§721

19th century:

§721 The Roman Catholics persecuted in Italy and in Germany (1870-1887): V-43.

 

V-43:

The great ruin of the ecclesiastics is not far-off.

Provence, Naples, Sicily, Sezze and Ponza:

In Germany, by the Rhine and in the region of Cologne,

Vexed to death by all those of Magonce.

(La grand ruyne des sacrés ne s'esloigne.

Provence, Naples, Sicille, seez & Ponce:

En Germanie, au Ryn & la Cologne,

Vexés à mort par tous ceulx de Magonce.)

 

NOTES: Provence: « This word designates Piedmont. It is with Piedmont that began “the great ruin of the ecclesiastics” which was, by her, extended over all Italy.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.47). The County of Nice in Provence is mediating between Provence and Piedmont, having been by turns Piedmontese (Sardinian) and French from 1388 till 1860 (cf. Duby, p.69, p.137; Mirot, 1980, p.227, p.271, p.276, p.431).

Provence, Naples, Sicily: The Kingdom of Italy including Sicily and Naples.

Sezze (seez): or Sezza, « a small town of the Pontifical states, 12 km west-southwest of Frosinone.» (MacCarthy).

Ponza (Ponce): The island of Ponza, « the most important of the Ponza islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea dependent on the Kingdom of Naples.» (id.). « … famous for the exiles of so many a saint in martyrdom.» (Moréri, cité Torné-Chavigny, id.).

The great ruin of the ecclesiastics is not far-off. Provence, Naples, Sicily, Sezze and Ponza: The spoliation of Rome ensuing the sufferings of the Roman ecclesiastics by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870 (cf. §669-678) is not distant from the 1870s and 1880s when the German Catholics shall be persecuted analogously.

Magonce: = Mainz (Mayence); « Mayence is named by the Latin authors Maguntia. Some derive its etymology from  the name of Magog, son of Japhet.» (Moréri, cité Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.48). « MAYENCE, in Latin Moguntia, in German Mainz, city of the German Confederation [1863]. This city surrendered to the French, in 1799, and stayed under their power until 1814.» (Bescherelle). « Mogontiācum, a town of the Vangiones (now Mainz).» (TanakaH).

Those of Magonce: = The Protestant Prussians, « the great of Magonce (Grand de Magonce) » of the quatrain VI-40 (§722) being Otto von Bismarck, Protestant Chancellor.

The region of Cologne (la Cologne): = Prussia (in 1815 by the Congress of Wien) = the German Empire (in 1871), by synecdoche.

Vexed to death: « All those of Magonce, namely of Mainz shall vex the Catholics of Germany not literally to death.» (Torné-Chavigny, id.).

In Germany, near the Rhine and in the region of Cologne, Vexed to death by all those of Magonce: « Kulturkampf (‘Conflict of Beliefs’), a term generally used to describe the conflict between Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church, 1871-87. Bismarck feared that the decrees of the Vatican Council [of 1870] implied that the Church was asserting a prior claim to the State on the obedience of the citizen. He was, too, considerably alarmed by the creation of the Roman Catholic Centre Party which was avowedly anti-Prussian. The Kulturkampf was worse in Prussia than in other parts of Germany. Bismarck, seeing that his opponents were flourishing under persecution, realized that his policy was inept and with the election of a new Pope (Leo XIII) in 1878 began negotiations which restored most of the Roman Catholic rights by 1887.» (Palmer, s.v.).

« Even the German bishops after some opposition at the beginning had submitted to the new dogma of papal infallibility. The great mass of priests and laymen submitted to the dogma now expressly represented by the bishops. At first Prince Bismarck had allowed this theoretical declaration of war by the papacy against the modern state to remain unnoticed. But immediately after the war Ludwig Windthorst and Peter Reichensperger formed a confessional Catholic party of sixty-three members for the Reichstag, the Centre party, in order thereby to furnish the interests of their church with such backing as they had lost by the secession of Austria from the German state community. They demanded restoration of the ecclesiastical state "freedom '' of the church and the expansion of the empire on a "federative" basis. In June, 1871, the Prussian government abolished the Catholic section of the ministry of public instruction, because it had become a church weapon against the state, and an imperial law of December, 1871, threatened with punishment every abuse of the pulpit with a view to raising agitation. Hereupon the new minister of public instruction (from January, 1872), Adalbert Falk, who, jurist and doctrinaire as he was, went much further in resistance to the aggressions of the Roman Church than was wise or necessary, introduced for Prussia a law of school inspection, and for the empire a law compelling the expulsion of the Jesuits (on the 4th of July, 1872), and finally, in 1873, the "May laws," which included the limitation of ecclesiastical vindictive jurisdiction to purely ecclesiastical matters, training of priests exclusively in German institutions, state inspection of ecclesiastical institutions, compulsory notice by ecclesiastical superiors on appointment of their inferiors to office, and a royal disciplinary court of justice for ecclesiastical concerns. Other laws transferred the pecuniary control of vacant bishoprics to royal commissioners (May, 1874) and that of parishes to a secular body representing the parish (June, 1876); that of all dioceses was placed under state supervision (July, 1876), priests at loggerheads with one another were deprived of state fees (April, 1875), and all religious foundations not devoted to healing the sick were abolished (May, 1875). The introduction of civil marriage into Prussia in 1874, and into the whole empire in 1875, was calculated to preserve the solemnisation of marriage from all abuse at the hands of the ecclesiastical power. But the hope that was entertained of separating the Catholic laymen from the clergy, and so compelling the latter to submit, was a total fiasco and the clergy, starting with the assumption that all these laws were invalid because they lacked the sanction of the church, offered the most obstinate resistance. So, at the end of 1876, seven out of twelve Prussian bishops gradually came to be dispossessed by sentence, a thousand parsonages were left vacant, and ill feeling was further increased by frequent agitation in the Kaplanspresse, which shot into rapid notoriety, agitation that was demagogical and knew no bounds, so that on the 13th of July, 1874, a fanatic in Kissingen went so far as to attempt to murder Prince Bismarck. These contests between the sovereign state and the church, which at the same time disputed with it that sovereignty, prehistoric conflicts receiving illustration anew in modern form, naturally impeded to no small degree the expansion of the empire. And yet it made vigorous progress. The French war indemnity was devoted to compensating the damage.» (HH, XV, p.534-535).

« With the internal peace and well-being of Germany, the final and the highest aim of all these enterprises, was destined to be associated that ecclesiastical peace which the Kulturkampf had interrupted for the Catholic Germans. Social as well as political considerations pointed to the attainment of such a peace. At the same time the secession of a large fraction of the liberals (since 1878) from the new policy of taxation and economic adjustment compelled Prince Bismarck to come to an understanding with the Centre, and this involved concessions to the church. Moreover, a change of front in the papacy seemed more possible under Leo XIII, who succeeded to Pius IX in 1878, than under Pius himself. Consequently Falk was replaced in July, 1879, by Puttkamer, who again, on becoming minister of the interior, was succeeded by Von Gossler. The abolition of several punitive enactments in the May laws made it now possible to restore regular incumbents in the majority of the vacant parishes; the majority of the deposed bishops were enabled to return to their dioceses; and when in 1883 Leo XIII had given his consent to the law of notice on appointment, all the still unoccupied parsonages were filled, and in 1886 the new bishops also were nominated by papal brief with the assent of the territorial prince; finally, in 1887 a series of ecclesiastical orders was admitted. Thus the obligation to give notice on appointment was adhered to, as were also the participation of laymen in the ecclesiastical control of the parish and civil marriage; the Jesuits remained banished from the territory of the empire, and the Catholic section of the ministry of public worship was not re-established. Whatever material concessions the state may have made, it had yet preserved in the main the sovereignty of its legislation and of its administration. Destructive and confusing as had been the effect of the Kulturkampf, the nation grew more and more consolidated. National holidays were made of Sedan day, the birthday of the emperor, and, more particularly since 1885, of the birthday of Prince Bismarck; everywhere rose innumerable monuments commemorating the great time of the wars of unification and their leaders — sometimes only simple stones, sometimes splendid works of art.» (HH, XV, p.538-539).

___________________________________

© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.

関連記事
スポンサーサイト
Profile

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

Latest journals
Category
Link