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§824 British 8th and US 5th Armies aim for Austria via Italy in WWII (1941-1945): V-48.

V-48 (§824):

After the great affliction of the sceptre,
Two enemies shall be defeated by them:
The army of Africa shall come to aim for the Pannonians,
By sea and land shall be horrible events.

(Apres la grande affliction du sceptre,
Deux ennemis par eulx seront deffaictz:
Classe d’Affrique aux Pannons viendra naistre,
Par mer & terre seront horribles faictz.)

NOTES: Hutin’s comment: « Les opérations militaires en Afrique du Nord (Seconde Guerre mondiale) ? [The military operations in North Africa (WWII) ?] » (Hutin, 1972, p.216) may make us catch a glimpse of the true theme of the quatrain: After the British fighting alone against the Nazis, the Allied victories in North Africa lead to the liberation of Italy, British 8th Army of North Africa attaining Friuli-Venezia-Giulia via Sicily, Calabria and the Adriatic coast and US 5th Army reaching Brenner Pass via Salerno and Rome, both immediately in front of South Austria (cf. Hart, 1971, p.524-525 Chart: The Slow Advance through Italy; p.676 Chart: The Allies Meet).

The sceptre: The King George VI of the UK = the head of London (le chef de Londres) (§796, X-66) = the head of the Britannic Isle (le chef de l’isle britannique) (§823, V-34).

Les Pannons (The Pannonians): = Les habitants de la Pannonie (The inhabitants of Pannonia), Pannonia being « a region of ancient Europe. It corresponds to a part of Low-Austria [Austria beneath the Ens], to a part of Hungary, to a part of Slavonia, and to a part of Austrian Croatia. Different nations inhabited it. Their principal cities were Vindobona [Vienna], Carnuntum, ... » (Bescherelle). Cf. Duby, p.25, Chart B. In this quatrain, the term seems to indicate the Austrians (the Nazis in Austria), for whom the Allied forces from North Africa via Italy aimed in 1943-1945 in order to strike them.

Naistre: « naistre, pointer, poindre.» (Godefroy); Pointer: = « Frapper de la pointe d’une arme; piquer avec (une arme).» (Petit Robert); Pointer: = « - v.t. diriger, - SYN. → braquer. – v.i. = se pointer (vers) – se pointer v.pr. se diriger (vers).» (Ibuki); Poindre: = « V. tr. Piquer, Blesser; V. intr. Apparaître, Commencer à apparaître.» (Petit Robert); The specific usage of the term naistre in such a context seems to involve that it has a double meaning as defined lexically: to strike (frapper de la pointe d’une arme) and to aim for (se diriger vers).

After the great affliction of the sceptre: = In the islands so horrible a tumult, They shall hear tell of nothing but a military intrigue: So great shall be the insult of the predators, That they shall come to fall into line with the grand alliance (§807, II-100): « Throughout 1941, Britain fought on against the Nazis. The chief threat to Britain at this stage in the war lay in the Battle of the Atlantic – German attempts to cut off the country’s seaborne supplies of food and war material. In May, the German battleship Bismarck sortied into the Atlantic. After sinking the Royal Navy battle cruiser HMS Hood, Bismarck was tracked down, halted by torpedoes dropped from Swordfish aircraft, and then sunk by British battleships. The British and Canadian navies were less successful at protecting merchant convoys against German submarines, however, and losses were soon mounting. The British people felt the effect of this in reduced food rations. Britain did not hesitate to ally itself with the Soviet Union, despite Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s strong dislike of Soviet communism. But the British really needed the US to enter the war. President Roosevelt made no pretence of neutrality. In March, he introduced Lend-Lease to supply Britain with military equipment paid for by the US government. In August, Roosevelt and Churchill met at Placentia Bay in Newfoundland, Canada, where they agreed the Atlantic Charter, a statement of joint war aims embodying liberal democratic principles. At the Arcadia Conference in Washington at the end of the year, Britain and the US agreed a military strategy that gave priority to defeating the Germans. The two countries also agreed to unify their military command under the Combined Chiefs of Staff.» (DKHistory, p.392-393).

Two enemies shall be defeated by them
: The Germans and the Italians (Two enemies) are expelled out of North Africa by the British Eighth Army (by them) commanded by Montgomery: « 1942 AUGUST 5 North Africa – Churchill visits 8th Army; decides to replace Auchinleck. AUGUST 7 Gen. Gott, 8th Army CinC designate, killed when plane shot down. AUGUST 18 Gen. Alexander appointed CinC Middle East, in place of Auchinleck; Lt.-Gen. Montgomery replaces Ritchie as General Officer Commanding 8th Army. NOVEMBER 2 ALLIED VICTORY AT EL ALAMEIN. Op. Supercharge: 8th Army compels Axis army to withdraw from Alamein Line and pursues it to Tobruk (Nov. 13), Benghazi (Nov. 20) and El Agheila (Nov. 24). DECEMBER 13 Rommel retreats from El Agheila as 8th Army resumes advance. DECEMBER 14 Rommel skillfully evades 8th Army trap at El Agheila (Dec. 14-18).» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-116); « 1943 JANUARY 12 North Africa – Montgomery sends ‘Personal Message’ to men of 8th Army, calling for supreme effort to drive Italians from Tripoli – their last African stronghold: ‘Our families and friends... will be thrilled when they hear we have captured that place’. Leclerc’s Free French now in complete control of S. Libya (Fezzan). JANUARY 15 Sea War: Med. – ‘Inshore Squadron’ of British Mediterranean Fleet delivers supplies to 8th Army, advancing along N. African coast (Jan. –Feb.). JANUARY 16 North Africa 8th Army and Free French, advancing from S. Libya, join forces. JANUARY 23 8TH ARMY CAPTURES TRIPOLI. JANUARY 27 Churchill arrives in Cairo for talks with Alexander. FEBRUARY 4. 8th Army enters Tunisia. FEBRUARY 9 Sea War: Med. – First of 7 troop convoys leave S. Italy with powerful reinforcements for Axis forces in Tunisia (Feb. 9- March 22): Malta-based RAF aircraft sink 10 ships; specially laid minefields and British subs. also score numerous successes (3 subs. lost). MARCH 6 North Africa BATTLE OF MÉDENINE: in his last battle in Africa, Rommel attacks 8th Army but is defeated with heavy losses from antitank guns. MARCH 9 Von Arnim succeeds Rommel in Tunisia; Rommel leaves Africa. MARCH 20 BATTLE OF MARETH: (March 20-28). 8th Army attack Axis forces holding the ‘African Maginot Line’, along Tunisia-Libya border. NZ Corps makes flanking attack. MARCH 23 Germans counterattack at Mareth; 8th Army withdraws. MARCH 28 8th Army captures Mareth; Axis forces abandon Mareth Line... MAY 6 FINAL BRITISH OFFENSIVE IN TUNISIA. 1st Army, reinforced with 7th Armd. and 4th Indian divs. from 8th Army, smashes through Medjerda Valley defences, in Medjez-el-Bab sector; Axis forces stunned by 600-gun preparatory barrage and ceaseless daylight bombing raids. MAY 7 British occupy Tunis. MAY 12 END OF ALL ORGANIZED AXIS RESISTANCE IN TUNISIA. Col.-Gen. von Arnim surrenders to British forces. 150,000 (approx.) Axis troops captured since April. MAY 13 Surrender of Marshal Messe, cdr. of Italian 1st Army. MAY 16 Gen. Alexander informs Churchill: ‘Sir, it is my duty to report that the Tunisian Campaign is over.’ JUNE 12 Occupied North Africa – King George VI arrives in Morocco.» (Argyle, 1980, p.118-131).

The army of Africa [British 8th Army] shall come to aim for the Pannonians: « 1943 JULY 10 Sea War: Med. ALLIES INVADE SICILY (Op. Husky): Armada of 3,000 ships lands 12 divs. of 8th Army (Montgomery) and US 7th Army(Patton). Naval forces – 6 battleships, 2 carriers, 18 cruisers, 7 subs. and 210 other warships – escort invasion fleet and bombard coastal defences and communications. AUGUST 17 Sicily END OF SICILIAN CAMPAIGN. Americans and British enter Messina. Axis forces evacuated: 39,569 Germans and 62,000 Italian troops, with all their equipment and supplies, transported across Strs. of Messina in small craft. SEPTEMBER 3 Sea War Med. INVASION OF CALABRIA (S. Italy): 13th Corps (8th Army) crosses from Sicily to Reggio di Calabria preceded by 900-gun barrage (Op. Baytown). SEPTEMBER 8 Diplomacy SURRENDER OF ITALY. SEPTEMBER 10 Italy – British capture Salerno. Germans occupy Rome and disarm Italian forces in the N. SEPTEMBER 11 British 8th Army capture Brindisi. SEPTEMBER 17 Patrols of Allied 5th and 8th Armies link up near Agropoli, S. of Salerno.» (Argyle, 1980, p.135-140).

« On September 3 [1943], the invasion was opened by Montgomery’s Eighth Army crossing the narrow Straits of Messina, from Sicily, and landing on the toe of Italy. That same day the Italian representatives secretly signed the armistice treaty with the Allies. But it was arranged that the fact should be kept quiet until the Allies made their second and principal landing – which was planned to take place on the shin of Italy, at Salerno, south of Naples. At midnight on September 8 the Anglo-American Fifth Army under General Clark began to disembark in the Gulf of Salerno – a few hours after the B.B.C. had broadcast the official announcement of Italy’s capitulation.» (Hart, 1971, p.452-453);

The army of Africa
[US 5th Army] shall come to aim for the Pannonians
: « 1943 JANUARY 5 North Africa US 5th Army formed in Tunisia under Lt.-Gen. Mark W. Clark.» (Argyle, 1980, p.118); « SEPTEMBER 9 Sea War: Med. ALLIES LAND AT SALERNO: US 5th Army (Lt.-Gen. Mark Clark) and British 10th Corps land at Salerno, S. of Naples (Op. Avalanche).» (Argyle, 1980, p.139).

« By January, 1944, the most pessimistic American predictions seemed to have come true. The British Army, which had crossed from Sicily and fought up the toe of Italy was on the Adriatic side, and the American Army under Mark Clark, which had captured Naples, was on the Mediterranean side. These two armies were designated the 15th Army Group and were under the overall command of General Sir Harold Alexander. The opposing German army, under Field-Marshal Kesselring, had made maximum use of increasingly difficult mountainous countryside as it fought a series of bitter delaying actions back to the immensely strong Gustav Line – a line of massive steel and concrete fortifications and minefields ranging across Italy from the Mediterranean coast 40 miles north of Naples to Ortona on the Adriatic coast. Winter set in early in 1943. As the year declined, the soaring 6,000 foot mountain spine down Italy was thickly blanketed with snow, and the Allied advance became bogged down barely 70 miles north of Salerno, before the Gustav Line. The way out of this stalemate seemed fairly obvious – to make a landing in force farther up the coast. But the conquest of Italy was a low-priority operation, and there was a great shortage of landing craft to put the tanks, guns and men ashore. The inadequate fleet that had been allocated for Sicily and Salerno was anyway under orders to return to Britain for the Normandy invasion. By the year’s end Operation Overlord had also drawn away seven experienced British and American divisions and the great leaders whose names had featured prominently in the African and Sicilian victories – Eisenhower, Montgomery, Patton, Air-Marshal Tedder and Admiral Cunningham. At this point Winston Churchill intervened. He insisted that a ‘wildcat’ should be flung ashore north of the Gustav Line ‘to tear out the heart of the Boche [German]’. And he got this way. A plan with the code name ‘Shingle’ was quickly developed. It prepared for a landing at Anzio, which lay some 60 miles behind the Gustav Line and gave easy access to Route 6. The Anzio invasion was mounted from an American base, although it had been Churchill’s original intention that his ‘wildcat’ should be an all-British animal. The two divisions selected for the landing were the American and the British. The special troops aiding these divisions were also half British (the 2nd Special Service Brigade of two Commandos) and half American (a formation of Rangers and a parachute regiment). Behind them, at Naples, waited the American 1st Armoured Division and 45th Infantry Division to follow up as soon as the landing had been consolidated.» (Maule, 1972, p.296-299).

« The plan was straightforward: the British, American and French assailing the Gustav Line were to exert themselves to the utmost to break through and engage the enemy so heavily that any reserves would be drawn into the battle and thus diverted from Anzio. When the enemy was compelled to send back troops to seal off the Anzio force, the Allies expected to break through. The assault on the Gustav Line opened on January 17. That night the British 10th Corps launched a powerful attack across the lower Garigliano River, while the Free French Expeditionary Corps pushed into the mountains north of Cassino. The next day, the American 2nd Corps launched an attack upon the River Rapido. The Allies hoped to force a breach through the enemy fortifications within 48 hours, so that an armoured spearhead could thrust out along the road to Rome. If thing went right at Anzio, this spearhead would be met by the advanced guard of the landing force, surging up to the Alban Hills from the beachhead. The British wrested a small bridgehead from the enemy and after two days had enlarged it into a four-mile salient, but they could go no farther. The French managed to dent the line to a depth of several miles. The Americans, after suffering terrible losses, crossed the Rapido upstream from the planned bridgehead. But nowhere did the Allies seriously breach the Gustav Line or break into the Liri Valley. Thus, the Anzio force was on its own from the moment it landed. The invasion fleet of 253 vessels, carrying 36,000 men with their tanks, guns and supplies, put out from Naples during the afternoon of January 21, swinging southwards past Capri to confuse any enemy spies. At nightfall it turned to head for Anzio, and the first wave of landing craft surged in at 2 a.m. Complete surprise was achieved, and with the dawn the whole landing operation was in full swing...» (Maule, 1972, p.299-300).

« 1944 MAY 11 Italy 5TH AND 8TH ARMIES ATTACK GUSTAV LINE (Op. Diadem) on 48-km front. During the previous 8 weeks 8th Army has been secretly transferred from the Adriatic sector to Cassino. 8th Army secures bridgeheads over R. Rapido and 5th Army over the Garigliano. Americans capture the much-contested Damiano Hill; French capture Monte Faito (777 m). Gen. Alexander issues Order of Day to Allied Armies: ‘We are going to destroy the German armies in Italy... no armies have ever entered battle before with a more just and righteous cause.’ MAY 12 Germans launch fierce counterattacks along Gustav Line. MAY 14 French break through at Monti Aurunci, N. of Gaeta. MAY 15 Germans begin withdrawing from ‘Gustav’ Line to ‘Adolf Hitler’ (‘Dora’) Line, immediately S. of Rome. MAY 17 Kesselring orders evacuation of Cassino garrison. MAY 20 Allies attack ‘Dora’ Line; Canadians break through, May 22. MAY 25 Allied column, from Anzio meets US 2nd Corps (5th Army) near Latina. 8th Army crosses R. Melfa in strength. MAY 30 5th Army breakthrough ‘Adolf Hitler’ Line at Valmontone. June 1 8th Army captures Frosinone. JUNE 3 German forces evacuate Rome. JUNE 4 ALLIED 5TH ARMY ENTERS ROME. JUNE 15 8th Army breaks through at Arezzo and reaches R. Arno (July 15-16). 5th Army approaches R. from SW. Italian Govt. returns to Rome. JULY 17 8th Army crosses the Arno. JULY 18 Polish troops of 8th Army take Ancona. JULY 19 Leghorn captured by 5th Army. JULY 24 Americans reach Pisa. SEPTEMBER 2 5th Army captures Pisa. 8th Army breaks through Gothic Line near Rimini. SEPTEMBER 8 5th Army launches major attack on Gothic Line. SEPTEMBER 26 8th Army begins crossing R. Uso (ancient Rubicon). » (Argyle, 1980, p.155-169).

« On October 2 [1944], Mark Clark’s renewed offensive towards Bologna opened, this time along Route 65. All four divisions of his 2nd Corps were thrown in, but the defending Germans fought with such tenacity that during the next three weeks the American advance averaged no more than a mile a day, and on October 27 the offensive was abandoned. By the end of October, the Eighth Army advance had also petered out, after only five more rivers had been crossed, and the Po was still fifty miles distant. The only notable changes of the period were command changes. Kesselring was injured in a motor accident and replaced by Vietinghoff. McCreery replaced Leese – who was being sent to Burma – in command of the Eighth Army. Towards the end of November, Maitland Wilson was sent to Washington, and succeeded by Alexander, while Mark Clark took over the Army Group in Italy. The Allied situation at the end of 1944 was very disappointing in comparison with the high hopes of the spring, and the summer. Although Alexander still showed optimism about an advance into Austria [to aim for the Pannonians], the slow crawl up the Italian peninsula made such distant horizons appear increasingly unrealistic. Maitland Wilson himself admitted as much in his report of November 22 to the British Chiefs of Staff. The disbelief, and discontent, of the Allied troops was manifested in a growing rate of desertions. A final Allied offensive in 1944 sought to gain Bologna and Ravenna as winter bases. The Canadians, in the Eighth Army, succeeded in capturing Ravenna on December 4, and their success led the Germans to send three divisions to check the Eighth Army’s further progress. That seemed to offer the Fifth Army a better chance. But this was forestalled by an enemy counterattack in the Senio valley on December 26 – prompted by Mussolini with the idea of emulating Hitler’s counteroffensive in the Ardennes, and largely carried out by Italians who remained loyal to him. This attack was soon, and easily, stopped. But the Eighth Army was now exhausted, and very short of ammunitions, while the Germans were known to have strong reserves near Bologna. So Alexander decided that the Allied armies should go on the defensive, and prepare for a powerful spring offensive.» (Hart, 1971, p.541-542).

« The three months’ pause since the close of the Allies’ autumn offensive had brought a great change in the spirit and outlook of their troops. They had seen the arrival of new weapons in abundance – amphibious tanks, ‘Kangaroo’ armoured personnel carriers, ‘Fantails’ (tracked landing vehicles), heavier-gunned Sherman and Churchill tanks, flame-throwing tanks, and ‘tank-dozers’. There was also plenty of new bridging equipment, and huge reserves of ammunition. In Mark Clark’s Army Group (entitled the 15th) the right wing, facing the German 10th Army, was formed by the Eighth Army under McCreery, and comprised the British 5th Corps (of four divisions); the Polish Corps (of two divisions); the British 10th Corps, now almost a skeleton consisting of two Italian combat groups, the Jewish Brigade, and the Lovat Scouts; and the British 13th Corps which was really the 10th Indian Division. The 6th Armoured Division was in Army reserve. To the west was the Fifth Army, now commanded by Truscott, which comprised the American 2nd Corps (of four divisions), and 4th Corps (of three divisions), with two more divisions in Army reserve. They included two armoured divisions, the 1st U.S. and the 6th South African. The aim, and primary problem, of the Allied planners was to overrun and wipe out the German forces before they could escape over the River Po. The Allied offensive was to be launched on April 9... The Allies’ three armoured divisions, in two sweeping moves, had cut off and surrounded most of the opposing forces. Although many Germans managed to escape by swimming that broad river, they were in no condition to establish a new line. On the 27th the British crossed the Adige and penetrated the Venetian Line covering Venice and Padua. The Americans, moving still faster, took Verona a day earlier. The day before that, April 25, a general uprising of the partisans took place, and Germans everywhere came under attack from them. All the Alpine passes were blocked [to aim for the Pannonians] by April 28 – the day on which Mussolini and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were caught and shot by a band of partisans near Lake Como. German troops were now surrendering everywhere, and the Allied pursuit met little opposition anywhere after April 25. By the 29th the New Zealanders reached Venice and by May 2 were at Trieste – where the main concern was not the Germans but the Yugo-Slavs.» (Hart, 1971, p.671-674); « LAST BATTLES IN ITALY After the capture of Rome in June 1944, Allied troops had been taken from Italy for the invasion of southern France. The remaining Allied units continued a slow advance into early 1945. In April they renewed their attacks, now with more success. German forces in Italy surrendered on 2 May, and on 4 May the advancing Allied troops linked up at the Brenner Pass [to aim for the Pannonians] with US Seventh Army coming down through Bavaria.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.195).

« Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona... On 3 May the 85th and 88th Divisions sent task forces north over ice and snow three feet deep to seal the Austrian frontier and to gain contact with the American Seventh Army, driving southward from Germany. The 339th Infantry under Lt. Col. John T. English reached Austrian soil east of Dobbiaco at 0415, 4 May; the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon, 349th Infantry, met troops from VI Corps of Seventh Army at 1051 at Vipiteno, nine miles south of Brennero. The 338th Infantry came up Highway 12 later in the day and placed a frontier guard at Brennero on the Austro-Italian frontier. To the west the 10th Mountain Division reached Nauders beyond the Resia Pass on the 5th and made contact with German forces which were being pushed south by Seventh Army; here a status quo was maintained until the enemy headquarters involved had completed their surrender to Seventh Army. On the 6th the mountain troops met the 44th Infantry Division of Seventh Army. Inasmuch as Eighth Army had met Marshal Tito’s forces on 1 May at Monfalcone and the 473d Infantry had encountered French troops on 30 April near Savona on the Italian Riviera, the Allied armies in Italy had now made complete contact with friendly forces on the western, northern, and eastern frontiers of Italy and controlled all major routes of egress... Though the Fifth Army’s zone of occupation in northern Italy included all of the large cities in continental Italy except Venice and Trieste, very little trouble arose in the area... Only in the Trieste area did real trouble arise. The problem of relations with Yugoslav forces was handled by Eighth Army and by higher headquarters, but required the use of Fifth Army troops. The 91st Division moved to Venezia Giulia on 4 May, the 10th Mountain Division on 19 May, and II Corps on 21 May. During the week 14-21 May, 5,300 tons of ammunition were placed in the Udine area, enough to support 2 infantry divisions, 2 tank battalions, 2 tank destroyer battalions, 2 155mm howitzer battalions, and 1 155mm gun battalion for 5 days. When our general line was advanced to the east on 22-23 May, a flare-up of Yugoslav protests and threats ensued and resulted in a alert for the 85th Division. By mid-June the situation had quieted down, and the 85th Division was relieved from its alert status on 14 June. An agreement had been reached by this time establishing a general line of demarcation along the Isonzo River; joint American and British occupation continued in the area west of the river.» (Starr, 1986, p.436-441).

By land shall be horrible events
: Above mentioned.

By sea shall be horrible events: In addition to the items above quoted, « 1942 AUGUST 10 Sea War: Med.OP. PEDESTAL. 14-ship British convoy leaves Gibraltar for Malta under heavy escort – only 4 transports and burning tanker Ohio reach Malta. From Aug. 11-14 they are battered by Axis aircraft, subs. and motor torpedo boats. Ships sunk: carrier Eagle, cruisers Cairo and Manchester, destroyer Foresight and 7 merchant vessels. Ships badly damaged: carrier Indomitable, 2 cruisers, 1 destroyer and 7 merchant vessels. 2 Italian subs. rammed and sunk by British destroyers. AUGUST 13 Cruisers Bolzano and Muzio Attendolo are torpedoed by British sub. Unbroken, off Lipari Is. NOVEMBER 7 U-boats and Italian subs. attack Allied Task Forces engaged in Op. Torch (Nov. 7-15): 7 transports sunk and 3 damaged; destroyers Martin and Isaac Sweers (Dutch) sunk. 5 U-boats and 1 Italian submarine lost. NOVEMBER 27 SCUTTLING OF FRENCH FLEET. German plan to capture fleet intact at Toulon is foiled by Admiral de Laborde, who orders all crews to destroy their ships.» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-115); « 1943 JANUARY 8 Sea War: Med. – British Force K (2 cruisers, 4 destroyers) harries last convoys between S. Italy and Tripoli, sinking 14 ships of all sizes (nights between Jan. 8-9 and 20-21). JANUARY 22 Force K bombards Rommel’s retreating forces E. of Tripoli. FEBRUARY 1 Cruiser–minelayer Welshman sunk by U-617 off Crete. U-118 lay minefield in Strs. of Gibraltar (4 ships sunk, 3 damaged). MARCH 8 HMS Lightning sunk by German MTB S.55. MARCH 24 Sub. Thunderbolt sunk by Italian corvette. MAY 1 Italian and German vessels lay minefields off W. coast of Greece, Sicily and Sardinia – 3,156, 1,036 and 4,248 mines resp. (May 1- July 20). JULY 16 Carrier Indomitable hit by Italian torpedo planes. Italian sub. Dandolo torpedoes cruiser Cleopatra. Night engagements off Sicily between German and British MTBs with Italian cruiser Scipione Africano: 5 German boats damaged and MTB 305 sunk. JULY 19 German and Italian minelayers begin intensive operations around Italian coast. AUGUST 31 Nelson and Rodney shell Italian coast near Reggio di Calabria. SEPTEMBER 8 Surrender of Italian fleet: 5 battleships, 8 cruisers and 11 destroyers leave their bases for Malta (Sept. 8-9). SEPTEMBER 12 U-boats commence ops. off Salerno bridgeheads: but sink only 3 ships during numerous attacks. DECEMBER 12 British destroyers Tynedale and Holcombe sunk by U-593 (Dec. 12 and 13). DECEMBER 21 Old German cruiser Niobe sunk by British MTBs (night Dec. 21-22). 1944 JANUARY 22 Sea War: Med.ANZIO LANDINGS. Allied 5 Corps lands near Anzio and Nettuno, S. of Rome (Op. Shingle) in bold attempt to outflank Germans at Cassino. Landing craft equipped with rocket launchers deluge the weak defences.» (Argyle, 1980, p.102-148).
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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