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§817 The Operations ‘Overlord’, ‘Husky’ , ‘Shingle’ and ‘Dragoon’ (1943-1944): VII-10.

VII-10 (§817):

By the ‘Overlord’ into Normandy limitrophe of Le Mans,
By sea and land a doughty and valiant commander
Of the grand army of Gauls and Normans.
Passing Capri, Barcelonne, an isle pillaged.

(Par le grand prince l’imitrophe du Mans,
Preux & vaillant chef de grand exercite:
Par mer & terre de Gallotz & Normans,
Caspre passer Barcelone pillé isle.)

NOTES: Le grand prince
l’imitrophe [= limitrophe] du Mans: The Allied Operation ‘Overlord’ (= a supreme lord = le grand prince) landing Normandy, bordering Le Mans (Maine), on June 6, 1944.

Preux & vaillant chef de grand exercite: Par mer & terre de Gallots & Normans: The construction will be as follows: Par mer & terre Preux & vaillant chef de grand exercite de Gallots & Normans (By sea and land a doughty and valiant commander Of the grand army of Gauls and Normans).

Exercite: « s.m., armée (an army).» (Godefroy).

A doughty and valiant commander of the grand army of Gauls and Normans: General Eisenhower: « EISENHOWER, Dwight (David) (1890-1969 American: Supreme Commander Allied Forces in Europe; General of the Army; ‘Ike’ ‘Ike’ saw himself as leader of multi-national crusade against ungodly Nazi tyranny. Realized that in modern war political and military strategy go together and require continual integration. Treated his famous associates – even the outspoken Montgomery and explosive Patton – with unfailing kindliness and courtesy, but could be a stern critic when the situation demanded. Possessed true hall-mark of good soldier – lucidity of mind... High staff appointments in Washington, 1940-42. Chief of War Plans Division, US General Staff, 1942. Commander of all US Forces in European Theatre of Ops., June 1942. Commander of Allied Forces in NW. Africa, Nov. 1942. Displayed considerable statesmanship in negotiating temporary ‘arrangement’ with former Vichy leader, Adm. Darlan, at Algiers. Took full responsibility for rash US invasion of Tunisia, leading to disastrous battle of Kasserine Pass, Feb. 1943; Commander of all Allied Forces in North Africa, Feb. 6, 1943. Promoted to gen, Feb. 11, 1943; given overall command of Allied forces for Sicily invasion, July 1943. Directed covert negotiations with representatives of Italian armed forces leading to unconditional surrender of Italy, Sept. 8, 1943. Appointed SAC of British and US expeditionary forces for the liberation of France, Dec. 24, 1943...» (Argyle, 2009, p.146 ).

« World War II: Western Front Normandy Landings 5–6 June 1944 On 4 June, U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, made the decision to launch Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Europe in World War II. Bad weather forced a one-day postponement, but a short period of acceptable weather meant 6 June was marked as D-Day.» (Grant, 2011, p.864); « As of June 1st, additional inspections became the order of the day. What had been labeled the "Polar Front" by Dr. Jacob Bjerknes back in 1919 now featured a series of cyclonic disturbances stretching as far back as the Rocky Mountains that were certain to affect the British Isles adversely within the coming week. Moreover, spaced roughly 1,200 nautical miles apart, these wavelets increased in size and intensity as they moved eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean with a speed of roughly 700 nautical miles per day. General Eisenhower made the tense situation worse during Friday, June 2nd. With the proposed D-Day just three days away, "Ike" advised Stagg that he now required weather briefings during both morning and evening hours. Yates recalled:
  At periodic intervals each day Stagg and I reported to the Supreme Commander who in every case had assembled his Deputy, Chief of Staff, the Commander in Chief of Army, Navy, and Air and their deputies. During these briefings, Admiral Ramsay ... had present his meteorological officer for personal advice. No other meteorologists were present. The normal procedure was for Stagg to present with appropriate aids an analysis of the synoptic situation and then in general terms present the forecast for the period in question. I followed with more specific information on the impact of the forecast on the operations of the strategic and tactical units of the Air Force, troop carriers, paratroop units, and, if any, the impact upon the Army operations. Admiral Ramsay's Met officer usually volunteered information on the operational implications of the sea and swell portions of the forecast. We were then queried at length by all members of the group. The briefings to Supreme Commander usually lasted from thirty minutes to an hour.

From Saturday morning, June 3rd, onwards for 48 hours, the forecasters' duty time became a blur. At the 1930 DBST conference that evening Dunstable [British Met Office] and Admiralty argued that the warm sector of a deepening cyclonic area west of the Shetland Islands would cause adverse weather over the English Channel on the proposed D-Day. WIDEWING [U.S. Weather Central] steadfastly claimed the opposite. Upon pondering over Stagg's briefing Eisenhower asked that Stagg come back at 0430h the next morning with a finalized opinion. As the author listened to the telephonic weather conference at 0300 DBST, Sunday, June 4th, the weary Stagg sounded totally exhausted, Yates somewhat better, and Fleming ice-cold. Privately, however, Yates had ordered WIDEWING'S Irving Krick to join the majority's prognosis that the proposed D-Day of June 5th would feature rain, high seas, and low clouds within the assault area. Then, after listening to this updated forecast, as of 0430 DBST Eisenhower ordered this massive invasion involving 500,000 personnel postponed for 24 hours.» (Bates, 2010, p.13-15).

« However, within just a few hours the forecasters were beginning to revise their line of thinking. By noontime, the HMS Hoste, a weather observing frigate requested earlier by Commander Fleming for posting 600 nautical miles west of northern Ireland, was reporting by MOST SECRET MOST IMMEDIATE 3-hourly messages that atmospheric surface pressure was rising steadily. Then at noontime stations on Ireland's west coast reported a major cold front moving eastwards at 30 knots that was certain to pass through the Normandy assault area during early Monday, June 5th. Thus, when the Centrals reconvened during the early evening, all of them were projecting with various degrees of confidence that the offending cyclone off the Shetlands would move towards Norway, the Polar Front's following cyclones deepening off Newfoundland would track northeastwards towards southern Greenland, and a modicum of high atmospheric pressure might return to the English Channel sometime thereafter. Accordingly, at the SHAEF 1930 DBST weather conference, the new 5-day forecast postulated that a stormy Monday would be followed by 36 hours of steadily improving weather. Even so, arrival of the next band of inclement weather following mid-day, Wednesday, June 7th, remained uncertain. So on Sunday night at 2130 DBST as the harried SHAEF commanders once again were questioning the Stagg-Yates-Fleming trio, Southwick Park's officer-in-charge observed: " ... the trees in the copse were swaying in the rising wind and the clouds were scudding across." Even so, based on Stagg's optimistic outlook and understanding that the wind field would still be strong enough for landlubbers making the cross-channel passage extremely seasick, Eisenhower chose a provisional "WE GO" compared to his "NO GO" of 24 hours before. Then after obtaining some rest, "Ike" six hours later would listen to the updated weather prediction and make a final operational decision. As he reported later (Eisenhower DD. 1948. Crusade in Europe, p.250. Doubleday, Garden City):

At three-thirty the next morning our little camp was shaking and shuddering under a wind of almost hurricane proportions and the accompanying rain seemed to be traveling in horizontal streaks ... It seemed impossible that in such conditions there was any reason for even discussing the situation.

Thus, it was not until 0400 DBST on Monday, 5 June 1944, that the SHAEF meteorological team offered up "The Most Important Weather Forecast in the History of the World" (Hogben L. 1994 Diary: The most important weather forecast in the history of the world. London Review of Books 16 (10):21). Later, Commander Fleming described what occurred:

After Stagg had given his forecast and answered questions arising from it, Eisenhower asked each of his C's-in-C for his views. First, Ramsay indicated that he was prepared to resume the operation - he had no misgivings at all. Then Montgomery said he was ready to go as long as the Navy could get him there; Leigh-Mallory was, however, by no means happy and stated that in some ways conditions would be borderline, if not worse. Finally, Eisenhower, having considered all the pros and cons, closed the conference and launched the invasion with three simple words: "Okay! Let's go!

Immediately, via scrambled telephone Admiral Ramsay signaled the commanders of his Western and Eastern Naval Task Forces to begin full scale operations as of 0610 and 0654 DBST respectively, i.e., within the next two hours.» (Bates, id., p.15-17).

« World War II: Western Front Normandy 7 June – 25 July 1944 Each day after the 6 June invasion in World War II, the Allies poured troops and thousands of tons of supplies over the beaches, which caused a bottleneck. It was imperative that the Allies capture a port and expand the limited beachhead before the German reserves established a strong defensive line. Initially, Allied ground commanders focused on relieving isolated airborne units, sorting out the confusion on the beaches, and consolidating their battle line. Meanwhile, Allied air forces controlled the roads and kept the German reserves from massing for effective counterattacks. On 8 June, the First Army began an offensive with V Corps to capture the port of Cherbourg and take control of the Carentan area. Progress was slow, the fighting difficult and costly in casualties. V Corps continued the bloody war in the hedgerows. On the left, British commander General Sir Bernard Montgomery found progress difficult... Montgomery’s men wage a difficult street-by-street fight to take Caen. It fell on 9 July and St. Lo on 18 July, but Allied forces remained crowded in the small beachhead... On 24 July, First Army launched Operation Cobra, a six-division attack – following concentrated bombing by hundreds of bombers – to create a gap in the German line... The town of Vire fell after ten days of hard fighting, and the Americans continued to advance south, pushing aside the German blocking efforts. Coutances was liberated on 30 July, which opened the way to the Breton ports. In August, Lieutenant General George Patton arrived to command the U.S. Third Army. He moved rapidly into Brittany to seize the ports. A joint American-Canadian effort to pinch off the German salient at Falaise-Argentan was slow, but cost the Germans heavy losses. This forced them to make a general withdrawal toward the Seine River with Allied units in pursuit. By 25 August, the Allies were at the Seine, and the stage was set for the invasion of the German homeland.» (Grant, 2011, p.866).

The grand army: « The Allied Supreme Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, led over 3 million men with 13,000 aircraft, 2,500 landing craft, 1,200 warships and a range of new equipment. This included the obstacle-crossing and bunker-busting tanks of the British 79th Armoured Division, used only on the Anglo-Canadian beaches, as well as amphibious tanks used by all attack formations. Follow-up forces would benefit from the Mulberry Harbours and have their fuel needs supplied by PLUTO (Pipe Line Under The Ocean).»
(Sommerville, 2008,p.154).

Gallotz
: = les Gaulois, les Français (the French people).
Cf. VI-62: gallotz and VII-10: Gallotz; « GALLO, GALLOT ou GALLEC. n.m. (XIVe; du breton gall: lat. gallus). Dialecte français parlé en Bretagne (A French dialect spoken in Brittany).» (Petit Robert); « gallot, -ote -n., -adj. = gallo.» (Ibuki); « gallo, f. gallèse, quelquefois gallote [de bret. gall français, lat. Gallus Gaulois]n. qui parle le gallot (A speaker of Breton), habitant de la Bretagne Est (Inhabitants of East Brittany). –adj. pays gallo (a Breton country), parler gallo (a Breton dialect).» (Ibuki).

Normans
: = The Allied troops from the North, i.e., from the British Isles to Normandy, “Norman” signifying originally “homme du Nord (a man of the North)” (Petit Robert). Cf. VI-97 (§889): Normans in the same usage as here.

Gauls and Normans
: Gauls and Normans composing the grand army are the Allied multi-national troops from the British Isles southward to Normandy across the English Channel, “Gauls” designating the Free French soldiers and “Normans” those of other various countries: « JUNE 6, 1944 Sea War Allied Invasion of Normandy. D-Day Forces Allied: Troops landed: 75,215 British and Canadians from sea, 7,900 airborne; 57,500 Americans from sea, 15,500 airborne.» (Argyle, 2009, p.157); « Nearly 5,000 landing ships and assault craft were escorted by six battleships, four monitors, twenty-three cruisers, 104 destroyers and 152 escort vessels, as well as the 277 minesweepers clearing channels ahead. Most were British, American and Canadian, but there were also French, Polish, Dutch and Norwegian warships.» (Beevor, 2010, p.74); « One of Admiral Ramsay’s greatest concerns was a mass attack on the invasion fleet by German U-boats from their bases in Brittany. Naval anti-submarine forces were deployed, but the main task of covering the south-western approaches fell on 19 Group of Coastal Command mainly flying B-24 Liberators and Sunderland flying boats. The group included one Czech, one Polish, one New Zealander, two Australian and three Canadian squadrons. Even the RAF’s own 224 Squadron was a mixed bag of nationalities, with 137 Britons, forty-four Canadians, thirty-three Anzacs, two Americans, a Swiss, a Chilean, a South African and a Brazilian.» (Beevor, id., p.76); « The D-Day air offensive was another multinational operation. It included five New Zealander, seven Australian, twenty-eight Canadian, one Rhodesian, six French, fourteen Polish, three Czech, two Belgian, two Dutch and two Norwegian squadrons. Other units from these Allied countries were assigned to ‘anti-Diver’ missions, attacking the V-bomb launch sites in northern France.» (Beevor, id., p.79).

An isle pillaged
: « JULY 10, 1943 Sea War: Med. ALLIES INVADE SICILY (Operation Husky).» (Argyle, 2009, p.135); « World War II: Italian Campaign Invasion of Sicily 9 July – 17 August 1943. The Anglo-American invasion and capture of Sicily was a vital stepping-stone for the campaign in Italy, although the Allies were at fault in failing to prevent the Axis from successfully evacuating their best divisions from the island to continue the defensive battle on the mainland. While the British wanted to pursue an offensive against Italy after the Allied capture of Tunisia, their U.S. partners, were less enthusiastic, but the British prevailed. The invading force was made up of two armies – the U.S. Seventh Army and the British Eighth Army – and once ashore the Allies pressed forward in an attempt to destroy and capture the Axis units on the island. The few German troops on Sicily were quickly reinforced to a total of four elite divisions, along with a substantial Italian force. The Germans skillfully used the island’s mountainous terrain to carry out an effective delaying operation. The Allies, especially the British, advanced cautiously against the Germans... On the night of 11-12 August the Germans began a well-executed withdrawal that saw 40,000 German and 60,000 Italian troops cross over to the mainland with minimal hindrance from the Allies.» (Grant, 2011, p.856).

Caspre: This unknown term other than câpre (caper) is more happily identified in its orthography and context with the island of Capri (Caprée) in the gulf of Naples than with Calpre (= Gibraltar as in I-77 and III-78) (cf. Le Pelletier, II, p.197; Hogue, 1997, p.507) or with Caprera (cf. Dufresne, 1989b, p.67).

Passing Capri
: In the Operation ‘Shingle’, Italy, Jan., 1944. « By January, 1944, the most pessimistic American predictions seemed to have come true. The British Army, which had crossed from Sicily and fought up the toe of Italy was on the Adriatic side, and the American Army under Mark Clark, which had captured Naples, was on the Mediterranean side. These two armies were designated the 15th Army Group and were under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander. The opposing German army, under Field-Marshal Kesselring, had made maximum use of increasingly difficult mountainous countryside as it fought a series of bitter delaying actions back to the immensely strong Gustav Line – a line of massive steel and concrete fortifications and minefields ranging across Italy from the Mediterranean coast 40 miles north of Naples to Ortona on the Adriatic coast. Winter set in early in 1943. As the year declined, the soaring 6,000 foot mountain spine down Italy was thickly blanketed with snow, and the Allied advance became bogged down barely 70 miles north of Salerno, before the Gustav Line. The way out of this stalemate seemed fairly obvious – to make a landing in force farther up the coast. But the conquest of Italy was a low-priority operation, and there was a great shortage of landing craft to put the tanks, guns and men ashore. The inadequate fleet that had been allocated for Sicily and Salerno was anyway under orders to return to Britain for the Normandy invasion. By the year’s end Operation Overlord had also drawn away seven experienced British and American divisions and the great leaders whose names had featured prominently in the African and Sicilian victories – Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Air-Marshal Tedder and Admiral Cunningham. At this point Winston Churchill intervened. He insisted that a ‘wildcat’ should be flung ashore north of the Gustav Line ‘to tear out the heart of the Boche’. And he got this way. A plan with the code name ‘Shingle’ was quickly developed. It prepared for a landing at Anzio, which lay some 60 miles behind the Gustav Line and gave easy access to Route 6. The Anzio invasion was mounted from an American base, although it had been Churchill’s original intention that his ‘wildcat’ should be an all-British animal. The two divisions selected for the landing were the American and the British. The special troops aiding these divisions were also half British (the 2nd Special Service Brigade of two Commandos) and half American (a formation of Rangers and a parachute regiment). Behind them, at Naples, waited the American 1st Armoured Division and 45th Infantry Division to follow up as soon as the landing had been consolidated. » (Maule, 1972, p.296-299).

« The plan was straightforward: the British, American and French assailing the Gustav Line were to exert themselves to the utmost to break through and engage the enemy so heavily that any reserves would be drawn into the battle and thus diverted from Anzio. When the enemy was compelled to send back troops to seal off the Anzio force, the Allies expected to break through. The assault on the Gustav Line opened on January 17. That night the British 10th Corps launched a powerful attack across the lower Garigliano River, while the Free French Expeditionary Corps pushed into the mountains north of Cassino. The next day, the American 2nd corps launched an attack upon the River Rapido. The Allies hoped to force a breach through the enemy fortifications within 48 hours, so that an armoured spearhead could thrust out along the road to Rome. If thing went right at Anzio, this spearhead would be met by the advanced guard of the landing force, surging up to the Alban Hills from the beachhead. The British wrested a small bridgehead from the enemy and after two days had enlarged it into a four-mile salient, but they could go no farther. The French managed to dent the line to a depth of several miles. The Americans, after suffering terrible losses, crossed the Rapido upstream from the planned bridgehead. But nowhere did the Allies seriously breach the Gustav Line or break into the Liri Valley. Thus, the Anzio force was on its own from the moment it landed. The invasion fleet of 253 vessels, carrying 36,000 men with their tanks, guns and supplies, put out from Naples during the afternoon of January 21, swinging southwards past Capri [Passing Capri] to confuse any enemy spies. At nightfall it turned to head for Anzio, and the first wave of landing craft surged in at 2 a.m. Complete surprise was achieved, and with the dawn the whole landing operation was in full swing...» (Maule, 1972, p.299-300).

Barcelone: = Barcelon (VI-56, §818) = « Barcelonne, a village and a commune of France, prefecture of Drôme (Dauphiné), 18 km [south-east] of Valence.» (Bescherelle). Of 9 examples in all of the term Barcin/Barchinon/Barcelonne/
Barcelone/Barcelon/Barcellonne/Barsellonne
, only the two quoted above refer to Barcelonne in Drôme, France, and the remaining 7 to Barcelona in Spain.

Passing Barcelonne: In the Operation ‘Dragoon’ (Provence). August 15, 1944; « The invasion of southern France, Operation Anvil, had been key to American planning ever since August 1943. Churchill had fought the idea, did not want to divert troops from the Italian front, mainly because he dreamed of invading Austria and the Balkans to prevent a post-war Soviet frontier running all the way down to the Adriatic. President Roosevelt outmanoeuvred the British at the Teheran Conference in November 1943. Without warning Churchill, he told Stalin about the plan to invade southern France as well as Normandy. Stalin approved the idea immediately. To the exasperation of Roosevelt, Marshal and Eisenhower, the British never stopped trying divert Anvil, renamed Operation Dragoon, away from southern France... Events proved the Americans resoundingly right. The landings of 151,000 Allied troops along the Côte d’Azur from Nice to Marseilles were practically unopposed, the major port of Marseilles was secured and the invasion provoked a rapid German withdrawal from central and south-western France.» (Beevor, 2010, p.444-445);

« Campaign of Provence and of the Rhône 19 August–11 September. After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. The 1st French Army of General Lattre de Tassigny undertakes the mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles. These cities fall on 27 and on 28 August 1944 respectively. Montpellier is free on 29. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28. On the other hand, the Americans, soon rallied by the units of the 1st French Army, make use of the Napoleon route and the valley of the Rhône in pursuit of the Germans. Grenoble falls on 22 August, Valence [near Barcelonne] on 23 [Passing Barcelonne], Briançon on 26, Lyons on 3 September 1944. On 12 September, the Allied forces landed in Normandy and those landed in Provence perform their junction at Montbard...» (Kaspi, 1980, p.444).
________________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.

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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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