§716

19th century:

§716 Prince imperial dead; Switzerland in religious conflict (1847-1890): IV-9.

 

IV-9:

The chief of the camp in the middle of the throng

Shall be hurt in the thigh by a stroke of arrows,

When Geneva in tears and depression

Shall be betrayed by Lausanne and Switzerland.

(Le chef du camp au milieu de la presse

D'un coup de fleche sera blessé aux cuisses,

Lors que Geneve en larmes & detresse

Sera trahie par Lozan & Souysses.)

 

NOTES: Vignois (1910, p.393) presents us with a most probable solution: « In the war of Zoulouland, the Prince imperial was reconnoitering on June 1st, 1879, with a small number of English soldiers, in company with the lieutenant Carey. During their halt, when the cavaliers descended on the ground, the Zoulous hiding in the tall grasses assaulted them abruptly with their assagais: in the middle of the agitation of the soldiers hurrying to flee, the Prince was wounded with a stroke of arrow that prevented him from following his companions and eluding the strikes of arrows which killed him. It was in these days that Geneva, in tears because of the wrongs made to its Church, and deprived of Mgr. Mermillod, the bishop the Pope Pius IX had given to it, was victim of the treason of the Swiss federal Council that pretended to support the rights of the bishopric of Lausanne.»

The chief of the camp: = The Prince imperial Napoléon-Eugène-Louis-Jean-Joseph Bonaparte = the young prince (§702, VI-3).

Shall be hurt by a stroke of arrows: « The Empress Eugénie, then, settled with his son in Chislehurst (England). Napoleon III, having been granted liberty by Germany after the conclusion of peace, rejoined the Empress and his son in this city where he died on January 9th 1873. The prince imperial, having been in Zoulouland [South Africa] to serve England, died on June 1st 1879 in Ulundi, aged 23, shot with assagais by a band of Zoulous.» (Muel, 1895, p.331-332, note 1).

When Geneva in tears and depression Shall be betrayed by Lausanne and Switzerland: = When Geneva shall be in tears and depression, [having been] betrayed by Lausanne and Switzerland = (When the Catholics of Geneva shall be disappointed of their hope of instituting a see of bishop disavowed by the federal authority that shall thereafter approve the see of Lausanne.): « Even more important were the consequences of the religious conflicts. The calling of Doctor Strauss from Würtemberg to the University at Zurich in 1839 roused the rural population to arms and caused the fall of the liberal government at Zurich; this did not again secure supremacy till 1845. More significant was the question of the convents. In a conference at Baden in 1834 seven cantons had determined upon the subjection of the church to the authority of the state and the employment of the convents for purposes of general usefulness. Most violent was the quarrel over this matter in the canton Aargau, whose radical government finally, in 1841, closed all the convents, among others the wealthy one of Muri, and took possession of the property for “ purpose of instruction and benevolence.” Among the bigoted Catholics there was great excitement over this. It led to a victory of the ultramontane party in Lucerne and Valais in 1844. This party called the Jesuits to Lucerne to take charge of the instruction of youth. In this affair the wealthy farmer Joseph Leu and Sigwart Müller showed themselves especially active. The Jesuits had also established themselves in Fribourg and Schwys. To expel them from Switzerland was the aim of all the liberal cantons. The expedition of the free lances (Freischaren) of 1845 under the leadership of Ochsenbein of Bern met with failure. The government of Lucerne, still more embittered by the murder of Leu, assumed a terrorising attitude, demanded the punishment of the free lances, and restoration of the convents of the Aargau; and when no attention was paid to these demands concluded with Schwys, Uri, Unterwalden, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais a separate league (Sonderbund) for mutual protection against external and internal enemies. This league within a league was not to be endured; and, since the liberal cantons were in the majority, they decided at the diet in Bern, in July, 1847, upon the dissolution of the Sonderbund, as being contrary to the Pact of Federation (Bundesvertrag) and upon the expulsion of the Jesuits. As the fanatics of Lucerne failed to obey the diet, orders were given for federal action against the cantons of the Sonderbund. The federal army was mustered in and the experienced general Dufour of Geneva was placed at its head… Dufour set five divisions of his army on the march from the various points they occupied, giving them Lucerne as object... Twenty-five days after the decree of execution the task of the army was complete — the Sonderbund no longer existed. The diet now debated the draft constitution drawn up by Kern of Thurgau and Druey of Vaud, which in the summer of 1848 was accepted by fifteen and a half cantons, the minority consisting of the three forest cantons, Valais, Zug,Ticino,and Appenzell (Tuner Rhodes), and it was proclaimed on September 12th.» (HH, XVII, p.38-43).

« From 1848 onwards the cantons continually revised their constitutions, always in a democratic sense, though after the Sonderbund War Schwys and Zug abolished their Landsgemeinde. The chief point was the introduction of the referendum, by which laws made by the cantonal legislature may (facultative referendum) or must (obligatory referendum) be submitted to the people for their approval; and this has obtained such general acceptance that Fribourg alone does not possess the referendum in either of its two forms, Ticino having accepted it in its optional form in 1883. It was therefore only natural that attempts should be made to revise the federal consitution of 1848 in a democratic and centralising sense, for it had been provided that the federal assembly, on its own initiative or on the written request of fifty thousand Swiss electors, could submit the question of revision to a popular vote. In 1866 the restriction of certain rights to Christians only was swept away; but the attempt at final revision in 1872 was defeated by a smal1 majority, owing to the efforts of the anticentralising party. Finally, however, another draft was better liked, and on April 19th, 1874, the new constitution was accepted by the people. This constitution is that now [as of 1907] in force, and is simply an improved edition of that of 1848. The federal tribunal (now of nine members only) was fixed (by federal law) at Lausanne, and its jurisdiction enlarged, especially in constitutional disputes between cantons and the federal authorities, though jurisdiction in administrative matters (e.g., educational, religious, election, commercial) is given to the federal council — a division of functions which is very anomalous, and does not work well.» (HH, XVII, p.43).

 

The new constitution has an article that « it is required a federal approbation for a new see of bishop to be instituted within the territory of Switzerland. » (Morita, 1998, p.127).

 

« Chronological summary:

1840 Clericals revolt against the radicals in Aargau.

1841 They are put down. Eight monasteries in Aargau are suppressed. The quarrel provokes disputes in the diet.

1843 The diet effects a compromise in the religious quarrel in Aargau by which four instead of eight of the monasteries are suppressed. The seven Catholic cantons, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais hereupon form a separate league, the Sonderbund.

1844 The Sonderbund declares for the reopening of all the monasteries in Aargau. The clericals in Lucerne, the Vorort, give high posts to Jesuits. Parties of free-lances attempt to capture the city.

1845 The attack on Lucerne is renewed but is unsuccessful. The radicals gain control in Zurich.

1846 The radicals become the majority in Bern and Geneva.

1847 The radicals get a majority in St. Gall. The diet in which the radicals are now in the majority declares the Sonderbund contrary to the Federal Pact. The diet resolves to revise the pact and asks the cantons to expel the Jesuits. The attempt to enforce the decree leads to the Sonderbund War. This is quickly ended by the defeat of the rebellious Catholic cantons at Gislikon, largely because of the good generalship of Dufour.

1848 A new constitution is accepted by the majority of the cantons. Switzerland becomes a federal state (Bundesstaat) . A central government is organised consisting of a council of states (Ständerath), a national council (National Rath) and a federal council or executive (Bundesrath). German, French, and Italian are recognised as national languages. Bern is chosen the national capital.

1866 Restrictions on religious liberty of Jesuits, etc., are removed. An attempt is made to revise the constitution in a democratic sense but fails.

1871 Switzerland shelters French refugees of the Franco-German War though insisting on the maintenance of neutrality. The growth in power of the “old Catholics” causes disturbances in western Switzerland (the struggle against Ultramontanism).

1872 An attempt at revision of the constitution is defeated by a small majority.

1873 Abbé Mermillod, appointed by the pope " apostolic vicar " of Geneva, is banished from Switzerland. The see of Bishop Lachat of Bâle is suppressed by several cantons because he upholds the doctrine of papal infallibility.

1874 A new constitution, a revision of that of 1848, is accepted by the people. The referendum hereby becomes a part of the machinery of the federal government as it had already been part of that of most of the cantons. The new constitution increases centralisation in the government.

1876 Religious and political differences cause an armed encounter in Ticino.

1883 Mermillod is appointed bishop of Lausanne.

1884 Bishop Lachat is made apostolic vicar of Ticino.

1888 The creation of a see at Lugano excites the opposition of the radicals. 

1890 Religions riot at Ticino. » (HH, XVII, p.65-67).

 

As to the decease of the Prince imperial, cf. V-97 (§717).

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We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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