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§834 Mussolini deposed by the King executes, in the Republic of Salo, his former traitors (1943-1944): VI-31.

VI-31 (§834):

The King shall find what he wanted so much,
When the Principal shall be reproached with his fault:
The response to the duke shall make him discontent,
Who in Milan shall put several to death.

(Roy trouvera ce qu'il desiroit tant,
Quant le Prelat sera reprins à tort:
Responce au duc le rendra mal content,
Qui dans Milan mettra plusieurs à mort.)

NOTES: Prelat: = A principal person of a Church or a State, prelat (prelature and preture, too) being in Latin « prælatus, being brought forward.» ((Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.52; Vignois, 1910, p.356). The usages in the Prophecies of Nostradamus in an ecclesiastical sense: VI-93 and X-56); in a political one: VI-31, VI-53, VI-86 bis, VIII-93 bis and IX-15; and in a common sense of forward: III-41, IX-21 bis, IX-87 and X-47.

The King shall find what he wanted so much, When the Principal shall be reproached with his fault: « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. In the beginning of 1943, the situation of Italy appears catastrophic. The reverses have been accumulated in Greece and in North Africa. In the middle of August, Sicily is in the hands of the Allies. Murderous bombardments accumulate the ruins in the cities and industrial installations. The balance sheet of economy is very serious. Mussolini seems deeply struck by these difficulties. He has a personal association with a young lady, Claretta Petacci, afflicted with a rapacious family. In these conditions, the spiritual unity of the country is strongly staggered. Someone, such as Dino Grandi [former minister of justice], seek a means of eliminating Mussolini. Many superior officials turn to the king Victor-Emmanuel III, head of the state and of the army, who holds his prestige. The king Victor-Emmanuel, after having for a long time supported the Fascist regime, measures the danger Italy and the dynasty of Savoy run. He is determined to separate from Mussolini, which is constitutionally possible for him. But the old monarch, clever, prudent and secret, does not want to act without the greatest chances of success. ­The loss of Sicily and the bombardment of Rome on 19 July 1943 make firm the resolution of the adversaries of Mussolini. Two conspiracies, independent of each other, are hatched by the Fascist leaders and in the royal palace. The Fascist leaders obtain of Mussolini a meeting of the Grand Council of the Party which has not been held since December 7, 1939. They expect from it the solution of the general uneasiness. The most reserved of the Fascists toward Mussolini gathering around Dino Grandi prepare the text of an order of the day criticizing the policy followed till then. The second complot comes from the Palace. Victor-Emmanuel sends to [Marshal] Badoglio the emissaries who ask him to take the lead of the next government and then to read a proclamation written by Orlando [one of the old personalities of parliamentary Italy before the Fascism], which the Marshal accepts. Thus the King, intending to make use of the explication that shall take place beforehand at the Fascist Grand Council, prepares the succession of the chief of the state.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-366).

The response to the duke shall make him discontent: « Mussolini is acquainted with the affair through various leaks, but, walled in a blind optimism, he believes himself under shelter from the attempts of some plotters he disdains. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense. First Mussolini speaks in front of 28 dignitaries, all in their best and conscious of the gravity of the moment. Some of them anticipate being arrested and are armed. The Duce renders the military responsible to the failures and defends Germany. Grandi replies with force and eloquence. He accuses the dictatorship [the Principal shall be reproached with his fault], but not the Fascism. He nearly comes to question the Duce himself who has accumulated too much responsibilities and is not competent to wage the war. Finally, he reads his order of the day that demands the reinstatement of the ancient constitution, the Statuto, and the restitution to the King of all the responsibilities this text entrusts to him. The Duce will remain only in charge of the direction of the party. The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, especially those of Ciano [former foreign minister], Bottai [former minister of national education], Federzoni, De Vecchi, De Bono, Rossoni, Bastianini..., 7 cons and one abstention [sic]. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. However, he declares in retiring: “You have opened the crisis of the regime” and he refuses the traditional “Salute to the Duce”. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes the power of him and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio [The King shall find what he wanted so much, When the Principal shall be reproached with his fault]. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso, at the altitude of 2,172 meters, in the heart of the Apennines [The response to the duke shall make him discontent].» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

Milan
: Milan represents, by synecdoche, the Republic of Salo.

Who in Milan shall put several to death
:
« January 8-10 [1944]. Trial of Verona against the “traitors ” of 25 July 1943. The Republic of Salo needs to find the traitors to explain the dismissal of Mussolini. The special tribunal of Verona, installed in the old castle of Scaliger, begins the suit of the 19 signatories of the text written by Grandi. Only 6 of them have been able to be discovered: Marshal De Bono, Marinelli, Pareschi, Gottardi, Cianetti and the proper son-in-law of the Duce, Count Ciano who, very imprudently, has taken refuge in Germany and has been delivered by this country on 3 November 1943. The sentence is obtained in advance: on 10, all are condemned to death, except Cianetti who had withdrawn his signature after the vote and is afflicted with 30 years’ forced labours. The Duce does not accord any pardon, even to Ciano notwithstanding his daughter’s prayers. On 11 January 1944, the condemned ones, from the oldest, De Bono, aged 78 years, to the youngest, Ciano at age 40, are shot from the rear, tied to a chair, according to the procedure reserved to the traitors in Italy [Who in Milan shall put several to death].» (Kaspi, id., p.401).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
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§835 Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia, dismissal and death (1934-1945): IX-95.

IX-95 (§835):

The new incident shall conduct the army
Near Apamea till close to the coast,
Bringing relief of Milanese elite,
The Duke deprived of his eyes iron of a cage in Milan.


(Le nouveau faict conduyra l'exercite,
Proche apamé jusques aupres du rivage,
Tendant secour de Milanoise eslite,
Duc yeulx privé à Milan fer de caige.)

NOTES: The theme will be found in the comments: « The French duc literally is the English “duke” and easily becomes the Italian duce (“leader”) if imaginative semantics are brought into play.» (Boswell, 1941, p.274-275); « A mob of rebellious soldiers aided by civilians captured and lynched Mussolini and his paramour at Milan in April 1945.» (Roberts, 1969, p.301).

The new incident shall conduct the army Near Apamea till close to the coast
: These verses seem to express the invasion of Ethiopia by the Fascists’ army in 1935. Before the operation, Italian grand troops [the army], equipment, ammunitions and supplies had been transported by sea from Italy to Italian East Africa (Somaliland and Eritrea) to invade Ethiopia [till close to the coast] via the Suez Canal [near Apamea in Syria] and the Red Sea [the coast].

Exercite: « s.m., armée (an army).» (Godefroy).

Apamé: = Apamea in Syria; « 
Ἀπάμεια [Apameia], Apamée, vv. de Syrie, de Parthie et de Bithynie (Apamea, cities of Syria, of Parthia [in Iran] and of Bithynia [in Turkey]).» (Pillon). Of these three, Syrian Apamea, being the nearest to the Suez Canal, is the most fitting to the context of the quatrain.

Le nouveau faict: = The new incident: « Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Italian colonial expansion in Eritrea led in 1895 to a full-scale war since the Abyssinians considered Eritrea to be their natural littoral. The Abyssinians, under Emperor Menelek (reigned 1889-1913), decisively defeated the Italians at Adowa (March 1st, 1896) and were thus the one independent people in Africa after the era of imperial partition. The country remained backward until the accession of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930, when a programme of reform was undertaken. Friction with the Italians on the Eritrean and Somali frontiers increased with the advent of Mussolini’s forward policy and his obvious desire to ‘avenge Adowa’. Although a treaty of friendship was signed between Italy and Abyssinia in 1928 frontier incidents continued, culminating in a serious clash at the oasis of Walwal (December 5th, 1934) in which 100 Ethiopians and 30 Italian colonial troops were killed [the new incident]. The dispute was referred to the League of Nations but the Italians were determined to secure a military success and invaded Abyssinia, without a declaration of war, on October 3rd, 1935. Despite a declaration by the League branding Italy as an aggressor and imposing limited sanctions, the Italians captured Addis Ababa on May 5th, 1936, with the help of air power, mechanized equipment and poison gas. King Victor Emmanuel of Italy was thereupon proclaimed Emperor while Haile Selassie went into exile. Five years later Ethiopian levies helped the British reconquer the country and expel the Italians and Haile Selassie returned to his throne (May 5th, 1941).» (Palmer, p.2-3).

The new incident shall conduct the army Near Apamea till close to the coast
: « In January, 1934 Italy began her military preparations against Abyssinia; this work went on through the whole of the year. In October an attack was made against the Italian consulate at Gondar; the Italians had become increasingly unpopular in Ethiopia. On December 5th some Italians were murdered at Ual-Ual in Abyssinia and the justification for the war was found. On January 7th, 1935, France signed a treaty with Italy recognising her right to occupy Abyssinia. This treaty sealed the fate of the Njegus and his country; it also put France in a difficult position when her traditional ally, Great Britain, objected so strongly to the Italian plans. In the same month the first troops were sent off to Ethiopia. General De Bono took over the governorship of Italian East Africa. During the year Italy sent half a million men, fifty thousand pack-horses and mules, ten thousand motor-cars and an immense amount of armaments to East Africa. In April the General Command was formed. It sounds almost tragi-comic to remember that as late as May 25th, 1935, Abyssinia concluded an agreement with Egypt about the building of locks on Lake Tana. War began ‘officially’ on October 2nd.» (Campanelli, 1939, p.117-118).

« Why didn’t Britain attempt to hinder Italy’s 1935 invasion of Abyssinia by preventing the Italian fleet from using the Suez Canal? - Answered by Roger Moorhouse, author of Berlin at War. April 11, 2011 at 11:08 am: With the benefit of hindsight, it seems quite sensible to suggest that the British could have hindered the Italian invasion of Abyssinia by blocking a passage through the Suez Canal. The Italians were, after all, entirely dependent on the canal for access to east Africa and the Royal Navy was more than able to undertake such an operation. However, from the perspective of 1935, there were a number of factors that conspired to stay Britain’s hand. Firstly, and most importantly, Britain was extremely wary of alienating Mussolini, who was still seen as an important counterweight to the greater threat posed by Hitler’s Germany, and indeed had only recently been brought into the ‘Stresa Front’ with Britain and France, which sought to contain Hitler. Moreover, the public mood in Britain was still largely pacifist in 1935. The principle of collective security had not yet been shown to have failed, and consequently there was a widespread desire to defer to the League of Nations in dealing with Mussolini’s aggression. Sanctions did, of course, follow, but these were largely ineffectual. There was also the issue of logistics. Given that Italy had two other colonies in east Africa – Eritrea and Somaliland – and that much of the build up of troops and materiel began well before the invasion itself, it would have been very difficult for the British to second-guess Italian intentions, let alone act in such a precipitate and aggressive manner. The Italian invasion of Abyssinia would carry profound strategic consequences: undermining the ideals of collective security and ultimately propelling Mussolini into an ever-closer relationship with Hitler. Yet, Britain had little desire to hinder Italy’s actions by closing the Suez Canal. In the face of the more serious and immediate threat posed by Hitler, few were willing to alienate Mussolini by frustrating his ambitions in far-off east Africa.» (Historyextra, April 11, 2011).

Milanese elite: « On December 1st, 1912, Benito Mussolini became managing editor of Avanti ! Just before he left Forli for his new office, he lost his father. Alessandro Mussolini was only fifty-seven at the time of his death. Mussolini paid tribute to him in his autobiography just as he did to his mother. “The Romagna,” he writes, “a spirited district with traditions of struggle for freedom against foreign oppressions, knew my father’s merit. He wrestled year in and year out with endless difficulties, and he had lost the small family patrimony by helping friends who had gone beyond their depth in the political struggle.” His father’s death marked the end of the unity of the Mussolini family. Benito “plunged forward into big politics” when he settled in Milan... » (Campanelli, id., p.52); « The death of his father freed him from all ties with his native province. In December the young agitator was entrusted with the editorship of the Avanti ! the official organ of the [Socialist] Party, and in France, Georges Sorel commented on him with the now well-known words: ‘Your Mussolini is no ordinary Socialist. Believe me, one day perhaps you will see him at the head of a sacred battalion, saluting with his sword the Italian flag. He is an Italian of the fifteenth century, a condottiero [leader, commander]. We do not yet know, but he is the only man of energy capable of repairing the weaknesses of the Government.’ The new editor of the Avanti ! was not yet thirty years of age when he came to live in the great industrial city of Milan with its masses of working men.» (Pini, 1939, p.62); « Mussolini is a leader. Hitler defined him as “one of those solitary men who are not protagonists” in history, but who make history themselves.» (Pini, id., p.190).

Bringing relief of Milanese elite
: « By this time [15 September 1943], German intelligence had discovered Mussolini’s whereabouts. After holding him first on the island of Ponza and then on La Maddalena, Marshal Badoglio had him moved secretly to a ski resort north of Rome in the Apennines, known as Gran Sasso. Hitler, horrified by this humiliation of his ally [Milanese elite], ordered a rescue attempt [Bringing relief]. On 12 September, Hauptsturmführer Otto Skorzeny, with a force of Waffen-SS special troops in eight gliders, crash-landed on the mountain. The Carabinieri guarding him did not resist. Mussolini embraced Skorzeny, saying that he knew his friend Adolf Hitler would not abandon him. He was flown out and brought to the Wolfsschanze [or Wolf’s Lair, Führer headquarters near Rastenburg].» (Beevor, 2012, p.503-504).

Duc yeulx privé (Duke eyes deprived): = Duc privé [des] yeulx (The Duke deprived of his eyes), the preposition “de (of)” being omitted for the prophetic embroilment of the quatrain.

Yeulx (Eyes): « ŒIL (Eye), plur. YEUX. – Fam. Avoir, tenir qqn à l’œil: sous une surveillance qui ne se relâche pas (Familiar usage. To have, to hold someone with the eye: to have, to hold... under the unrelaxed surveillance). – Avoir l’œil à tout: veiller à tout (To have the eye on all: to watch for everything).» (Petit Robert). Sometimes in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, “eye” is a metaphor for another thing, for example, for a female spouse of a man (I-6, §661), for the capital of a country (III-92, §809), for a watch on sea (IV-15, §254), for a King (VII-11, §154) and the Sun in the sky (X-70, §897). Here, it is a metaphor for ‘an administration of state, a reigning power, a governmental authority’.

The Duke deprived of his eyes: « Privé du pouvoir, le Duce sera exécuté et son corps transporté à Milan... (Deprived of the power, the Duce shall be executed and his body transported to Milan...) » (Luni, 1998, p.377); Mussolini loses twice [eyes] his administration of state, first that of the Kingdom of Italy in July 1943 and secondly that of the Republic of Salo in April 1945: « JULY 25 [1943] Home Front: ItalyMUSSOLINI RESIGNS and is arrested on the orders of King Victor Emmanuel(Argyle, 1980, p.136); « 25 April [1945]. In Milan, a meeting of Mussolini with the leaders of the Resistance. Mussolini settles himself on 17 April 1945 in Milan where are assembled the most important fascist forces and where he thinks himself to have the greatest liberty of maneuver: either to negotiate with CLNAI (the Committee of Liberation of Upper Italy) or to attempt to refuge in Valteline or in Switzerland. A Milanese industrialist, Cella, member of CLNAI, anxious to avoid battles in the city, proposes to the fascists and resistants an assembly at the house of the archbishop, Cardinal Schuster. The meeting takes place on 25 April. It assembles Mussolini, Graziani, several responsible persons of the Republic of Salo and, face to face, three leaders of CLNAI, General Cadorna, Lombardi and Marazzo. these latter persons demand an unconditional surrender. The Duce wants to reflect and withdraws. He seems resolved to agitate in front of the Resistance the menace which the German army constitutes. But the latter decides to surrender. So Mussolini quits Milan and orients himself toward Como.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.501); « 28 April [1945]. After the failure of his attempt of negotiation on 25 April 1945 in Milan, Mussolini, Clara Petacci and 15 leaders of the Republic of Salo join a German column which climbs up toward Valteline. On 27 April, the group is arrested by the partisans; these authorize the Germans to pursue their way, if they deliver the fascists who are with them. The officer commanding the column agrees to it. Before letting them depart, the resistants go thoroughly into the vehicles and discover Mussolini who tries to hide himself under the uniform of a German soldier. Thereafter, the destiny of Mussolini and his companions is sealed. In fact, the article 5 of the judicial code enacted by the Committee of Liberation stipulates that all the leaders of the fallen regime and all the fascists taken with arms are condemned to death. Moreover, the resistants do not want that the former master of the country should fall into the hands of the Allies: the punishment of the Duce concerns only the Italians. On 28 April, after Mussolini and Clara Petacci had passed the night at the village of Dongo [on the west bank of Lake Como, 75 km north of Milan], a communist officer, Colonel Valerio, by his true name Walter Audisio, makes the prisoners delivered to him and, with his own hands, executes Mussolini [The Duke deprived of his eyes] and his mistress. Then, he makes the other 15 fascist leaders fired, among them are 5 ministers of the government of Salo.» (Kaspi, id., p.505).

The expression: « 
The Duke deprived of his eyes » does not imply that physically and really Mussolini had been deprived of his eyes: « ... Claretta’s face was not that of a doll. Men were struck by its beauty beneath the dirt and the smears of blood. Her eyes, which were open when sha was first tied up, had closed slowly. She looked gentle and at peace. She seemed even to be smiling. Mussolini’s tortured features expressed no such contentment. Some men thought they saw in the line of his swollen mouth and in the sightless, staring eyes a look of hopeless despair, but most of them could see no more than the ghastly travesty of a mudsplashed face.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.371-372).

à Milan fer de caige (in Milan iron of a cage): = fer de caige à Milan (iron of a cage in Milan), the phrase “à Milan (in Milan)” being more fitting to the noun “fer de caige (iron of a cage) than to “Duc yeulx privé (Duke eyes deprived)” because of the concerned historical facts: « On 29 April [1945], the corpses are transferred to Milan [in Milan] and exposed at Loreto Place, where, on 14 August 1944, the Nazis had fired 15 hostages. The crowd, unchained, hang them by the legs from the facade of a garage [iron of a cage].» (Kaspi, id., p.505). « The bodies of Mussolini and Claretta were put in the back of the car, which then drove away in the rain to the main road at Azzano. Here the removal van was waiting to take them on to Milan, and they were thrown into it on top of the other corpses. In the early morning of 29 April 1945 the removal van, having passed through several American road-blocks, stopped infront of a half-built garage in Piazzale Loreto. It was a Sunday, The corpses were tipped out and lay in a tumbled confusion until dawn, when a passer-by arranged them in some sort of order. Mussolini was laid out a little way apart from the others with' his head and shoulders on Claretta’s breasts. By nine o’clock a large crowd had gathered and the people in it were shouting and jumping up and down to get a closer view. ‘Who is it you want to see?’ an immense partisan, his bare arms covered with blood, called out to the screaming people. ‘Pavolini’, a man called back. Then another voice shouted ‘Bombacci’, and others ‘Mussolini’, ‘Petacci’, ‘Buffarini-Guidi’. The partisan lifted each up in turn, gripping them under the armpits, holding them high above his head. ‘Higher!’ the crowd shouted. ‘Higher! Higher! We can’t see.’ ‘String them up!’ a loud voice called authoritatively. Ropes were found and tied round the corpses’ ankles. Mussolini was pulled up first, the soles of his split boots pointing upwards towards the overwhelming girders of the garage roof [iron of a cage], his head about six feet from the ground. His face was the colour of putty and splashed with red stains, and his mouth was open still. The crowd cheered wildly, and those in the front row spat at him and threw what filth they could find. Claretta Petacci was drawn up next...» (Hibbert, 1965, p.369-371).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§836 The Sun in Aquarius, 1944 (1944.1.22): VI-52.

VI-52 (§836):

At the place of the great who shall be condemned,
His friend in his place shall make him out of prison:
The Trojan hope in six months attained, shall be annihilated,
Shall be born with the Sun in Aquarius, the rivers in ice shall be breached.

(En lieu du grand qui sera condemné,
De prison hors son amy en sa place:
L'espoir Troyen en six moys joinct, mort nay,
Le Sol à l'urne seront prins fleuves en glace.)

NOTES: At the place of the great who shall be condemned, His friend in his place shall make him out of prison: = At the place [Gran Sasso] of the great [Benito Mussolini] who shall be condemned [who shall be arrested and prisoned], His friend [Adolf Hitler, his ally] in his place [Italy’s master occupying her] shall make him out of prison (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.531).

Troyen (Trojan): Of the 5 usages of the term: Troyen/Troien in all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, 4 in the same expression "sang Troyen (the Trojan blood)" refer to the French King Henri IV (I-19, II-61, V-74 and V-87: "The French in the 16th century considered themselves issuing from a Trojan Francus" - Brind'Amour, 1993, p.36) and 1 to the city of Rome (VI-52). 

L'espoir Troyen (The Trojan hope): « According to the tradition, the Romans were the descendants of the Trojans who, after the destruction of Troy, settled themselves with Eneas in Latium. This city is therefore a metonymy of Rome. “The Trojan hope” is then the hope of the Allies to occupy Rome, in imitation of the hope of the ancient Greeks to occupy Troy.» (Ionescu, id.); « SEPTEMBER 3 Sea War Med. INVASION OF CALABRIA (S. Italy): 13th Corps (8th Army) crosses from Sicily to Reggio di Calabria preceded by 900-gun barrage (Op. Baytown). SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – British capture Salerno. Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. SEPTEMBER 11 British 8th Army capture Brindisi.» (Argyle, 1980, p.135-140); « SEPTEMBER 9 Sea War: Med. ALLIES LAND AT SALERNO: US 5th Army (Lt.-Gen. Mark Clark) and British 10th Corps land at Salermo, S. of Naples (Op. Avalanche).» (Argyle, 1980, p.139).

Joindre: « JOINDRE. Atteindre (To attain, to reach), rejoindre [qqn] (to rejoin [someone]).» (Petit Robert).

L’urne: « A metaphor for Aquarius (22 January – 22 February).» (Ionescu, id.).

L'espoir Troyen en six moys joinct, mort nay, Le Sol à l'urne: The duly punctuated construction will be as follows: L'espoir Troyen en six moys joinct [sera] mort [et sera] nay [quand] le Sol [sera] à l'urne = The Trojan hope in six months attained shall be annihilated, shall be born with the Sun in Aquarius.

The Trojan hope in six months attained: « The Allied invasion of mainland Italy in September 1943 had seemed a good idea at the same time, with the collapse of Fascism and the promise of airfields... Wishful thinking that the Allies would soon be in Rome [The Trojan hope in six months attained] had infected American commanders as well as Churchill. Mark Clark was absolutely determined to be crowned as its conqueror, and even Eisenhower believed that the Italian capital would fall by the end of October. Alexander [the commander of the Allied 15th Army Group in Italy including British Eighth Army and US Fifth Army] declared unwisely that they would be in Florence by Christmas.» (Beevor, 2012, p.528-529).

The Trojan hope in six months attained shall be annihilated: « But there were already clear indications that the Germans would fight ruthlessly in retreat and take their revenge on Italian troops and partisans, who were actively helping the Allies. Hitler’s fury against the Italians for having changed sides had filtered right down to the ordinary German soldier. Clark’s Fifth Army, advancing north-west from Naples, faced its first major obstacle at the River Volturno, thirty kilometres further on. In the early hours of 13 October, both divisional and corps artillery opened a massive barrage across the valley. The British 56th Division had a tough time near the coast, but the main stretch of the river, although broad, was fordable, and by the following day a large bridgehead had been secured. The Volturno was only a holding position for the Germans, for Kesselring had already identified their main line of defence south of Rome. Like Hitler, he wanted to hold the Allies as far down the peninsula as possible. Rommel, who commanded the German divisions in the north and argued for a withdrawal, had been sidelined. Both Allied armies discovered in the next stage of the advance that the mountainous terrain and the weather did not present the ‘sunny Italy’ which they had imagined from pre-war tourist posters. That autumn in Italy was like the Russian rasputitsa of constant rain and deep mud. Late autumn downpours turned the rivers to raging torrents and tracks to quagmires, ant the retreating Germans had blown every bridge and mined every route. The Germans conducted their withdrawal with defended roadblocks and mines, covered by well-camouflaged anti-tank guns. Narrow roads in narrow valleys, and well-defende hilltop villages, meant that the infantry had to take over point position. Less than thirty kilometres north of the Volturno, the advance came to a complete halt. The Gustav or Winter Line, selected by Kesselring, ran 140 kilometres from just below Ortona on the Adriatic to the Gulf of Gaeta on the Tyrrhenian side. This was the narrowest part of the Italian boot and well chosen for defence. The Gustav Line had the natural fortress of Monte Cassino as its main strongpoint. All the unguarded optimism of the Allied commanders evaporated... [The Trojan hope in six months attained shall be annihilated].» (Beevor, id., p.529-530).

The Trojan hope shall be born with the Sun in Aquarius: « It was decided to defeat the Gustav Line, anchored on Monte Cassino, by outflanking it in force: the Allies would land General Lukas’ US/British Vi Corps on the west coast at Anzio (Operation Shingle), only 30 miles south of Rome. The plan was to push rapidly inland to cut the enemy’s lines of communication between Rome and the Gustav Line, drawing forces north. The US 3rd and British 1st Infantry Divisions went ashore virtually unopposed on 22 January 1944 [the Sun in Aquarius]...» (Brayley, 2002, p.21).

The rivers in ice: « Le front restera glacé (The fronts shall remain stabilized).» (Ionescu, id., p.532).

The river in ice shall be breached:
« ... But General Lukas then dug in to wait for a build-up of resources, rather than dashing inland. The Germans quickly took advantage of this delay, sealing off the beachhead, where men and assets badly needed elsewhere were bottled up for four months, with damaging results. The British 5th & 56th Infantry Divisions from X Corps were shipped in to join the 1st Division during February and March. The Gustav Line, with its western strongpoint of Monte Cassino blocking any advance up the Liri Valley towards Rome, would have to be taken by frontal assault. Anzio had been intended to draw German forces away from Cassino: now it became essential to draw them away from beleaguered Anzio by pushing hard at Cassino. Between January and May 1944, in atrocious weather, some of the bitterest fighting of the war took place during four separate and costly battles to take Cassino. British divisions involved were 5th, 46th & 56th on the Garigliano in January/February; 2nd NZ & 4th Indian, mid-February and mid-March; 78th British, 3rd & 5th Polish Divisions, mid-May. The pulverised ruins of Cassino town and the infamous monastery eventually fell in mid-May 1944 [8 months after Reggio-Salerno landing], with 8th Army formations switched to the west flank to join the US 5th Army and the Free French Corps in the drive up the Liri (Operation ‘Diadem’ – 4th & 78th British, 8th Indian & 1st Canadian Infantry Divisions of XIII Corps). Simultaneously the defenders of the Anzio beachhead broke out. The Germans pulled back to their prepared ‘Hitler’ [cf. Beevor, 2012, p.490 Chart: Sicily and Italy
July 1943 – June 1944] and ‘Dora’ lines, but despite hard rearguard fighting General Alexander’s advance prevented them from consolidating and they were soon pushed north [The river in ice shall be breached]. The glory of taking Rome – an undefended ‘open city’ – proved too much of a lure for General Clark; he diverged from his agreed axis of advance, opening a gap between the US and British armies through which the retreating German 10th Army escaped. He achieved his ambition of liberating Rome on 5 June; but by a twist of fate he was denied much of the fame he had no doubt expected – the following day the Allied landings in Normandy reduced his parade to a side show in the world’s news media.» (Brayley, id., p.21-22.).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§837 The Germano-Italian Axis; Malta and Genoa (1940-1945): IV-68.

IV-68 (§837):

In the year at a point nearest Venus, at another not remote from Venus,
The two greatest of Asia and of Africa who
Shall have come, they’ll say, from the Rhine and Danube,
Cries, weeps in Malta and in the Ligurian direction.

(En l'an bien proche non esloigné de Venus,
Les deux plus grans de l'Asie & d'Affrique
Du Ryn & hister qu'on dira sont venus,
Crys, pleurs à Malte & costé ligustique.)

NOTES: About this extremely ambiguous quatrain, the various significant comments bequeathed to us by our predecessors may induce us to its clearer understanding: « Asia = Russia.» (Fontbrune, 1939, p.172); « In 1941... certainly, those who “have come from the Rhine and Danube” have traveled far this year. There are German armies on the march in Russia and Africa... Doubtless many Axis air raids upon Malta have evoked “cries and tears” and British battleships bombarded Genoa on February 9, 1941 [cf. Kaspi, p.117], pouring thundering broadsides into the hapless port. Lygustique is used for Genoa by poetic license, being derived from the old Roman and modern Italian province of Liguria, whereof Genoa is the capital. The Hitler-Mussolini alliance... » (Boswell, 1941, p.226-227); « Malta represents England... The great one of Africa is Mussolini.» (Lamont, 1944, p.185); « A clear prophecy for Hitler, the Axis Alliance, and early battles of World War II. The first [of the two greatest ones] is Italy represented here by her extensive African colonies.» (Hogue, 1997, p.351); « The translators who insist upon reading Hister as Hitler tend to ignore the disconcerting fact that Nostradamus used the same river name in another verses.» (Ovason, 1939, p.297).

In order to analyse right the most difficult verse of the first line, it is necessary for us to begin with relatively more understandable phrases of the second, and then the third:

The two greatest of Asia and of Africa: These qualifications seem to refer respectively to Hitler and Mussolini at the apogee of their aggressive expansionism in the middle of 1942 because:

1° Hitler has then occupied the south-western part of the USSR (cf.
Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 17-4 Barbarossa and back), anciently called “SAVROME” (§800, III-58): = « Sauromatae, See Sarmatae.» (Smith-Lockwood); « Sarmatae, pl. the Sarmatians; a barbarous people, who occupied the eastern parts of Europe; esp. portions of S.E. Russia; Sarmatia, their country.» (Smith-Lockwood); « SARMATIE (Sarmatia), A vast region which extended, in Europe and in Asia, between the Baltic Sea and the Caspian Sea, north of the Black Sea. It was divided into Occidental or European Sarmatia and Oriental or Asiatic Sarmatia. The first contained the countries now called Russia of Europe and Poland; the second included a part of the countries designated under the names of Siberia and Tartary and those situated between the Tanaïs [the Don], the Caucassus and the Caspian Sea.» (Landais).

According to Ptolemy (Tetrabiblos, p.128-159), our inhabited world is divided roughly into four quarters by the two grand crossed lines: the north-west quarter, the south-east quarter, the north-east quarter and the south-west quarter, in other words, Europe, the South of Greater Asia, the North of Greater Asia and Libya (today Africa); the vertical line of demarcation passes the Red Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and the horizontal line of demarcation passes the Mediterranean and its eastern prolongation of moutainous terrain; the point of intersection is situated at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean in the south-eastern open sea off the island of Cyprus.

« Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, embracing Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana,... [note by the translator: Of these Armenia lies south of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian; Matiana and Hyrcania are around the south end of the Caspian, the former to the east and the latter to the west; Bactriana, Oxiana, and Sogdiana are still further east, around the upper courses of the Oxus; by Casperia is probably meant the region around the northern part of the Caspian Sea; Serica is China, or its western portion, and Sauromatica (called Sarmatia by the Romans) is the general name of Russia, here used of its Asiatic part. In the Geography, vi. 12, Ptolemy treats Oxiana as but one part of Sogdiana (Boll, Studien, p.205).].» (Tetrabiblos, p.145).

2° Mussolini’s « Italy represented here by her extensive African colonies [i.e., Lybia, Italian East Africa and Ethiopia]» (Hogue, id.) (cf. Duby, p.263 Chart C. The Partition of Africa).

Venir (To come): « V
ENIR DE.(To come from). 1° (With a complement marking the start point of displacement, the origin of the movement, the provenance). 2° (With a complement of origin). To come from, to spring from.» (Petit Robert).

Du Ryn & hister qu'on dira sont venus (who shall have come, they’ll say, from the Rhine and Danube): These two greatest rivers of Occidental Europe figuratively represent the above mentioned “two greatest of Asia and Africa”, namely Hitler and Mussolini above all in their resemblance of characteristcs because the sources of their principal branches (the Julia of the Rhine and the Inn of the Danube) are situated respectively upon the opposite side of the same watershed which crosses the summit of the Julierpass (2,284m above sea level) in Albula Alpen, Switzerland (cf. RV Verlag, Euro Atlas Die Alpen, p.33, 34 and 52); « Mussolini agreed to sign a formal military alliance with Germany. He dubbed it the Pact of Steel, and Ciano signed it on May 22 in Berlin. The Pact of Steel put the official stamp on the Rome-Berlin Axis. But although it involved the fates of millions of Italians and Germans, the alliance was based almost exclusively on the personal relationship between the two dictators, many of whose own advisors expressed indifference or outright hostility over the new partnership. Hitler and Mussolini paid them no mind. Indeed, the two leaders found plenty of common ground. For one thing, they were both essentially self-educated men who had risen from humble beginnings. Having been underestimated by the opposition, they had skillfully exploited the explosive political atmosphere following World War I by playing on fears of communism, making deals with big business, and preaching a sermon of nationalism in which both men genuinely believed. Despite some public comments to the contrary, both reveled in the idea of aggressive war and sought to expand their power and prestige at the expense of other nations. Neither knew much about such practical affairs of state as economics. T varying degrees, Hitler and the Duce both employed violence for the purpose of silencing potential enemies and achieving their political ends. Both dictators also understood the value of propaganda and the importance of politics as theater. Both had studied and praised a book by Gustave Le Bon called The crowd, which discusses the nature of mass psychology, and compelling oratory was given a central place in their respective bids for power. They also believed that the very personality of a charismatic leader could be a crucial factor in the success of a political movement. Each man carried on a long-term affair with a much younger woman. Hitler enjoyed the company of the innocuous but steadfastly loyal Eva Braun. Mussolini, who was married and had fathered several children, carried on a stormy affair with the more flamboyant Claretta Petacci. Both men later died in the company of their mistresses, each of whom made a conscious decision to share the fate of her lover. Hitler and the Duce were solitary souls who lived almost exclusively for their exercise of their personal power and the goal of national greatness, as they defined it. Over time, Hitler succeeded in convincing himself that he was the human embodiment of the German state, the infallible Messiah without whom Germany could not achieve true greatness. In similar fashion, Mussolini was billed as a modern incarnation of the ancient Caesars, an all-knowing scholar-warrior who worked tirelessly to elevate Italy’s position in the world at the expense of his personal comforts... To Hitler, Mussolini was that rarest birds: a world leader on his own level. In other words, Hitler viewed the Duce as a fellow Nietzschean Superman. Yet there was always an intangible element in Hitler’s feelings toward the Duce – a depth of emotion – that exceeded political calculations. But Hitler was nonetheless aware that his alliance with Italy was more of a burden than an asset. “The Axis must face the fact that it is saddled with Italy,” Hitler admitted in May 1943, a few months before the Italian coup. Yet through it all, Hitler genuinely spoke of Mussolini with admiration and warmth. Mussolini’s feelings toward Hitler were more complicated. Over time, Mussolini became impressed with Germany’s military might and what he viewed as the powerful personality of the Fuerer. The Duce, who was wont to say that Italy had too many guitar players and not enough warriors, was instinctively drawn to strength, which Hitler exuded in spades. “Nothing about Hitler aroused his Italian co-dictator’s envy more than his soldiers,” observed Eugen Dollmann, who as an interpreter had observed the two men together on numerous occasions, “and this was the fatal origin of their curious friendship, which was based on a truly Freudian mixture of love and hatred. Everything the Fuerer had – Stukas, tanks, submarines, countless divisions, paratroops, elite corps – the Duce wanted too, heedless of his limited resources and the total lack of interest and enthusiasm evinced by the overwhelming majority of his people.” Once World War II had broken out, Mussolini was also fascinated by Hitler’s military successes, “the only successes that Mussolini really values and desires,” according to Ciano.» (Annussek, 2005, p.47-56).

Each of the two elements of the expression « Ryn & hister » are not to be allotted to either of the two dictators in such a way as the Rhine to Hitler and the Danube to Mussolini or the Rhine to Mussolini and the Danube to Hitler, which has no pertinent reason because in the text of the edition № 9 of the Prophecies of Nostradamus we can see the typography « hilter [a perfect anagram of Hitler] » in place of « Hister » found in the other editions and even if « hilter » is considered to be allotted to Hitler, then « Ryn » has no cause to be drawn to Mussolini. It is reasonable that the expression « Ryn & hister » is a single, indivisible unit with a meaning of the common characteristics of the two men.

Cries, weeps in Malta
: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War: - First RAF bombing raids on Italian airfields in Libya and E. Africa cause great damage (3 British aircraft lost). 2 Italian raids on Malta; 35 civilians, 6 British soldiers killed.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « JANUARY 16 [1941] Air War: - Stukas escorted by Italian fighters raid Malta, inflicting further damage on carrier Illustrious and damaging cruiser Perth. (Illustrious again damaged by bombing Jan. 19).» (Argyle, id., p.55); « MARCH 23 [1941] Air War: - Stukas with fighter escort carry out major raid on Malta: 13 Stukas shot down (2 RAF fighters lost), but British decide on immediate withdrawal of all bombers and flying boats.» (Argyle, id., p.58); « MARCH 1 [1942] Air War: - Severe raids on Malta. RAF night raid on shipping at Tripoli.» (Argyle, id., p.87); « MARCH 4 [1942] Air War: - 394 raids on Malta, by day and night, over previous 2 months.» (Argyle, id., p.88); « MARCH 21 [1942] Air War – Heavy raids on Malta.» (Argyle, id., p.89); « APRIL 3 [1942] Air War: - Luftwaffe spokesman admits that the Luftwaffe has been unable to neutrarize Malta because of its ‘tremendously strong’ anti-aircraft defences and subterranean storerooms.» (Argyle, id., p.90); « APRIL 16 [1942] Home Front: MaltaGEORGE CROSS AWARDED TO MALTA in recognition of untold heroism of entire civilian and military population during countless enemy raids.» (Argyle, id., p.91); « OCTOBER 11 [1942] Air War – Axis air forces launch final major air offensive against Malta – but Spitfires inflict heavy losses.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « NOVEMBER 8 [1942] Air War – Luftwaffe losses in Malta raids, Jan.1-Nov. 8, 1942: 172 bombers and 99 fighters.» (Argyle, id., p.111).

Cries, weeps in the Ligurian direction
: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy – La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).

En l'an bien proche non esloigné de Venus (Literally: In the year very near not remote from Venus): = In the year [at a date] very near [to Venus], [at another] not remote from Venus = [At a date] very near [to Venus], [at another] not remote from Venus in the year.

The seemingly incongruous expression: « bien proche non esloigné de Venus » is to be divided into the two different natural expressions: « bien proche de Venus » and « non esloigné de Venus », which are referring respectively to Hitler and Mussolini as to their date of birth which is situated at a certain temporal point in a year marked by a month and a day. And « Venus » as a zodiacal sign can designate a certain period of a year through its domiciles: Taurus (21 April-20 May) and Libra (23 September-21 October) (cf. Brind’Amour, 1993, p.322; Nagata, 1982, p.242).

Now the date of birth of Hitler is 20 April 1889 and that of Mussolini 29 July 1883: the former is very close to Taurus  (20-21 April) [bien proche de Venus] and the latter is not far from Libra (29 July-23 September) [non esloigné de Venus].

By the way, the birth-place of Hitler is predicted in the quatrain III-58 (§800) as « Near the Rhine of the Austrian mountains Shall be born a great of the people (Aupres du Rin des montaignes Noriques Naistra un grand de gents) », where « at first view, it seems strange to say that the Rhine is in the “mountains of Austria”, which is, with respect to this river, just on the opposite side of Germany. But in fact ‘Rin (the Rhine)’ is composed of R. and IN and will signify “the River INN” that in truth traverses “Noricum” and upon which is situated the town of Braunau, where Hitler shall be born. On the other hand, one can take the word Rin in its etymological sense, that will signify “river” and in this way we are shown the river that passes the “Austrian mountains”, which is not but the Inn.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.492). In this context, Hitler is said to be born upon the Inn which is a principal branch of the Danube. Therefore the Danube of the quatrain IV-68 may be allotted to him, while Mussolini, next to Hitler in politico-military strength of their state, is somehow worth the Rhine, the second longest river of the Occidental Europe next to the Danube. On the contrary, the longest river is naturally fitting to the senior Mussolini six years older than Hitler. And as a whole, the Rhine is situated mainly in Germany, Hitler’s own Reich, and the Danube is more adjacent to Italy of Mussolini. In conclusion, the two rivers are needless to be identified with them.

As to the birth-place of Mussolini, the quatrain IX-2 (§771) predicted in a roundabout way as follows: « Rome rejected by Rimini and Prato (D'Arimin Prato, Columna debotez) »: « Mussolini had begun to write his autobiography: I was born on July 29, 1883 at Varnano dei Costa, near the village of Dovia itself near that of Predappio. The village of Predappio is situated upon the axis Rimini-Prato, equally distant from the two cities, or about 50 km apart.» (Fontbrune, 1980, p.324); Columna: = « Colonne in Italy.» (Fontbrune, id., p.323) = Colonna, a small town near Rome to its east, representing the parties in opposition in the political centre Rome.

Thus, the place and the date of the two contemporary homogeneous dictators are completely set up in the Prophecies of Nostradamus.
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 

§838 Italy and her neighbors in WWII (1940-1945): X-60.

X-60 (§838):

I deplore Nice, Monaco, Pisa, Genoa,
Savona, Siena, Capua, Modena, Malta,
The top being blood and blade as gifts,
Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples.

(Je pleure Nisse, Monnego, Pize, Gennes,
Savone, Sienne, Capue, Modene, Malte,
Le dessus sang & glaive par estrennes,
Feu trembler terre, eau malheureuse nolte.)

NOTES: This quatrain is just the enlargement of the wartime of Italy and her neighbors in the quatrain IV-68 (§837), where it is said that « Crys, pleurs à Malte & costé ligustique (Cries, weeps in Malta and in the Ligurian direction) ». Nice, Monaco and Savona of this quatrain are included in the Ligurian direction, and Capua, Siena, Pisa and Modena are on the route of the Allied slow, but offensive and triumphant advance against the Axis retreating from the south toward the north of the Italian Peninsula in WWII, Capua being just before the Gustav Line, Siena and Pisa in front of the Gothic Line and Modena in the last decisive battlefield of Emilia-Romagna; « X-60 (1944) Die Heimsuchung Italiens vom Norden bis zum Süden im zweiten Weltkrieg als Folge eines bösen Geschenkes, nämlich der faschistischen Lehren und Maximen (The Italians’ disasters from the north to the south in WWII as a result of a vicious gift, namely of Fascist doctrine and maxim).» (Centurio, 1953, p.224).

Estrenne: = « ÉTRENNE. (1636; estreine, estraine « cadeau [a gift]» ).»
(Petit Robert).

Trembler terre (To shake the earth/the earth shall tremble): This phrase, together with “Tremblement de terre (tremble of the earth)”, is a manner of saying preferred by Nostradamus for expressing « A war/ a war to take place » (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.459). All of the 12 usages of this expression in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are in this sense without exception (I-20, I-46, I-93, II-52, III-3, VI-66, VI-88, VIII-29, IX-31, IX-83, X-60 and X-79). Moreover, of the other 24 phrases including the word “trembler (to tremble)”, 17 are yet in this sense (I-57, I-82bis, I-87, II-68, II-86, IV-54, IV-90, V-27, V-50, V-61, V-68, IX-33, IX-60bis, IX-94 and X-67) as well as the other 5 with an expression of ‘fear’ (III-88, IV-5, IV-36, V-23 and XII-65) and only the remaining 2 are allotted otherwise (II-64: enfeebling of laws; V-49: shake of the regime). In conclusion, 34 of 36 usages of the word “trembler (to tremble)” are designed to signify the war.

Eau, eaux, eaue, eaulx: « The waters are peoples, the crowd, races and languages (Apoc., XVII, 15), namely the masses of ancient Rome blaspheming and persecuting the Christians. Thence the inundation, invasion, overflowing of the peoples).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.204; p.111. Cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.38-39), or « drowning by the revolutionaries » (id. 1861, p.94). Of 30 examples of the words eau, eaue, eaux and eaulx, 11 are in this sense: I-11, II-54, II-87, III-70, V-86, V-87, VI-10, VIII-7, IX-51, X-10 and X-60.

Eau malheureuse
: = The unhappy peoples.


I deplore Malta… The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War: - 2 Italian raids on Malta; 35 civilians, 6 British soldiers killed.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « JANUARY 16 [1941] Air War: - Stukas escorted by Italian fighters raid Malta, inflicting further damage on carrier Illustrious and damaging cruiser Perth. (Illustrious again damaged by bombing Jan. 19).» (Argyle, id., p.55); « MARCH 23 [1941] Air War: - Stukas with fighter escort carry out major raid on Malta: 13 Stukas shot down (2 RAF fighters lost), but British decide on immediate withdrawal of all bombers and flying boats.» (Argyle, id., p.58); « MARCH 1 [1942] Air War: - Severe raids on Malta. RAF night raid on shipping at Tripoli.» (Argyle, id., p.87); « MARCH 4 [1942] Air War: - 394 raids on Malta, by day and night, over previous 2 months.» (Argyle, id., p.88); « MARCH 21 [1942] Air War – Heavy raids on Malta.» (Argyle, id., p.89); « APRIL 3 [1942] Air War: - Luftwaffe spokesman admits that the Luftwaffe has been unable to neutralize Malta because of its ‘tremendously strong’ anti-aircraft defences and subterranean storerooms.» (Argyle, id., p.90); « APRIL 16 [1942] Home Front: MaltaGEORGE CROSS AWARDED TO MALTA in recognition of untold heroism of entire civilian and military population during countless enemy raids.» (Argyle, id., p.91); « OCTOBER 11 [1942] Air War – Axis air forces launch final major air offensive against Malta – but Spitfires inflict heavy losses.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « NOVEMBER 8 [1942] Air War – Luftwaffe losses in Malta raids, Jan.1-Nov. 8, 1942: 172 bombers and 99 fighters.» (Argyle, id., p.111).

Nolte: = a transformed Nolle as a rhyme for Malte of the second line. Cf. « les malheureux de Nolle » (§475, III-74).

Nolle: = Néo-polis (a new city) = Naples par excellence, as Nolle followed by Florence, Favence and Imole (§475, III-74) and Nolle (§89, VIII-38) which represents Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. Nolle is analogous to pole (II-49, III-57, VIII-81) or polle (VI-5, VI-21) which traces from the Greek
πόλις (polis, city) or πόλεις (poleis, cities) or πόλος (polos, pole, circle). Cf. pollitique: = political (VI-5) and Antipolles: = Antipodes (X-87).

Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples
: « Thus threatened from east and west, the German forces all along the [Brit.] 10 Corps started a withdrawal, and the tempo of our advance speeded up. On the 29th [September 1943] the bridge at Scafati was seized intact, although it had been prepared for demolition. By this action we secured the only bridge over the Sarno not destroyed by the Germans. Even so the many vehicles of the armored division were impeded by a bottleneck until three more bridges were thrown across the Sarno; then the British armor was ready for the dramatic plunge on Naples. At nightfall on 30 September troops of 10 Corps were surrounding Mt. Vesuvius. Naples was within our grasp, and at 0930, 1 October, armored patrols of the King’s Dragoon Guards entered the city. Naples had paid a very heavy price. Allied air raids had destroyed most of the harbor installations, and the damage was augmented by German destruction. In an attempt to deny dock and harbor facilities to Fifth Army the enemy scuttled ships at the piers and sunk others in the harbor; the pipelines had been ripped up and the unloading machinery systematically destroyed. Between Allied bombings and German demolitions the docks and storehouses along the waterfront of Naples were left a mass of ruins, crumbled stones, and fire-twisted steel. In addition the Germans had done their utmost to wreck all public utilities, including electricity, transportation, and water. A normal port capacity of 8000 tons daily had been cut to 10 percent, but by the clearing away of debris and the use of expedients such as DUKWs to unload the Liberty ships, 35000 tons daily were coming in at the port only twelve days after its capture. On 14 October unloading of American supplies was stopped at the Salerno beaches and was transferred to Naples; at this time 10 Corps was unloading at Naples, Torre Annunziata, Castellammare, and Salerno.» (Starr, 1986, p.35-36).

I deplore Capua Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « The capture of Naples gave us a much-needed port, but mere possession of the city itself did not constitute a fulfillment of the Fifth Army objective. The airfields at Capodichino and Pomigliano were not yet in Allied hands, and the enemy must be driven well away from Naples harbor. Troops of Fifth Army, accordingly, did not pause with the capture of the city. Though the usual delaying tactics of the Germans were in evidence along the entire front, Fifth Army drove to the Volturno River in the next five days. Advance elements of 10 corps reached the river on 5 October at Cancello-ed-Arnone, and on the following day the 56 Division occupied the town of Capua. On the right VI Corps had slower going in the mountains, but by 6 October the 3rrdd Division had pushed through Cancello and Maddaloni into the mountains above Caserta… » (Starr, id., p.36-37).

I deplore SienaFire, warfare, unhappy people: « Undoubtedly the most severe fighting anywhere in the Fifth Army zone during the advance to Highway 68 had been that on the 25 mile French front during 21-26 June [1944]. On the 20th the 3rd Algerian and 2d Moroccan Divisions had been stopped south of the Orcia River, where the Germans had a naturally strong position extending on east into the Eighth Army zone beyond Lake Trasimeno. The enemy had dug pits for his machine guns and riflemen and backed them with a larger concentration of artillery than he had used thus far north of Rome. The center of this line along the Orcia was the strongest, for on the east the river line gave way to hills and on the west the upper Ombrone River Valley formed a by-pass running toward Siena. The Orcia itself was easily fordable. The enemy garrison, however, was formidable, with part of the 20th GAF [German Air Force] Field Division, all of the 4th Parachute Division, and all of the 356th Grenadier Division from west to east; elements of the 26th Panzer and 29th Panzer Grenadier Divisions were also present. Although the total number of infantry in positions near the river did not appear to be large, crossfire from well sited automatic weapons raked the stream. After very little advance on the 22d the FEC [French Expeditionary Corps] put its emphasis on outflanking the line from the west. While the troops below the Orcia kept up their pressure, the Guillaume Group [the 1st Group of Tabors (battalion of Moroccan tribesmen) and the 1st Moroccan Infantry under General Guillaume], reinforced by the light armor of the 4th Moroccan Spahis, pushed north along the west side of the Ombrone, fording the river on the 24th and keeping pace with the 1st Armored Division on its left. The advance of IV Corps and the Guillaume Group began to unhinge the enemy line, and at noon on the 25th the 8th Moroccan Infantry succeeded in crossing the Orcia just west of Highway 2. Later in the day the 3rd Algerian Division to the left also crossed the stream against lighter opposition than previously. By the 26th the FEC was completely over the river; in the five days 22-26 June its casualties had amounted to 972 killed, wounded, and missing. To the right Eighth Army had also broken the section of the line before it, likewise after considerable casualties and fierce fighting. Throughout the 27th the enemy continued to resist stubbornly before the French, but in the night he began a hasty withdrawal, leaving behind delaying parties and demolitions to slow our advance on Siena. By 2 July we were close to the town, which the enemy promptly evacuated; at 0630, 3 July, Siena was in the hands of French troops. The advance continued despite further reliefs in the FEC for movement to Naples. All units of the 3rd Algerian Division had left by the 4th, being replaced by the 4th Mountain Division under General Sevez; the Pursuit Corps was also disbanded, and General Juin took over direct supervision of the remaining operations. At Poggibonsi and Colle di Val d’Elsa, on Highway 68 southwest of Poggibonsi, enemy opposition stiffened once again, but by the morning of the 7th the latter town was taken by the 4th Mountain Division. By evening all of Highway 68 was behind the forward elements of the FEC. Fifth Army was now everywhere up to or past the highway. On the left the 34th Division was already engaged in heavy battling on the approaches to Leghorn. Reliefs were planned to increase our strength on the right of IV Corps. To the east the French were ready to exploit the fall of Colle di Val d’Elsa, which had cleared Highway 68. The past two weeks had seen stiffening enemy resistance, resulting in the hardest fighting since the fall of Rome.» (Starr, id., p.285-286).

I deplore Pisa Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « Now the 34th Division was ready to pivot to the left and take Leghorn. The 135th infantry had been pushing slowly northwest over hilly country toward the port; on the 18th [July 1944] the 363d Regimental Combat Team returned to the 34th Division as Task Force Williamson under Brig. Gen. Raymond Williamson to execute a double thrust at Leghorn with the 135th Infantry. The latter continued its attack toward the southeastern part of the city while the 363d Infantry came in from the east, reaching the outskirts before midnight. At 0200, 19 July, the 3d Battalion, 135th Infantry, entered Leghorn after a brief skirmish with an enemy rear guard outside the city. The 2d battalion and the 1st and 2d Battalions, 363d Infantry, arrived a little more than two hours later. There was little fighting in the city, but it was found to be heavily mined and booby-trapped; almost all the port facilities were destroyed, and the harbor was partially blocked by sunken ships. In compliance with a corps order to advance the line completely to the Arno the 34th Division, now under Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, moved forward again on the 22d. The engineers had thrown bridges over the numerous canals north of Leghorn, and the troops reached the Arno without trouble. While the 442d and 168th Infantry came up on the right, the 363d Infantry entered Pisa at 1330, 23 July. The enemy had destroyed all bridges over the Arno and was content to hold the north bank. The rest of IV Corps was by this time already on the river. The 91st Division immediately to the right of the 34th Division had met stubborn German resistance in the first few days of its advance up the Era River valley, by 0800, 18 July, the advance guard of the 361st Infantry had reached Pontedera on the Arno. The division had closed up to the river by the 23rd. The other division in the line, the 88th under General Sloan, had taken over from the left elements of the 1st Armored Division on the 8th and likewise met considerable opposition in the first few days. To obviate attacking the high-lying town of Volterra our artillery and chemical mortars smoked it, and the division encircled it on the 8th, thus forcing the enemy to withdraw. At Laiatico, a small hilltop town eight miles northwest of Volterra, the Germans elected to make a stand before the 351st Infantry on the 11th, but in a second attack we took the town by a double envelopment which netted approximately 400 prisoners. Enemy resistance then slackened , and the division reached the high ground overlooking the Arno on the 18th. Since the FEC was somewhat behind IV Corps, task Force Ramey patrolled the east flank of the corps after 9 July, at first only with armor and then with some additional infantry from the 88th Division. The enemy had apparently expected the 1st Armored Division to continue the advance in this zone and had mined and booby-trapped almost every trail, but by methodical sweeping the force had gained the Arno by the 23d.» (Starr, id., p.290-291).

I deplore Modena Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « 1-14 April 1945. Everywhere on the level plain, which is highly cultivated and crisscrossed by ditches, there are roads, paved or graveled. From our lines north Highway 65 and 64 ran into Bologna, where the former ends; Highway 64 continues on to Ferrara, a short distance south of the Po. The main north-south road across the valley in the Army zone was highway 12, which originates at Pisa in the Arno Valley, crosses the mountains, and strikes Highway 9 at Modena. From Modena this highway continues almost due north across the Po at Ostiglia to the cities of Verona, Trent, and Bolzano, into the Brenner Pass, and eventually on to Austria. On the main front the emphasis had by now been shifted from Highway 65 to Highway 64 so as to work around the strong enemy defenses south of Bologna. Both II and IV Corps would attack abreast, the chief effort initially astride Highway 64 until the valley of Setta Creek had been cleared and the road junction of Praduro, 15 miles north of Vergato, had been gained. At this time the bulk of the troops would be concentrated west of the highway, ready to break out into the Po Valley between the Reno and Panaro. A minor effort would be made down Highway 65, but positions along this route were expected to fall relatively easily after the dominating high ground west of the road had been taken. The Americans to the west would be pointed roughly at Modena; the South Africans to the east would drive to encircle Bologna and gain contact with Eighth Army at Bondeno. It was also assumed that considerable time would elapse between the capture of Bologna on the one hand and the actual crossing of the Po on the other. Once the city was reached Highway 9 was to be developed as the main supply route for IV Corps, moving to the northwest, and Highway 12 for II Corps elements advancing north from Modena and Bologna toward Verona. Areas north and northwest of Bologna were tentatively chosen as future dump sites. Long study of photographs and maps of the Po resulted in the decision that the best possible crossing sites in the projected Army zone of attack were along a 20-mile stretch of the river extending from Ostiglia on Highway 12 west to Borgoforte, where the highway connecting Mantua and Reggio crossed the Po. Within this section of the river likely sites for assault crossings, ferries, and bridges were selected, and the engineers made careful plans for throwing floating and permanent bridges over the stream. Special emphasis in this planning was laid on the area between San Benedetto Po and Borgoforte, where the marshy ricefields about Ostiglia could be avoided; but a subsequent crossing at this latter site would be necessary to open up Highway 12 to Verona.» (Starr, id., p.390-393); 

« On 21 April [1945] Fifth Army launched the pursuit to the Po with II and IV Corps abreast, each in the strength of one armored division and two infantry divisions. Since Combat Command A [of the 1st Armored Division] had come up to Guastalla and Luzzaro on the west of the 10th Mountain Division during the morning of the 23d, IV Corps now held all its stretch of the Po and even had one division over the stream. The left bank of this penetration was protected until the 23d by Combat Command B [of the 1st Armored Division], battling up Highway 9 and blocking the roads from the mountains as it progressed. The Germans haggled over Panaro crossings east of Modena on the 22d and again on the next day at the Secchia west of that city, where Combat Command B, driving nearly due west south of the highway, was stopped. Modena itself was largely by-passed and left to the partisans to clear. The 34th division came up from Bologna and relieved the armor on Highway 9 on the 24th. Still farther to the left the Brazilian 1st Division emerged into the plain late on the 23d at Marano and Vignola and moved northwest along the foothills south of Highway 9. An interesting action was soon to develop in this area as the main forces of the Army continued their push north to Verona. On 21 April, as Bologna was being cleared, II Corps struck north for the Po. The pattern of resistance before II Corps bore some resemblance to that before IV Corps to the west. Units toward the Army center ran into less difficulty than those moving up on the right. The Panaro River constituted an obstacle which was more strongly defended around Finale on the eastern boundary than it was in the direction of Camposanto. The 1st and 4th Parachute Divisions suffered heavy losses but successfully covered Tenth Army’s flank in the retreat across the Po; the junction of Fifth and Eighth Armies near Bondeno was effected too late for maximum success.»
(Starr, id., p.419-424).

Nisse: = Nisse (X-87) = Nice (III-14, III-82, V-64, VII-30, IX-26).

I deplore NiceThe top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: Nice as a French territory occupied by Italy, then by Germany in WWII (cf. §821, I-71): « November 11, 1942 The [Italian] invasion of the French free zone. On 8 November [1942] at 22:45, the staff ordered General Vercellino to prepare for “the West Exigency”. The next day, the staff invited the Commander of the 4th Army to utilize all available automobile means in order to transport the greatest number of units possible; Vercellino replied that the deductions having been made, the possibilities of intervention should be limited to the basin of Modane and the county of Nice… On 10 November at 22:55 the staff ordered Vercellino to execute the West Exigency the next day… About 15 o’clock [November 11], the first soldiers of the 4th Army penetrated Nice, following the Promenade des Anglais with infantrymen, batteries of the horse artillery and motorized units in progressing toward the mouth of the Var, Cagnes-sur-Mer and Cannes.» (Panicacci, 2010, p.103-106); « The retaliations against the cities and the persons. Since 27 November 1942, the Commander of the 4th Army has anticipated the apprehension of the individuals caught in the act of defeatist propaganda, sabotage or cornering of arms. Another directive of December 4 invites the commanders of the large units, in case of attempt, to take hostages chosen among the obviously anti-Italian personalities: three hostages for an attempt without damage, five in case of material damages, ten in case of injured military, twenty for a soldier killed and forty for an officer killed.» (Panicacci, id., p.220-221); « July 7, 1944. In Nice, hanging of the two members of the Francs-Tireurs and Partisans, Torrin and Grassi, exposition of their corpses hooked up to the two street-lamps [The top being blood and blade], following the attempt having costed a German his life.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.425); « 19 August–11 September, 1944. After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. The 1st French Army of General Lattre de Tassigny undertakes the mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles. These cities fall on 27 and on 28 August 1944 respectively. Montpellier is free on 29. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28 [Fire, warfare, unhappy people].» (Kaspi, id., p.444).

Monnego: = Monech (II-4, III-10, IV-37, IV-91, VI-62, VIII-4, X-23) = Monaco = Monégasque, its adjective being monégasque. « Monaco. Principality, western Europe. The small state, an enclave in southeastern France, has a name that is popularly derived from Greek Monoikos, “solitary.” This was a byname of the god Hercules, and the name is said to refer to a statue of Hercules Monoecus that stood here in the 7th or 6th century B.C. However, the name is more likely to be of Ligurian origin, from monegu, “rock,” a word reflected in the national adjective Monegasque.» (Room, p.239-240).

I deplore MonacoFire, warfare, unhappy people: « The WWII liberation of Monaco Although the Principality of Monaco remained neutral state during World War II, this does not mean that it was not involved. With Monaco being fiercely contested by both Germany and Italy, it came down to Louis II, the reigning Prince at the time, to try and keep his country safe. Louis II was the son of Prince Albert I and his first wife Lady Mary Hamilton. When his parents divorced, Louis moved to Germany with his mother, growing up at the court of the Grand Duke of Baden. Therefore he was fluent in German and well connected to the German Aristocracy. Little did he know how important these connections would become when war broke out less than 20 years after he succeeded his father in 1922. When the Germans occupied France in May 1940, they were careful to leave Monaco alone as they wanted Monaco to remain a centre for German international banking and commerce, something they first started building towards in 1933. Therefore when Mussolini and his troops declared war on France a month later and marched troops into Monaco, they were forced to retreat by the Germans. After the brief Italian invasion, Louis declared his support for the Vichy regime under Marshall Petain, an old colleague from when Louis was in the French army. He was put under extreme pressure by the Germans to register all Jews, a pressure to which he finally conceded when he passed a law to this effect on 3rd July 1941. Several German and Austrian Jews that had fled to Monaco were handed over to the Nazi regime. Although often seen as a collaboration, Louis II was left with little choice when caught between the two superpowers of Italy and Germany. In November 1942 Italian troops reoccupied Monaco until the fall of Mussolini, when German troops drove them out and occupied Monaco themselves. The Germans occupied for just under a year, between 8th September 1943 and 3rd September 1944. Although their main goal was to apprehend Jewish people, the local police service made it very difficult by risking their lives to warn people when a Gestapo visit was about to take place. Prince Rainier III succeeded the throne in May 1944 after his mother renounced her succession rights, a few months before German occupation ended in 3rd September that year. This day is now celebrated as Liberation Day despite the fact that the Allied troops only officially liberated Monaco on 6th September. After Monaco’s liberation, Prince Rainier III joined the French army and took part in the liberation of Alsace, receiving the American Bronze Star Medal for his actions.» (Riviera Insider, 2016, Sat, 09/03/2016 - 07:00); « The requisitions of immovables. Hotels, castles, villas, immovables were requisitioned to install the staffs there or lodge there officers from the banks of Lake Leman till those of the Mediterranean. It was the case…, in Principality of Monaco, for the Grand Hotel and the Hotel des Princes… The stadium and the SNCF [National Society of French Railway] Station of Monaco accommodated the units of the 4th Army.» (Panicacci, 2010, p.170-172).

I deplore Savona
Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « Hermann Wygoda was born in Offenbach, on November 18, 1906, the eldest of Maier and Chana Wygoda’s two sons. He and his younger brother, Leon, were raised in the traditions of Judaism. Chana saw to it that her sons acquired her native Polish language, and the summers that the boys spent in her hometown of Kossow with her blacksmith father, Samuel, ensured their fluency in both Polish and German. After Maier was killed in World War I, Chana was left to raise her boys alone. Eventually the family moved to Kossow, where Chana took work as a professional matchmaker and Leon made a living in cabinetmaking. Hermann obtained an engineering degree from Warsaw Polytechnic Institute, served as a lieutenant in the Polish Army, and worked as a civil engineer specializing in the construction of bridges. He moved to Berlin, the most vital city for the European intelligentsia of the 1930s, where he worked in industry until 1929. Hermann then returned to Poland, a country in which three million Jews would soon be annihilated. He married a woman whose name is now unknown, and in 1934, before separating, they had a son Samuel. While Hermann remained in Warsaw, his young son went to live in Kossow with Chana and Leon. Hermann’s memoirs begin on September 1, 1939, when the Nazis invaded Poland. With this first day of bombing and terror, World War II began. En route to Poland, trains carrying German soldiers bore the slogan “We’re going to Poland to beat up the Jews.” Unlike many Jews who were forced into hiding, Hermann moved with relative ease through the early years of the war by successfully masking his Jewish identity and posing as an ethnic German. His physical appearance, fluency in German, and bold nature saved his life several times on any given day. His travels during the war took him from Poland to Estonia, Finland, and Germany, before he escaped from an Italian prison and headed into the mountains of Northern Italy. From a solitary life in a cave, he became “Enrico,” the leader of a large partisan division fighting against the Nazis and the Fascists; he did this despite his nationality and religion, which differed from those of the hundreds of men and women under his Command… [Introduction by Deborah Klezmer] » (Wygoda, 1998, p.xvii-xviii).

« I was again in Berlin, and Leon and I began plotting our future course of action. We are reasonably sure that sooner or later we would be in danger of being unmasked and would end up before a firing squad or worse. The longer we stayed in Berlin, the greater the probability of discovery. We decided that we should be prepared to leave at a moments’s notice if the opportunity presented itself. I tried to take advantage of my position with the [Jonas Ferret and] company as much as I could… Leon and I had it in our minds to leave Berlin in the near future. Daily the situation in Berlin became more confusing. After an exhaustive debate, we finally narrowed our choice to two countries: Italy and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia appealed to us because of the partisan activity there, as well as the ease with which we could have adapted ourselves linguistically. Italy was attractive because of the latest happenings in that country; they had just thrown out Mussolini in a revolution and were trying to cut their hands of friendship with Nazi Germany. In such an atmosphere, we reasoned, we could eventually reach the Allied forces with the help of the local population. We decided on Italy. I knew from my activity in Berlin that a firm by the name of Lorentz and Company, with headquarters in Danzig, had recently sent some men to Italy in the general area of Genoa. The following day I went to my friends the beaurocrats in Grunewald and found out the exact location of the Lorentz company in Italy. The company field office was in the province of Savona. On December 15, 1943, I filled out the documents and the necessary travel orders. The destination: Lorentz and Company, Savona, Italy… We finally boarded the train for Italy. The trip through Austria was uneventful, except that whenever we stopped at a station, there was always a waiting train loaded with Italian prisoners of war. That was the first time Leon and I had ever seen any Italian military men… I awoke suddenly to Leon’s announcement that we were in Italy. I opened the window and read in large letters “Tarvisio,” the name of the station.» (Wygoda, id., p.83-88).

« We arrived in Milan early in the morning of December 20, 1943, and reported to the Lorentz company agent. It was a routine matter, and we were promptly processed for further travel to our final destination-the city of Savona. By afternoon we’d reached Genoa, but for administrative reasons we had to stop in Varazze and stay there overnight. At the main company office in Varazze, we were added to a roster and told to report to a man named Fichtner in Savona, where the engineering offices of the Lorentz company were located. The next morning we were taken by car to Savona, where we were promptly introduced to Fichtner, a civil engineer who managed the office. He was visibly elated to see us, particularly since he had expected no help from any quarter. He assigned us rooms in the military compound on Corso-Rici, the location of both the company offices and OT [Organization Todt] headquarters. Fichtner was in the organizational phase of a project he was to complete for the German military authorities. He outlined to us his assignment: to build a system of fortifications extending from Savona to Varazze. Fichtner consented to my request that I move out of the military compound and locate myself in an albergo, or inn in the town of Celle-Ligure, which was the center of my activity. After a couple of weeks, I managed to have Leon join me there. My next job was to prepare the preliminary groundwork for a defensive wall along the beach as well as defensive bunkers in the hills facing the Mediterranean coast. In the meantime, they extended my sector somewhat more south of Varazze. Still, the work thus far was preliminary, since the Lorentz company as yet had neither the materials nor the workers necessary for the job… The work proceeded feverishly day and night while we played hide-and-seek games with the American fliers. They made a habit of coming over from Corsica at least seven times a day on their bombing runs to the Savona port area, which the Nazis used to supply troops in the south by way of motor barges travelling at night. Sometimes the Americans dropped a bomb on our job.» (Wygoda, id., p.93-96).

« A few weeks later [about the middle of March, 1944] I was approached near the farm by two armed men who introduced themselves as members of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (Committee of National Liberation). It was the first time I had ever heard that name, but I understood its meaning. They wanted me to follow them to a certain place to meet a representative of the CLN, so I went with them to meet that mysterious person. After a short march we entered a house where I met a rather distinguished older gentleman. He introduced himself as Simon and his companion as Leone. Those were the only names they gave me. They claimed to be well-informed about me and wanted to know whether I would be interested in assuming command of a group of partisans who were already organized and active. Simon said they were all local men and almost all were formerly in the military, including a few who were former officers… I was to become known as “Enrico.”» (Wygoda, id., p.108-109).

« The document reads, “Committee for National Liberation Voluntary Liberation Corps. 2d Ligurian Zone Headquarters. Savona 17 May 1945. We certify that the Volunteer Enrico Vigoda joined the Voluntary Liberation Corps of the Committee for National Liberation in May 1944. Afterward he was given the command of the 20th Garibaldi Brigade, which was later named the 2d Brigade, located in the mountain area of the Savona province (Monte Sette Pani). He was then commander of the 4th Assault Brigade Daniele Manin, and in February 1945 he was appointed commander of the Garibaldi Assault Division “Gin Bevilacqua,” a command that he held until 25 April 1945. During this time he participated in all war actions against the Nazi fascists, resisted the enemy, and bravely withstood the rigid winter season, always behaving as a good partisan.”» (Wygoda, id.,
between pp.110-111 Document issued by the Committee of National Liberation certifying the author’s role in the Italian partisan movement).

I deplore Genoa
The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy – La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§839 Desolation of Côte d’Azur and Italian coasts in WWII (1940-1945): II-4.

II-4 (§839):

From Monaco till near Sicily
All of the coasts shall be desolate,
There shall be no suburb, city, nor town
That shall
[not] be pillaged and bombed.

(Depuis Monech jusques au pres de Secile,
Toute la plage demourra desolée,
Il ny aura fauxbourg, cité, ne vile
Que par Barbares pillée soit & vollée.)

NOTES: This quatrain is just parallel to the preceding quatrain X-60 (§838), where it is said that « I deplore Nice, Monaco, Pisa, Genoa, Savona, Siena, Capua, Modena, Malta, The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples »; « II-40 (1940-1945) Die Kämpfe im zweiten Weltkrieg zwischen den Achsenmächten und den Vereinten Nationen brachten den Küsten Italiens schwerste Verheerungen (The battles in the Second World War between the Axis Powers and the Allied Nations devastated the Italian coasts heavily).» (Centurio, 1953, p.49).

Monech: = Monech (II-4, III-10, IV-37, IV-91, VI-62, VIII-4, X-23) = Monaco.

Secile: = Secile (II-71, III-25) = Secille (I-11, II-16, IX-42) = Sicile (VIII-81, VIII-84) = Sicille (V-43) = Sicily.

Barbares: = Combatants in general of war. The words: Barbare, barbare, barbarique, etc., signify principally in Nostradamus « what is not civilized, gives a shock, is contrary to the rules, to the taste, to the usage, has the cruelty of the barbarian » (Petit Robert). In fact, of their 25 examples in all, 17 (68%) are such, only 7 (28%) refer to « Islamic, Arab » (III-97, VI-21, VI-75, IX-42bis, IX-94, X-61) and only one to the particular Italian family: Barbarin (VIII-49).

Par Barbares pillée soit & vollée: ­= Par Barbares [ne] soit pillée & vollée, according to the context.

Vollée: Past participle in the feminine of « VOLER (To fly). II. V.tr. (XIIe, « chasser en volant (Transitive verb, to chase in flying) ». Vx. Poursuivre ou chasser (une proie) en volant [Archaic word, To pursue or to chase (a prey) in flying].» (Petit Robert), which represents modern air raids; « JULY 19 [1943] Air War: Europe FIRST ALLIED RAIDS ON ROME. 158 B-17s and 112 B-24s attack Lorenzo and Littorio marshalling yards. Marauders, Mitchells and Lightnings later hit Ciampino Airport. Only 5 planes lost. Sea War: Med. German and Italian minelayers begin intensive operations around Italian coast.» (Argyle, 1980, p.136);

« AUGUST 31 Nelson and Rodney shell Italian coast near Reggio di Calabria. SEPTEMBER 12 U-boats commence ops. off Salerno bridgeheads: but sink only 3 ships during numerous attacks.

«« Anzio 22 January-25 May 1944 Intended as a daring outflanking move that would open up the way to the capture of Rome, the Anzio landings degenerated into World War II deadlock: the Allies unable to drive forward from their bridgehead and the Germans without the means to push the invaders back into the sea… It was only the slow, relentless pressure applied on land and in the air throughout Italy that forced the Germans to give way.» (Grant, 2011, p.861).

Near Sicily
: = Reggio di Calabria; « AUGUST 17 [1943] Sicily END OF SICILIAN CAMPAIGN. Americans and British enter Messina. Axis forces evacuated: 39,569 Germans and 62,000 Italian troops, with all their equipment and supplies, transported across Strs. of Messina in small craft. AUGUST 31 Nelson and Rodney shell Italian coast near Reggio di Calabria. SEPTEMBER 3 Sea War Med. INVASION OF CALABRIA (S. Italy): 13th Corps (8th Army) crosses from Sicily to Reggio di Calabria preceded by 900-gun barrage (Op. Baytown).» (Argyle, 1980, p.138-139); « Italy’s terrain was ideally suited to defence against an invader moving northwards: narrow coastal plains in the east and west, cut by many rivers, flanked the central north-south Apennine Mountains up almost the whole spine of the country. Fighting the length of Italy against such natural obstacles, expertly exploited by the Germans, would be costly and slow. It was decided that the only way to overcome these defences was to outflank them in depth, landing troops as far up the coast as air cover would allow. On 3 September, the British XIII Corps crossed the straits of Messina (Operation ‘Baytown’), landing near Reggio Calabria… » (Brayley, 2002, p.20); « SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – British capture Salerno. Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. SEPTEMBER 12 U-boats commence ops. off Salerno bridgeheads: but sink only 3 ships during numerous attacks.» (Argyle, 1980, p.135-140).

Salerno: « Salerno 9-16 September 1943 The signing of the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 might have seemed to support Churchill’s claim that Italy was the “soft underbelly of Europe,” but the fierce and intelligent resistance displayed by the Germans at Salerno was a portent of things to come. While Field Marshal Montgomery’s British Eighth Army had an easy, unopposed landing at Reggio di Calabria, the Allied amphibious assault against mainland Italy in the Gulf of Salerno did not go as planned. Under the command of Lieutenant General Mark Clark’s U.S. Fifth Army, the landing force was drawn from the British X Corps, which would hit the beaches at Salerno, and the U.S. VI Corps, acting as a flank guard and landing farther to the south. The X Corps troops faced little resistance as they reached the beaches on 9 September 1943, but once ashore they came under sustained attack from the German XIV Panzer Corps. The U.S. VI Corps faced similar problems, unable to push forward from its beachhead. When, on 12 September, the Germans mounted a concerted counterattack, it seemed possible that the Allies might lose their tenuous hold on the Italian mainland. But the arrival of reinforcements-including a parachute drop by two battalions of the U.S. 82d Airborne Division-and the mass redeployment of Allied airpower to the Salerno front turned the tide. On 16 September the Germans disengaged from the battle and began to withdraw to a specially prepared defensive line farther north; meanwhile, U.S. troops on the right of the beachhead made contact with units from the Eighth Army advancing from the south. As the Germans fell back, the Allies occupied the key port of Naples.» (Grant, 2011, p.858).

« SEPTEMBER 17 Italy - Patrols of Allied 5th and 8th Armies link up near Agropoli, S. of Salerno. SEPTEMBER 18 5th Army captures Battipaglia. Germans retreat from Salerno bridgehead. SEPTEMBER 27 8th Army captures Foggia, with vital airfields and marshalling yards. SEPTEMBER 29 5th Army captures Castellamare and Pompeii (ancient ruins slightly damaged).» (Argyle, id., p.140-141).

Naples: « At nightfall on 30 September [1943] troops of 10 Corps were surrounding Mt. Vesuvius. Naples was within our grasp, and at 0930, 1 October, armored patrols of the King’s Dragoon Guards entered the city. Naples had paid a very heavy price. Allied air raids had destroyed most of the harbor installations, and the damage was augmented by German destruction. In an attempt to deny dock and harbor facilities to Fifth Army the enemy scuttled ships at the piers and sunk others in the harbor; the pipelines had been ripped up and the unloading machinery systematically destroyed. Between Allied bombings and German demolitions the docks and storehouses along the waterfront of Naples were left a mass of ruins, crumbled stones, and fire-twisted steel. In addition the Germans had done their utmost to wreck all public utilities, including electricity, transportation, and water. On 14 October unloading of American supplies was stopped at the Salerno beaches and was transferred to Naples; at this time 10 Corps was unloading at Naples, Torre Annunziata, Castellammare, and Salerno.» (Starr, 1986, p.36).

Cancello-ed-Arnone: « The capture of Naples gave us a much-needed port, but mere possession of the city itself did not constitute a fulfillment of the Fifth Army objective. The airfields at Capodichino and Pomigliano were not yet in Allied hands, and the enemy must be driven well away from Naples harbor. Troops of Fifth Army, accordingly, did not pause with the capture of the city. Though the usual delaying tactics of the Germans were in evidence along the entire front, Fifth Army drove to the Volturno River in the next five days. Advance elements of 10 corps reached the river on 5 October at Cancello-ed-Arnone, and on the following day the 56 Division occupied the town of Capua.» (Starr, id., p.36-37).

« OCTOBER 29 Italy – Port of Mondragone captured by 5th Army.» (Argyle, id., p.142-).

Anzio and Nettuno: « 1944 JANUARY 22 Sea War: Med.ANZIO LANDINGS. Allied 5 Corps lands near Anzio and Nettuno, S. of Rome (Op. Shingle) in bold attempt to outflank Germans at Cassino. Landing craft equipped with rocket launchers deluge the weak defences.» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-148); « By January, 1944, the most pessimistic American predictions seemed to have come true. The British Army, which had crossed from Sicily and fought up the toe of Italy was on the Adriatic side, and the American Army under Mark Clark, which had captured Naples, was on the Mediterranean side. These two armies were designated the 15th Army Group and were under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander. The opposing German army, under Field-Marshal Kesselring, had made maximum use of increasingly difficult mountainous countryside as it fought a series of bitter delaying actions back to the immensely strong Gustav Line – a line of massive steel and concrete fortifications and minefields ranging across Italy from the Mediterranean coast 40 miles north of Naples to Ortona on the Adriatic coast. Winter set in early in 1943. As the year declined, the soaring 6,000 foot mountain spine down Italy was thickly blanketed with snow, and the Allied advance became bogged down barely 70 miles north of Salerno, before the Gustav Line. The way out of this stalemate seemed fairly obvious – to make a landing in force farther up the coast. But the conquest of Italy was a low-priority operation, and there was a great shortage of landing craft to put the tanks, guns and men ashore. The inadequate fleet that had been allocated for Sicily and Salerno was anyway under orders to return to Britain for the Normandy invasion. By the year’s end Operation Overlord had also drawn away seven experienced British and American divisions and the great leaders whose names had featured prominently in the African and Sicilian victories – Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Air-Marshal Tedder and Admiral Cunningham. At this point Winston Churchill intervened. He insisted that a ‘wildcat’ should be flung ashore north of the Gustav Line ‘to tear out the heart of the Boche [German]’. And he got this way. A plan with the code name ‘Shingle’ was quickly developed. It prepared for a landing at Anzio, which lay some 60 miles behind the Gustav Line and gave easy access to Route 6. The Anzio invasion was mounted from an American base, although it had been Churchill’s original intention that his ‘wildcat’ should be an all-British animal. The two divisions selected for the landing were the American and the British. The special troops aiding these divisions were also half British (the 2nd Special Service Brigade of two Commandos) and half American (a formation of Rangers and a parachute regiment). Behind them, at Naples, waited the American 1st Armoured Division and 45th Infantry Division to follow up as soon as the landing had been consolidated.» (Maule, 1972, p.296-299); « The plan was straightforward: the British, American and French assailing the Gustav Line were to exert themselves to the utmost to break through and engage the enemy so heavily that any reserves would be drawn into the battle and thus diverted from Anzio. When the enemy was compelled to send back troops to seal off the Anzio force, the Allies expected to break through. The assault on the Gustav Line opened on January 17. That night the British 10th Corps launched a powerful attack across the lower Garigliano River, while the Free French Expeditionary Corps pushed into the mountains north of Cassino. The next day, the American 2nd Corps launched an attack upon the River Rapido. The Allies hoped to force a breach through the enemy fortifications within 48 hours, so that an armoured spearhead could thrust out along the road to Rome. If thing went right at Anzio, this spearhead would be met by the advanced guard of the landing force, surging up to the Alban Hills from the beachhead. The British wrested a small bridgehead from the enemy and after two days had enlarged it into a four-mile salient, but they could go no farther. The French managed to dent the line to a depth of several miles. The Americans, after suffering terrible losses, crossed the Rapido upstream from the planned bridgehead. But nowhere did the Allies seriously breach the Gustav Line or break into the Liri Valley. Thus, the Anzio force was on its own from the moment it landed. The invasion fleet of 253 vessels, carrying 36,000 men with their tanks, guns and supplies, put out from Naples during the afternoon of January 21, swinging southwards past Capri to confuse any enemy spies. At nightfall it turned to head for Anzio, and the first wave of landing craft surged in at 2 a.m. Complete surprise was achieved, and with the dawn the whole landing operation was in full swing...» (Maule, 1972, p.299-300).

« 1944 MAY 11 Italy 5TH AND 8TH ARMIES ATTACK GUSTAV LINE (Op. Diadem) on 48-km front. MAY 12 Germans launch fierce counterattacks along Gustav Line. MAY 14 French break through at Monti Aurunci, N. of Gaeta. MAY 15 Germans begin withdrawing from ‘Gustav’ Line to ‘Adolf Hitler’ (‘Dora’) Line, immediately S. of Rome. MAY 20 Allies attack ‘Dora’ Line; Canadians break through, May 22. MAY 30 5th Army breakthrough ‘Adolf Hitler’ Line at Valmontone. JUNE 3 German forces evacuate Rome. JUNE 4 ALLIED 5TH ARMY ENTERS ROME. JULY 19 Leghorn captured by 5th Army. JULY 24 Americans reach Pisa.» (Argyle, 1980, p.155-169).

Leghorn
and Pisa: « Now the 34th Division was ready to pivot to the left and take Leghorn. The 135th infantry had been pushing slowly northwest over hilly country toward the port; on the 18th [July 1944] the 363d Regimental Combat Team returned to the 34th Division as Task Force Williamson under Brig. Gen. Raymond Williamson to execute a double thrust at Leghorn with the 135th Infantry. The latter continued its attack toward the southeastern part of the city while the 363d Infantry came in from the east, reaching the outskirts before midnight. At 0200, 19 July, the 3d Battalion, 135th Infantry, entered Leghorn after a brief skirmish with an enemy rear guard outside the city. The 2d battalion and the 1st and 2d Battalions, 363d Infantry, arrived a little more than two hours later. There was little fighting in the city, but it was found to be heavily mined and booby-trapped; almost all the port facilities were destroyed, and the harbor was partially blocked by sunken ships. In compliance with a corps order to advance the line completely to the Arno the 34th Division, now under Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, moved forward again on the 22d. The engineers had thrown bridges over the numerous canals north of Leghorn, and the troops reached the Arno without trouble. While the 442d and 168th Infantry came up on the right, the 363d Infantry entered Pisa at 1330, 23 July. The enemy had destroyed all bridges over the Arno and was content to hold the north bank. The rest of IV Corps was by this time already on the river. The 91st Division immediately to the right of the 34th Division had met stubborn German resistance in the first few days of its advance up the Era River valley, by 0800, 18 July, the advance guard of the 361st Infantry had reached Pontedera on the Arno. The division had closed up to the river by the 23rd. The other division in the line, the 88th under General Sloan, had taken over from the left elements of the 1st Armored Division on the 8th and likewise met considerable opposition in the first few days. To obviate attacking the high-lying town of Volterra our artillery and chemical mortars smoked it, and the division encircled it on the 8th, thus forcing the enemy to withdraw. At Laiatico, a small hilltop town eight miles northwest of Volterra, the Germans elected to make a stand before the 351st Infantry on the 11th, but in a second attack we took the town by a double envelopment which netted approximately 400 prisoners. Enemy resistance then slackened , and the division reached the high ground overlooking the Arno on the 18th. Since the FEC was somewhat behind IV Corps, task Force Ramey patrolled the east flank of the corps after 9 July, at first only with armor and then with some additional infantry from the 88th Division. The enemy had apparently expected the 1st Armored Division to continue the advance in this zone and had mined and booby-trapped almost every trail, but by methodical sweeping the force had gained the Arno by the 23d.» (Starr, id., p.290-291).

La Spezia and Genoa: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).

Savona: « My next job was to prepare the preliminary groundwork for a defensive wall along the beach as well as defensive bunkers in the hills facing the Mediterranean coast. The work proceeded feverishly day and night while we played hide-and-seek games with the American fliers. They made a habit of coming over from Corsica at least seven times a day on their bombing runs to the Savona port area, which the Nazis used to supply troops in the south by way of motor barges travelling at night. Sometimes the Americans dropped a bomb on our job.» (Wygoda, 1998, p.95-96).

« A few weeks later [about the middle of March, 1944] I was approached by two armed men who introduced themselves as members of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (Committee of National Liberation). It was the first time I had ever heard that name, but I understood its meaning… I was to become known as “Enrico.”» (Wygoda, id., p.108-109).

« Although we were under the overall command of the Committee of National Liberation, we had plenty of latitude, and I had full freedom of action, including the power over life and death. No one ever questioned my authority in matters of command. Still, in cases dealing with the Fascists, I always saw to it that impartiality was the rule rather than the exception; for such cases we had a duly instituted court of law staffed by attorneys and some young students of law at the University of Genoa. But I reserved the exclusive right to deal with the Nazis myself. As far as the Nazis were concerned, I had not a shred of pity left. I knew only to do with Nazis what the Nazis had done to innocent people all over Europe for the last several years. I had witnessed many of their actions personally, and I knew there were important differences between us. I did not kill indiscriminately. I never tortured anyone.» (Wygoda, id., p.129).

« In March 1945, I received a message to meet with our Allied agent at my convenience, but as soon as possible, to receive some secret information that he had to turn over to me personally. Our contact man with the Allied authorities, Piero, was an employee of the British Military Mission in eastern Liguria. I met with him halfway down the mountain the following day. The information I received was that the Nazis had supposedly agreed to surrender on April 25, and my group was to be ready to march down to the cities on that date... On April 25, the signal to liberate Savona came as scheduled. The day I had long wished for was finally at hand. The Nazis showed sense in surrendering immediately to the partisan security units, which had orders not to harm those who surrendered. But the diehards of the decomposing establishment-such as the Fascists and the Blackshirts-attempted to resist. They were too slow to realize that it was all over for them, and they barricaded themselves in the upper floors of downtown office buildings. Such obstacles were quickly overcome, however, and soon the Fascists inside the city were securely under lock and key.» (Wygoda, id., p.133-136).

Monaco
: represents, by metonymy, Côte d’Azur: « Allied landing on Provence August 15. When the Allies have decided to accomplish well the Operation Overlord, namely a landing on the coasts of Normandy, they were anticipating a second operation, complementary to the first and less important, which would be the Operation Anvil (renamed Dragoon the 1st August 1944). It was planned to gain a foothold on the south coast of France, to take Toulon and Marseilles, to push on toward the north in order to link with the troops that should have landed Normandy. It is a classical manœuver of pincers. The American and British staffs fixed, cleared of the constraints of war in Italy since the fall of Rome (June 4), the day of landing on 15 of August. The total plan was to be executed by the VIIth American Army, which General Patch commands. The theater of operations was situated between Cavalaire and Agay, at the foot of the Maures and of the Esterel. In the midst of the Allied forces, the French troops, Army B of General de Lattre de Tassigny, occupied a principal place. They were supported by a navy task force of 2000 vessels, among which were found the French units. They had a mission of fighting in the second echelon and of taking Toulon and Marseilles. The attack of August 15 was a success. The Germans had no more means of resisting at the same time the two invasion armies. The exploitation following the attack was equally an exceptional success. Toulon was liberated from 23 to 27 August, twelve days earlier than the Allied staff’s prevision; Marseilles during 28-29 August, twenty-six days earlier than scheduled.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.442-443); « The invasion of southern France, Operation Dragoon... The landings of 151,000 Allied troops along the Côte d’Azur from Nice to Marseilles were practically unopposed, the major port of Marseilles was secured and the invasion provoked a rapid German withdrawal from central and south-western France.» (Beevor, 2010, p.445); « After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.444).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§840 Italy occupied by the Nazis after the fall of Mussolini (1943): IV-35.

IV-35 (§840):

The fire extinguished, the virgins,
The greatest part of the new band shall betray it:
Lightning on iron, lances the celibates shall guard the king:
Etruria and Corsica, at night the gorge furnaces of coals.

(Le feu estaint les vierges trahiront
La plus grand part de la bande nouvelle:
Fouldre à fer, lance les seuls roy garderont:
Etrusque & Corse, de nuit gorge allumelle.)

NOTES: The fire extinguished, the virgins shall betray: « At first, as for the legendary virgins, we find that the Roman Vestals had a principal role of maintaining the sacred fire that should remain lighted all the time in the temple. It is what leads us to think that the question here is an ideology issuing from Italy with the base of feminine people or mass population. In regard of it, the Fascist doctrine of Mussolini is well inserted in this loophole because it is owing to the popular support that he arrived, in 1922, at identifying his party as a unique option possible for Italy then in the eve of revolution.» (Dufresne, 1994, p.125).

The virgins: = The supporters of Mussolini faithful as virgins. 

The new band
: = The Fascist National Party.

The fire extinguished, the virgins, The greatest part of the new band shall betray it:
« FALL OF MUSSOLINI [The fire extinguished] July 25. In the beginning of 1943, the situation of Italy appears catastrophic. The reverses have been accumulated in Greece and in North Africa. In the middle of August, Sicily is in the hands of the Allies. Murderous bombardments accumulate the ruins in the cities and industrial installations. The balance sheet of economy is very serious. Mussolini seems deeply struck by these difficulties. In these conditions, the spiritual unity of the country is strongly staggered. The loss of Sicily and the bombardment of Rome on 19 July 1943 [Lightning upon iron, lances] make firm the resolution of the adversaries of Mussolini… On 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes the power of him and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance… The dismissal of Mussolini entails an explosion of joy all through Italy. Even one voice does not arise in favour of him [the virgins, The greatest part of the new band shall betray it].» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

The king: = « Victor-Emmanuel III » (Dufresne, id.). Dufresne wrongly says that « On 10 [September 1943], the troops of Hitler invade Rome and the king is obliged to take refuge, in a rush, in the interior of the walls of the Vatican! » (Dufresne, id.). In reality, « when the Allies land on the soil of the Peninsula [on 9 September] and, according to the previous accords, the armistice is made public [on 8 September], the royal government is taken by surprise, and abandon Rome which it judges indefensible. The king, Badoglio and some dignitaries settle themselves in Brindisi, far from the Germans, and preserve thus a parcel of legality.» (Kaspi, id., p.375-376); « 1943 September 9 The king Victor-Emmanuel III and The Premier Badoglio leave Rome and install their government in Brindisi.» (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.48 Chronology); « 1943 September 9-10 The government of Badoglio translates itself to Brindisi.» (Aoyama et al., 1992, p.601).

The celibates shall guard the king: This means the Vatican connection of the multiple efforts of the King’s government replacing Mussolini to attain a peace with the Allies:
« 25 June-8 September [1943]. In the military domain, Badoglio tries to gain time and to reassure the Germans. But his public declaration of solidarity with the northern ally disappoints the population who suffers grave privations more and more and ­aspires to the peace. Hitler is not deceived by these assurances and reinforces the German military potential in Italy. On 6 August, in Tarvisio, at the time of a meeting between Guariglia and Ambrosio on the Italian side, and Ribbentrop and Keitel on the German side, the latter’s mistrust is very net. In fact, while Badoglio tries, in vain, to cheat his allies, he multiplies the contacts with the adversary camp. The secret conversations take place in Sicily since 5 August 1943, then at Vatican [The celibates shall guard the king], in Tangier, in Madrid where General Castellano meets the British ambassador Hoare on 15 August, in Lisbon where Castellano meets the American emissaries on 16-27 August.» (Kaspi, id., p.368-369).

The gorge: ­= The straits between Corsica and Etruria.

Allumelle: ­= « ALLUMELLE, s.f. Fourneau de charbon (furnace of coals).» (Littré); « ALUMELLE, s.f. Lame de couteau ou d’épée (blade of a knife or of a sword). – ETYM. Alumelle came from alemelle by a false assimilation with the verb allumer, which has nothing common with alumelle. Alemelle is composed of the preposition à (with), and of lamelle, small blade.» (Littré).

Furnaces of coals: ­= Vessels or aircraft, by metonymy, furnaces of coals themselves representing, by metaphor, their modern engines. The French word « allumelle » suggests that it concerns the Germans (les Allemands in French).

Etruria and Corsica, at night the gorge furnaces of coals: ­= Furnaces of coals [crossing] the gorge [between] Etruria and Corsica at night [in September 1943]: « SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy – SURRENDER of ITALY. Eisenhower makes public announcement in Algiers. Home Front: Italy – Op. Achse (‘Axis’): German forces seize all strategic points in Italy and forcibly disarm Italian forces. SEPTEMBER 9 Sea War: Med. – ALLIES LAND AT SALERNO. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. Sea War: Med.Evacuation of 25,000 German troops from Sardinia to Corsica (thence to Italy by air and sea) [Etruria and Corsica, at night the gorge furnaces of coals].» (Argyle, 1980, p.139-140).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§841 The Gothic Line; The Resistance; Mussolini in the Republic of Salo (1943-1945): VI-36.

VI-36 (§841):

Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle,
Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia:
Pisa and Florence shall rebel and see in an evil plight,
The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth.

(Ne bien ne mal par bataille terrestre,
Ne parviendra aux confins de Perouse:
Rebeller Pise, Florence voir mal estre,
Roy nuict blessé sur mulet à noire house.)

NOTES: Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle, Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia: « When the Italian front shall arrive at the northern confines of the region of Perugia, the terrestrial battles shall not result in a defeat nor a victory, for the front shall be frozen anew along the “Gothic Line”.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.533). « 1944 JUNE 3 Italy German forces evacuate Rome. JUNE 4 ALLIED 5TH ARMY ENTERS ROME. JUNE 15 8th Army breaks through at Arezzo and reaches R. Arno (July 15-16). 5th Army approaches R. from SW. Italian Govt. returns to Rome. JULY 17 8th Army crosses the Arno. JULY 18 Polish troops of 8th Army take Ancona. JULY 19 Leghorn captured by 5th Army. JULY 24 Americans reach Pisa. SEPTEMBER 2 5th Army captures Pisa. 8th Army breaks through Gothic Line near Rimini. SEPTEMBER 8 5th Army launches major attack on Gothic Line. SEPTEMBER 26 8th Army begins crossing R. Uso (ancient Rubicon). OCTOBER 22 8th Army crosses R. Savio, S. of Ravenna.» (Argyle, 1980, p.157-171). « On October 2 [1944], Mark Clark’s renewed offensive towards Bologna opened, this time along Route 65. All four divisions of his 2nd Corps were thrown in, but the defending Germans fought with such tenacity that during the next three weeks the American advance averaged no more than a mile a day, and on October 27 the offensive was abandoned. By the end of October, the Eighth Army advance had also petered out, after only five more rivers had been crossed, and the Po was still fifty miles distant. The Allied situation at the end of 1944 was very disappointing in comparison with the high hopes of the spring, and the summer. Although Alexander still showed optimism about an advance into Austria, the slow crawl up the Italian peninsula made such distant horizons appear increasingly unrealistic. Maitland Wilson himself admitted as much in his report of November 22 to the British Chiefs of Staff. The disbelief, and discontent, of the Allied troops was manifested in a growing rate of desertions. A final Allied offensive in 1944 sought to gain Bologna and Ravenna as winter bases. The Canadians, in the Eighth Army, succeeded in capturing Ravenna on December 4, and their success led the Germans to send three divisions to check the Eighth Army’s further progress. That seemed to offer the Fifth Army a better chance. But this was forestalled by an enemy counterattack in the Senio valley on December 26 – prompted by Mussolini with the idea of emulating Hitler’s counteroffensive in the Ardennes, and largely carried out by Italians who remained loyal to him. This attack was soon, and easily, stopped. But the Eighth Army was now exhausted, and very short of ammunitions, while the Germans were known to have strong reserves near Bologna. So Alexander decided that the Allied armies should go on the defensive [Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle, Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia], and prepare for a powerful spring offensive.» (Hart, 1971, p.541-542).

« The three months’ pause since the close of the Allies’ autumn offensive [Neither good nor evil by terrestrial battle, Shall arrive in the confines of Perugia] had brought a great change in the spirit and outlook of their troops. They had seen the arrival of new weapons in abundance – amphibious tanks, ‘Kangaroo’ armoured personnel carriers, ‘Fantails’ (tracked landing vehicles), heavier-gunned Sherman and Churchill tanks, flame-throwing tanks, and ‘tank-dozers’. There was also plenty of new bridging equipment, and huge reserves of ammunition. In Mark Clark’s Army Group (entitled the 15th) the right wing, facing the German 10th Army, was formed by the Eighth Army under McCreery. The 6th Armoured Division was in Army reserve. To the west was the Fifth Army, now commanded by Truscott. The aim, and primary problem, of the Allied planners was to overrun and wipe out the German forces before they could escape over the River Po. The Allied offensive was to be launched on April 9 [1945]... All the Alpine passes were blocked by April 28 – the day on which Mussolini and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were caught and shot by a band of partisans near Lake Como. German troops were now surrendering everywhere, and the Allied pursuit met little opposition anywhere after April 25.» (Hart, 1971, p.671-674).

Pisa and Florence shall rebel: « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities, composed of the Liberal Party, the Christian Democrats, the Unified Proletarian Socialists, the Communists and the Action Party (plus the Labor Democrat Party south of Rome). Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism began the civilian Resistance, a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans… In August 1943, Florence was liberated thanks to the Resistance before the arrival of the Allies, and the CNL of the city had a function of local government. From the spring to the autumn of 1944, the Resistance in the north and the middle of Italy was vigorous and resulted in several liberated districts. The Resistance, having overcome the neglect of the Allies toward the armed struggle of the Resistance and the mop-up operations by the Germans and the Fascists in winter, recovered the offensive in the spring of 1945 and, on 25 April, liberated by itself many cities of the north through the concerted uprising. Mussolini [The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth] was trying to flee into Switzerland in disguise among the retreating German troops, but perceived and arrested by the partisans on the Lake of Como. The CNL of the northern Italy with their own authority of justice, sentenced Mussolini to death and fired him with another Fascist leaders on the 28th [The king in an evil plight].» (
Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-508).

House
: = A transformed housse (horse-cloth) for the rhyme with Perouse of the line 2.

And see in an evil plight, The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth
: = And see « the king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth » in an evil plight.

The king bruised at night on a mule with a black horse-cloth: « The words “bruised at night” allude to the night of 24 -25 July [1943], when Mussolini was replaced by the King with Marshal Badoglio. Thereafter, the Duce shall not be able to ride a horse as a veritable “condottiere” he has been, but only a “mule”, for his powers have been reduced after having been rescued by Hitler and he is set as head of a phantom republic in the northern Italy. The term “mulet (mule, ass)”, in addition to its direct pejorative meaning, also makes an allusion to the Nazis because they themselves have saved Mussolini and made him their puppet in offering him the government of the ephemeral Fascist Republic in the north. In fact, Nostradamus reproduces here the word “asinus (an ass)”, which we have met already twice, in the quatrain VI-17 (§792) under the form of “les asiniers” and in the quatrain X-31 (§793) under the form of “Asnes”, both of these having the meaning of Nazi (anagram: ASIN = NASI).» (Ionescu, id., p.533).

A black horse-cloth: This black cover refers to the Black Shirt of the Nazi SS and of the Italian Fascists: « On 16 October 1922 Mussolini decided to force the issue, believing that if he waited, Giolitti [in premiership in May 1892 – Dec. 1893 and in May 1906 – Dec. 1909], the one man he feared, might steal his role. He arranged for a march on Rome for the end of the month, by four divisions totaling 40,000 blackshirted men.» (Johnson, 1991, p.99); « The Kroll Opera House (where the Reichstag had been meeting since the fire [on the night of 27 February 1933]) was surrounded by the black-shirted SS troops, and MPs had to push their way through solid ranks to get into the building. The 81 communist MPs were simply not allowed to pass (many were in jail already). Inside the building rows of brown-shirted SA troops lined the walls. It took courage to vote against the bill in such surroundings with the SS outside chanting ‘We want the bill, or fire and murder’. When the Catholic Centre Parry decided to vote in favour, the result was a foregone conclusion: it passed by 441 votes to 94 (all Social Democrats).» (Lowe, 1988, p.137).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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