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§830 General de Gaulle visits the liberated South-West of France (1944.9.14-18): X-41.

X-41 (§830):

In the provinces of Caussade and Charlas.
Not far from the bottom of the valley
Music of a French liberated city to the sound of lutes,
A grand cat and his company surrounded by cymbals.

(En la frontiere de Caussade & de Charlus.
Non guieres loing du fons de la vallee
De ville Franche musicque à son de luths,
Environnez comboulz & grand myttee.)

NOTES: Frontière: = « pays frontière, marche (a frontier country, a march).» (Daele).

Caussade & Charlus: The region of Caussade (Tarn-et Garonne) and Charlas (Haute-Garonne) representing Vichy France newly occupied by the Nazis since November 1942. 

Guieres: = Guère; cf. gueres (III-65 and IV-12), guerres (II-38), guiere (VII-35).

Loing: In the sense of temporal distance.


Le fons: = Le fond (the bottom, the depth); « Fons. v. Fond (See Fond); Fond. Mettre à fons, en fons. Couler à fond (To sink, to send to the bottom). Au fons de l’yver. En plein hiver (In the middle of winter). De fons en racine. Complètement (Completely). Au plus fond. Au lieu le plus lointain (At the remotest place).» (Huguet). 

Le fons de la vallee: = The disastrous situation of France, even of Vichy France under the Nazi preponderance: « As a whole, France, provided with a government theoretically autonomous, have been treated as badly as the countries subject to the direct administration of the Germans.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.526); « In his memoirs, de Gaulle described France in 1944 as a nation ‘ruined, decimated, torn apart’. There were still 75,000 Nazi soldiers holding out in bastions scattered through the north and west of the country. More than two million French people were held in Germany as prisoners of war or under the Vichy scheme as labourers... » (Fenby, 2011, p.263). 

Non guieres loing du fons de la vallee: Not far from the bottom of the valley, i.e. immediately after the Liberation of France in August 1944; « ... le pays émergeant du fond de l’abîme (the country emerging from the bottom of the abyss) ... » (De Gaulle, 1959, p.1).

Ville Franche
: = A liberated city of France near Caussade and Charlas, i.e. Toulouse, one of the destinations of General de Gaulle’s provincial journey in mid-September 1944.
 
Musicque: = Musique (music). Cf. §139, X-28: musicque.

Comboulz: = Cymbales (cymbals) (Clébert, 2003, p.1105).

Environnez comboulz
: = Environnez [de] comboulz, the preposition ‘de’ being elliptic for prophetic embroilment.

Myttee: = « mitte (mītem = doux (mild)). mitte pelue (a hairy mild animal) = chat (a cat).» (Daele).

Grand myttee: = General Charles de Gaulle resembling a huge cat of a certain kind (cf. Argyle, 1980, p.166 his photograph; Fenby, 2011, between pp.466-467 the last of his photographs; De Gaulle, 1967, his photograph on the front cover.)

& grand myttee
: In addition to ‘grand myttee’, the plural form of ‘environnez’ and the conjunction ‘&’ do hint another implicit subject, which is to be recognized as ‘his company’ from the context; « The news that reached us from a vast majority of the departments gave evidence of tremendous confusion there. The local authorities had all the more difficulty mastering the situation since the forces at their command were desperately inadequate... I decided to make immediate visits to the most sensitive points to give the national governmental machine a start in the right direction. A two-months’ series of trips was to put me in contact with the provinces, while in the intervals I directed the government’s work in Paris. On September 14 [,1944], accompanied by André Diethelm, Minister of War, I landed at the Bron airfield [Lyons], still littered with the scrap of its demolished hangars. Ten days before, the city of Lyons had been liberated by the French First Army and the Americans. I was now making every effort toward recovery, though the problem was arduous... The next day... I left Lyons convinced that the government, provided it truly governed, would here surmount all obstacles, and that order would prevail since the state was reappearing at the nation’s head. At Marseilles, however, the atmosphere was ominous. I arrived the morning of the fifteenth, accompanied by three ministersDiethelm, Jacquinot [M. of the Navy], and Billoux [M. of Public Health]... During the afternoon, a quick flight took me to Toulon... On September 16, I was in Toulouse, a city considerably disturbed... On the morning of the seventeenth, with calculated formality, I passed all military elements in review...» (De Gaulle, 1967, p.677-683); « To assert his authority and re-establish the control of Paris over the fragmented country, de Gaulle embarked on a tour of major provincial cities in mid-September 1944. In uniform, with a Cross of Lorraine pin on his tunic, he alarmed his staff by his lack of concern for security arrangements and his readiness to leave the official cortège to wade through crowds. When a prefect commented on the danger he was running, the General replied: ‘To avoid assassination attempts, a little authority is enough. And to get this authority – which I am not sure you possess – it is enough to exhibit it.’» (Fenby, 2011, p.269). 

Environnez comboulz & grand myttee
: = [Sa compagnie] & grand myttee environnez [de] comboulz (A grand cat and his company surrounded by cymbals).

Music of a French liberated city to the sound of lutes, A grand cat and his company surrounded by cymbals: This expression describes figuratively the enthusiastic welcome of the liberated populace of Toulouse to de Gaulle visiting them immediately after the Liberation: « LIBERATION OF FRANCE September 11, 1944-May 8, 1945. The end of the liberation of France. In the South-West, where the Allied armies have not advanced, the liberation is the fact of the FFI [les Forces Françaises de l’Intérieur (the French Forces of the Interior), (which is integrated in the French Army of de Gaulle on 8 June and its commandments are dissolved by decree on 19 September 1944)] who occupy little by little the cities and install there the authorities issuing from the Resistance [le Comité français de libération nationale (CFLN, the French Committee of national liberation under the presidency of General de Gaulle) incorporates the responsible of the internal Resistance on 6 November 1943], like in Toulouse since August 20 [1944]. In the North and the East, the Allied offensive goes on... It is more difficult to beat the Germans on the Atlantic coast. The siege of Royan lasts seven months, until 20th of April 1945. The German garrisons who hold Lorient, Saint-Nazaire and La Rochelle capitulate only on 9 May 1945, next day of the armistice.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.452-453); « September 14-18, 1944. The first journey of General de Gaulle in province. General de Gaulle begins a series of journeys in province. The first of these leads him to Lyons, Marseilles, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Orléans. His objective is to take measurements of the problems that arise on a local scale, to establish necessary contacts, and above all, in making use of his authority and his influence upon the masses, to preach the national unity and to restore rapidly the power of the state. As to the resistants, not all of them disposed to abandon the responsibilities they have obtained to the Liberation, de Gaulle proves himself charmer or hard by turns, in order to persuade them to leave the power to the agents of the State. The resistant Serge Ravanel reports in the following terms the visit of de Gaulle to Toulouse, a city liberated by the FFI: “ On 16 September 1944, General de Gaulle, Head of the Government, makes a visit to us on the occasion of his tour in the South-West. We waited him in an enthusiasm and full of confidence. I still remember the cloud of confettis thrown from the roofs bordering the street of Alsace-Lorraine as he went by and the dense and happy crowd in the Place of Capitol...” » (Kaspi, id., p.454-455).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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§831 Regimes of the Fascists and the Nazis; Mussolini’s decline and Italian Monarchy’s abolition (1922-1946): VI-77.

VI-77 (§831):

By the dishonest victory of the disappointed,
Two classes unified, the German revolt:
The head bruised, and his son in the temptation,
Florence, Imola hounded in the steelyard.

( Par la victoire du deceu fraudulente,
Deux classes une, la revolte Germaine:
Le chef murtry, & son filz dans la tente,
Florence, Imole pourchassés dans romaine.)

NOTES: Deceu: = Déçu, disappointed.

The disappointed: = The Italian and German peoples after the WWI discontent with their poor and disastrous state of country represented by Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler.

By the dishonest victory of the disappointed: « On 16 October 1922 Mussolini decided to force the issue, believing that if he waited, Giolitti [in premiership in May 1892 – Dec. 1893 and in May 1906 – Dec. 1909], the one man he feared, might steal his role. He arranged for a march on Rome for the end of the month, by four divisions totaling 40,000 blackshirted men. Many army and police commanders agreed not to fire on them, and his paper, Il Popolo d’Italia, carried the banner: I grigioverdi fraternizzano con le Camicie Nere! [The graygreens (of the Italian Army uniforms) will fraternize with the Black Shirt (of the Fascists)!] By the time his ill-equipped, badly clothed and unfed army had halted outside Rome, in pouring rain, on the evening of 28 October, it did not present a very formidable spectacle. The government, though weak, had a Rome garrison of 28,000 under a reliable commander and it agreed to proclaim a state of emergency. But Rome buzzed with rumours and misinformation. The little King Victor Emmanuel, tucked up in the Quirinale Palace, was told only 6,000 ill-disciplined troops faced a horde of 100,000 determined fascists. He panicked and refused to sign the decree, which had to be torn down from the walls where it had just been posted. At that point the government lost heart. Mussolini, for an impatient man, played his cards skillfuly. When he was telephoned in Milan by the King’s ADC, General Cittadini, and offered partial power in a new ministry, he simply replaced the receiver. The next day, 29 October, he graciously consented to form his own government, provide the invitation by phone was confirmed by telegram. The wire duly came, and that evening he went to Milan Station in state, wearing his black shirt, to catch the night-sleeper to Rome [By the dishonest victory]. As it happened, the wife of the British ambassador, Lady Sybil Graham, was also on the train. She saw Mussolini, who was surrounded by officials, impatiently consult his watch, and turn fiercely on the station-master. ‘I want the train to leave exactly on time,’ he said. ‘From now on, everything has got to function perfectly.’ Thus a regime, and a legend, were born.» (Johnson, id., p.99-100); « The new state of Italy was far from being a great success in the years before 1914; the strain of the First World War on her precarious economy and the bitter disappointment at her treatment by the Versailles treaties caused growing discontent [the disappointed]. Between 1919 and 1922 there were five different governments, all of which were incapable of taking the decisive action that the situation demanded. In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded the Italian fascist party which won 35 seats in the 1921 elections. At the same time there seemed to be a real danger of a left-wing seizure of power; in an atmosphere of strikes and riots, the fascists staged a ‘march on Rome’ which culminated in King Victor Emmanuel III inviting Mussolini to form a government (October 1922).» (Lowe, 1988, p.94).

Two classes unified: Namely, his government is composed of a class of Fascists and another class of Non-Fascists: « There was no sudden change in the system of government and state institutions; Mussolini was merely the Prime Minister of a coalition cabinet [Two classes unified] in which only four out of twelve ministers were fascists and he had to move cautiously. Beginning in the summer of 1924 by a mixture of violence and intimidation and aided by hopeless divisions among his opponents, he gradually developed Italian government and society along fascist lines, and at the same time consolidated his own hold over the country. This was largely complete by 1930(Lowe, 1988, p.99). The phrase “Deux classes une”, where ‘classe’ is not ‘fleet’ nor ‘brisure (a break)’ as Roberts or Ionescu would, but ‘a class, an assorting group’, is seen also in the famed quatrain I-35 (§39).

The German revolt: = The establishment of the Nazi dictatorship, which is a revolt against the coalition system of government. The interpretation by Ionescu of the term ‘révolte (revolt)’ as ‘retraite (military retreat)’ (Ionescu, 1976, p.536) is not supported lexically and contextually. Cf. §810, IX-90: his revolt.

By the dishonest victory of the disappointed, Two classes unified, the German revolt:
« The Weimar Republic was constantly plagued by economic problems, which the government failed to solve permanently. Unemployment continued to grow and by the spring of 1932 it stood at over six million. The government came under criticism from almost all groups in society, especially industrialists and the working class who demanded more decisive action. The loss of working-class support because of increasing unemployment and the reduction of unemployment benefit was a serious blow to the republic. By the end of 1932 the Weimar Republic had thus been brought to the verge of collapse. Even so it might have survived if there had been no other options.» (Lowe, id., p.129-133); « Hitler and the Nazi party offered what seemed to be an attractive alternative just when the republic was at its most incapable. The fortunes of the Nazi party were linked closely to the economic situation: the more unstable the economy, the more seats the Nazis won in the Reichstag: March 1924 – 32 seats (economy still unstable after 1923 inflation); December 1924 – 14 seats (economy recovering after Dawes Plan); 1928 – 12 seats (comparative prosperity); 1930 – 107 seats (unemployment mounting – Nazis second largest party); July 1932 – 230 seats (massive unemployment – Nazis largest single party). There is no doubt that the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, fostered by the economic crisis, was one of the most important factors in the downfall of the republic.» (Lowe, id, p.133).

« What was it about the Nazis that made them so popular? (i) They offered national unity, prosperity and full employment by ridding Germany of what they claimed were the real causes of the troubles – Marxists, the ‘November criminals’ (those who had agreed to the armistice in November 1918 and later the Versailles Treaty), Jesuites, Freemasons and, above all, Jews. (ii) They promised to overthrow the Versailles settlement, so unpopular [disappointed] with most Germans, and to build Germany into a great power again. This would include bringing all Germans (in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland) back into the Reich. (iii) The Nazi private army, the SA (Sturmabteilung – Storm Troopers), was attractive to young people out of work; it gave them a small wage and a uniform. (iv) Wealthy landowners and industrialists encouraged the Nazis because they feared a communist revolution and they approved of the Nazi policy of hostility to communists. (v) Hitler himself had extraordinary political abilities. He possessed tremendous energy and will power and a remarkable gift for public speaking which enabled him to put forward his ideas with great emotional force. (vi) The striking contrast between the governments of the Weimar Republic and the Nazi party impressed people: the former were cautious, respectable, dull and unable to maintain order, the latter promised strong, decisive government and the restoration of national pride – an irresistible combination. (vii) Without the economic crisis though, it is doubtful whether Hitler would have had much chance of attaining power; it was the widespread unemployment and social misery [disappointed] which gained the Nazis mass support, not only among the working classes but also among the lower-middle classes – office workers, shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers and small-scale farmers.» (Lowe, id, p.133-134).

« A small clique of right-wing politicians with support from the Reichswehr decided to bring Hitler into a coalition government with the conservatives and nationalists [Two classes unified]. The main conspirators were Franz von Papen and Kurt von Schleicher. Their reasons for this momentous decision were: (i) They were afraid of the Nazis attempting to seize power by a Putsch. (ii) They believed they could control Hitler better inside the government than if he remained outside it. (iii) The Nazi votes in the Reichstag would give them a majority, which might make possible a restoration of the monarchy, and a return to the system which had existed under Bismarck (Chancellor 1870-90), in which the Reichstag had much less power. Though this would destroy the Weimar Republic, they were prepared to go ahead because it would give them a better chance of controlling the communists.» (Lowe, id, p.134-135).

« There was some complicated manoeuvring involving Papen and Schleicher who persuaded President Hindenburg, now completely senile, to dismiss Chancellor Brüning and appoint Papen himself as Chancellor. They hoped to bring Hitler in as Vice-Chancellor, but he would settle for nothing less than himself as Chancellor. In January 1933, therefore, they persuaded Hindenburg to invite Hitler to become Chancellor with Papen as Vice-Chancellor, even though the Nazis had by then lost ground in the elections of November 1932. Papen still believed Hitler could be controlled and remarked to a friend: ‘In two months we’ll have pushed Hitler into a corner so hard that he’ll be squeaking.’ In fact, therefore, Hitler was able to come to power legally because all the other parties including the Reichswehr failed to recognise the danger from the Nazis and therefore failed to unite in opposition.» (Lowe, id, p.135); « The legal basis of his power was the Enabling Law [the German revolt] which was forced through the Reichstag on 23 March 1933. This stated that the government could introduce laws without the approval of the Reichstag for the next four years, ignore the constitution and sign agreements with foreign countries. All laws would be drafted by the Chancellor and come into operation the day they were published... How was it achieved? The method was typical of the Nazis. The Kroll Opera House (where the Reichstag had been meeting since the fire [on the night of 27 February 1933]) was surrounded by the black-shirted SS troops, and MPs had to push their way through solid ranks to get into the building. The 81 communist MPs were simply not allowed to pass (many were in jail already). Inside the building rows of brown-shirted SA troops lined the walls. It took courage to vote against the bill in such surroundings with the SS outside chanting ‘We want the bill, or fire and murder’ [By the dishonest victory]. When the Catholic Centre Parry decided to vote in favour, the result was a foregone conclusion: it passed by 441 votes to 94 (all Social Democrats).» (Lowe, id, p.137).

The similar revolt
: = The establishment of the Fascist dictatorship similar to that of the Nazis, both are a revolt against the coalition system of government. The term ‘la revolte Germaine (the German revolt)’ may have another meaning of ‘la revolte germaine (the similar revolt)’, i.e. the Italian revolt similar to that of Germany. For the word ‘Germain’ can connote the meaning of ‘similar, alike’ (cf. Suzuki and Ibuki, s.v. germain) in the cross-usage of a Proper name and a common name in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (e.g., §736, V-54: Sanglante Gaule = Sanglante gaule (bloody pike), a proper name « Gaule » being, according to some of the figures of Nostradamus, for a common name « gaule » like ‘[the] Rousseau’ for ‘a person with red hair’ (§326, I-7), or inversely a common name ‘senez’ for a proper name ‘Senez’ (§326, I-7); “gaule f. Long thin pole (or) stick, fishing rod, small flag-staff.” (Dubois); §128, VI-30: ‘Liege’ for ‘liege’; §955, I-2: ‘BRANCHES’ for ‘branches’). « All parties except the fascists were suppressed. Persistent opponents of the regime were either exiled or murdered, the most notorious cases being those of the socialists Giacomo Matteotti and Giovanni Amendola, both of whom were beaten to death by fascist thugs. However, the Italian system was never as brutal as the Nazi regime in Germany, and after 1926 when Mussolini felt more secure, violence was much reduced. Although parliament still met, all important decisions were taken by the fascist Grand Council which always did as Mussolini told it; in effect Mussolini, who adopted the title Il Duce (the leader), was the dictator.» (Lowe, id, p.99).

Murtry (Bruised): = meurtry: meurtry in its 31 usages in the Prophecies of Nostradamus having three different senses, the first is murdered (21 times), the second hurt (once in IV-69) and the third bruised (9 times including the present case).

Tente (Temptation): « tente, sub. de tenter; tentation (subst. of tenter, to tempt, temptation).» (Daele).

The Head bruised, and his son in the temptation
: = « The conspiracy of the Fascist leaders, who by the Fascist Grand Council (on the night of 24-25 July 1943) decide to abolish the dictatorship of Mussolini and to replace it by a government led by Badoglio. Among those who have betrayed the Duce on this memorable night has been also his son-in-law, Ciano (his son).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.537); « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. In the beginning of 1943, the situation of Italy appears catastrophic. The reverses have been accumulated in Greece and in North Africa. In the middle of August, Sicily is in the hands of the Allies. Murderous bombardments accumulate the ruins in the cities and industrial installations. The balance sheet of economy is very serious. Mussolini seems deeply struck by these difficulties. He has a personal association with a young lady, Claretta Petacci, afflicted with a rapacious family. In these conditions, the spiritual unity of the country is strongly staggered. The loss of Sicily and the bombardment of Rome on 19 July 1943 make firm the resolution of the adversaries of Mussolini. Two conspiracies, independent of each other, are hatched by the fascist leaders and in the royal palace. The fascist leaders obtain from Mussolini a meeting of the Grand Council of the party which has not been held since December 7, 1939. They expect the solution of the general uneasiness. The most reserved of the fascists toward Mussolini gathering around Dino Grandi [former minister of justice] prepare the text of the order of the day criticizing the policy followed till then. The second complot comes from the Palace. Victor-Emmanuel sends to [Marshal] Badoglio the emissaries who demand him to take the lead of the next government and then to read a proclamation written by Orlando [one of the old personalities of parliamentary Italy before the fascism], which the Marshal accepts. Thus the King, intending to make use of the explication that shall take place beforehand at the fascist Grand Council, prepares the succession of the chief of the state. Mussolini is acquainted with the affair through various leaks, but, walled in a blind optimism, he believes himself under shelter from the attempts of some plotters he disdains. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense. First Mussolini speaks in front of 28 dignitaries, all in their best and conscious of the gravity of the moment. Some of them anticipate being arrested and are armed. The Duce renders the military responsible to the failures and defends Germany. Grandi replies with force and eloquence. He accuses the dictatorship, but not the fascism. He nearly comes to question the Duce himself who has accumulated too much responsibilities and is not competent to wage the war. Finally, he reads his order of the day that demands the reinstatement of the ancient constitution, the Statuto, and the restitution to the King of all the responsibilities this text entrusts to him. The Duce will remain only in charge of the direction of the party. The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, especially those of Ciano [former foreign minister], Bottai [former minister of national education], Federzoni, De Vecchi, De Bono, Rossoni, Bastianini..., 7 cons and one abstention [sic]. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. However, he declares in retiring: “You have opened the crisis of the regime” and he refuses the traditional “Salute to the Duce”. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso, at the altitude of 2,172 meters, in the heart of the Apennines.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

« The dismissal of Mussolini entails an explosion of joy all through Italy. Even one voice does not arise in favour of him. Those who have taken the offensive at the Grand Council on 24, Grandi, Bottai, Ciano, are dismayed at the arrest of their ancient master, which they had not anticipated, and are afraid of being arrested in their turn. Grandi, who believed that he would benefit from the favour of the King and expected to be a minister in the new government, is terribly deceived.» (Kaspi, id., p.367).

His son
: « January 8-10 [1944]. Trial of Verona against the “traitors ” of 25 July 1943. The Republic of Salo needs to find the traitors to explain the dismissal of Mussolini. The special tribunal of Verona, installed in the old castle of Scaliger, begins the suit of the 19 signatories of the text written by Grandi. Only 6 of them have been able to be discovered: Marshal De Bono, Marinelli, Pareschi, Gottardi, Cianetti and the proper son-in-law of the Duce, Count Ciano who, very imprudently, has taken refuge in Germany and has been delivered by this country on 3 November 1943. The sentence is obtained in advance: on 10, all are condemned to death, except Cianetti who had withdrawn his signature after the vote and is afflicted with 30 years’ forced labours. The Duce does not accord any pardon, even to Ciano notwithstanding his daughter’s prayers. On 11 January 1944, the condemned ones, from the oldest, De Bono, aged 78 years, to the youngest, Ciano at age 40, are shot from the rear, tied to a chair, according to the procedure reserved to the traitors in Italy.» (Kaspi, id., p.401).

Romaine
: « romaine. Steelyard (balance).» (Dubois). This expression represents a ‘referendum’: « 1946 May: 9th, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicates and Umberto II proclaims himself king; Jun: 2nd, Italian referendum in favour of a republic; 3d, Umberto II leaves Italy and Alcide de Gasperi, the premier, becomes provisional head of state.» (Williams, 1968, p.600-602).

Florence: « Florence, the city of flower, which has in its arms the lily, pre-eminently a dynastical flower, and had been, on the other hand, the capital of the Italian Kingdom under Victor-Emmanuel II before it was changed to Rome in 1871, is the symbol of the Italian Monarchy.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.537).

Imola: « The city of Imola is here in order to express the fact that this Monarchy are going to be “ immolée (immolated)” or sacrificed in favour of the Republic.» (Ionescu, id.).

Florence, Imola hounded in the steelyard: « In Italy, France and Belgium women finally secured the vote. In June 1946 the Italians voted to become a Republic, but the margin was narrow (12.7 million votes in favour of abolishing the monarchy, 10.7 million for retaining it) and the country’s historical divisions were if anything further exacerbated by the outcome: the South, except for the region of Basilicata, voted overwhelmingly for the king (by a ratio of 4:1 in Naples).» (Judt, 2005, p.79).

Discussion:
Ionescu’s arbitrary enlarged anagram of the phrase “FLORENCE IMOLA = VICTOR EMANOEL (by the metaplasm of V into F and of T into L)” (Ionescu, id., p.537) is useless because Victor Emmanuel III had already abdicated and his interpretation of the term “Romaine” as “Rome” is not supported lexically and even syntactically, for the expression “pourchasé dans Romaine” cannot be translated into “chassé de Rome” and the word “Romaine” can never be “Rome” as he would.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 

§832 Fall of Mussolini in the year 1943 (1943): I-23.

I-23 (§832):

In the third month the Sun rising,
A wild boar, a leopard in the field to fight mars:
The leopard left in the sky casts a glance,
Sees an eagle frolicking around the Sun.

( Au mois troisiesme se levant le soleil,
Sanglier, liepard au champ mars pour combatre:
Liepard laisse au ciel extend son oeil,
Un Aigle autour du soleil voyt s'esbatre.)

NOTES: Mars: = « MARS. (lat. martius, de Mars, dieu de la guerre ‘God of the war’). Troisième mois de l’année dans le calendrier actuel (The third month in the actual calendar).» (Petit Robert).

Sun: = « SOLEIL. Par métaph. et fig. Tout ce qui brille, répand son influence bienfaisante comme le soleil (By metaphor and figuratively All that shines, diffuses its beneficent influence like the Sun).» (Petit Robert)..

This quatrain is full of symbolic expressions such as ‘a sunrise’ (a budding social hope to the detriment of the oppressive regime), ‘a wild boar’ (Adolf Hitler), ‘a leopard’ (Benito Mussolini), ‘mars’ (the overwhelming forces of the Allies), ‘in the sky’ (in a hotel of Gran Sasso, at the altitude of 2,172 meters, in the heart of the Apennines), ‘an eagle’ (aircraft) and ‘around the Sun’ (in the sky).

The third month
: = « mars (March) » (Fontbrune, 1980, p.191). Ionescu’s interpretation of the phrase “Au mois troisième se levant le soleil” as the date “comprised between May 21 and June 21” (Ionescu, id., p.537) is not grammatically pertinent because the phrase “the Sun rising” does not mean the vernal equinox nor any starting point for determination of “the third” month. On the contrary, “the third month” itself indicates the time of the rising of the Sun.

In the third month the Sun rising
: = « 1943 March 5. Beginning of the strikes in Turin. The daily life is more and more difficult in Italy. Prices rise, whereas the purchasing power diminishes. The price of a bottle of oil at the black market is equivalent to the monthly salary of a textile worker. The communists stir up discreetly the discontent. On 5 March 1943, the strike break out at the factories of Fiat of Turin and expands to Milan. The responsible of the fascist syndicates are hissed and the militia welcomed by the shoot of bolts. Three hundred thousands of workers including the members of the fascist national Party stop working. These strikes, whose resonance is notable, reveal the profundity of the popular discontent and the diffusion of the anti-fascism. March 31. Mussolini decides the total civilian mobilization. It is applied to the men of 14 to 70 years and the women of 14 to 60. But it is applied very slackly.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.341-344).

A wild boar
(sanglier): « As to the name “sanglier”, it is an enigma for Hitler, being explained by the bloody traits of this animal. The first part of this word contains the word “sang (blood)” and we find as regards Hitler the expressions such as “fera de sang grand cours ([his revolt] shall cause a grand flow of blood)” (IX-90, §810), “au sanguinaire le nombre (des jours) racompté (As to the sanguinary one the number (of the days) reckoned up)” (II-89, §813).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.530).

A leopard
(liepard): « We consider the name “leopard” as an enigma for Mussolini. This word is composed of “leo (lion)”, and of “πάδρος (panther)”. This characteristic fits in with Mussolini, who is born on 29 July 1883, therefore with the Sun within the sign of Lion.» (Ionescu, id.). The examples of the word “leopard” in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are three in all, whose two are in this quatrain under analyse and another one is in the quatrain VI-20 (§787), where the word “« un nouveau liepart (a new leopard) », who shall occupy Rome anew in place of the Italian chief, refers to Hitler designated in the quatrain under analysis as “sanglier (a wild boar)”. Besides, the alternative character “T” of the irregular orthography “liepart” (‘lie-’ itself instead of LEO being naturally derived from “lion”) seems to suggest the ‘T’ of ‘Hitler’.

Sanglier, liepard au champ mars pour combatre
: The construction shall be as follows: « Sanglier, liepard au champ pour combatre mars », for there will be more necessity to designate the enemy for the two Axis leaders to fight with than to read almost tautologically “champ mars” as “champ [de] mars (battle field)”.

A wild boar, a leopard in the field to fight mars
: « April 7-10. Meeting of Hitler [A wild boar] and Mussolini [a leopard] at Klessheim near Salzburg. The Führer weighs the abatement of confidence of the Duce who advises him to conclude a separate peace with the USSR. The military present in the Italian delegation speak to their German counterparts with hostility hardly dissimulated. Hitler, however, comes to give again his confidence to Mussolini and guarantees him that soon he will deliver a decisive blow to the Soviets [to fight mars]. April 17. Mussolini hardens his policy. After having met Hitler at Klessheim, Mussolini assembles the executives of the fascist national Party in Palazzo Venezia and, in a resolute tone, announces severe measures, orienting in the direction of war to the death [to fight mars]. He criticizes the police that has not suppressed severely enough the strikes of March and should have opened fire on the workers. He affirms his will to constitute the units analogous to the SS, to politicize the army and to ignore the popular opinion. May 5. A speech of Mussolini in Rome. From the height of Palazzo Venezia, Mussolini declares: “I know that millions and millions of Italians suffer from an evil and that is called the evil of Africa. In order to cure it, there is not but one means, return there. And we will return there [...] Italy is immortal. We will win.”» (Kaspi, id., p.346-351).

Laisse: = Laissé (left).

The leopard left in the sky: « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense... The Duce renders the military responsible to the failures and defends Germany. Grandi replies with force and eloquence. He accuses the dictatorship, but not the fascism. He nearly comes to question the Duce himself who has accumulated too much responsibilities and is not competent to wage the war. Finally, he reads his order of the day that demands the reinstatement of the ancient constitution, and the restitution to the King of all the responsibilities. The Duce will remain only in charge of the direction of the party. The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, 7 cons and one abstention... On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso, at the altitude of 2,172 meters, in the heart of the Apennines [left in the sky].» (Kaspi, id., p.364-367).

The leopard left in the sky casts a glance, Sees an eagle frolicking around the Sun
: By the expression “around the Sun” is meant the vast extent of the sky in sight: « September 12. Liberation of Mussolini. Mussolini, confined in Gran Sasso [The leopard left in the sky], is liberated by an airborne operation, commanded by the SS captain Skorzeny; « Hearing the roar of the aircraft Mussolini, sitting with his arms folded by the open window of his sitting-room, looked up into the cloud-filled sky [The leopard casts a glance around the Sun] and saw the gliders swooping down [Sees an eagle frolicking] on to the rock immediately in front of the hotel. As the nearest glider came to ground with a crash of tearing canvas and splintering wood, he saw several men fall out of the wrecked fuselage, pick themselves up, and run towards him. At first, although they were less than thirty yards from the hotel door, he could not see who they were; but then he saw that one of them was an Italian officer, who was shouting at the top of his voice to the stupefied carabinieri, ‘Don’t shoot! Don’t shoot!’ ‘Don’t fire!’ Mussolini himself shouted through the open window. ‘There’s an Italian general there, Everything’s all right!’» (Hibbert, 1965, p.262-263).

The Duce is conducted in Munich, then, on 14 September, in the headquarters of Hitler. Hitler, in the course of long conversation, persuades him to return to the active political life
. The former dictator announces, on 15 September, that he directs again the fascism and he nominates Pavolini secretary of the party. On 18 September, speaking on the radio of Munich, he affirms his fidelity to the German alliance, lays the blame on the king Victor-Emmanuel and Badoglio and proclaims Republic.» (Kaspi, id., p.377); « ... He was imprisoned, but was rescued from the Apennines by German parachutists (September 12th, 1943) and set up a Republican Fascist Government which administered German-occupied northern Italy.» (Palmer, p.195); « 1943 SEPTEMBER 12 Secret WarMUSSOLINI RESCUED by Skorzeny and SS detachment from Gran Sasso in Abruzzi Mts. Ex-Duce flown out in Storchaircraft.» (Argyle, 1980, p.140).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§833 Mussolini founding the Republic of Salo condemns his former traitors to death (1943-1944): VIII-47.

VIII-47 (§833):

Lake Trasimene shall give testimony
Of the conspirators confined within Perugia,
The despoiled one shall feign to be a sage
Killing the rude persons with rash ones and small particles.

(Lac Thrasmien portera tesmoignage,
Des conjurez sarez dedans Perouse,
Un despolle contrefera le sage
Tuant Tedesq de sterne & minuse.)

NOTES: A simple comment of Hutin is significant: « VIII-47 Mussolini.» (Hutin, 1972, p.266).

Lac Thrasmien: = « Lac Trasmenien » (№10) = « Lake Trasimene » (Cheetham, 1973, p.325) = « The Lake of Perugia » (Leoni, 1982, p.363).

Porter tesmoignage de
: = « To bear witness to.» (Dubois).


Sarez
: = « serrés (confined).» (Clébert, 2003, p.893).

Depoller: = « despoiller: dépouiller (to despoil, to rob).» (Daele).

Un depolle: = Un depollé = Un dépouillé (he who is despoiled).

Tedesq: = « tedesco in Italy; tudesque [in French], the name given to the Germans. The name has taken, since the 16th century, a pejorative nuance of “rude, coarse, barbarous”.» (Clébert, id.).

Sterne
: = « Étourneau.» (Huguet); « étourneau. A starling; a careless one, a rash person, a hasty youth.» (Suzuki).

Minuse: « minuse, du latin minutia, petite parcelle (a small parcel or fragment or particle).»
(Clébert, id.); « minūtia, smallness, fineness.» (Huguet).

Lake Trasimene shall give testimony Of the conspirators confined within Perugia
: The personified Lake Trasimene is considered to reflect (see) some event above in the sky concerning Mussolini: « By this time [15 September 1943], German intelligence had discovered Mussolini’s whereabouts. After holding him first on the island of Ponza and then on La Maddalena, Marshal Badoglio had him moved secretly to a ski resort north of Rome in the Apennines, known as Gran Sasso. Hitler, horrified by this humiliation of his ally, ordered a rescue attempt. On 12 September, Hauptsturmführer Otto Skorzeny, with a force of Waffen-SS special troops in eight gliders, crash-landed on the mountain. The Carabinieri guarding him did not resist. Mussolini embraced Skorzeny, saying that he knew his friend Adolf Hitler would not abandon him. He was flown out and brought to the Wolfsschanze [or Wolf’s Lair, Führer headquarters near Rastenburg].» (Beevor, 2012, p.503-504); « September 12. Mussolini, confined in Gran Sasso, is liberarted by an airborne operation, commanded by the SS captain Skorzeny. The Duce is conducted in Munich, then, on 14 September, in the headquarters of Hitler.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.377); « 1943 SEPTEMBER 12 – MUSSOLINI RESCUED by Skorzeny and SS detachment from Gran Sasso in Abruzzi Mts. Ex-Duce flown out in Storchaircraft.» (Argyle, 1980, p.140).
 
« General Student decided that twelve gliders should be brought from the South of France to Rome and while Skorzeny’s force landed in these, the lower station of the funicular should simultaneously be seized by a battalions of parachutists. The operation was to be carried out at dawn on 6 September. While discussing the details of the operation with Skorzeny, his second-in-command, Karl Radl, made a suggestion which he hoped would increase the effect of surprise, an essential prerequisite to the success of the plan. He proposed that they take with them an Italian officer, whose presence would mislead the carabinieri and help to prevent them from carrying out any orders they might have received to kill Mussolini rather than let him fall into German hands. The officer chosen was General Soleti. He was told by General Student that Hitler had personally requested that he should take part in the operation in order to prevent unnecessary bloodshed. General Soleti immediately accepted the invitation, which Skorzeny thought had greatly flattered him. Owing to a delay in the arrival of the gliders the date fixed for the opeartion had tobe postponed. It was eventually fixed for two o’clock in the afternoon of Sunday, 12 September. At one o’clock that day the gliders of Skorzeny’s force were circling above the Pratica di Mare airfield, slowly gaining height.A few minutes before two o’clock Skorzeny, looking through a hole he had cut in the canvas of the glider, saw beyond the edge of a cloud below him the roof of the hotel. ‘Hemets on!’ he shouted, and then, ‘Slip the tow ropes!’ The gliders fell towards the earth in a sudden silence. Bothe the pilot and Skorzeny could see the triangular space behind the Albergo-Rifugio, but as they dropped down towards it they saw that it was not the flat ground that they had supposed but a very steep hillside. A landing there was impossible. They would have to crash-land on the rough ground in front of the hotel. Hearing the roar of the aircraft Mussolini, sitting with his arms folded by the open window of his sitting-room, looked up into the cloud-filled sky and saw the gliders swooping
down on to the rock immediately in front of the hotel. As the nearest glider came to gound with a crash of tearing canvas and splintering wood, he saw several men fall out of the wrecked fuselage, pick themselves up, and run towards him. At first, although they were less than thirty yards from the hotel door, he could not see who they were; but then he saw that one of them was an Italian officer, who was shouting at the top of his voice to the stupefied carabinieri, ‘Don’t shoot! Don’t shoot!’ ‘Don’t fire!’ Mussolini himself shouted through the oprn window. ‘There’s an Italian general there, Everything’s all right!’ ‘Excellency! Excellency!’ Lieutenant Faiola [warder of Mussolini] called out breathlessly as he ran up the stairs to Mussolini’s room. ‘Excellency! The Germans!’ He burst into the room, and at the sight of his prisoner leaning out of the open window he screamed, close to hysteria, ‘Shut the window and don’t move.’ Below them Skorzeny had dashed across the rough ground in front of the hotel and through the first open door he had seen. Kicking the cahir from beneath a wireless operator, he smashed the set and looked around for a way out of the room into the hotel. But there was none. He ran outside again nad raced along the side of the building until he came to a terrace about nine feet above the ground. Jumping on to the back of one of his men he leapt to the top of the terrace and looked anxiously upwards at the curved wall of the building with its rows of small square windows. At one of these on the first floor he saw the face of Mussolini gazing down towards him. ‘Get away from the window,’ he shouted and ran on into the entrance hall of the hotel... Facing him, in the middle of the room, stood Mussolini. With him was Lieutenant Faiola and another Italian officer, who were both taken out into the corridor by a young Untersturmführer. Below the windows outside, the other gliders had now crashed on to the rock and more SS men were streaming across the rocks towards the hotel. So far not a shot had been fired. Skorzeny put his head out into the corridor and shouted for the officer in command of the hotel. An Italian colonel apperared and was summoned to surrender. He asked for time to consider the summons, and Skorzeny gave him a minute. In less time than that he returned with a goblet of red wine. Bowing politely he held it out towards Skorzeny and said solemnly, ‘To the victor.’ In the somewhat formal atmosphere that had now been created Skorzeny turned round to introduce himself to Mussolini. ‘Duce!’ he announced, standing stiffly to attention. ‘The Führer has sent me! You are free!’ He was sweating heavily, Mussolini noticed, and ‘seemed deeply moved’. The Duce put out his arms and for a moment held Skorzeny to his breast. ‘I knew,’ he said, ‘that my friend Adolf Hitler would not desert me.’» (Hibbert, 1965, p.261-264).

« By mid-afternoon, Skorzeny and the paratroopers on the Gran Sasso were congratulating themselves on the success of their mission, which was practically finished. All that remained was to transport Mussolini back to Pratica di Mare airfield and put him on a plane bound for Germany. Before the raid, General Student had decided that Mussolini was to be flown back to Pratica di Mare in a Fieseler 156 Storch (Stork) aircraft. The Stork was a lightweight (one-ton), slow-moving two-seater that could take off and land in tight spaces. Its long, stalk-like landing gear featured heavy-duty shock absorbers that allowed the plane to hit the ground fairly hard during touchdown. The Stork was also known to have some unusual properties. Under the right wind conditions, this gragity-defying aircraft could almost hover in mid-air like a helicopter. Captain Heinrich Gerlach, General Student’s personal pilot, was given the job of chauffeuring Mussolini. (Gerlach was the pilot who flew Student and Skorzeny from the Wolf’s Lair to Rome on the morning of July 27, two days after the Italian coup). On the day of the raid, while Skorzeny was bounding into the [Hotel] Campo Imperatore and the gliders were diving through the clouds, Gerlach was flying circles over the mountaintop. Once the Duce had been freed and the hotel secured – the Germans hung sheets out of the windows to signal their success – Gerlach was faced with a decision: He could attempt to land his Stork on the plateau near the hotel as the gliders had done, or he could land in the valley below. A skilled pilot, Gerlach chose the former option “in spite of the obvious difficulties” (as Student put it). To everyone’s anazement, the thirty-year-old Gerlach landed the Stork almost perfectly, making use of a headwind and bringing the plane down on an incline to help decelerate the craft... Skorzeny had orders to take ex-dictator straight to Germany after a brief layover at Pratica, where the two men would change planes. Skorzeny sweetened the pill by informing him that his wife and their two teenage children were already en route to Munich. They had been “liberated” from Rocca delle Caminate that same afternoon by Skorzeny’s SS commandos. At 3:00 P.M. or so they were ready to depart. It was to be an aircraft-carrier-style takeoff: the improvised “runway” was just a downward slope about two hundred yards long, and at the end of it was a deep chasm... After flying for about an hour, Gerlach made a neat two-point landing at Pratica di Mare, the left wheel having been damaged during takeoff. Skorzeny and the Duce promptly boarded a Heinkel 111 and set off for Austria. Stormy weather near Vienna caused the pilot some difficulties in locating the city, but he finally managed to touch down at Aspern airport at about 11:00 P.M. The two men then proceeded to the Hotel Imperial, where they had arranged to spend the night; the next day, they planned to fly on to Munich, where Mussolini would be reunited with his wife.» (Annussek, 2005, p.230-235).

His flight route from Rome to Vienna may have traversed, as it were, ‘a large range of sight’ of the grand Lake: therefore, the testimony of the Lake seems to be the resolution of Mussolini to avenge his dismissal on his traitors, who are to be sentenced to death in Verona, for Perugia is not the place of their confinement after arrest, but something indicative of their fatal destiny through its etymological meaning: « Perugia. City, central Italy. The name of the city may be Etruscan in origin, and perhaps represents phaersu, the name of a devil that led the souls of the dead to the underworld, with this name itself indirectly related to Latin persona, “mask”. The Roman name of Perugia was Perusia.» (Room, p.281). This is why Nostradamus nominates “Perouse” and personifies Lake Trasimene or Lake Perugia.


The despoiled one
: « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense... The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, 7 cons and one abstention... On the next day, 25 July 1943, at 17:00, he visits the King. The King announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

The despoiled one shall feign to be a sage
: « 1943 September 23. Foundation of Italian Social Republic or Republic of Salo. After his liberation and his meeting with Hitler, Mussolini proclaims Italian Social Republic and settles in Salo, on the bord of Lake Garda.» (Kaspi, id., p.378); « 1944 January 8-10. Trial of Verona against the “traitors ” of 25 July 1943. The Republic of Salo needs to find the traitors to explain the dismissal of Mussolini [The despoiled one shall feign to be a sage]. The special tribunal of Verona, installed in the old castle of Scaliger, begins the suit of the 19 signatories of the text written by Grandi. Only 6 of them have been able to be discovered: Marshal De Bono, Marinelli, Pareschi, Gottardi, Cianetti and the proper son-in-law of the Duce, Count Ciano who, very imprudently, has taken refuge in Germany and has been delivered by this country on 3 November 1943. The sentence is obtained in advance: on 10, all are condemned to death, except Cianetti who had withdrawn his signature after the vote and is afflicted with 30 years’ forced labours. The Duce does not accord any pardon, even to Ciano notwithstanding his daughter’s prayers.» (Kaspi, id., p.401).

Killing the rude ones with rash persons and small particles
: « On 11 January 1944, the condemned ones [the rude ones], from the oldest, De Bono, aged 78 years, to the youngest, Ciano at age 40, are shot [Killing with small particles] from the rear, tied to a chair [with rash persons], according to the procedure reserved to the traitors in Italy.» (Kaspi, id., p.401).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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