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§740 The Great War on the Italian, Western and Eastern Fronts besides in the Atlantic and the Russian Revolution (1914-1918): I-55.

I-55 (§740):

Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia
Great shall be the effusion of blood,
That the earth and the sea, air, sky shall be soiled:
Sects, hunger, reigns, pests, confusion.

(Sous l'opposite climat Babylonique
Grande sera de sang effusion,
Que terre & mer, aïr, ciel sera inique:
Sectes, faim, regnes, pestes, confusion.)

NOTES: Sous l'opposite climat Babylonique: = « Sous le climat opposé à celui de Babylone » (Brind’Amour, 1996, p.127) = Under the clime opposite to that of Babylon.

Climat (clime): This term is found only twice in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (I-55 and III-77: Le tiers climat soubz Aries comprins) and follows the Ptolemaic conception of astro-geographical character.

Clime
: « κλἰμα, terrestrial latitude, latitudes, region; seven latitudinal strips in the οἰκουμένη [inhabited region] on which the longest day ranged by half-hour intervals from 13 to 16 hours.» (Liddell & Scott, s.v.).

The usage of the term in this quatrain is in the Ptolemaic framework of the four triangles of the zodiac:
« The familiarity by triangles is as follows. Inasmuch as the triangular and equilateral form is most harmonious with itself, the zodiac also is bounded by three circles, the equinoctial and the two tropics, and its twelve parts are divided into four equilateral triangles.» (Ptolemy,
Tetrabiblos, p.83).

« The first of these, which passes through Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, is composed of three masculine signs and includes the houses of the sun, of Mars, and of Jupiter. The sun assumes first governance of it by day and Jupiter by night. This triangle is preëminently northern because of Jupiter's share in its government, since Jupiter is fecund and windy, similarly to the winds from the north. However, because of the house of Mars it suffers an admixture of the south-west wind and is constituted Borrolibycon [
βορρολιβυκόν = north-western (Liddell & Scott)], because Mars causes such winds.» (id., p.83-85).

« The second triangle, which is the one drawn through Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is composed of three feminine signs, and consequently was assigned to the moon and Venus; the moon governs it by night and Venus by day. This triangle is made preëminently southern because of the dominance of Venus, since this star through the heat and moisture of its power produces similar winds; but as it receives an admixture of Apeliotes [ἀπηλιώτης = east wind (Liddell & Scott)] because the house of Saturn, Capricornus, is included within it, it is constituted Notapeliotes [
νοταπηλιωτικὸν = south-easterly (Liddell & Scott)] in contrast to the first triangle, since Saturn produces winds of this kind and is related to the east through sharing in the sect of the sun.» (id., p.85).

« The third triangle is the one drawn through Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, composed of three masculine signs, and having no relation to Mars but rather to Saturn and Mercury because of their houses. It was assigned in turn to these, with Saturn governing during the day on account of his sect and Mercury by night. This triangle also is primarily of eastern constitution, because of Saturn, but by admixture north-eastern [
βορραπηλιωτικὸν], because the sect of Jupiter has familiarity with Saturn, inasmuch as it is diurnal.» (id., p.87).

« The fourth triangle, which is the one drawn through Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, was left to the only remaining planet, Mars, which is related to it through his house, Scorpio; and along with him, on account of the sect and the femininity of the signs, the moon by night and Venus by day are co‑rulers. This triangle is constituted preëminently western, because it is dominated by Mars and the moon; but by admixture it becomes south-western [
νοτολιβυκὸν] through the domination of Venus.» (id., p.87).

The Familiarities between Countries and the Triplicities and Stars:
« Now of the four triangular formations recognized in the zodiac, as we have shown above, the one which consists of Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius is north-western, and is chiefly dominated by Jupiter on account of the north wind, but Mars joins in its government because of the south-west wind. That which is made up of Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn is south-eastern, and again is governed primarily by Venus on account of the south wind, but conjointly by Saturn because of the east wind. The one consisting of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius is north-eastern and is governed primarily by Saturn because of the east wind, and conjointly by Jupiter because of the north wind. The triangle of Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces is south-western and is governed primarily, because of the west wind, by Mars, who is joined by Venus as co‑ruler on account of the south wind. As this is so, and since our inhabited world is divided into four quarters, equal in number to the triangles, and is divided latitudinally by our sea from the Straits of Hercules (Straights of Gibraltar) to the Gulf of Issus (Gulf of Iskenderun) and the mountainous ridge adjacent on the east, and by these its southern and northern portions are separated, and in longitude by the Arabian Gulf (the Red Sea), the Aegean Sea, the Pontus (the Black sea), and the Lake Maeotis (the sea of Azov), whereby the eastern and western portions are separated, there arise four quarters, and these agree in position with the triangles.» (
id., p.129-131).

« The first quarter lies in the north-west of the whole inhabited world; it embraces Celtic Gaul and we give it the general name Europe. Opposite this is the south-eastern quarter; this includes eastern Ethiopia, which would be called the southern part of Greater Asia. Again, the north-eastern quarter of the whole inhabited world is that which contains Scythia, which likewise is the northern part of Greater Asia; and the quarter opposite this and toward the south-west wind, the quarter of western Ethiopia, is that which we call by the general term Libya.» (
id., p.131).

« Again, of each of the aforesaid quarters the parts which are placed closer to the centre of the inhabited world are placed in a contrary fashion with respect to the surrounding quarters, just as are the latter in comparison with the whole world; and since the European quarter lies in the north-west of the whole world, the parts about the centre, which are allied to the opposite angle, obviously are situated in the south-east part of the quarter. The same holds of the other quarters, so that each of them is related to two oppositely situated triangles; for while the other parts are in harmony with the general inclination of the quarter, the portions at the centre [of the world] share in familiarity with the opposite inclination.» (
id., p.131-133).

« Under this arrangement, the remainder of the first quarter, by which I mean the European quarter, situated in the north-west of the inhabited world, is in familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and is governed, as one would expect, by the lords of the triangle, Jupiter and Mars. In terms of whole nations these parts consist of Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, Bastarnia (The south-western part of Russia and southern Poland), Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, Sicily, Tyrrhenia [Corsica and Sardinia], Celtica [Portugal], and Spain.

[I-a] Of these same countries Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, and Bastarnia are in closer familiarity with Aries and Mars.

[I-b] But Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) Gaul, and Sicily have their familiarity with Leo and the sun;

[I-c] Tyrrhenia, Celtica, and Spain are subject to Sagittarius and Jupiter.

[I-d] The parts of this quarter which are situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria, Hellas, Achaia, Crete, and likewise the Cyclades, and the coastal regions of Asia Minor and Cyprus, which are in the south-east portion of the whole quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south-east triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and its co‑rulers Venus, Saturn, and Mercury.» (
id., p.133-137).
 
« Of the second quarter, which embraces the southern part of greater Asia, the other parts, including India, Ariana (north of Gedrosia), Gedrosia (modern Beluchistan), Parthia, Media, Persia, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, which are situated in the south-east of the whole inhabited world, are, as we might presume, familiar to the south-eastern triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and are governed by Venus and Saturn.

[II-a] Part by part, again, Parthia, Media, and Persia are more closely familiar to Taurus and Venus;

[II-b] Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria are familiar to Virgo and Mercury.

[II-c] India, Ariana, and Gedrosia have familiarity with Capricorn and Saturn;

[II-d] The remaining parts of the quarter, situated about the centre of the inhabited world, Idumaea, Coelê Syria, Judaea, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, Orchinia, and Arabia Felix, which are situated toward the north-west of the whole quarter, have additional familiarity with the north-western triangle, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and furthermore, have as co‑rulers Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury.» (
id., p.139-143).

« Of the third quarter, which includes the northern part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana, and the regions in the north-east of the inhabited world, are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter. Of the remaining quarter, which includes what is called by the common name Libya, the other parts, including Numidia, Carthage, Africa, Phazania, Nasamonitis, Garamantica, Mauritania, Gaetulia, Metagonitis, and the regions situated in the south-west of the inhabited world, are related by familiarity to the south-western triangle, Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and are accordingly ruled by Mars and Venus... » (id., p.145-151).

The clime opposite to that of Babylonia: The second quarter (south-eastern) is opposed to the first quarter (north-western) according to Ptolemy, then the second group of countries (II-b: Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria) of the second quarter corresponds to the second group of countries (I-b: Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) Gaul, and Sicily) of the first quarter. In this context, the regions called the clime opposite to that of Babylonia are Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) Gaul, and Sicily, which is nearly the mainland of Italy with Sicily.

Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia Great shall be the effusion of blood, That the earth and the sea, air, sky shall be soiled: Sects, hunger, reigns, pests, confusion: These verses seem to depict the Great War (1914-1918) furiously fought on the Italian, Western and Eastern Fronts besides in the Atlantic [the earth and the sea soiled], the first phrase being of no necessity of delimiting the third and the fourth lines. As to the option of the Great War among numerous candidates, the two adjacent words of similar meaning « air, sky » shall provide its motive, for « air soiled » refers to the gas attacks and « sky soiled » to the aerial battles, both of these having been seen for the first time in the Great War. Therefore, the indiscrimination of the two words (luttes aériennes, aerial struggles [in the Vietnamese war]) by V. Ionescu in his interpretation of the quatrain (Ionescu, 1976, p.657) seems to be erroneous.

Under the clime opposite to that of Babylonia Great shall be the effusion of blood: The Italian Front in the Great War: « The Italian front, while the British and French may have considered it a sideshow, was the main scene of action for Italy and a significant one for the overstretched Austro-Hungarian Empire. It saw four years of heavy fighting, with consequent hecatombs of casualties [Great shall be the effusion of blood]. Its origin lay in the ancient enmity between Italians and the Austrians, and it is easy to forget how recently large parts of the Italian peninsula lay under Austrian rule. Nineteenth-century nationalism and the Risorgimento were a relatively recent memory, and Italian nationalists were keen to relieve Austria of more territory that they considered their own.» (Chasseaud, 2013, p.58).

That
(que): The French particle « que » is a conjunction designating a coexistence: « QUE. conj. Introducing a circumstantial proposition. (Temporal: expressing the concomitance, the incidence, the continuation).» (Petit Robert).

Soiled
(inique): « Iniquer. Souiller (to soil, to dirty).» (Huguet).

That the earth and the sea, air, sky shall be soiled:
= That the earth shall be soiled, the sea shall be soiled, air shall be soiled and sky shall be soiled.

Air shall be soiled:
« BELOW [a photograph of war victims]: Italian dead after an Austrian gas attack. First used by the Germans on the Russian front, chemical warfare was widely used on the Eastern, Western and Italian Fronts.» (Chasseaud, id., p.64).

The earth shall be soiled, the sea shall be soiled, sky shall be soiled:
« Submarines and torpedoes had been prefigured in the American Civil War of 1860s, and the air dimension had already been entered by reconnaissance balloons in various conflicts. However, the First World War witnessed the first development of all these, plus airship and aeroplanes, as regular weapons of war. In this sense it was the first mechanized, three-dimensional war [earth, sea, sky soiled]. Aircraft were also becoming amphibious, being designed with floats or special hulls to take off from, and land on, water.» (Chasseaud, id., p.188).

Sects:
« World War I. The immediate cause of the War was the spread of nationalism in the Balkans [sects], as shown by the assassination at Sarajevo and the determination of the Austrians to destroy the Serbian ‘hornets’ nest’ [sects]. The reasons why this conflict could not be localized lie further back. Among them was the division of Europe into rival camps [sects] by a system of alliances, originally defensive in character but made dangerous through a lessening of international trust by successive crises – Morocco in 1905, Bosnia in 1908-9, Agadir in 1911. Anglo-German relations had worsened because of naval rivalry and, to a much lesser extent, trade competition.» (Palmer, p.305).

Reigns: = the powers. The list of main belligerent countries of the Great War: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Montenegro, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Japan, USA, China. « Although the First World War was triggered by a local dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, its origin was an existential struggle between empires. These empires were the German Second Reich, under Kaiser Wilhelm II; the Russian, ruled by Tsar Nicholas II; the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, held together by Emperor and King (Kaiser und König) Franz Joseph II; and the Ottoman (Turkish), under Sultan Abdul Hamid II but with power increasingly in the hands of the ‘Young Turks’ of the Committee of Union and Progress. On the fringes at the outset, but drawn in by the system of alliances, were the Republican French and monarchical-democratic British Empires. While these two had been traditional enemies for reasons of proximity, religion, maritime and imperial rivalry, this enmity had faded in the face of the growing industrial, military, naval and manpower strength of Germany, which under Wilhelm II demanded its imperial ‘place in the sun’. France and Britain in any case both had their own quarrels with Germany. France burned for a revanche – revenge against Germany for the loss of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine following the disastrous Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. Britain resented the deliberate challenge to the Royal Navy, her Empire and her trade represented by Wilhelm’s building up of the Kriegsmarine, and also the vain posturing of this upstart grandson of Queen Victoria.» (Chasseaud, id., p.20).

Hunger (faim): Metaphorically, egocentric passions of sects and powers. The term faim (hunger) in Nostradamus is almost always a metaphor of sufferings of WAR typically symbolized by the word earthquake. In fact, we have 37 usages of the words faim or famine (famine) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 25 being figurative and 12 literal. Hunger is above all a designation of Nostradamus for the conflicts of religious and ideologic character.

Pest (peste): This word, as well as the words pestilence, pestilent and pestifere (pestiferous), is figurative, non literal, for most of the expressions indicative of natural phenomena such as " earthquake, rain, tempest, dryness, inundation", etc. are not literal for Nostradamus, but figurative, describing metaphorically wars, revolts, social troubles, collective distress, etc., conditioned principally by human comportments (cf. Introduction §5). In fact, of 38 usages of the words « peste », « pestilence », « pestilent» and « pestifere », 32 are figurative for the warlike and social disasters and menaces, only 5 literal (II-19, II-37, II-46, II-53, II-65) and one for the real seism (VIII-84).

Confusion: This expression refers to that of the quatrain I-45 (§761) with the theme of the Russian Communist Revolution in 1917 at the last stage of the World War I: « Par sectes monde confus & scismatique (By sects the world confused and schismatic) »; « The war had not been going well for Russia; the high command was inefficient and junior officers often brutal to their men, while a vast swathe of territory had been lost, and each year had taken a terrible toll in casualties. In common with much of Europe, the winter of 1916-17 was severe enough to curtail food supplies. These had already been shrinking because of labour shortages caused by conscription and by wartime transport problems. Food shortages, compounded by rising prices, led to strikes. The peasants, hungry and angry, wanted land. The urban population, restive because of falling real wages, demanded bread. By using the slogan ‘Peace, Land, Bread’, Bolshevik agitators were able to maximize their support from soldiers, urban workers and peasants... The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin who was soon to return from in exile in neutral Switzerland, were becoming increasingly powerful within the Soviet (Council of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies). In the cold, short, dark days of early 1917, desperation was growing among Russians... The Germans were heartened by the success of the July operations in Galicia and even though they were heavily engaged in Flanders from late July, made another attempt to knock out Russia. Riga was captured on 3 September, and the battle developed into exploitation and pursuit. This defeat destroyed any remaining Russian morale and cohesion, and shook the Provisional Government and high command. German forces, advancing in Courland, their left flank on the Baltic, now threatened Petrograd itself. Senior Russian officers were now more against the Provisional Government than the Central Powers. The crisis caused by a disobedient army, urban industrial workers in revolt, and peasants’ demands for food and bread, all led to the collapse of Kerensky’s government and the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks. In October, Lenin, who had prudently left Petrograd for Finland in the summer, returned to Petrograd and took control of events. The Bolshevik coup, or Second Russian Revolution, was mounted on 7 November, after which the Bolsheviks asked the Germans for an armistice, granted on 16 December. This effectively took the Russians out of the war, though the Germans continued to advance to enforce their will, and a punitive peace treaty was finally signed at Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918.» (Chasseaud, id., p.219-221).

In general, the words confusion or confus (confused) in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are of three meanings as follows:

1° Warlike defeat or disadvantage (III-24, IV-92, VI-99, VII-37 and XII-69);

2° Social chaos (I-45 and I-55);

3° Congestion (IX-36).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2018. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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