§ 607.Halley's Comet, revolts in Lyons, in Greece and Persia invades Turkey

19th century:
§607. Halley's Comet, revolts in Lyons, in Greece and Persia invades Turkey (1821-1835): II-96.

An ardent torch shall be seen in the evening sky,
Near the end and the inception of the Rhone:
Famine, sword: the relief provided late,
Persia turns to invade Macedonia.

(Flambeau ardent au ciel soir sera veu
Pres de la fin & principe du Rosne:
Famine, glaive: tard le secours pourveu,
La Perse tourne envahir Macedoine.)

Keys to the reading:
An ardent torch: A comet, probably Halley's Comet in 1835 among its recurrences in 1607, 1682, 1758-59, 1835, 1910 and 1986, because of its simultaneity with the revolt in Lyons in 1834.

Near the end and the inception of the Rhone: in Lyons, Near the end and the inception (= beginning) indicating the medium. We find the city of Lyons in the medium along the stream of the Rhone (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.138).

Famine: faim, famine in French occur 37 times in all in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, whose 26 examples including the present case refer to the disaster of war, and 11 employed in the sense of dearth (cf. §589, V-90).

Near the end and the inception of the Rhone famine, glaive: Revolt of silk-weavers in Lyons, lasting four days, after attempts by French government to suppress trade union activities (April 9th, 1834 - Williams, 1968, p.174)

In 1835 Halley's Comet recurs. And in 1834 the silk-weavers of Lyons revolt in arms against their suppressing government, discontented with their salaries abased (cf. Charléty, 1921b, p.101-105).

Greece revolted for independence: « European Sentiment: There were many influences which popularised in Europe the cause of Greek independence. The name of Greece became a sort of religion of the imagination in the literary world; the exploits - enlarged in the telling - of Bozzaris, Canaris, Kolokotronis, Mauromichales, Tombasis, those worthy descendants of Miltiades, of Leonidas, and of Themistocles; the sonorous echoes of that land, full of memories, the almost fabulous reports of victories won by a population of shepherds from the armies of a powerful empire, the prodigies of cruelty on the one side and of bravery on the other, thrilled popular sentiment, which has no other policy than its emotions. The public responded to the suffering of Greece with a cry of indignation against the persecutors, and of enthusiasm for the martyrs. Even the cause of American independence in 1775 had aroused France to less enthusiasm than that now aroused on the Christian continent by the cause of the Hellenes. This sentiment was purely individual, and did not involve the governments, which were still neutral and undecided. It gave to the Greeks, however, encouragement, ammunitions, arms, and auxiliaries. Greek committees formed in all the capitals voted subsidies, armed ships, recruited officers and men, published journals, held lectures, wrote poems, multiplied even among the people legends in favour of the popular cause. Literature as a whole, that spontaneous and irresistible expression of unreflected and disinterested generosity in the heart of the people, was on the side of the sons of Homer, of Demosthenes, and of Plato by a sort of filial tradition for those fathers of human thought. Courageous adventurers of France, Germany, and England, such as General Fabvier, disembarked from merchant ships upon the coast of Morea, and assumed the nomadic life of the Mainotes or of the Palicari in order to teach war and tactics to shepherds. Byron, having a heart as heroic as his imagination, threw name, fortune, life itself into the cause of Greece. He equipped a ship, paid troops, gave subsidies to the treasury of the insurrection, shut himself up in the most dangerous city, took part in battle, and was ready to die for the glorious past and the doubtful future of a people which had been unacquainted even with his name. Fabvier had followed the peasants into the mountains, and had disciplined them and trained them for war. At that moment Sultan Mahmud called Mehemet Ali, the pasha of half-independent Egypt, to the aid of imperilled Islam, and in consequence Ibrahim Pasha disembarked in the Morea with an Egyptian army and attempted the conquest of the Morea for the sultan.» (HH, XXIV, p.231-232)

«The Attitude of Foreign Governments: But although the people heard the voices of the Greeks, their sovereigns still refused to hear them. The emperor of Russia, fearing to encourage in Greece the spirit of revolution which he had sworn to extinguish in France, in Italy, in Spain, and in Germany, abandoned his ambition to follow his principle. Metternich feared for Austria the eruption of revolutionary thought such as disturbed Germany. Prussia hesitated, as always, between England, Austria, and Russia. England regarded with disapproval the resurrection of a nation whose power would be disastrous to her, would enfeeble Turkey, would open the Dardanelles, perhaps to the future fleets of Russia, and would place in the Mediterranean a merchant marine to rival her own commercial advantages. France, finally, who does not calculate but feels, vacillated, sympathetic but undecided, between her pity for a Christian race and her old alliance with the sultans.» (HH, XXIV, p.232)

«The Battle of Navarino: In 1827, Russia, France, and England assumed the rôle of armed arbitrators between Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Greece at that moment, having successively devoured the Turkish armies sent by Mahmud to reduce her to obedience, had finally succumbed to the Egyptian armies called to the aid of Islam and commanded by Ibrahim Pasha. Ibrahim, master of the Morea by his troops, and master of the sea by the Egyptian and Turkish fleets united in the harbour of Navarino, was waiting inactive for the result of the negotiations between the powers and the sultan, ready to execute the conditions of the treaty which should ensue and to evacuate or to retain the Greek continent. A month's armistice, to give time for negotiations, had been concluded between the belligerent parties. This armistice would expire October 20th, 1827. No declaration of war had been addressed to the Porte; on the contrary, a tacit peace existed between the Christian powers and the generalissimo of the Ottoman forces. The three admirals, Von Heyden, Codrington and de Rigny, stationed their fleets off the coasts of Morea like pacificatory witnesses and not like enemies, and held daily communications with Ibrahim. They imposed on him only a cessation of hostilities against the Greeks in the interests of humanity - an appeal which Ibrahim understood and respected while waiting the result of the negotiations begun at Constantinople.

«After some time the three foreign fleets entered the harbour and anchored, as in times of peace, deck to deck, opposite the Ottoman vessels, whose chief officers were on shore in full security. The laws of peace, the laws of war, neutrality, loyalty, humanity, alike imposed on the commanders of these fleets a peaceful attitude conformable indeed to the intentions of their governments, but inoffensive towards a friendly fleet. Such was the course imposed by the written instructions given the three admirals. But, urged on by the popularity which was at that moment possessed by the Greek revolution, and impatient to distinguish themselves by brave deeds at any price, they allowed themselves to be governed by their own initiative.

«A chance or else a premeditated shot - it is not known from what ship, so great was the confusion of five fleets in one harbour - gave the pretext or the signal for the engagement. The English admiral commanded by right of age; sure of the support of his two colleagues, he was the first to fire upon the Ottoman fleet; Admiral de Rigny and Admiral von Heyden opened fire on the still mute vessels before them. A continuous fire from the volleys of the three squadrons demolished the Turkish ships one by one. At anchor, motionless, pressed one upon another, communicating from deck to deck the fire which was devouring them, the Egyptians and Turks responded to the fire of the Christians with the courage of fatalism. Their batteries being extinguished by the waves into which they sank, the men shot through the gun-holes, to the last cannon which remained above the level of the water; the vessels, bursting under the explosion of the magazines, covered the sky with their smoke and the harbour with their debris; the cordage cut by bullets or burned by flames let the smoking hulls of their ships drift upon the reefs. In two hours eight thousand of their mariners had filled up the decks with their dead bodies. A few hundred men, themselves wounded by the batteries of the forts, alone survived to testify on the European floats to the distress of the Ottoman fleet. The smoke as it cleared away discovered only the fiery remnants of ninety ships of war, of which the waves threw the debris, as if in expiation, at the foot of the cliffs of New Greece.» (HH, XXIV, p.232-233)

The relief provided late: «The policy of La Ferronnays, minister of the foreign affairs in the cabinet of Martignac, was, as that of Villèle, prudent so as to be timid, and pacific. His principal preoccupation was to limit the Russian ambition in Turkey: Navarino signified that Greece had to be free, but not that Turkey should be conquered... He had made, by the conference of London (June 15, 1828), confine to France the care of defending Greece against the Turks. An army of 14,000 men, under the commandment of General Maison, occupied the Peloponnesus (October 1828), which the troops of the pacha of Egypt evacuated without difficulty.» (Charléty, 1921, p.359)

Persia vs. Russia: «Persia in the 19th century: European interference in Persia began at the very outset of the nineteenth century, in connection with Georgia. The founder of the Kajar dynasty, Aga Muhammed (1795), had succeeded in reconquering that country, but in 1800 its czar voluntarily surrendered his authority to Russia, and when his brother refused to recognise the act, Persia, under its ruler, Feth Ali Shah, took up arms, but, in spite of some successes on the part of the crown prince Abbas Mirza and the formal occupation of Erivan by the Persians, not much was accomplished. In the mean while England, the Indian government, and France sent embassies to Persia seeking to establish diplomatic relations, and France incited the shah to renew the war with Russia. The Persians were defeated and were forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan, which formally ceded to Russia Georgia, Derbent, Baku, Shirvan, Sheki, Ganja, the Talish, Moghan, and Karabagh (October 12th, 1813). Another war with Russia broke out in 1826 which terminated in the Treaty of Turkmantchai, in accordance with which Persia was obliged to cede Erivan and Nakhitchevan to Russia, to pay a war indemnity of about £3,000,000, and to give up her right to have armed vessels on the Caspian.» (HH, XXIV, p.494)

Persia turns to invade Macedonia (which was under the power of Turkey; so Persia invades Turkey): «War with Persia's other troublesome neighbour - Turkey - broke out in 1821, and peace was not definitely concluded until July 1823. Persia was also involved in fighting with Afghanistan, her neighbour on the other side. A Persian expedition into the country under Abbas Mirza captured several places and was on the whole successful. An attempt to take Herat, however, resulted in failure.» (HH, XXIV, p.494)
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.


Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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