§728-§729

19th century:

§728 - §729 Heinrich Schliemann at Troy, at Mycenae and at Tiryns, John Evans at Knossos: V-91 and IX-84.

These two quatrains seem to refer in couples to the archeological discoveries of the ancient Greek civilization by H. Schliemann (1822-1890) and A. J. Evans (1851-1941). In the first place we have a list of relevant histories:

History 1°: Elgin marbles (1801-1805).
« The embassy of Lord Elgin [1766-1841] at Constantinople... Some say that it is the English government that took the initiative of his parallel mission in Greece, with the intention of acquiring works of art and preventing France from cornering the market of antiquities. Others see there on the contrary Elgin’s personal project. In July 1801 begins the pillage of Parthenon and, more broadly, of the Acropolis; it will continue till 1805, the date when every removing and every digging is forbidden.» (Etienne, R. et F., 1990, p.67-68)

History 1°b: Elgin marbles at British Museum (1816).
« Elgin marbles... Immediately after their arrival at London, all the artists, connoisseurs and Maecenas of the city crowd to see them. The result is striking in the artistic world: « The Elgin marbles are by far superior to all the treasuries of Italy.» In Autumn 1816, the sculptures becoming properties of the British nation are transported into the British Museum. As soon as they are installed, drawings, moldings and engravings spread in England and abroad.» (Etienne, R. et F., id., p.73-75)

History 2°: The German Schliemann and the Englishman Evans.
« ... The humanities progress, too; the past steps back and grows richer. The German Schliemann discovers Troy, the Englishman Evans resurrects Crete. » (Grousset et Léonard, 1958, p.591)

History 3°: Priam’s treasury at the site of Hissarlik identified with Troy (1872-1873).
« Schliemann has a merit of pursuing a coherent plan of researches which leads him to Ithaca in 1868, then in Turkey to the site of Hissarlik in 1872-1873. He proves that it concerns probably the city of Troy, and discloses a fabulous treasury of jewels, surnamed at once Priam’s treasury or jewelry of Helen the beauty.» (Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 110)

History 4°: Preliminary travels and two leading theories of Schliemann (1864-1869).
« The lawsuit was decided in his favour in December 1863, when he finally wound up his business, to which he never returned. In the spring of 1864 Dr. Schliemann travelled to Carthage and India, and remained for several months in China and Japan. His first book, La Chine et le Japon, was written during the fifty days' voyage from Japan to America. It was published next year in Paris, where Dr. Schliemann now settled, devoting himself chiefly to the study of archaeology. He visited for the first time the classical spots which were later to become the sources of his world-wide fame in the summer of 1868. He published an account of these travels in German and French in 1869, under the title of Ithaca, the Peloponnesus, and Troy. In this book he first announced the two leading theories which guided him in his later excavations, and which led to his remarkable success. In the first place, the description of the traveller Pausanias led him to conclude that the graves of the Atreidae at Mycenae had lain inside, and not outside, the citadel wall; secondly, he placed Troy on the site of the new historic Ilion, on the hill now called Hissarlik, near the coast. The most distinguished scholars and travellers of the day, if they granted its real existence at all, held it to have stood far inland on the summit of the Balidagh, near Bunárbashi. This book and a treatise written in Greek gained at once for Schliemann his doctor's degree at Rostock. Then he went travelling again, and spent almost the whole of 1869 in the United States.» (Schuchhardt, 1891, p.6)

History 5°: Excavations of Hissarlik resulting in Trojan Antiquities (1870-1874).
« Next year he began the great work of his life, the excavation of Troy. The first sod was turned on Hissarlik in April 1870. Permission had first to be obtained from the Turkish Government, but, owing to the disturbed state of foreign affairs at that time, it was long delayed. The permission only arrived in September 1871. On the 27th of the month, Schliemann set off for the Dardanelles, with his young wife Sophia, a Greek, whom he had married two years before in Athens. When the work ceased for the winter on November 24, there was nothing to show it. Dr. Schliemann resumed the work much more thoroughly in March 1872. The excavations were carried on well into the hot summer, and only stopped on August 14. In spite of this, they had led to no satisfactory result. In the following year [1873] Dr. Schliemann with too much zeal returned to Hissarlik on February 1, and had therefore to endure six weeks of bitter cold. The wind, which at that season blows up from the Hellespont, is no less severe than in our northern climate. Through the chinks in the thin wooden shed the north wind blew so hard that, in spite of a constant fire, the water in the room was frozen. The cold was just bearable during the day, while they were busy with the excavations, " but of an evening," says Dr. Schliemann, " we had nothing to keep us warm except our enthusiasm for the great work of discovering Troy." This year, however, brought the first real success. The town walls appeared more and more distinctly. To the south-west, too, a great gate was uncovered, and quite close to it, over the foundation of the town wall, was found the famous " great treasury," consisting of countless golden ornaments and many silver and copper vessels, weapons, etc. It was about mid-day when Dr. Schliemann observed the first signs of the treasury, and during the workmen's dinner-hour he lifted and concealed the whole mass, with the assistance of his wife, whose shawl served as a basket. He thus managed to keep together the whole find, of which, by agreement, the half should have been given over to the Turkish Government. After this third campaign, Dr. Schliemann described the results of his excavations in the work Trojan Antiquities. It was published in German with an atlas of 218 maps in 1874, and a French translation by M. Rangabé appeared at the same time. The book did much to shake the deep-rooted Troy-Bunárbashi theory.» (Schuchhardt, 1891, p.6-8)

History 6°: Circle of tombs and royal funeral masks of gold at Mycenae (1874-1876).
« Passing then to Mycenae in 1874, an error in the text of Pausanias made him discover a circle of tombs in the interior of the acropolis [cf: “ the description of the traveller Pausanias led him to conclude that the graves of the Atreidae at Mycenae had lain inside, and not outside, the citadel wall.”(Schuchhardt, id.)]. He reveals to the learned society and to the general public the extraordinary treasuries of a civilization unknown till then: funeral masks of gold, cups of gold and of bronze, diadems, damascene daggers, gravestones bearing the most ancient sculptured reliefs. All is exposed and published rapidly in German and in English. These masks are made from a gold foil shaped to a figure of sculptured wood. Any equivalent to this first attempt of royal portrait is not known in the Aegean world.» ( Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 111-112)

History 6°b: « By an article of the Greek constitution, everything found in the country must remain there and become the property of the Government, so these treasures were taken to Athens. They are exhibited in the great hall of the Polytechnicon, and form one of the most interesting and imposing collections in the world. The excavations at Mycenae went on to the end of 1876. In 1877 Dr. Schliemann published the results in his book Mycenae. An English edition appeared simultaneously in London and New York, and in 1878 a French one was issued in Paris. The preface was written by Mr. Gladstone, whose keen interest in Homeric studies is well known.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.10)

History 7°: At Orchomenos (1880-1881).
« At Orchomenos, in 1880 and 1881, he excavated the so-called treasury of Minyas, a great bee-hive tomb exactly like those of Mycenae.» (Schuchhardt, id, p.12)

History 7°b: « Schliemann sets out again to Troy and excavates then at Orchomenos of Boeotia, and opens in 1884 the site of Tiryns.» ( Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 110)

History 8°: Schliemann at Tiryns which is proved of the same period as those of Troy and Mycenae whose memory has survived in Homer (1884).
« On March 1, 1882, Dr. Schliemann resumed work at Hissarlik. This time he had the co-operation of Dr. W. Dörpfeld, now chief secretary to the German Archaeological Institute at Athens, who, for several years previous to his work with Dr. Schliemann, had taken a leading part in the German excavations at Olympia. They now gained important results by uncovering several great complex buildings in the most important stratum, the second from the native rock. Dr. Schliemann and Dr. Dörpfeld at that time held that the extensive buildings with vestibules in front, and a great round hearth in the centre, were temples. Two years later [1884], however, the ground-plan of the palace at Tiryns was discovered almost intact. It had the same long central hall, with a vestibule and a great round hearth, and thus it was proved that the analogous buildings in Troy were not temples, but the chief apartments of the king's palace. The same apartment, with exactly the same ground-plan, has recently been also found at Mycenae, in the centre of the palace. Consequently, it is now perfectly certain, even if it was not so in 1882, that Dr. Schliemann has discovered the Pergamos [citadel] of Troy in the chief stratum of Hissarlik. This city, like Tiryns and Mycenae, belongs to that same great and flourishing period of Graeco-Asiatic culture which is obviously pre-Homeric. We can unhesitatingly recognise in it the Troy whose memory survived in the poems of Homer. The devout and childlike faith with which Dr. Schliemann, in spite of all ridicule, clung to an actual historic foundation for the Homeric poems and the Trojan War, has been victorious over all the acuteness and erudition expended on the opposite side.» (Schuchhardt, 1891,

History 8°b: « From March till June 1884 Dr. Schliemann worked at Tiryns. Here he made a splendid discovery, which threw light on all sides. He came on the foundations of a palace in excellent preservation, dating from the heroic age.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.14)

History 9°: Schliemann's dreams coming true.
« At the time when Dr. Schliemman began his excavations in Troy, the Homeric poems, ---then the main source of our knowledge of prehistoric Greece --- had already been subjected to keen and searching criticism by F. A. Wolf, Wilhelm Müller, and Lachmann, and the results of this criticism were known not only to specialists, but to the educated public in general. The main contention that the Iliad and the Odyssey were really a collection of songs composed at different times, and of very unequal value, and like the German Niebelungen Lied, they could be resolved to shorter lays, each celebrating the deeds of individual heroes. The most famous of these heroes, Achilles for example, like Siegfried, had, it was maintained, their ultimate origin in mythological personages, once worshipped as divine. English scholars, it is true, in the face of the Wolfian doctrine, maintained intact their peculiar Homeric orthodoxy. They remained faithful on the whole to the old catholic belief. Grote considered that the Odyssey, though not the Iliad, was originally one complete whole: he farther placed Troy exactly on the spot where Dr. Schliemann afterwards excavated it. In Germany, however, the conviction daily gained ground that it was impossible to decide how much the ancient Epos was truth and how much poetic fiction. Every influential scholar and traveller --- and among them we find Moltke, Welcker, Kiepert, and Curtius --- favoured the view that disregards the leading traits of the Homeric picture, and bids us recognise the ancient capital of the Troad in a small mountain fastness near Bunárbashi, situated at a considerable distance from the sea. This, they held, had been transformed by the imaginative descriptions of a Homer into a royal city, capital of a broad domain. The question is now decided for ever. On the hill of Hissarlik Dr. Schliemann has uncovered the ancient palaces of Troy, has laid bare its colossal fortifications, and brought to light its treasures of gold and silver. Moreover, in the country round about, his unwearying exertions have proved the accuracy of many details, which show a coincidence, astonishing even to the most credulous, between the picture unfolded in Homer and the one preserved to this day. In order to be able rightly to estimate the significance of these results, we must first take a rapid survey of what ancient tradition has handed down to us concerning Troy and the Trojan plain. Our knowledge of the " Ilios " of the Trojan War is solely derived from the Homeric poems. The Greeks of historic times themselves knew nothing beyond what these poems tell us. Their assertions about remote antiquity either have Homer for their source or are pure inventions. In Homer Troy is a wealthy capital, situated in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont, and facing the little island of Tenedos. Its horizon is bounded on the one side by Samothrake, the high snow-capped peak whence Poseidon watched the battle, on the other by wooded " many-fountained " Ida, the seat of Zeus. The Trojan princes dwelt originally farther inland on Mount Ida; later on they came down from this lofty position, and founded the present citadel "upon the plain." So wonderful are the walls and towers of this citadel, that their building was ascribed to no mortal hand but to Poseidon and Apollo. On the summit of the Acropolis were situated the palaces --- the palace of Priam, and next to it those of Hector and of Paris. There also Zeus was worshipped, and Athena and Apollo had their temples. The only exit from the city mentioned in the poems is the Skaian Gate, through which the road led to the battle-field on the plain.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.17-18)

History 9°b: « Most of the Trojan treasures are now in the " Völker Museum " at Berlin. A new book on the new excavations was promptly written and entitled Troja. It appeared, with a preface by Professor Sayce, at the end of 1884, in English and German. As no French translation of Ilios had yet appeared, this work was revised and enlarged in accordance with the new discoveries, and in this form it was published in Paris in 1885, under the title of Ilios, Ville et Pays des Troyens.» (Schuchhardt, id., p.14)

History 10°: Evans at Minos’s (1899).
« Evans traveled in Greece in 1893 and rediscovered at the antiquaries of Athens graved ancient stones originating from Crete and bearing hieroglyphic signs. It is the first revelation of the Minoan script. He decided to excavate at Knossos and payed out of his pocket for the grounds and broke up the ground in 1899. It was the extraordinary discovery of the palace of Minos.» (Etienne, R. et F., id., p. 113)

History 10°b: Evans at Minos’s (1900).
« Evans' attention was called to Cretan antiquities in 1893 by a study of jewelry belonging to the prehistoric Mycenaean civilization recently discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in excavations at Mycenae and Orchomenos. Evans began to collect the engraved seal stones. In 1894 he explored Crete in search of further seals; at this time he determined to excavate ancient Cnossus and began to negotiate for the site near Candia where walls and Mycenaean pottery had been found in 1878. The Turkish officials of the island had prevented archaeological excavation as long as they were in power, but in March 1900 (Crete had gained autonomy within the Ottoman Empire in 1898) Evans was able to begin digging.» (Collier's Encyclopedia, IX, p.467)

History 10°c: Evans at Minos’s (1900-1905-1935).
« Excavations conducted with brilliant success by Sir Arthur Evans were begun in 1900, continued annually until 1905, and pursued intermittently during the succeeding thirty years. They revealed an enormous palace covering nearly six acres of ground and surrounded by a town in which there were many large and luxurious detached houses.» (Collier's Encyclopedia, VI, p.640)

History 10°d: Evans at Minos’s (1921-1936).
« Reports of this and following archaeological diggings were promptly published and brought immediate recognition of the importance of Evans' discovery. The first volume of his chief and truly monumental work, The Palace of Minos at Knossos, appeared in 1921, the last in 1936. It is not only an account of the palace Evans excavated but an encyclopedic survey of all aspects of the Minoan civilization of Crete.» (Collier's Encyclopedia, IX, p.467-468)

History 11°: The Orthodox Greeks as Romans under the Turkish reign (15th - 18th century).
« Among the peoples whose majority is Christian in Turkey, the most important is that of the Greeks, who inhabited not only the Balkans, but also the greater part of Anatolia. The greatest number of them spoke the modern Greek. But the Ottomans called them " Romans (Rumlar) ", considering that they were Orthodox of the Byzantine Empire in truth. They understand by the appellation "Romans" above all "Orthodox Greeks". In parallel, the Greeks identified themselves with the Romans who kept their identity in the Orthodox Church. It is from the second half of the 18th century that the Greeks began to consider the ancient heretic Greeks as their immediate ancestors and to establish the origin of their identity in the Greek nationality.» (Suzuki, 1992, p.96-97)

§728 Elgin marbles; Excavations of Troy and Mycenae (1801-1936): V-91.

V-91:
At the great market of the so-called liars,
By little and little Torrent and the Athenian camp:
Shall be surprised by the tiny horses,
By those of Albion Mars Leo, Sat. alone versien.


(Au grand marché qu'on dict des mensongiers,
Du bout Torrent & camp Athenien:
Seront surprins par les chevaulx legiers,
Par Albanoys Mars Leo, Sat. un versien.)

NOTES:
The great market of the so-called liars: The market of antiquities where they trade on a large scale and sometimes by fraud.

Du bout: A locution invented by Nostradamus signifying, probably, « by little and little, little by little ». This adverbial qualification accords with a slow and careful process of archeologic excavation in contrast with the locution « du tout » (utterly) [cf. the edition № 10].

Torrent: The key word which can be found only in these two quatrains of the Prophecies of Nostradamus except le torrent (the torrent) in the proper sense of the quatrain II-33, and seems to indicate an anagrammatic enigma derived from the composition or superposition of the characters T, o, r, r, e, n, t of Troie (Troy) and Tirynthe (Tiryns), the two archeological sites in Greece excavated in succession by Heinrich Schliemann (Histories 3°-5° and 8°-8°b).

And the Athenian camp: The Latin etymology campus of the French camp (a camp) and champ (a field) signifying « plaine (a plain), terrain plat (a plain ground); terrain d'exercise ou de bataille (a field of exercise or of combat)» (Ernout et Meillet), the phrase « and the Athenian camp » can indicate other sites in Greece than Torrent (Troy and Tiryns), such as Mycenae (History 6°), Ithaque (History 3°), Orchomenos (History 7°) and the Acropolis of Athens itself, where camped the Turkish garrison during the reign of the Sultans (cf. Etienne, R. et F., id., p.36-37) and whose antique monuments in part have been removed by Lord Elgin for London in the beginning of the 19th century (Histories 1°-1°b).

Shall be surprised by the tiny horses: The archeologic sites in Greece are excavated by teams of workers supported by tiny horses (cf. Etienne, R. et F., id., gravure in frontispiece).

By those of Albion (Par Albanoys): = By the Englishmen. Albanois in the Prophecies of Nostradamus has three distinct senses, whose one is for the light cavalry from Albania serving France, Spain or Venice, which is confused with the second for « the subordinates of the duke of Albe, General of the army of Philip II » (V-46 and IV-98), all the examples of the term Albe in the Prophecies (VI-68, VII-29 and IX-22 bis) seeming to indicate the same personage. And thirdly, all the other two examples of Albanois in the Prophecies (V-91 et VIII-94) with its cognate Albanins (VIII-40) are for the English, Albania, 'the soil of white' in English with an out-of-date sense representing Scottland and Albion, 'the white soil' in English symbolizing Great-Britain or England because of the white coasts of chalk of the Channel (cf. HH, XIX, p.292). Therefore, in this quatrain, the word Albanois is understood as the Englishmen who excavated the archeologic sites in Greece or traded the Greek antiquities, among whom are Lord Elgin and John Evans (Histories 10°-10°d).

Mars Leo, Sat. un versien: The planetary configuration of Mars in Leo and Saturn alone (un) in retrogradation (versien = verso) in Aquarius (versien = Verseau) gives us the following distinct years within the period 1555-2000: 1609, 1639, 1669, 1697, 1699, 1726, 1727, 1756, 1757, 1816, 1874, 1904, 1934, 1964 et 1991, among which the four consecutive years: 1816, 1874, 1904 and 1934 are pertinent for the theme of the quatrains in couples.

Dating according to the planetary configuration « Mars Leo, Sat. un versien »:
By « Mars Leo », one can understand that « Mars is in the sign of the Lion », « Leo » being an adjective or adverbial locution without preposition as usual (cf. A l'Entrée des Prophéties, §5) and, likewise, by « Sat. un versien » one can understand that « Saturn in retrogradation is alone in the sign of Aquarius », « Sat. un » signifying « Saturn alone » and « versien » suggesting at the same time « the sign Aquarius » and « returning » (verso in Latin signifies to return) (cf. Centurio, 1953, p.126). Therefore, to obtain the dating of this planetary configuration within the period of 1555 to 2000, it is necessary to get the convergence of the following four cumulative conditions:

1° The periods of Saturn in the sign of Aquarius (of the longitude of 300°-330°).
2° The periods of Mars in the sign of Lion (of the longitude of 120°-150°) under the condition 1°.
3° The periods of Saturn in retrogradation under the condition 2°.
4° The periods of the absence of the other planets than Saturn in the sign of Aquarius under the condition 3°. (For this we search preliminarily the periods of the presence of the other planets (Uranus, Pluto and Neptune included **) than Saturn in the sign of Aquarius under the condition 3° = The condition 4p°).

** As to the prediction of the discovery of Uranus, of Pluto and of Neptune by Nostradamus, cf. Ionescu, Nostradamus et les planètes trans-saturniennes (1983) et Guinard, Nostradamus connaissait-il les planètes trans-saturniennes ? (CN84, 2000; 2008).

According to the results of the astronomic calculations concerning the four conditions of the planets in question by means of my program (AstroArts Inc.,1993), if one marks the distinct years, it figures those of 1609, 1639, 1669, 1697, 1699, 1726, 1727, 1756, 1757, 1816, 1874, 1904, 1934, 1964 et 1991, among which the four consecutive years: 1816, 1874, 1904 et 1934 are pertinent to our subjet, for the year 1816 sees the Elgin marbles transported into the British Museum (History 1°b), and the year 1874 accords exactly with the year when Schliemann installed himself at Mycenae (Histories 6° and 6°b) after having excavated the site of Hissarlik in 1873. And the year 1874, it is also that of the publication of his principal work Trojan Antiquities in Gremany and in French (History 5°), which shook the traditional academic opinion about Troy assimilated with Bunárbashi. And moreover, the years 1904 and 1934 can serve as landmarks for the development of excavating the palace of Minos at Knossos and of their scientific analyses during a long term by Arthur John Evans, who had discovered the greatest part of the site in 1905 (History 10°c) and achieved the publication of the exhaustive and careful reports: The palace of Minos at Knossos in 4 volumes in 1936 (History 10°d). Otherwise, Crete was restored to Greece in 1908, which justifies the conception of the island as an « Athenian camp ».

Discussion:
P. Brind'Amour (1993, p.278) understands « Mars, Leo, Sat. un versien » as follows: « When Mars occupies the Lion and Saturn the first degree of Aquarius », which leads us exclusively to the beginning of December 1520. In fact, during the 500 years of 1501 to 2000, Saturn is found 25 times at the first degree of Aquarius, all the cases of which except that of 1520 being with Mars outside the sign of the Lion. Another next chance for his interpretation is barely the year 2167. This interpretative bias is peculiar to a classicist Brind'Amour who seeks for the supposed past data of the prophecies of Nostradamus, even if « the precedent historical events to be paralleled with » are « failing » to him.

We would adopt another alternative rather than his, if the authentic Prophet will not give us impossible dates for our future as to one of his prophetic quatrains. Then, the most probable convergence in question of the conditions given by the quatrain containing the possible astronomic data and the other historical events to be taken in consideration will offer us a most probable solution.

Otherwise, if we suppress our condition 3° and simply follow Brind'Amour’s opinion that « Versien = le Verseau accommodé pour la rime (Versien is Verseau accomodated for the rhyme) », we get the years 1609, 1639, 1669, 1697, 1699, 1726, 1727, 1756, 1757, 1816, 1874, 1904, 1934, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1991 and 1993. The conclusion remains the same.

§729 Schliemann at Troy and at Mycenae (1872-1874): IX-84.

IX-84:
The exposed King shall finish the hecatomb,
After having discovered its origin,
Torrent shall open the tomb of marble and lead
Of a great Roman with a sign of Medusa.


(Roy exposé parfaira Lhecatombe,
Apres avoir trouvé son origine,
Torrent ouvrir de marbre & plomb la tombe
D'un grand Romain d'enseigne Medusine.)

NOTES:
Having discovered its origin: Schliemann identified the site of Hissarlik in Turkey with the antique city of Troy (Histories 2°-5° et 9°).

Lhecatombe: = L’hécatombe = the hecatomb, figuring a modern archeologic excavation that resembles an antique rite of sacrificing a hundred oxen in its large scale apparently ritual and mindful.
The exposed King shall finish the hecatomb: The five funeral masks Schliemann discovered at the final stage of his excavation at Mycenae and imagined proper to kings (History 6°) and his effort to make publish and expose the results of his excavations to the entire world (Histories 5°, 6°, 6°b et 9°b) finished his lifework (Histories 4° et 9°).

A great Roman with a sign of Medusa: The great antique poet Homer (History 9°), the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire being called Romans (History 11°; cf. also Grecs (Greeks) of  §5, I-83  signifying the Ottomans in general) and an adjective locution: "with a sign of Medusa" moreover indicating that it concerns a Greek in reality by reference to a Greek mythic being "Medusa".

The tomb of marble and lead Of a great Roman: Here we understand by the term : the tomb not that of Homer historically unidentified, but the stone monuments including real tombs significative of what his epic poetry tells, in other words, the royal palaces of Hissarlik and of Tiryns proved by Schliemann with the same ground-plan of the same pre-Homeric civilization whose memory survived in Homer.

Torrent shall open the tomb: Torrend, that is, the archeologic sites of Hissarlik (Troy) and of Tiryns revealed to Schliemann the royal palaces (la tombe de marbre & plomb) with the same ground-plan as that of Mycenae, whose memory survived in the Homeric poetry (History 8°).
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Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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