(An aged): = Le vieux monarche (the aged monarch) (§829, III-47) = Maréchal Henri Philippe Pétain (1856-1951).

The medium
: = The capital of unoccupied France, Vichy, situated geographically in the central France.  

Oste: = Osté (ôté), Removed: « Enlèvement de Pétain – 20 août 1944 (Removal of Pétain – August 20, 1944).» (Fontbrune, 1980, p.319).

An aged shall hold tight, then removed from the medium: « Renversement de la IIIe République par le maréchal Pétain (Vieux, le Panta) (Overthrow of the IIId Republic by Marshal Pétain suggested by AGED and PANTA).» (Hutin, id.); « As a military gamble the attack on France was a complete success. It began on 10 May and six weeks later, on 22 June, France signed an armistice which gave Hitler everything he wanted. The ration of casualties – 27,000 German dead to 135,000 for the Allies – gives some indication of the magnitude of the German victory. France rapidly inclined towards the Nazi camp. The Third Republic collapsed, friendless and unmourned. The armistice had been signed by Maréchal Henri Philippe Pétain [1856-1951], and he was now invested with pleins pouvoirs by the rump parliament in the new capital set up in Vichy. He was the most popular French general because his men felt they were less likely to be killed under his command than anyone else’s. He was stupid. His books were ghosted for him by clever young officers. But he had the simple dignity of the French peasant (his father had been one). When Le Petit Journal held a survey in 1935 to find whom the French would most like as their dictator, Pétain came top. Second was Pierre Laval, a former socialist of the Moussolini type, whom Pétain now made Prime Minister. Pétain quickly became the most popular French ruler since Napoleon. He incarnated anti-romanticism, the anxiety to relinquish historical and global duties, the longing for a quiet and safe life which now swept over France. Hitler had no difficulty in turning Vichy into a ally. On 3 July 1940, lacking adequate reassurances, the Royal Navy was instructed to sink the French fleet in Oran and other North African ports. Two days later Pétain broke off relations with Britain, and thereafter Vichy drifted inexorably into the Nazi camp, where she was ruthlessly treated as a milch-cow. Some 40 per cent of France’s industrial production, 1,500,000 workers and half France’s public sector revenue went to the German war-economy.» (Johnson, 1991, p.364-366); « For two years he sought to put his ideas into practice as ‘Head of State’ in unoccupied France [An aged shall hold tight], but, after German troops overran the whole of France in November 1942, he became little more than a German puppet.» (Palmer, p.217); « Chief of French State, July 10, 1940, with Napoleonic powers. Established new capital at Vichy and called for a ‘National Revolution’ based on ‘Work, Family and Fatherland’. Dismissed P.M. Laval, Feb. 1941, but forced to reinstate him under German pressure, April 1942. Grew weaker, personally and politically. Arrested by the Germans, Aug. 20, 1944; deported to Belfort (NE. France), then to Sigmaringen (SE. Germany) [removed from the medium]. Voluntarily returned to France, April 1945; sentenced to death by High Court of Justice (14 votes to 13); commuted to life imprisonment by de Gaulle; banished to Ile d’Yeu (Bay of Biscay).» (Argyle, 1980, p.34).

Le
πάντα κοῖνα φιλῶμ: = Le πάντα κοῖνα φιλῶν = The proverb: ALL of the FRIENDS COMMON.

The maxim: All are common to the friends left far behind: = The Alliance between the Allies in the WWII is to be transformed after the war into a COLD WAR between the West and the East: « Towards the end of the war the harmony that had existed between the USSR, the USA and the British empire began to evaporate and all the old suspicions came to the fore again. Relations between soviet Russia and the west soon became so difficult that although no actual armed conflict took place directly between the two opposing camps, the decade after 1945 saw the first phase of the Cold War which continued, in spite of several ‘thaws’, into the 1980s. This means that instead of allowing their mutual hostility to express itself in open fighting, the rival powers confined themselves to attacking each other with propaganda and economic measures and with a general policy of non-co-operation. Both super-powers gathered allies about them: between 1945 and 1948 the USSR drew into its orbit most of the states of eastern Europe, as communist governments came to power in Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Czechoslovakia and East Germany (1949). A communist government was established in North Korea (1948) and the communist bloc seemed to be further strengthened in 1949 when Mao Tse-Tung was at last victorious in the long-drawn-out civil war in China. On the other hand the USA hastened the recovery of Japan and fostered her as an ally and worked closely with Turkey, providing them with vast economic aid in order to build up an anti-communist bloc. Whatever one bloc suggested or did was viewed by the other as having only ulterior and aggressive motives; thus, for example, there was a long wrangle over where the frontier between Poland and Germany should be, and no permanent settlement for Germany and Austria could be agreed on.» (Lowe, 1988, p.277-278).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§829 Marshal Pétain: armistice, reign, fall, condemnation and the end (1940-1951): III-47.

III-47 (§829):

The old monarch chased from his reign
Shall come in the Orients to seek for his relief:
He shall surrender for fear of the crosses:
In Mitilene he shall go for rest and sleep.

(Le vieux monarche deschassé de son regne
Aux Orients son secours ira querre:
Pour peur des croix pliera son enseigne:
En Mitilene ira pour port et terre.)

NOTES: Monarche: = Monarque (A monarch) (Clébert, 2003, p.393).

Le vieux monarche
(An old monarch): = Vieux (§828, IV-32) = Maréchal Henri Philippe Pétain as Chief of French State (1856-1951).

The old monarch chased from his reign Shall come in the Orients to seek for his relief: « The Fall of French State – 1944; Departure of Pétain for Siegmaringen: The old head of state chased from the power shall come in the East (Siegmaringen) to ask for help.» (Fontbrune, 1980, p.322).

Les Orients
(The Orients): This plural form designates Belfort and Sigmaringen, the first and the second destination of Pétain’s coerced journey from Vichy to Germany, Belfort being more eastern of Vichy and Sigmaringen of Belfort.

Querre
: « querre, v.a., chercher, rechercher; désirer, vouloir (trans. verb, to search, to seek; to desire, to want).» (Godefroy).

The old monarch chased from his reign Shall come in the Orients to seek for his relief:
= An aged shall hold tight, then removed from the medium (§828, IV-32): « Chief of French State, July 10, 1940, with Napoleonic powers [The old monarch... his reign]. Established new capital at Vichy and called for a ‘National Revolution’ based on ‘Work, Family and Fatherland’. Dismissed P.M. Laval, Feb. 1941, but forced to reinstate him under German pressure, April 1942. Grew weaker, personally and politically. Arrested by the Germans, Aug. 20, 1944 [chased from his reign]; deported to Belfort (NE. France), then to Sigmaringen (SE. Germany) [Shall come in the Orients to seek for his relief]. Voluntarily returned to France, April 1945; sentenced to death by High Court of Justice (14 votes to 13); commuted to life imprisonment by de Gaulle; banished to Ile d’Yeu (Bay of Biscay).» (Argyle, 1980, p.34).

Pliera son enseigne
: = « Baissera pavillon (He shall surrender).»
(Clébert, 2003, p.393).

Les croix
: = Les croix (gammées), swastikas (Fontbrune, id.).

He shall surrender for fear of the crosses
: « PETAIN. ... Created Marshal of France Nov. 1918... Associated with Fascist politicians, 1934-38. Ambassador to Spain, March 1939; recalled at the height of the French collapse, May 1940; succeeded Reynaud as P.M., June 16, 1940 and immediately sought armistice with Germany and Italy.» (Argyle, 1980, p.34); « JUNE 16 Home Front: France – Reynaud Cabinet resigns; PETAIN FORMS NEW GOVT. Gen. Weygand, Min. of Defence. British Ambassador presents Draft Declaration of ‘Act of Union’ between Britain and France; French rejection.» (Argyle, id.); « JUNE 17 Diplomacy – Pétain requests Germany’s and Italy’s armistice terms via Spanish Ambassador and the Vatican; he broadcasts to French Army and people: ‘... it is necessary to stop the fighting.’» (Argyle, id.); « JUNE 18 France – De Gaulle broadcasts from London.» (Argyle, id.); « JUNE 20 Home Front: France – Pétain broadcasts: he describes the defeat of France as ‘inevitable’ and compares the 185 British, American and Italian divisions supporting the French Army in May 1918 with the 10 British divisions of May 1940.» (Argyle, id.); « JUNE 21 Diplomacy – Hitler attends Franco-German armistice negotiations in Forest of Compiègne.» (Argyle, id., p.35); « JUNE 22 ARMISTICE BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY signed at Compiègne by Ge. Keitel (Germany) and Gen. Huntziger (France). Signing ceremony takes place in Marshal Foch’s old railway carriage, previously used for signature of armistice, Nov. 11, 1918. Armistice terms: Germany to occupy two-thirds of Metropolitan France including entire Channel and Atlantic coastlines; all major industrial areas; Alsace-Lorraine and Paris. French armed forces to be disarmed and demobilized, with exception of token defence forces; French Fleet to be disarmed and demobilized under German and Italian supervision; France to pay costs of German army of occupation. French PoWs to remain in Germany until signature of peace treaty. 3 French armies (400,000 men) surrender in Vosges pocket, W. of Maginot Line. Germans occupy Lorient.» (Argyle, id.); « JUNE 24 Franco-Italian Armistice signed at Villa Inchesa, near Rome, by Gen. Huntziger and Marshal Badoglio. Armistice Terms: demilitarized zones to be established along Franco-Italian border and between French and Italian territories in N. and E. Africa. French troops to be evacuated within 10 days. French naval and air bases in Mediterranean to be demilitarized within 15 days.» (Argyle, id.).

Mitilene
: This neologism, molded on Mytilēnē (Μυτιλήνη) of the Greek island of Lesbos, contains the two nuclei of meaning in Latin: 1° Mītulus (moule in French, mussel in English), 2° Mītis (doux in French, mild in English). These will refer to Ile d’Yeu (the Island of Yeu) in the Bay of Biscay, where « the principal activity is the culture of mussels » (Fontbrune, 1980, p.322) and which was the last place of rest and end [port et terre] of the old Marshal Pétain, sentenced to death on 14 August 1945 by High Court of Justice, then commuted to life imprisonment [mitigated, of which the root is Mītis] by his opposing successor General de Gaulle.

Port
(rest): « PORT. Fig. Lieu de repos; abri (Figuratively, A place of rest; shelter, refuge). « Un couvent était le port où venaient aborder les naufragés du monde (A convent was the port where the wrecked of the world came to land) » (G
AUTIER).» (Petit Robert).

Terre
(sleep): Terre (Earth) symbolizing a grave (sleep): « Mettre, porter un mort en terre (To lay, to carry a deceased in earth). « ... la terre où je dormirai (the earth where I shall sleep)» (M
USSET).» (Petit Robert).

In Mitilene he shall go for rest and sleep: « On 15 August [1945], High Court condemns the Marshal to death, but entreats General de Gaulle, according to the pray of the jury, to sign his pardon. Pétain is then confined in the fort of le Portalet, then in the fort of la Pierre Levée, in the island of Yeu, where he shall die on 23 July 1951, at the age of 95.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.525).

_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
Profile

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

Latest journals
Category
Link