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§808 France defeated; Resistance of the Maquis (1940-1944): III-8.

III-8 (§808):

The Cimbrians with their neighbours
Shall come to devastate nearly Spain:
Peoples amassed in Guyenne and in Limousin
Shall be in a league, and make a company against them.

(Les Cimbres joints avecques leurs voisins,
Depopuler viendront presque l'Hespaigne:
Gents amassés Guienne & Limosins
Seront en ligue, & leur feront compaignie.)

NOTES: The Cimbrians with their neighbours: This is a « historical metaphor » (Ionescu, 1976, p.498) for the Greater Nazi Germany (including the annexed Austria bordering on Italy) linked with her neighbour Italy in the Axis (cf. Middleton and Heater, 1989, Unit 17, Chart 1); « THE CIMBRIANS AND THE TEUTONS Whilst in distant Africa the Romans were engaged in making war upon the various savage hordes of the desert, from the forests of Germany a new danger threatened them on the borders of their empire. For reasons unknown, the Cimbrians (i.e., “ the combatants ”), a Teutonic tribe, had forsaken their home by the Baltic, and withdrawn to the northern Alpine countries to seek new abiding places. Here they adopted a nomadic form of existence, wandering hither and thither, taking their wives and children and all their possessions with them wherever they went. That they and the other Teutonic tribes afterwards united to them are to be classed as Germans, and not, as the Romans formerly thought, as Celts, is proved by their names, their stature, and others of their characteristics, and further by the fact that still later we find mention of the Cimbrians in the Danish or Cimbrian peninsula, and the Teutons in northeast Germany in the vicinity of the Baltic, together no doubt constituting the last remains of this tribe. But in the course of its long wandering there had been added to this German nucleus not only other German-speaking rovers in search of booty, but also numerous Celtic hordes, so that we even find leaders with Celtic names at the head of the Cimbrians. The Cimbrians and Teutons are described as tall and slightly built men with blue eyes and auburn hair - strong, wild, warlike figures. In battle they fought with impetuous bravery. After a victory they gave themselves up to the lust of cruelty; there was a general destruction and the prisoners were either hanged or butchered to make sacrifices for their gods. From the blood which flowed from the sacrifices, the priestesses, old gray-haired women in white linen garments, foretold the future.» (HH, V, p.392).

« From what is now Bohemia they wandered southward to Noricum--the Carinthia and Carniola of to-day. Here, on the borders of the Roman Empire, they appeared in the year 113. On being informed of this, the Romans sent out the consul Cn. Papirius Carbo, the son of that Carbo who was a marked figure of the Gracchian period, with an army to guard the Alpine passes of that neighbourhood. When Carbo, approaching from Aquileia, entered Noricum, the Cimbrians, who had heard of the great power of the Romans, sent them envoys, who explained that they, the Cimbrians, desired to be allowed to settle amongst the Noricans, and had no desire to go to war with them. Carbo replied that the Roman people were bound to the Noricans by bonds of hereditary hospitality, and that he had not the right to grant the Cimbrians permission to settle in Noricum. The Cimbrians decided to proceed farther. Carbo gave them guides who were to lead them out of the country; but by his instructions these guides brought them to a place in the neighbourhood of Noreia (now Görz), near which he and his men were ambushed, and as the Cimbrians passed they attacked them. But this piece of treachery recoiled upon the perpetrator. Carbo’s force was beaten and would have been completely destroyed had not a tremendous storm hindered the Cimbrians from pursuit. It was now in the power of the Cimbrians to enter Italy by these Alpine passes, but they preferred to cross the northern Alps and wander westward towards Gaul. In this direction they persuaded two tribes of Helvetia, the Tigurini and Tugeni, to join them, or at any rate to travel the same route. Since the conquests made in western Gaul in the year 125 by Fulvius Flaccus, the friend of C. Gracchus, the Romans had founded a new province between the Alps and the Pyrenees, bounded by the Cevennes and the Mediterranean, with a principal town, Narbo. This was now threatened by the Cimbrians and other wandering tribes, and so in 109 the Romans sent the consul M. Junius Silanus there at the head of an army. The Cimbrians appealed to him to show them in what part of the country they might be allowed to settle; but instead of answering, he attacked them. He suffered a terrible defeat. Instead of following up their victory, the Cimbrians despatched an embassy to Rome with an appeal to be allowed to settle in that country, and turned to do battle with the neighbouring Celtic tribes. Meanwhile in the year 107 the above-mentioned Helvetian tribes invaded the Roman province under the leadership of Divico, and springing upon the consul, Cassius Longinus, from an ambush, utterly defeated him. The consul himself was killed, and his legate C. Popilius, who had fled into camp with the remainder of the force, could only save his men by a disgraceful treaty. He gave hostages, resigned half his baggage, and withdrew under the yoke.» (HH, V, p.392-393).

« The position of the Romans in Gaul was so shaken by these numerous defeats that the town of Tolosa (Toulouse) revolted and took the Roman garrison prisoners. As, however, neither the Cimbrians nor the Helvetians troubled the province further, Q. Servilius Cæpio, who was the consul there in the year 106, was able to regain possession of the town by a trick. He took advantage of this opportunity to rifle completely the temple of the Gallic god of healing, called by the Romans Apollo. In the next year, 105, the Cimbrians again appeared in the province, under their king, Boiorix, this time with the serious intention of going on into Italy. In the province, besides the troops under the proconsul Cæpio, there was now a second force under the consul Cn. Mallius Maximus; this occupied the right bank of the Rhone, the other force the left bank, both being drawn up to await the enemy, without either section paying much attention to the movements of the other. When, however, a corps under the legate M. Aurelius Scaurus was attacked and completely defeated by the Cimbrians, the consul ordered the proconsul to lead his force over the Rhone and unite with his own men. Cæpio, who had a personal enmity against Mallius, and plumed himself on his superior birth, obeyed with reluctance, but could not bring himself to make common cause with Mallius against the enemy and discuss operations with him. Meantime, the imposing forces of the Romans had induced the Cimbrians to enter into negotiations. Cæpio, seeing the consul in negotiation with the delegates of the barbarians, and thinking that he was desirous of keeping all the honours of victory for himself, attacked them without delay. As a result his troops were entirely destroyed and his camp was taken. After this the Cimbrians engaged in battle with the troop under Mallius and utterly defeated them. The Romans suffered this terrible reverse near the town of Arausio (Orange). On the Roman side eighty thousand soldiers and forty thousand men belonging to the commissariat are said to have been killed, only ten men being saved, amongst whom was Cæpio. The earlier defeats had already so terrified the Italians that the raising of fresh soldiers presented difficulties; but now, after the defeat of Arausio the “Cimbrian panic” reached its height. Besides panic, the people also felt a burning rage, particularly against the corrupt government of the nobility which had jeopardised the state. Against certain individuals their indignation was extreme, particularly against Cæpio, whose insubordination had been the main cause of the defeat. By decision of the people he was now deposed from the proconsulate, and his property was confiscated; by a second decision of the people he was driven from the senate, and when, long after, in consequence of the malversation and high treason practised in Gaul, a court of judicial inquiry was convened, on the instigation of several of the people’s tribunes, Cæpio narrowly escaped the death sentence. He was banished, and went to Smyrna. Mallius Maximus and several other men of distinction were tried at the same time. The senate and their generals had lost all confidence; only one man seemed to be able to save the state in these perilous times - Caius Marius, he who at the end of the Jugurthine War was regarded as the greatest general of his time. Whilst he was still in Africa he was chosen consul for the year 104; and the same office was conferred upon him every succeeding year until the Cimbrian danger was over. » (HH, V, p.393-394).

« When Marius with his force reached the Rhone, the Cimbrians, always hasty in their movements, had wandered off through southern Gaul towards the west and had entered Spain. Marius accordingly spent some time restoring the disorganised and disintegrated Gallic peoples to a sense of their duty; he raised auxiliary troops from the allied states and by dint of unswerving severity and unremitting exertions made his troops once more fit for action. Once let a soldier under Marius be accustomed to his severity of mien, his rough voice and wild looks, once let him learn never to fail in his duty, never to be insubordinate, and his fear of Marius would be changed into confidence; the man of terror would seem formidable only to his enemies. But his chief attraction for his men was his strict justice and impartiality. It was probably in the year 103, that the Cimbrians returned to Gaul from Spain, where they had encountered a stout resistance from the Celtiberians. They marched through the country along the Atlantic coast to the Seine on the borders of Belgium. Here they were joined by Teuton tribes of the same family under their king Teutobodus, tribes which, driven like the Cimbrians from their home on the Baltic, were moving aimlessly about the world. Notwithstanding their united forces they met with such resistance from the brave Belgians that they gave way, and finally decided to go to Italy. They again divided, perhaps for convenience in obtaining supplies, into two hosts. The Cimbrians, with the Helvetian Tigurini, who seem only recently to have joined them, went back to Noricum in order to enter Italy at the same point as before. The Teutones with the Ambrones, probably a Celtic people, proceeded towards the Rhone, in order to go from thence over the western Alps. In the summer of 102 the Teutones crossed the Rhone and proceeded down the left bank to meet the army of Marius, which was encamped in a strong position at the junction of the Isère and the Rhone and was well provisioned. Here he was barring both the highroads which at that time led to Italy, the route over the Little St. Bernard, and the route along the coast. The barbarians encamped in countless numbers on the wide plain in front of Marius’ camp and challenged him to battle. He, however, following the plan of remaining strictly on the defensive, stayed quietly in camp and let them spend their strength in daily attempts to storm the Roman fortifications. In vain; their impetuosity was wrecked by the arts of war as practised by the Romans and by the prudence of Marius. At last they drew off in the direction of the south, in order to march into Italy by the road along the coast. They were six days marching past the Roman camp in enormous crowds with numberless heavily-laden carts. The Romans from their walls jeered at them as they passed, asking if they had no commands for their wives. When the procession had gone by, Marius followed with his force, and camped always close beside them, but behind strong entrenchments and in favourable positions, so that he was protected against night surprises and could not be forced into an engagement against his will. In this way they travelled until they came to Aquæ Sextiæ (now Aix in Provence); from here it was only a little way to the Alps, and Marius was compelled to consider the question of a decisive battle. He pitched his camp at a place where there was no spring of water, and when his soldiers grumbled and asked him where they could get it, he pointed downwards to the river Canus (now the Arc) which flowed near the enemy’s camp. They demanded that he should at once lead them against the enemy, whilst they had still blood to spend. He answered coolly: “First we must fortify the camp.” Whilst the soldiers were fortifying the camp Marius sent his camp-followers to the river to fetch water. For their defence they carried hatchets and axes, swords and lances. Soon a scuffle arose on the banks with the roving bands of the Ambrones who, separated from the Teutones, covered the rear of the whole army on the march. As new combatants constantly hurried to the assistance of both sides, the Ambrones at last played their full strength, thirty thousand men, and Marius was no longer able to restrain his men. In crossing the river, the Ambrones fell into disorder and the Romans, in a rush down from the heights attacked them in the rear with such force, that having suffered great loss, they fled back to their camp and barricade of wagons. Here the fight was renewed after a strange fashion, for the wives of the Ambrones, armed with swords and hatchets, rushed with wild cries to meet them as they fled, forcing them back towards the enemy, and those who saw that all was lost, fell into a frenzy and threw themselves into the midst of the combat, letting themselves be cut and hacked to pieces. The Romans felt encouraged by this victory, but dared not give themselves over to the joy of triumph, for by far the greater number of the enemy had not yet been engaged. The great plain was still covered with myriads of Teutones, who filled the air all night with threatening cries and occupied themselves all the following day preparing for a further encounter. It was not till three days later that the fight recommenced. By break of day, Marius and his men had ranged themselves on the hill in front of the camp in order for battle. As soon as the barbarians saw them they attacked the hill with fury. The Romans waited quietly till they came within range, then threw their lances and seized their swords. There was a long and obstinate fight lasting till midday; then the Germans, weakened by their own impetuosity and the heat of the southern sun, began to give way: as they reached the plain and were in the act of reorganising their front ranks which had fallen into disarray three thousand men under Claudius Marcellus fell on them from an ambush in the rear. That decided the issue; startled at the double attack the barbarians broke up their lines and fled in wild confusion. According to Plutarch, over one hundred thousand men were either killed or taken prisoner. Livy gives the numbers in the two battles as two hundred thousand dead and ninety thousand prisoners. Among the prisoners was the gigantic King Teutobodus, among the slain a number of women, some of whom met their death on the wagons in a desperate resistance, others killed themselves to avoid slavery and a life of shame. The battle-field of Aquæ Sextiæ is said to have been so fertilised by the amount of blood and corpses, that in the following summer it bore an utterly disproportionate crop of fruit; the neighbouring Massiliots fenced their vineyards with the enormous bones of the slain.» (HH, V, p.394-396).

Depopuler: = « dépeupler, ravager, dévaliser (To depopulate, to ravage, to rifle).» (Godefroy).

The Cimbrians with their neighbours Shall come to devastate nearly Spain: As the ancient German tribes (the Cimbrians, the Teutones and the Ambrones) had invaded and devastated Gaul (France), so in the World War II the Nazi Germans with the Italians, their neighbours, invaded and pillaged France, advancing till the Spanish frontier in the Pyrenees (cf.
PenguinAtlas 2, p.198 Chart of The campaigns in Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, France, 1939-40);

« JUNE 10 [1940] ITALY declares war on Britain and France. Hostilities to begin at midnight. Canada declares war on Italy; Neutrals: USA – Roosevelt speaks at Univ. of Virginia: ‘On this tenth day of June 1940 the hand that held the dagger has struck it in the back of its neighbor.’» (Argyle, 1980, p.32-33);
« JUNE 12 Home Front: Italy – Vatican newspaper Osservatore Romano, banned for publishing British and French war Communiqués (ban lifted June 13, when editors agree not to publish war news).» (Argyle, id., p.33); « JUNE 13 Air War – Italian bombers attack Toulon naval base, S. France.» (Argyle, id.);
« JUNE 15 Air War – Italian aircraft raid targets in S. France and Corsica.» (Argyle, id., p.34);
« JUNE 17 Pétain requests Germany’s and Italy’s armistice terms via Spanish Ambassador and the Vatican; he broadcasts to French Army and people: ‘... it is necessary to stop the fighting.’» (Argyle, id.);
« JUNE 20 France – Italian offensive on the Riviera (extended along entire Franco-Italian frontier to Mt Blanc, June 21).» (Argyle, id.);
« JUNE 23 France – Italians occupy Riviera resort of Menton described by Italian commentators as a ‘strongly fortified town’!; Air War – French bombers raid Palermo (Sicily).» (Argyle, id., p.35);
« JUNE 24 Franco-Italian Armistice signed at Villa Inchesa, near Rome, by Gen. Huntziger and Marshal Badoglio. Armistice Terms: demilitarized zones to be established along Franco-Italian border and between French and Italian territories in N. and E. Africa. French troops to be evacuated within 10 days. French naval and air bases in Mediterranean to be demilitarized within 15 days.» (Argyle, id.); « On 10 June [1940] Italy had entered the war on Germany’s side, and the terms of France’s armistice with Mussolini, signed on 24 June, included the withdrawal of the French colonies from the war.» (Johnson, 1991, p.364);
« JUNE 25 France – Cease-fire on all fronts from 12.35 a.m. (BST). Italians have made virtually no progress in their offensive except at Menton, on French Riviera.» (Argyle, id.);
« JUNE 30 France – Franco-German-Italian Armistice Commission in session at Wiesbaden. Surrender of 220,000 French troops cut off in underground fortresses of Maginot Line.» (Argyle, id., p.38);
« FEBRUARY 23 [1941] Home Front: Italy – Mussolini speaks at Fascist rally in Adriano Theatre, Rome: ‘We shall fight to the last drop of our blood’. He attempts to minimize disastrous Italian campaigns in Greece and N. Africa. He lists 10 reasons why Britain cannot win the war, promises ‘victory and peace with justice’.» (Argyle, id., p.57);
« MARCH 1 North Africa – Free French under Leclerc capture Kuffra Oasis – Italian air base and garrison in S. Libya – after 22-day siege.» (Argyle, id.);
« NOVEMBER 11 [1942] Vichy France – Op. Anton: German and Italian forces occupy Vichy France; Italians seize Corsica.» (Argyle, id., p.111);
« JULY 10 [1943] Sea War: Med. – Allies invade Sicily (Op. Husky).» (Argyle, id., p.135);
« JULY 25 Home Front: ItalyMUSSOLINI resigns and is arrested on the orders of King Victor Emmanuel.» (Argyle, id., p.136);
« JULY 26 Home Front: Italy – Fascist Party dissolved. Marshal Badoglio forms ‘non-Fascist’ Cabinet. Marshal law in force throughout the country.» (Argyle, id.);
« SEPTEMBER 8 SURRENDER of ITALY. Eisenhower makes public announcement in Algiers. Home Front: Italy – Op. Achse (‘Axis’): German forces seize all strategic points in Italy and forcibly disarm Italian forces.» (Argyle, id., p.139);

Gents amassés Guienne & Limosins
: = Gens amassés [en] Guyenne] & [en] Limousin (Peoples amassed [in] Guyenne and [in] Limousin), the preposition en (in) having been omitted because of the publicity of the place-names of Guyenne and Limousin, and Limousin being arranged into Limousins to rhyme with voisins of the first line.

Compaignie: = compagnie = « MILIT. Company; compagnie de débarquement, landing party.» (Dubois).

Peoples amassed in Guyenne and in Limousin Shall be in a league, and make a company against them
: « In the southern France was formed the Maquis: the French patriots cooperated with each other. Early in 1940 Minister [for the Colonies Georges] Mandell banned these verses from being cited. He should have thought over the 9th quatrain of the Third Century [The Allied breakthrough of Avranches].» (Centurio, 1953, p.69-70).

« Resistance in Occupied Countries, France:
 1940 Establishment of a ‘Provisional National Committee of the Free French
(18 Jun.) by General Charles de Gaulle in London; later (30 July 1943) formation of a Cabinet. Apart from this, there were underground movements (the Resistance, the Maquis) in the occupied North (‘Libération Nord’, ‘Organization civile et Militaire’) and in the occupied South (‘Combat’, ‘Libération Sud’) [Peoples amassed in Guyenne and in Limousin Shall be in a league, and make a company against them]; the pro-Communist ‘Front National’ operated in both zones. Bases to aid fugitives and communications and an underground press were built up.
 1941 Foundation of a central information and operations bureau in London to serve as a link between the Gaullists and the resistance movements; the troops of the resistance operating in the underground were organized as the ‘Forces Françaises de l’Intérieur’ under the Command of General P
IERRE KOENIG (1944). Following the
 1944 uprising of the resistance groups, the German occupation troops of Paris surrendered (19 August). D
E GAULLE entered the capital.» (PenguinAtlas 2, p.208).

« In 1944 there were extensive and successful plans to co-ordinate resistance operations with the Normandy invasion. Many resisters were young men who had taken to the hills and forests to avoid compulsory work service in Germany. These Maquis groups played a notably important part in assisting the Allied invasion of southern France. Perhaps 100,000 French people died in resistance activities or in German reprisals against them.»
(Sommerville, 2008, p.163).

« Despite the exertions of de Gaulle’s Free French, France’s only real hope of liberation depended on a fundamental change in Germany’s fortunes, such as the intervention of the USA or the USSR. The involvement of the both great powers gave new heart to growing Resistance Movements inside occupied France. In the longer-term, the entry of the USA raised hopes of a Second Front and ultimate liberation.»
(Argyle, 1980, p.37).
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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