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§831 Regimes of the Fascists and the Nazis; Mussolini’s decline and Italian Monarchy’s abolition (1922-1946): VI-77.

VI-77 (§831):

By the dishonest victory of the disappointed,
Two classes unified, the German revolt:
The head bruised, and his son in the temptation,
Florence, Imola hounded in the steelyard.

( Par la victoire du deceu fraudulente,
Deux classes une, la revolte Germaine:
Le chef murtry, & son filz dans la tente,
Florence, Imole pourchassés dans romaine.)

NOTES: Deceu: = Déçu, disappointed.

The disappointed: = The Italian and German peoples after the WWI discontent with their poor and disastrous state of country represented by Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler.

By the dishonest victory of the disappointed: « On 16 October 1922 Mussolini decided to force the issue, believing that if he waited, Giolitti [in premiership in May 1892 – Dec. 1893 and in May 1906 – Dec. 1909], the one man he feared, might steal his role. He arranged for a march on Rome for the end of the month, by four divisions totaling 40,000 blackshirted men. Many army and police commanders agreed not to fire on them, and his paper, Il Popolo d’Italia, carried the banner: I grigioverdi fraternizzano con le Camicie Nere! [The graygreens (of the Italian Army uniforms) will fraternize with the Black Shirt (of the Fascists)!] By the time his ill-equipped, badly clothed and unfed army had halted outside Rome, in pouring rain, on the evening of 28 October, it did not present a very formidable spectacle. The government, though weak, had a Rome garrison of 28,000 under a reliable commander and it agreed to proclaim a state of emergency. But Rome buzzed with rumours and misinformation. The little King Victor Emmanuel, tucked up in the Quirinale Palace, was told only 6,000 ill-disciplined troops faced a horde of 100,000 determined fascists. He panicked and refused to sign the decree, which had to be torn down from the walls where it had just been posted. At that point the government lost heart. Mussolini, for an impatient man, played his cards skillfuly. When he was telephoned in Milan by the King’s ADC, General Cittadini, and offered partial power in a new ministry, he simply replaced the receiver. The next day, 29 October, he graciously consented to form his own government, provide the invitation by phone was confirmed by telegram. The wire duly came, and that evening he went to Milan Station in state, wearing his black shirt, to catch the night-sleeper to Rome [By the dishonest victory]. As it happened, the wife of the British ambassador, Lady Sybil Graham, was also on the train. She saw Mussolini, who was surrounded by officials, impatiently consult his watch, and turn fiercely on the station-master. ‘I want the train to leave exactly on time,’ he said. ‘From now on, everything has got to function perfectly.’ Thus a regime, and a legend, were born.» (Johnson, id., p.99-100); « The new state of Italy was far from being a great success in the years before 1914; the strain of the First World War on her precarious economy and the bitter disappointment at her treatment by the Versailles treaties caused growing discontent [the disappointed]. Between 1919 and 1922 there were five different governments, all of which were incapable of taking the decisive action that the situation demanded. In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded the Italian fascist party which won 35 seats in the 1921 elections. At the same time there seemed to be a real danger of a left-wing seizure of power; in an atmosphere of strikes and riots, the fascists staged a ‘march on Rome’ which culminated in King Victor Emmanuel III inviting Mussolini to form a government (October 1922).» (Lowe, 1988, p.94).

Two classes unified: Namely, his government is composed of a class of Fascists and another class of Non-Fascists: « There was no sudden change in the system of government and state institutions; Mussolini was merely the Prime Minister of a coalition cabinet [Two classes unified] in which only four out of twelve ministers were fascists and he had to move cautiously. Beginning in the summer of 1924 by a mixture of violence and intimidation and aided by hopeless divisions among his opponents, he gradually developed Italian government and society along fascist lines, and at the same time consolidated his own hold over the country. This was largely complete by 1930(Lowe, 1988, p.99). The phrase “Deux classes une”, where ‘classe’ is not ‘fleet’ nor ‘brisure (a break)’ as Roberts or Ionescu would, but ‘a class, an assorting group’, is seen also in the famed quatrain I-35 (§39).

The German revolt: = The establishment of the Nazi dictatorship, which is a revolt against the coalition system of government. The interpretation by Ionescu of the term ‘révolte (revolt)’ as ‘retraite (military retreat)’ (Ionescu, 1976, p.536) is not supported lexically and contextually. Cf. §810, IX-90: his revolt.

By the dishonest victory of the disappointed, Two classes unified, the German revolt:
« The Weimar Republic was constantly plagued by economic problems, which the government failed to solve permanently. Unemployment continued to grow and by the spring of 1932 it stood at over six million. The government came under criticism from almost all groups in society, especially industrialists and the working class who demanded more decisive action. The loss of working-class support because of increasing unemployment and the reduction of unemployment benefit was a serious blow to the republic. By the end of 1932 the Weimar Republic had thus been brought to the verge of collapse. Even so it might have survived if there had been no other options.» (Lowe, id., p.129-133); « Hitler and the Nazi party offered what seemed to be an attractive alternative just when the republic was at its most incapable. The fortunes of the Nazi party were linked closely to the economic situation: the more unstable the economy, the more seats the Nazis won in the Reichstag: March 1924 – 32 seats (economy still unstable after 1923 inflation); December 1924 – 14 seats (economy recovering after Dawes Plan); 1928 – 12 seats (comparative prosperity); 1930 – 107 seats (unemployment mounting – Nazis second largest party); July 1932 – 230 seats (massive unemployment – Nazis largest single party). There is no doubt that the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, fostered by the economic crisis, was one of the most important factors in the downfall of the republic.» (Lowe, id, p.133).

« What was it about the Nazis that made them so popular? (i) They offered national unity, prosperity and full employment by ridding Germany of what they claimed were the real causes of the troubles – Marxists, the ‘November criminals’ (those who had agreed to the armistice in November 1918 and later the Versailles Treaty), Jesuites, Freemasons and, above all, Jews. (ii) They promised to overthrow the Versailles settlement, so unpopular [disappointed] with most Germans, and to build Germany into a great power again. This would include bringing all Germans (in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland) back into the Reich. (iii) The Nazi private army, the SA (Sturmabteilung – Storm Troopers), was attractive to young people out of work; it gave them a small wage and a uniform. (iv) Wealthy landowners and industrialists encouraged the Nazis because they feared a communist revolution and they approved of the Nazi policy of hostility to communists. (v) Hitler himself had extraordinary political abilities. He possessed tremendous energy and will power and a remarkable gift for public speaking which enabled him to put forward his ideas with great emotional force. (vi) The striking contrast between the governments of the Weimar Republic and the Nazi party impressed people: the former were cautious, respectable, dull and unable to maintain order, the latter promised strong, decisive government and the restoration of national pride – an irresistible combination. (vii) Without the economic crisis though, it is doubtful whether Hitler would have had much chance of attaining power; it was the widespread unemployment and social misery [disappointed] which gained the Nazis mass support, not only among the working classes but also among the lower-middle classes – office workers, shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers and small-scale farmers.» (Lowe, id, p.133-134).

« A small clique of right-wing politicians with support from the Reichswehr decided to bring Hitler into a coalition government with the conservatives and nationalists [Two classes unified]. The main conspirators were Franz von Papen and Kurt von Schleicher. Their reasons for this momentous decision were: (i) They were afraid of the Nazis attempting to seize power by a Putsch. (ii) They believed they could control Hitler better inside the government than if he remained outside it. (iii) The Nazi votes in the Reichstag would give them a majority, which might make possible a restoration of the monarchy, and a return to the system which had existed under Bismarck (Chancellor 1870-90), in which the Reichstag had much less power. Though this would destroy the Weimar Republic, they were prepared to go ahead because it would give them a better chance of controlling the communists.» (Lowe, id, p.134-135).

« There was some complicated manoeuvring involving Papen and Schleicher who persuaded President Hindenburg, now completely senile, to dismiss Chancellor Brüning and appoint Papen himself as Chancellor. They hoped to bring Hitler in as Vice-Chancellor, but he would settle for nothing less than himself as Chancellor. In January 1933, therefore, they persuaded Hindenburg to invite Hitler to become Chancellor with Papen as Vice-Chancellor, even though the Nazis had by then lost ground in the elections of November 1932. Papen still believed Hitler could be controlled and remarked to a friend: ‘In two months we’ll have pushed Hitler into a corner so hard that he’ll be squeaking.’ In fact, therefore, Hitler was able to come to power legally because all the other parties including the Reichswehr failed to recognise the danger from the Nazis and therefore failed to unite in opposition.» (Lowe, id, p.135); « The legal basis of his power was the Enabling Law [the German revolt] which was forced through the Reichstag on 23 March 1933. This stated that the government could introduce laws without the approval of the Reichstag for the next four years, ignore the constitution and sign agreements with foreign countries. All laws would be drafted by the Chancellor and come into operation the day they were published... How was it achieved? The method was typical of the Nazis. The Kroll Opera House (where the Reichstag had been meeting since the fire [on the night of 27 February 1933]) was surrounded by the black-shirted SS troops, and MPs had to push their way through solid ranks to get into the building. The 81 communist MPs were simply not allowed to pass (many were in jail already). Inside the building rows of brown-shirted SA troops lined the walls. It took courage to vote against the bill in such surroundings with the SS outside chanting ‘We want the bill, or fire and murder’ [By the dishonest victory]. When the Catholic Centre Parry decided to vote in favour, the result was a foregone conclusion: it passed by 441 votes to 94 (all Social Democrats).» (Lowe, id, p.137).

The similar revolt
: = The establishment of the Fascist dictatorship similar to that of the Nazis, both are a revolt against the coalition system of government. The term ‘la revolte Germaine (the German revolt)’ may have another meaning of ‘la revolte germaine (the similar revolt)’, i.e. the Italian revolt similar to that of Germany. For the word ‘Germain’ can connote the meaning of ‘similar, alike’ (cf. Suzuki and Ibuki, s.v. germain) in the cross-usage of a Proper name and a common name in the Prophecies of Nostradamus (e.g., §736, V-54: Sanglante Gaule = Sanglante gaule (bloody pike), a proper name « Gaule » being, according to some of the figures of Nostradamus, for a common name « gaule » like ‘[the] Rousseau’ for ‘a person with red hair’ (§326, I-7), or inversely a common name ‘senez’ for a proper name ‘Senez’ (§326, I-7); “gaule f. Long thin pole (or) stick, fishing rod, small flag-staff.” (Dubois); §128, VI-30: ‘Liege’ for ‘liege’; §955, I-2: ‘BRANCHES’ for ‘branches’). « All parties except the fascists were suppressed. Persistent opponents of the regime were either exiled or murdered, the most notorious cases being those of the socialists Giacomo Matteotti and Giovanni Amendola, both of whom were beaten to death by fascist thugs. However, the Italian system was never as brutal as the Nazi regime in Germany, and after 1926 when Mussolini felt more secure, violence was much reduced. Although parliament still met, all important decisions were taken by the fascist Grand Council which always did as Mussolini told it; in effect Mussolini, who adopted the title Il Duce (the leader), was the dictator.» (Lowe, id, p.99).

Murtry (Bruised): = meurtry: meurtry in its 31 usages in the Prophecies of Nostradamus having three different senses, the first is murdered (21 times), the second hurt (once in IV-69) and the third bruised (9 times including the present case).

Tente (Temptation): « tente, sub. de tenter; tentation (subst. of tenter, to tempt, temptation).» (Daele).

The Head bruised, and his son in the temptation
: = « The conspiracy of the Fascist leaders, who by the Fascist Grand Council (on the night of 24-25 July 1943) decide to abolish the dictatorship of Mussolini and to replace it by a government led by Badoglio. Among those who have betrayed the Duce on this memorable night has been also his son-in-law, Ciano (his son).» (Ionescu, 1976, p.537); « FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25. In the beginning of 1943, the situation of Italy appears catastrophic. The reverses have been accumulated in Greece and in North Africa. In the middle of August, Sicily is in the hands of the Allies. Murderous bombardments accumulate the ruins in the cities and industrial installations. The balance sheet of economy is very serious. Mussolini seems deeply struck by these difficulties. He has a personal association with a young lady, Claretta Petacci, afflicted with a rapacious family. In these conditions, the spiritual unity of the country is strongly staggered. The loss of Sicily and the bombardment of Rome on 19 July 1943 make firm the resolution of the adversaries of Mussolini. Two conspiracies, independent of each other, are hatched by the fascist leaders and in the royal palace. The fascist leaders obtain from Mussolini a meeting of the Grand Council of the party which has not been held since December 7, 1939. They expect the solution of the general uneasiness. The most reserved of the fascists toward Mussolini gathering around Dino Grandi [former minister of justice] prepare the text of the order of the day criticizing the policy followed till then. The second complot comes from the Palace. Victor-Emmanuel sends to [Marshal] Badoglio the emissaries who demand him to take the lead of the next government and then to read a proclamation written by Orlando [one of the old personalities of parliamentary Italy before the fascism], which the Marshal accepts. Thus the King, intending to make use of the explication that shall take place beforehand at the fascist Grand Council, prepares the succession of the chief of the state. Mussolini is acquainted with the affair through various leaks, but, walled in a blind optimism, he believes himself under shelter from the attempts of some plotters he disdains. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense. First Mussolini speaks in front of 28 dignitaries, all in their best and conscious of the gravity of the moment. Some of them anticipate being arrested and are armed. The Duce renders the military responsible to the failures and defends Germany. Grandi replies with force and eloquence. He accuses the dictatorship, but not the fascism. He nearly comes to question the Duce himself who has accumulated too much responsibilities and is not competent to wage the war. Finally, he reads his order of the day that demands the reinstatement of the ancient constitution, the Statuto, and the restitution to the King of all the responsibilities this text entrusts to him. The Duce will remain only in charge of the direction of the party. The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, especially those of Ciano [former foreign minister], Bottai [former minister of national education], Federzoni, De Vecchi, De Bono, Rossoni, Bastianini..., 7 cons and one abstention [sic]. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. However, he declares in retiring: “You have opened the crisis of the regime” and he refuses the traditional “Salute to the Duce”. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance. The ancient dictator has an allotment of residence first in the island of Ponza, then that of Maddalena whence, on 26 August 1943, he is conducted in a hotel of Gran Sasso, at the altitude of 2,172 meters, in the heart of the Apennines.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.364-367).

« The dismissal of Mussolini entails an explosion of joy all through Italy. Even one voice does not arise in favour of him. Those who have taken the offensive at the Grand Council on 24, Grandi, Bottai, Ciano, are dismayed at the arrest of their ancient master, which they had not anticipated, and are afraid of being arrested in their turn. Grandi, who believed that he would benefit from the favour of the King and expected to be a minister in the new government, is terribly deceived.» (Kaspi, id., p.367).

His son
: « January 8-10 [1944]. Trial of Verona against the “traitors ” of 25 July 1943. The Republic of Salo needs to find the traitors to explain the dismissal of Mussolini. The special tribunal of Verona, installed in the old castle of Scaliger, begins the suit of the 19 signatories of the text written by Grandi. Only 6 of them have been able to be discovered: Marshal De Bono, Marinelli, Pareschi, Gottardi, Cianetti and the proper son-in-law of the Duce, Count Ciano who, very imprudently, has taken refuge in Germany and has been delivered by this country on 3 November 1943. The sentence is obtained in advance: on 10, all are condemned to death, except Cianetti who had withdrawn his signature after the vote and is afflicted with 30 years’ forced labours. The Duce does not accord any pardon, even to Ciano notwithstanding his daughter’s prayers. On 11 January 1944, the condemned ones, from the oldest, De Bono, aged 78 years, to the youngest, Ciano at age 40, are shot from the rear, tied to a chair, according to the procedure reserved to the traitors in Italy.» (Kaspi, id., p.401).

Romaine
: « romaine. Steelyard (balance).» (Dubois). This expression represents a ‘referendum’: « 1946 May: 9th, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicates and Umberto II proclaims himself king; Jun: 2nd, Italian referendum in favour of a republic; 3d, Umberto II leaves Italy and Alcide de Gasperi, the premier, becomes provisional head of state.» (Williams, 1968, p.600-602).

Florence: « Florence, the city of flower, which has in its arms the lily, pre-eminently a dynastical flower, and had been, on the other hand, the capital of the Italian Kingdom under Victor-Emmanuel II before it was changed to Rome in 1871, is the symbol of the Italian Monarchy.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.537).

Imola: « The city of Imola is here in order to express the fact that this Monarchy are going to be “ immolée (immolated)” or sacrificed in favour of the Republic.» (Ionescu, id.).

Florence, Imola hounded in the steelyard: « In Italy, France and Belgium women finally secured the vote. In June 1946 the Italians voted to become a Republic, but the margin was narrow (12.7 million votes in favour of abolishing the monarchy, 10.7 million for retaining it) and the country’s historical divisions were if anything further exacerbated by the outcome: the South, except for the region of Basilicata, voted overwhelmingly for the king (by a ratio of 4:1 in Naples).» (Judt, 2005, p.79).

Discussion:
Ionescu’s arbitrary enlarged anagram of the phrase “FLORENCE IMOLA = VICTOR EMANOEL (by the metaplasm of V into F and of T into L)” (Ionescu, id., p.537) is useless because Victor Emmanuel III had already abdicated and his interpretation of the term “Romaine” as “Rome” is not supported lexically and even syntactically, for the expression “pourchasé dans Romaine” cannot be translated into “chassé de Rome” and the word “Romaine” can never be “Rome” as he would.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved. 
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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