§896

20th century:
§896 Meteorological mechanism of snowing and raining (1945-1960): X-70.

X-70:
The eye by an object shall make such an excrescence,
And so ardent that snow shall fall,
The watered field shall be decreasing,
So that the prime shall fall down to Reggio.


(L'œil par object fera telle excroissance,
Tant & ardante que tumbera la neige,
Champ arrousé viendra en decroissance,
Que le primat succumbera à Rege.)

NOTES: This seemingly awkward quatrain explains from the modern scientific point of view the meteorological mechanism of snowing and raining.

Here is a meteorological explanation in brief of snowing and raining: « Water in the atmosphere. WATER-VAPOUR is an ever-present, though minor constituent of the atmosphere. Unlike the major components oxygen and nitrogen, its concentration varies greatly in space and time; it is added to the lowest layers by evaporation from the oceans and land surfaces, and removed from the mid-troposhere by the formation of rain and snow which falls to the surface. [by P. Squires].» (Fletcher, 1962, p.1).

This most compact explanation provides us with sufficient interpretation of the greater part of the verses concerned as follows: « WATER-VAPOUR is an ever-present, though minor constituent of the atmosphere. Unlike the major components oxygen and nitrogen, its concentration varies greatly in space and time; it is added to the lowest layers by evaporation from the oceans and land surfaces [The watered field shall be decreasing], and removed from the mid-troposhere by the formation of rain and snow [ ... shall make such an excrescence ] which falls to the surface [that snow shall fall, that the prime shall fall down to Reggio ].»

Now, it remains to make explicit the phrases: The eye by an object ... and And so ardent ..., where the eye refers to the Sun, so ardent to the heat from the Sun, and an object to foreign particles in suspension in the air as indispensable substrata for the condensation of water-vapour to form snow and rain. In fact, the evaporation in question is to be caused principally by the heat from the Sun upon the Earth and there is no homogeneous condensation, i.e. the condensation without foreign particles in the concrete event of snowing and raining.

The eye (l'œil): « The eye is here the Sun, commonly considered as “the eye of God” in the Hermetic books.» (Clébert, 2003, p.1136).

By an object: « Condensation. The existence of clouds in the atmosphere is due to the fact that when moist air is expanded adiabatically its relative humidity is increased. The relative humidity may be expected to exceed saturation. And once saturation is exceeded by an almost negligible amount condensation begins. Condensation is a process which does not occur easily in a pure environment. For pure water-vapour at room temperature the vapour-pressure must be about four times its saturation value before appreciable condensation occurs. However, the atmosphere is not a pure environment but contains numerous small dust-paticles which may be neutral or electrically charged, droplets of various solutions and soluble crystals. Upon this suspended material condensation occurs easily at supersaturations ranging from a few hundreds of one per cent up to some tens of per cent.» (Fletcher, id., p.32).

« Sublimation and Freezing. As a cloud rises through the atmosphere it is cooled by its nearly adiabatic expansion and its summit temperature may often fall below the freezing-point. Just as a pure vapour when made supersaturated does not condense spontaneously until a very large supersaturation is reached, so a pure liquid will not freeze spontaneously until supercooled well below its equilibrium freezing temperature. In the case of water the supercooling required for such homogeneous freezing is in the neighbourhood of 40° C. Again, as in the case of condensation, suspended particles may act as nuclei for the freezing process and if such nuclei are present freezing may occur with only a few degrees of supercooling. Ice-forming nuclei (leaving aside the question of whether they act by sublimation or freezing) occur naturally in the atmosphere, but in comparison with condensation nuclei which exist in hundreds per cubic centimetre they are rare, and nuclei producing ice-crystals at temperatures warmer than – 20° C typically occur only in concentrations of the order of one per litre. For this reason ice-crystals do not usually occur in appreciable numbers in cloud-tops until their temperature has fallen to about – 20° C.» (Fletcher, id., p.33-34).

An excrescence: « Stability of clouds. A cloud, as formed, is an assembly of tiny droplets numbering perhaps one hundred or so per cubic centimetre and having radii of about 10 μ. This structure is remarkably stable as a rule, the droplets showing little tendency to come together or to change their sizes except by a general growth of the whole population. There are two different mechanisms by which the microstructure of a cloud may become unstable. The first mechanism involves the direct collision and coalescence of water droplets and may be important in any cloud. The second involves the interaction between water droplets and ice-crystals and is confined to those clouds whose tops penetrate above the freezing-level. Very small droplets are unable to collide with each other, no matter what their original trajectories. However, when the radius of one droplet exceeds about 18 μ, collisions with a limited range of smaller droplets become possible; for larger drops the collision efficiency increases sharply. It is thus to be expected that clouds containing negligible numbers of droplets larger than 18 μ will prove stable as far as coalescence is concerned, whilst clouds containing appreciable numbers of large droplets may develop precipitation. This critical radius lies within the range of normal large cloud drop sizes and clouds belonging to both categories exist.» (Fletcher, id., p.34-35).

Precipitaion: « When an ice-crystal exists in the presence of a large number of supercooled water droplets the situation is immediately unstable. The vapour-pressure over ice is less than that over water (by about one per cent for every degree below freezing) and as a consequence the water droplets tend to evaporate whilst the ice-crystal grows. This direct vapour transfer is most efficient at temperatures near – 15° C, where the absolute vapour-pressure difference is greatest. Growth is most rapid when the ice-crystal is small because the diffusion gradient is then very sharp; as growth continues the growth-rate decreases. Once the ice-crystal has grown appreciably larger than the water droplets, however, it begins to fall relative to them and collisions become possible. If these collisions are primarily with other ice-crystals then snowflakes form, whilst if water droplets are collected graupel (sleet) or hail may result. Once the ice-structure falls below the freezing-level melting may occur, and upon emerging from the cloud base the raindrop may be indistinguishable from one formed by coalescence. In cold weather on the other hand, or when large hailstones are involved, the precipitation may reach the ground unmelted.» (Fletcher, id., p.35).

Ardante: = Ardent (ardent) in the feminine in agreement with the precedent «excroissance», it being in reality an attribute to the eye. Here is an extravagant wordplay by Nostradamus, for « ardant » as a noun in ancient French has a meaning of « the fire of hell (feu d’enfer)» (Godefroy).

Tumber: = Tomber (to fall). « TOMBER. Often tumber in the Middle Ages and still in many speeches, following tumer: “gambader (to leap, to gambol), danser (to dance)”.» (Bloch & Wartburg).

The watered field: A field as any extensive surface in general. « Thus, tropical regions are on the whole a source-region for water-vapour, and polar regions a sink; the oceans as a whole are a source-region, and obviously the continents, or at least those part of them which drain to the oceans, must be sinks.» (Fletcher, id., p.1).

The prime: = The first precipitation; « primat [prima] m. Primate; Primacy.» (Dubois).

Succumber: = Succomber. « SUCCOMBER, from the Latin succumbere (to lay onself or fall or sink under).» (Bloch & Wartburg; Smith-Lockwood).

Rege: = Reggio as an arbitrarily mentioned place: « The identification of Rege with Reggio nell’Emilia seems to be confirmed by the two citations of Montaige who, in speaking about this city, writes in succession Rege and Regge.» (Clébert, id., p.1137).

« The study of cloud physics has been a comparatively neglected branch of meteorology, and an understanding of the relatively simple physics of the precipitation process has come very late in that particular science. The main reason for this seems to have been the difficulty of measuring, in cloud, many of the quantities involved. However, in the past ten or fifteen years [i.e., since 1945 or 1950], some of these difficulties have been overcome and a vast extension has taken place in our knowledge of the subject. [Foreword by E.G.Bowen, January 1961]» (Fletcher, id., p.v).
___________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2015. All rights reserved.
関連記事
スポンサーサイト
Profile

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

Latest journals
Category
Link