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§845 Metaxas dictatorship and Damaskinos in Greece; End of Civil War under American relief (1936-1949): IV-38.

IV-38 (§845):

While the general shall occupy the king and the country,
The chief of the Byzantine Church captive in Samothrace:
Before the assault the one and the other shall resist the occupants:
The trass of blood shall follow the shoed contrary.

(Pendant que duc, roy, royne occupera
Chef Bizantin captif en Samothrace:
Avant l'assaut l'un l'autre mangera:
Rebours ferré suyvra du sang la trasse.)
(№6).

NOTES: Here is a summary of the facts in history that is essentially relevant to the quatrain: « Greece A republic was proclaimed in May 1924 but the monarchy [royne] restored in November 1935. In August 1936 King George II [the king] accepted the establishment of a fascist-type dictatorship by General Metaxas [the general], in power until his death in February 1941. The Italians invaded Greece in October 1940 but were defeated and thrown back into Albania. In April 1941 the Germans overran Greece. Rival monarchist and communist groups [the one and the other] maintained a guerilla war with the Germans [shall resist the occupants] from 1942 until the British liberated Athens in October 1944 when the two resistance groups started fighting [the assault] each other. Bitter civil war [the blood] lasted from May 1946 until October 1949, when the monarchists were successful [the trass of the blood].» (Palmer, p.119-120).

Duc: = General Metaxas, the French word duc being a leader, a commander, a duke or a general.

Roy: = King George II of Greece, having divorced in 1935; « [In 1920] Prince George became engaged to Princess Elisabeth of Roumania, eldest daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. » ( Kiste, 1994, p.121);« Crown Price George was betrothed to Carol’s sister, Elisabeth, and had been in Bucharest when his brother [Alexander] died. Both weddings [of George and Elisabeth, and Carol and Helen, George’s sister] were celebrated in March 1921. King Constantine and Queen Sophie did not attend their son’s wedding in Bucharest, but were present at Athens for the wedding of Carol and Helen at the Metropolitan Cathedral. After a honeymoon at Tatoi, they left for Roumania.» (Kiste, id., p.130); « Faced with a similar problem to that of his father fifteen months before, King George concluded that the interests of his country demanded the avoidance of further strife at all costs. He declined to abdicate, but agreed to leave the country, ostensibly on a visit to his wife’s parents in Roumania. On 19 december he, Queen Elisabeth and Crown Prince Paul were escorted to a waiting warship. They were seen off by the loyal Prime Minister and Madame Gonatas, the latter weeping profusely as she presented the Queen with a large bouquet of flowers. On their departure from Greece in December 1923, King George and Queen Elisabeth were offered a wing of the Cotroceni Palace in  Bucharest by King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. They were there when they received news from Athens of the abolition of the monarchy. The signs of strain in their marriage were becoming ever more evident. Elisabeth, confessed her mother, was ‘one of the griefs of my life’. She had never really cared for George, and found the humiliation of exile and lack of material possessions deeply galling. Embittered by her misfortune, she sought revenge on her younger, happily married sister, Queen Marie of Serbia, by taking advantage of her illness while on a visit to Belgrade to flirt with King Alexander, a faithful albeit unimaginative husband, who was too naïve to realize he was being used as a pawn by his sister-in-law. She idled most of her time away at gambling tables or gorging rich cakes – she cared nothing about her figure – and gloating over a magnificent collection of pearls which the sympathetic Queen Sophie, always ready to see the best in everybody wherever possible, had given her. After a few months of exile in Bucharest, at Cotroceni and later at a rented house on the Calea Vitoriei, King George was frustrated by this life of emptiness. The show and ceremony of the Roumanian court grated on him, as it had on his mother. He had a ready ally in Queen Marie, who felt guilty about the effect her daughter’s behavior was having on him. Years later, he told her: ‘You are the only one who made my life supportable.’ His journeys abroad, particularly to Florence to visit his mother, and to Britain, became longer and more frequent. For some time he followed the routine of staying with his wife in Bucharest for six monts of the year, but under duress. In 1932 he decided to live entirely in England, accompanied by his devoted friend and equerry, major Dimitri Levidis, and faithful manservant ‘Mitso’ Panteleos. Though he had little reason to love the country which had played a shameful role in undermining the position of his family, a love for the Emglish way of life was engrained in him. Like his exiled uncle, the former German Emperor William, he gave the impression that all he ever wanted was to live the peaceful life of an English country gentleman. He was certainly the most Anglicized of his family. While making many friends, he took care to avoid any political or other activity that would embarrass the British court or government, particularly as he was a regular visitor to the British royal family.» (Kiste, id., p.144-146);

« That same year [in 1932] King George separated completely from his wife, who made it evident that she was happier on her own in Bucharest. For both, the marriage had been a hollow one ever since they left Greece. Three years later Queen Elisabeth was advised to bring a divorce action against him on the grounds of desertion, as he had been absent from the country for so long. At a special court session in Bucharest on 6 July 1935, the marriage was dissolved. The Queen, who thenceforth resumed her Roumanian nationality, was represented by an advocate, while nobody represented the King. The first he knew of it, allegedly, was when he read the news in a London paper.» (Kiste, id., p.151). 

Royne (Reine, Queen): = The country of Greece, a country being linguistically feminine and there having been no Queen in Greece since the King George II’s divorce in 1935. In fact, of 9 usages of the word Royne/royne, 6 refer to a Queen (I-86, VII-16, VIII-23, IX-77, X-17 and X-19) and 3 to a country or a government (III-89, IV-38 and VIII-66).

Occuper: = « To bring something under control » (Ibuki).

Duc, roy, royne occupera: = « [Le] duc occupera [le] roy [et la] royne ».

Bizantin: = Byzantin (Byzantine).

Chef Bizantin
: The head of the Byzantine Chuch in Greece. On the other hand, the same expression « Chef Bizantin » of the quatrain X-62 (§307) refers, according to the contex, to another person (
Emeric Thököly).

Chef Bizantin captif en Samothrace
: Damaskinos, Archbishop of Athens, is demoted to a provincial monastery by the ultra-conservative Metaxas regime, who repudiates his republican disposition: « One of the forces which the King most heavily counted upon to guarantee his return to Greece was the support of the British Government. To assure this support, he decided to make a trip to England and there try to mend his political fences in person. Accordingly, in March 1944, he left Cairo and the Greek Government behind him and went to London. In the British capital, King George found sympathetic ears. The British Government, in the person of Mr. Churchill at least, had a sentimental regard for the institution of kingship, and liked to imagine Greece in the postwar world, a firm friend and grateful ally of Great Britain, securely ruled by a constitutional monarch. Furthermore, King George had nominally headed the Greek Government at the time when Greece came into the war as Britain’s only European ally, and Churchill no doubt felt an obligation to forward the King’s cause in return for the help he had given in the dark days of 1940. At lower levels, however, British official opinion was confused… The more sympathetic attitude of officials in London encouraged King George to make no further concessions to republican pressure from Cairo and Greece. He took up residence in the British capital, and a coterie of Greek royalists quickly formed round him… The republican movement continued to gain momentum in the King’s absence. In December 1943, Prime Minister Tsouderos sent a representative into Greece with the mission of sounding out political leaders within the country as to their opinions on the question of the postwar regime. What particularly he wanted was their reaction to the proposal that a regent be nominated secretly by the King in order to exercise the royal powers for an interim period immediately after liberation. The original suggestion for the establishment of a regency in Greece had come from individuals in the British Embassy near the Government of Greece which had been set up in Cairo in 1943. Tsouderos favored the idea of a regency, and the Athenian politicians, with whom his representatives discussed the matter, likewise approved of the proposal. All groups that were consulted, including the Communists, agreed that Damaskinos, Metropolitan of Athens and Archbishop of All Greece, should be the Regent. Throughout the occupation, Damaskinos had succeeded in keeping above party strife and was almost the only man in prominent position who could command the respect and confidence of both Left and Right. When news of the favorable reaction of Greek political figures to the proposed regency reached the Prime Minister, he, wrote a letter to King George urging him to sign a decree in secret, nominating Damaskinos as his temporary representative in Greece. The King refused, to consider the proposal. From that time on, he began to regard Tsouderos with suspicion, seeing him as no more than the agent of a republican conspiracy against him.» (McNeill, 1947, p.122-125).

« BEFORE the final military overthrow of ELAS [National People’s Liberation Army. By far the largest guerilla force in Greece, organized by EAM], two steps of the greatest importance had been taken toward the political pacification of Greece. On New Year’s Day, 1945, His Beatitude, Damaskinos, Metropolitan of Athens and Archbishop of All Greece, became Regent. Three days later, General Nicholas Plastiras was appointed Prime Minister. This change in regime undoubtedly attracted many of the EAM [National Liberation Front. Leftist political resistance organization.] moderates away from their Communist leaders, and made possible the early end of the civil war. From the point of view of the British, who had in large part engineered the transfer of power, the move was therefore a success. When Churchill returned from his Christmas visit to Athens, he promptly interviewed King George II. The Greek King still cherished a stubborn determination not to yield one jot or tittle of his rightful powers; but brief and forceful argument changed his mind. Churchill insisted, and the King unwillingly agreed to authorize Archbishop Damaskinos to become Regent. A telegram was despatched to Athens announcing King George’s decision. Accordingly a hasty ceremony was arranged in an upper room of the Foreign Office, at which the Archbishop-Regent took an oath to exercise the royal power in accordance with the Constitution.» (McNeill, 1947, p.191).

« The new Regent was a striking figure of a man. He stood well over six feet, and was broad in proportion. The flowing robes and high mitre, which he wore by virtue of his episcopal office, exaggerated his height, and assured that his mere physical presence dominated any ordinary gathering of men. His face was coarse featured but majestic. His nose, which had been broken and thickened at the root, served as visible reminder that Damaskinos’ early career and first fame came as a wrestler where his extraordinary size and strength served him well. While still a young man Damaskinos gave up the wrestling ring and became a monk, which, in the Orthodox Church, is the normal prelude to a prelate’s career. His imposing physical appearance, keen intelligence and general good sense assured him of preferment. In 1922 he was appointed Bishop of Corinth. Five years later, a great earthquake devastated the town, and Damaskinos undertook a trip to the United States to raise money from the Greeks of America for the rebuilding of the destroyed city. He was very successful, gathering several million dollars, which helped to rebuild Corinth on a new site some three miles from the old town. Damaskinos rapidly rose to a leading place in the Greek Church. In 1936 he again travelled to America, this time on a political mission in connection with the election to the patriarchate of Constantinople which occurred in that year. He went to drum up support among the Orthodox Church leaders of the United States for the candidate favored by the Greek bishops. In the same year, the incumbent Archbishop of All Greece died, and the council of bishops assembled to elect a successor. There were two candidates: Damaskinos and another bishop named Chrysanthos. The election was closely contested, but Damaskinos was finally elected by the margin of a single vote. This outcome displeased Dictator John Metaxas. Damaskinos was generally known to be republican. He was no great friend or supporter of the King, and openly disapproved of the reactionary and extra-legal acts of the dictatorial Government. Consequently, on the ground that one of the participating bishops had been unqualified to vote, the Government declared the election invalid. The bishops met again, and a new vote gave a majority for Chrysanthos. To remove a troublesome personality from the public eye, Metaxas thereupon sent Damaskinos into retirement in a provincial monastery.» (McNeill, 1947, p.191-193); « Wanting to avoid further humiliation, the Fourth Of August Regime passed a law demoting any metropolitan who remained away from his see for an extended period without synodal permission, which was used to remove Damaskinos as metropolitan of Corinth. On March 23 [1939], the synod decided to banish Metropolitan Damaskinos to the Phaneromene Monastery on the island of Salamis, an act approved by the king on April 11. Damaskinos’s two-year exile [May 1939-April 1941] affected him deeply, but he remained convinced of his legitimacy as archbishop of Athens and all Greece. During his exile, he remained under armed guard, forbidden from having any communication with friends and family [Chef Bizantin captif en Samothrace].» (Anastasakis, 2015, p.53-54).

« He remained there until after the Germans had occupied Athens. Thinking to gain a grateful supporter, the quisling Government in 1941 annulled the election of Chrysanthos and declared Damaskinos to be the rightful head of the Church. Chrysanthos in his turn retired, taking up private residence in Athens; and Damaskinos came to the capital and assumed the robes of office. Despite the circumstances of his accession to power, Archbishop Damaskinos never truckled to the quisling Governments. He busied himself with organizing relief for the people of Athens, and gathered around himself a group of earnest young men who conducted summer camps, helped suspects escape to the Middle East, carried blankets and other supplies to freshly burnt villages, and in other ways tried to reduce the hardships of the occupation for the people. During most of 1944 he was kept under house arrest by the Germans, but was not molested otherwise. Damaskinos was able to remain almost entirely above the strife of factions which tore Greece apart during the later years of occupation. He never denounced EAM, although strong pressure was brought to bear upon him to do so. EAM reciprocated by refraining from denouncing him, and indeed the majesty of his robes and sacred office held a strong power over the imaginations of most of the rank and file of the movement. Despite this, conservatives never accused the Archbishop of being a leftist, although some of them thought he was overly inclined to sympathize with republicanism. He was thus in a thoroughly unique position among prominent Greeks, and it was for this reason that he had been fixed upon by common consent as far back as 1943 as candidate for the office of Regent. The personal character of Damaskinos was kindly. He is said to have been ambitious and scheming as a young man; but, having arrived at so high a place, ambition no longer goaded him. His education, save in theology, was not extensive; but experience and native good sense have made him wise in the ways of men, a capable administrator and a practical politician. Such a man was surely well chosen to preside over the destiny of Greece in troubled times.» (McNeill, 1947, p.193-194).

Samothrace: This remote island is not the real place of his new mission but a symbol of exclusion from the capital and at the same time of the traits of deeply religious atmosphere, there having been in antiquity the famous cult of Cabires: « SAMOTHRACE, An Island on the coast of Thrace… It was famous above all by the cult of Cabires, which they named mysteries of Samothrace.» (Landais); « CABIRES, (from the Phoenician cabir, great, strong, powerful; thence les dieux cabires were also called greats gods), the divinities of the ancient people, originating from Egypt. They gave this name to the principal infernal divinities, Pluto, Proserpina and Mercury, also called the gods of the dead: Proserpina figured the earth that received them; Pluto, the hell where they were going to dwell; and Mercury, the divine power that made them enter there. Peoples of Italy invoked the cabires gods in their domestic misfortunes; sailors made wishes to them amid tempests and parents and friends, in the funerals of those of whom the death had deprived them.» (Landais).

Avant l'assaut l'un l'autre mangera: If l’assaut means the Greek civil war between rival monarchist and communist groups, the phrase: l'un l'autre mangera should no be understood as « They shall destroy one the other » as usually but as « L’un et l’autre mangeront [les occupants] (They shall together resist the enemy occupying their country) », the civil war starting after the Allied liberation of the country.
The verse: « l'un l'autre mangera » is a feigned prophetic transformation of the phrase: « l'un [et] l'autre mangeront [something] ».

Rebours: = « Le contre-pied, le contre de ce qu’il faut (the contrary, the contrary to what is to be).»
(Littré).

Ferré: « ferrer. To shoe (a horse); to tag (a lace); to iron (a movable).» (Dubois).

Rebours ferré: American military and economic aids to the ruling parties of Greece to repulse and to end the Greek tremendous revolutionary movement.

La rasse: = Le trass to rhyme with Samothrace: « TRASS, Espèce de tuf volcanique (a sort of volcanic tuff).» (Littré); « TRASS: pierre de trass, pierre volcanique, qui entre dans le ciment; pierre pour les constructions hydrauliques (tuff, volcanic stone, a component of cement; stone for the hydraulic constructions).» (Landais).

Du sang la trasse: = La trasse du sang: This expression figures the last and definitive end of continuous blood-shedding of the civil war.

Rebours ferré suyvra du sang la trasse: The end of the civil war comes after the American powerful intervention in favour of the royalists: « Bitter civil war lasted from May 1946 until October 1949, when the monarchists were successful.» (Palmer, p.119-120); « In the meantime, the British Government passed from the Conservative to the Labour, and its policy toward Greece also changed. The Government of Labour began to demand that the United States should shoulder the policy toward Greece, excusing the loss of reason of its expeditionary troops in Greece by the conclusion of the Peace Treaty of Paris. In accordance with it, the United States now intervened in the Greek Civil War. On 12 March [1946] President Truman asked the Congress to afford military and economic aids to Greece and to send there military personnel, and began the direct intervention into Greece… And, in August 1949, the leftist resistance was utterly routed by the Government Army.» (Sakurai, 2005, p.340-341).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
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§846 The failure of Mussolini to negotiate with the Resistance (1943-1945): VI-76.

VI-76 (§846):

The antique city founded by Antenor,
Being no more capable of enduring the tyrant:
The cripple shall have feigned to cut throat,
His company shall the people put to death.

(La cité antique d'antenoree forge,
Plus ne pouvant le tyran supporter:
Le manchet fainct au temple couper gorge,
Les siens le peuple à mort viendra bouter.)

NOTES: Antenoree: = « Ἀντήνωρ [Antēnōr], Anténor, chef troyen (Antenor, a Trojan principal).» (Bailly). The French irregular form: Antenoree is seemingly a frenchfying of the dative case of the word: Ἀντήνωρι [Antēnōri] which is to be claimed, if in Greek, by the preposition de (by); « Antenor [Gr. Myth.] A Trojan elder. He was forgiven by the Greeks on the occasion of the fall of Troy because he had advised the Trojans to return Helen [IL. VII, 345-353 (text by Balboa, 2018)] or because he betrayed his compatriots.» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary, p.106); « ANTENOR, One of the Trojan principals; he was the host of Ulysses during the ambassadorship of this prince [IL. III, 205-224 (text by Balboa, 2018)], and was accused of knowing the interests of the enemy of his fatherland… It is said that Antenor went out to settle himself at the bottom of the Adriatic Gulf near Padua.» (Landais); « PADUA, is amazingly ancient; its foundation is popularly attributed to the Greek Antenor.» (Bescherelle).

Forge
: = forgée. The form forge is to rhyme with gorge of the third line.

The antique city founded by Antenor, Being no more capable of enduring the tyrant: « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities. Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism [the tyrant] began the civilian Resistance [Being no more capable of enduring], a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans. The Resistance, on 25 April [1945], liberated by itself many cities of the north [whose the antique city] through the concerted uprising.» (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-507).

Le manchet: The cripple; « manchet, adj., estropié (crippled); manchot (one-armed, one-handed [person]).» (Godefroy). This term refers to Mussolini, deprived of the southern half of Italy.

Fainct: = Feint; « faindre, v. feindre.» (Daele); « feindre, feindre (to feign), simuler (to simulate).» (Daele).

Le manchet fainct couper gorge (The cripple feigned cut throat): = Le manchet [aura] fainct [de]couper gorge (the cripple [shall have] feigned [to] cut throat), the ellipsis of the auxiliary verb aura and of the preposition de being a figure of Nostradamus (a prophetical embroilment).

The cripple shall have feigned to cut throat: « 25 April [1945]. In Milan, a meeting of Mussolini with the leaders of the Resistance. Mussolini settles himself on 17 April 1945 in Milan where are assembled the most important fascist forces and where he thinks himself to have the greatest liberty of maneuver: either to negotiate with CLNAI (the Committee of Liberation of Upper Italy) or to attempt to refuge in Valteline or in Switzerland. A Milanese industrialist, Cella, member of CLNAI, anxious to avoid battles in the city, proposes to the fascists and resistants an assembly at the house of the archbishop, Cardinal Schuster [au temple]. The meeting takes place on 25 April. It assembles Mussolini, Graziani, several responsible persons of the Republic of Salo and, face to face, three leaders of CLNAI, General Cadorna, Lombardi and Marazzo. these latter persons demand an unconditional surrender [cut throat]. The Duce wants to reflect and withdraws [The cripple shall have feigned to cut throat]. He seems resolved to agitate in front of the Resistance the menace which the German army constitutes. But the latter decides to surrender. So Mussolini quits Milan and orients himself toward Como.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.501).

Bouter: = « mettre, placer (to put, to place).» (Godefroy).

His company shall the people put to death: = The people shall put his company to death: « 28 April [1945]. After the failure of his attempt of negotiation on 25 April 1945 in Milan, Mussolini, Clara Petacci and 15 leaders of the Republic of Salo join a German column which climbs up toward Valteline. On 27 April, the group is arrested by the partisans; these authorize the Germans to pursue their way, if they deliver the fascists who are with them. The officer commanding the column agrees to it. Before letting them depart, the resistants go thoroughly into the vehicles and discover Mussolini who tries to hide himself under the uniform of a German soldier. Thereafter, the destiny of Mussolini and his companions is sealed. In fact, the article 5 of the judicial code enacted by the Committee of Liberation stipulates that all the leaders of the fallen regime and all the fascists taken with arms are condemned to death. Moreover, the resistants do not want that the former master of the country should fall into the hands of the Allies: the punishment of the Duce concerns only the Italians. On 28 April, after Mussolini and Clara Petacci had passed the night at the village of Dongo [on the west bank of Lake Como, 75 km north of Milan], a communist officer, Colonel Valerio, by his true name Walter Audisio, makes the prisoners delivered to him and, with his own hands, executes Mussolini and his mistress. Then, he makes the other 15 fascist leaders fired [The people shall put his company to death], among them are 5 ministers of the government of Salo.» (Kaspi, id., p.505).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§847 The Rise and Fall of Mussolini; Republic of Salo (1922-1943): VIII-66.

VIII-66 (§847):

When the scripture D. M. shall be found,
And the antique cave with a lamp discovered,
The Law, the King and Prince Ulpian tried,
The Army, the Country and the Duke shall be under shade.

(Quant l'escriture D.M. trouvée,
Et cave antique à lampe descouverte,
Loy, roy & prince Ulpian esprouvée,
Pavillon royne & duc soubz la couverte.)

NOTES: There are two preceding interpretations fully suggestive: « The initials D.M. apparently refer to the motto Deus in Me as applied to St. Peter. Prince Ulpian was Domitius Ulpianus, who held appointments under Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and Elagabalus, who banished him. After the assassination of Elagabalus, Ulpian became pretorian prefect under Emperor Alexander Severus, in 222 A.D. The severity he displayed toward the Pretorian Guards resulted in his assassination by them in 228. Commentators believe that Nostradamus has taken Ulpian as a prototype for Mussolini.» (Boswell, 1941, p.279); « When everywhere D. (Duce) M. (Mussolini) lies written on the walls and the Fascism believes to have found the bones of the ancient Romans, then the monarchy in Italy endures a severe trial, the flag of the King soon after that of the Duce shall be vanished.» (Centurio, 1953, p.183).

Quant
: = Quand as in the quatrains V-46, V-59, V-67, V-83, VI-19, VI-21, VI-31 and VI-32.

L'escriture D.M. ( the scripture D. M.): « In general, the epitaphs of the Romans began with these two letters [D. M.], deposited as an abbreviation for “Deo Maximo”, to the Supreme God, namely to Jupiter; or sometimes for “Diis Manibus”, to the Gods of the dead in the underground world. But let’s observe yet the ingenuity of Nostradamus. He evokes here these initials in order to allude to a D. M. of our times: il Duce Mussolini! The word DUC (Duke, Duce) is clearly given in the last line as in the quatrain[s] IX-80[, IX-96 and X-64].» (Ionescu, 1976, p.538).

When the scripture D. M. shall be found, And the antique cave with a lamp discovered, The Law, the King: When Benito Mussolini shall come into power inspired by « the dream of the glory of the ancient Rome » (Ionescu, id., p.539) in oblivion for a long time, the wills of the Duce shall become laws: « The Dictator 13 JUNE 1924 – 10 JUNE 1940 In the summer of 1923 Mussolini had drafted a Bill, afterwards known as the Acerbo Electoral Law, by which Italy was to be divided into fifteen constituencies, each elector being asked to vote for the party of his choice. The party which secured relatively the largest number of votes, provided it was at least a quarter of the total votes cast, was to be granted two-thirds of the seats in the Chamber, the remaining third being given to the other parties on a proportional basis… In April the following year the elections were held and 65.25 per cent of he votes, were cast in favour of him. Mussolini, immensely encouraged by his success, considered a return to normal political conditions and even some form of collaboration with the Socialists. On 7 June, after the newly elected Chamber had given the Government a vote of confidence of 361 to 107, Mussolini indicated that he was prepared to include two Socialists in his Cabinet. Three days later a Socialist deputy, Giacomo Matteotti, a rich – Mussolini called him ‘a millionaire’ – landowner from Rovigo, disappeared from Rome. He was one of Fascism’s mostspoken critics and was believed to be about to publish documents exposing the activities of its most irresponsible and ruthless henchmen. On 13 June his body was discovered buried in a shallow grave twenty kilometres outside the city… Amendola’s paper Il Mondo, published at the end of December a document which ended Italy’s six months of uneasy opposition to the Fascists. It was a statement by Cesare Rossi, the former head of the Fascist Press Office who had been arrested after the murder, accusing Mussolini of being implicated in the plot. Accepting the advice of Roberto Farinacci, a former railway clerk who had become a lawyer and one of Fascism’s most intransigent leaders, and of various former squadristi who had come from all over Italy to bolster up his apparently flagging confidence, he announced in the Chamber, five days after Rossi’s allegations had been published, that he had stayed his hand against his perfidious opponents only to calm his more impetuous followers. But now the time for action had come. ‘I declare here in front of this assembly,’ he said, ‘and in front of the Italian people that I and I alone assume the political, moral, and historic responsibility for everything that has happened. If misquoted words are enough to hang a man, then out with the noose and the gallows! If Fascism has been castor oil and club and not a proud passion of the best Italian youth, the blame is on me. If Fascism has been a criminal plot, if violence has resulted from a certain historic, political, and moral atmosphere, the responsibility is mine, because I have deliberately created this atmosphere… Italy wants peace and quiet, work and calm. I will give these things with love if possible and with force if necessary.’ The date was 3 January 1925. It was one of the fundamental dates in the history of Fascism. Thereafter there was no further thought of compromise, no turning back. Within five years Mussolini was able, with the help of Roberto Farinacci, the newly appointed Secretary of the Party, to achieve his declared object – the ‘complete Fascistization’ of Italy. Opposition parties were dissolved, and free elections came to an end. The Chamber of Deputies became little more than a means of clothing Fascist decrees with an aura of national approval; the Senate was filled with senatori prepared to wear black shirts when required and chant Fascist slogans; the Grand Council of Fascism, formed by Mussolini who became its president with full powers to decide its agenda and its membership, was grafted on to the Constitution as a check on any independence which might be displayed by individual members of the Cabinet… the Party was now taken to be synonymous with the State. As all union officials in the twenty-two different categories of trades and professions were eventually appointed by the Party, the Corporative System became in time a convenient mask for dictatorship.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.64-68).

Prince Ulpian: « Ulpian was a famous Roman jurisconsult of the third century. He had the title of ‘prætorian prefect’ under Emperor Alexander Severus. His authority was so great that his opinions became the laws of the Romans.» (Ionescu, id., p.539); « Berytus, “the Latin island in the sea of Oriental Hellenism”; there, in the Colonia Julia Augusta Felix, where the colonists were Roman legionaries, grew up the famous school of jurisprudence, where Ulpian, the great jurist of Syrian descent, may have had his training.» (HH, VI, p.4); « SEVERUS , 193-211 A.D. Severus now remained in Italy for a space of four years, actively engaged in the administration of justice, the regulation of the finances, and the correction of all kinds of abuses. He conferred the important post of prætorian prefect on Papinian, the most renowned of jurisconsults; and as it was now a part of this officer’s duty to try civil causes, Papinian appointed as his assessors Paulus and Ulpian--names nearly as distinguished as his own.» (id., p.389); « ALEXANDER SEVERUS, 222-235 A.D. Both the senate and the army joyfully concurred in the elevation of Alexander Severus; and the former body, lest any competitor should appear, hastened to confer on him all the imperial titles and powers. On account of his youth and his extremely amiable disposition he was entirely directed by his grandmother and mother, but Mæsa dying soon after his accession, the sole direction of her son fell to Mamæa. Nevertheless in her guidance of public affairs she exhibited a spirit of wisdom, justice, and moderation such as had not appeared in any preceding empress. Her enemies laid to her charge the love of power and the love of money, and blamed her son for deferring too much to her; but their accusations are vague, and no act of cruelty caused by avarice stains the annals of this reign. The first care of Mamæa was to form a wise and upright council for her son. Sixteen of the most respectable of the senate, with the learned Ulpian, the prætorian prefect, at their head, composed this council, and nothing was ever done without their consent and approbation….» (id., p.400).

The Law, the King and Prince Ulpian tried
: The dictator Mussolini shall be like the Roman Ulpian tried, namely deposed by the King of Italy in July 1943 and then lifted by Hitler to preside over the Republic of Salo next September: « Ulpianus, Domitius, c.170-228. One of the members of the Council of Emperor (L.S.) Severus (193/211). President of the Council of Emperor Caracalla (211/17). Expelled by Emperor Heliogabalus (218/22) and then called back in 222 by Emperor Alexander Severus (222/35).» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary, p.235); « We have already observed that a portion of the civil jurisdiction had fallen to the prætorian prefects. This imposed a necessity that one of them should be a civilian, and Mamæa had therefore caused this dignity to be conferred on Ulpian. From the love of law and order which distinguished this prefect, he naturally sought to bring back discipline in the prætorian camp; the consequence was that repeated attempts were made on his life, and the emperor more than once found it necessary to cast his purple over him to save him from the fury of the soldiers. At length (228) they fell on him in the night; he escaped from them to the palace, but they pursued and slaughtered him in the presence of the emperor and his mother.» (HH, VI, p.401). Ionescu tried to parallel Mussolini’s death with that of Ulpian (Ionescu, id., p.539), but the word “esprouver (to try)” does not mean in the context “to assassinate” but only “ to depose” as to their office, and the death of Mussolini was in fact a capital penalty by the Resistance contrary to the assassination of Ulpian;
« FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25 [1943]. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense… The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, 7 cons and one abstention. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.366-367).  

Pavillon
: = An army by metonymy; « PAVILLON, Tente militaire (a military tent) » (Petit Robert).

Royne
(Reine, Queen): = The country (Republic of Salo), a country being linguistically feminine and there having been no Queen in the republic. In fact, of 9 usages of the word Royne/royne, 6 refer to a Queen (I-86, VII-16, VIII-23, IX-77, X-17 and X-19) and 3 to a country or a government (III-89, IV-38 and VIII-66).

Soubz la couverte: = Under the shade; « couverte, s.f., couverture, tout ce qui sert à couvrir; faire la couverte d’une chose, la couvrir; à la couverte, sous l’ombrage (under the shade), à l’abri (sheltered, under cover).» (Godefroy). This expresson cannot have a meaning of « sous la couche de terre (under the cover of soil) » as Ionescu pretends to interpret so (Ionescu, id., p.539).

The Army, the Country and the Duke shall be under shade
: « 1943 September 23. Foundation of Italian Social Republic or Republic of Salo. After his liberation and his meeting with Hitler, Mussolini proclaims Italian Social Republic and settles in Salo, on the border of Lake Garda. On 15 November 1943, opens in Verona the first congress of the Republican Fascist Party. As regards the Duce, grown old, ill, emaciated, sharing his leisure between his family and his mistress Claretta Petacci, overburdening his surroundings with interminable monologues, he seems devoid of will and like broken by the trials (brisé par les épreuves) of the beginning of 1943. Hitler makes him supervised by a German aide-de-camp and guarded by the SS. With his strong protectors, Mussolini shows himself docile [the Duke under shade]. When he protests against the too flagrant abuses of the occupant, heavy requisitions, drawing of manpower, keeping of the prisoners in Germany, he does not obtain any accommodation [the Country under shade]… » (Kaspi, 1980, p.378-379); « … and Renano Ricci, who was appointed to command the Militia, into which, despite his determined efforts, he was never able to enlist more than a few worthwhile men… German soldiers followed him in lorries when he went out in his car and German agents listened in to his telephone calls, which had to be made through a German Army exchange. General Woff, the Ambassador Rahn, the doctor Zachariae, and Colonel Dollmann, who had received personally from Himmler orders never to go far from Mussolini’s side, were all regular visitors. ‘Wolff and Dollmann are my jailers,’ he grumbled, and whenever he looked from his window he saw a German helmet. ‘They are always there,’ he said, ‘like the spots of the leopard.’ To his Italian visitors he was always grumbling like this; but he did not do so to Hitler. Once he wrote to him to complain of the high-handed conduct of German troops, of their arrogant occupation of north-eastern Italy [The Army under shade], which amounted almost to annexation, and of the attitude of the German Government, which seemed to regard his own as completely servile.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.275-279).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

§848 The Allied Liberation of Italy; Italian Republic (1943-1946): II-71.

II-71 (§848):

The exiles shall come into Sicily
In order to relieve the foreign peoples from famine:
At dawn they shall be in need of the Celts:
The life returns to reason: the king stands back.

(Les exilés en Secile viendront
Pour delivrer de faim la gent estrange:
Au point du jour les Celtes luy faudront:
La vie demeure a raison: roy se range.)

NOTES: « II-71. The American landing in Sicily. Victor-Emmanuel III signs an armistice (1943).» (Hutin, 1972, p.154).

The exiles: = The Allied expeditionary troops in Italy in 1943; « EXILÉ. adj. et n. Retiré très loin (remote far away). Les prêtres missionnaires exilés au bout du monde (the missionary priests exiled to the ends of the world).» (Petit Robert).

Famine
: This term in the Prophecies of Nostradamus is often a metaphor for the disasters of war. In fact, of 37 examples of the word faim or famine in all, 25 are figurative and only 12 literal.

The exiles shall come into Sicily In order to relieve the foreign peoples from famine: « Sicily and Italy, 1943-4. The Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 was followed by landings in mainland Italy in September: These knocked Italy out of the war; but the German Army’s continued stubborn defence meant that there would be no rapid Allied victory. The initial Allied landings in the south and south-east of Sicily were a success. The large Italian forces put up little resistance and many surrendered readily - however, the German troops were a different matter. They used the rugged terrain expertly in a series of delaying actions, while the Allied commanders quarrelled over how to conduct the campaign. Finally the Germans withdrew across the Straits of Messina in mid-August virtually unmolested by the superior Allied air and naval forces.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.134-135).

At dawn they shall be in need of the Celts: Mussolini had been deposed as head of the Italian government in July [At dawn] and the new regime began secret peace talks with the Allies. On 3 September Eighth Army crossed from Sicily to the toe of Italy and on the 8th the Italian surrender was announced. The Germans were ready, however, and had moved reinforcements into the country to take over [they shall be in need of the Celts]. On the 9th the main Allied landings, by General Mark Clark’s US Fifth Army, went in around Salerno, just south of Naples, and were nearly thrown back into the sea during the first few days. For the rest of the year the Germans fell back slowly from one well-defended river line to the next. Eighth Army pushed up the east side of Italy and Fifth Army to the west. By the turn of the year the Allied advance had reached the German’s Gustav Line, whose most famous bastion was centred on Monte Cassino, still well to the south of Rome. In an attempt to break the stalemate the Allied forces made an amphibious landing at Anzio, behind the German lines, on 22 January 1944. The troops there, timidly led, soon found themselves effectively besieged in their beachhead. Repeated attacks on the Gustav Line over the following months also failed. During May 1944 the Allies at last mounted a properly co-ordinated attack all along the Italian front, and this time they captured Cassino and broke the Gustav Line. By then, however, Montgomery and many veteran troops had left to prepare for D-Day and Italy had slipped down the Allied priority list. Rome fell on 4 June, but by autumn 1944 the Germans were again making a stand, this time on the Gothic Line just north of Florence.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.135); « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities. Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism began the civilian Resistance, a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans. The Resistance, on 25 April [1945], liberated by itself many cities of the north through the concerted uprising. Mussolini was trying to flee into Switzerland, but perceived and arrested by the partisans on the Lake of Como. The CNL of the northern Italy with their own authority of justice, sentenced Mussolini to death and fired him with another Fascist leaders on the 28th.» (Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-508); « Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona...» (Starr, 1986, p.436).

Demeurer à: « (Choses). D
EMEURER À (qqn): rester la proprité de ( [Objects] To rest the property of [somebody]). Cette maison lui est demeurée de ses parents (This house is his property from his parents).» (Petit Robert).

The life returns to reason: = The life of the Italians returns to the property of reason thanks to the Allied victorious end of the war.

Se ranger: « To place oneself; To get (or) stand out of the way, to stand back (or) aside.» (Dubois).

The king stands back: The King is dethroned = « Florence, Imole pourchassés dans romaine » (§831, VI-77);
« romaine. Steelyard (balance).» (Dubois). This expression represents a ‘referendum’: « 1946 May: 9th, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicates and Umberto II proclaims himself king; Jun: 2nd, Italian referendum in favour of a republic; 3d, Umberto II leaves Italy and Alcide de Gasperi, the premier, becomes provisional head of state.» (Williams, 1968, p.600-602).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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