§838 Italy and her neighbors in WWII (1940-1945): X-60.

X-60 (§838):

I deplore Nice, Monaco, Pisa, Genoa,
Savona, Siena, Capua, Modena, Malta,
The top being blood and blade as gifts,
Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples.

(Je pleure Nisse, Monnego, Pize, Gennes,
Savone, Sienne, Capue, Modene, Malte,
Le dessus sang & glaive par estrennes,
Feu trembler terre, eau malheureuse nolte.)

NOTES: This quatrain is just the enlargement of the wartime of Italy and her neighbors in the quatrain IV-68 (§837), where it is said that « Crys, pleurs à Malte & costé ligustique (Cries, weeps in Malta and in the Ligurian direction) ». Nice, Monaco and Savona of this quatrain are included in the Ligurian direction, and Capua, Siena, Pisa and Modena are on the route of the Allied slow, but offensive and triumphant advance against the Axis retreating from the south toward the north of the Italian Peninsula in WWII, Capua being just before the Gustav Line, Siena and Pisa in front of the Gothic Line and Modena in the last decisive battlefield of Emilia-Romagna; « X-60 (1944) Die Heimsuchung Italiens vom Norden bis zum Süden im zweiten Weltkrieg als Folge eines bösen Geschenkes, nämlich der faschistischen Lehren und Maximen (The Italians’ disasters from the north to the south in WWII as a result of a vicious gift, namely of Fascist doctrine and maxim).» (Centurio, 1953, p.224).

Estrenne: = « ÉTRENNE. (1636; estreine, estraine « cadeau [a gift]» ).»
(Petit Robert).

Trembler terre (To shake the earth/the earth shall tremble): This phrase, together with “Tremblement de terre (tremble of the earth)”, is a manner of saying preferred by Nostradamus for expressing « A war/ a war to take place » (cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.459). All of the 12 usages of this expression in the Prophecies of Nostradamus are in this sense without exception (I-20, I-46, I-93, II-52, III-3, VI-66, VI-88, VIII-29, IX-31, IX-83, X-60 and X-79). Moreover, of the other 24 phrases including the word “trembler (to tremble)”, 17 are yet in this sense (I-57, I-82bis, I-87, II-68, II-86, IV-54, IV-90, V-27, V-50, V-61, V-68, IX-33, IX-60bis, IX-94 and X-67) as well as the other 5 with an expression of ‘fear’ (III-88, IV-5, IV-36, V-23 and XII-65) and only the remaining 2 are allotted otherwise (II-64: enfeebling of laws; V-49: shake of the regime). In conclusion, 34 of 36 usages of the word “trembler (to tremble)” are designed to signify the war.

Eau, eaux, eaue, eaulx: « The waters are peoples, the crowd, races and languages (Apoc., XVII, 15), namely the masses of ancient Rome blaspheming and persecuting the Christians. Thence the inundation, invasion, overflowing of the peoples).» (Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.204; p.111. Cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1862, p.38-39), or « drowning by the revolutionaries » (id. 1861, p.94). Of 30 examples of the words eau, eaue, eaux and eaulx, 11 are in this sense: I-11, II-54, II-87, III-70, V-86, V-87, VI-10, VIII-7, IX-51, X-10 and X-60.

Eau malheureuse
: = The unhappy peoples.

I deplore Malta… The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War: - 2 Italian raids on Malta; 35 civilians, 6 British soldiers killed.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « JANUARY 16 [1941] Air War: - Stukas escorted by Italian fighters raid Malta, inflicting further damage on carrier Illustrious and damaging cruiser Perth. (Illustrious again damaged by bombing Jan. 19).» (Argyle, id., p.55); « MARCH 23 [1941] Air War: - Stukas with fighter escort carry out major raid on Malta: 13 Stukas shot down (2 RAF fighters lost), but British decide on immediate withdrawal of all bombers and flying boats.» (Argyle, id., p.58); « MARCH 1 [1942] Air War: - Severe raids on Malta. RAF night raid on shipping at Tripoli.» (Argyle, id., p.87); « MARCH 4 [1942] Air War: - 394 raids on Malta, by day and night, over previous 2 months.» (Argyle, id., p.88); « MARCH 21 [1942] Air War – Heavy raids on Malta.» (Argyle, id., p.89); « APRIL 3 [1942] Air War: - Luftwaffe spokesman admits that the Luftwaffe has been unable to neutralize Malta because of its ‘tremendously strong’ anti-aircraft defences and subterranean storerooms.» (Argyle, id., p.90); « APRIL 16 [1942] Home Front: MaltaGEORGE CROSS AWARDED TO MALTA in recognition of untold heroism of entire civilian and military population during countless enemy raids.» (Argyle, id., p.91); « OCTOBER 11 [1942] Air War – Axis air forces launch final major air offensive against Malta – but Spitfires inflict heavy losses.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « NOVEMBER 8 [1942] Air War – Luftwaffe losses in Malta raids, Jan.1-Nov. 8, 1942: 172 bombers and 99 fighters.» (Argyle, id., p.111).

Nolte: = a transformed Nolle as a rhyme for Malte of the second line. Cf. « les malheureux de Nolle » (§475, III-74).

Nolle: = Néo-polis (a new city) = Naples par excellence, as Nolle followed by Florence, Favence and Imole (§475, III-74) and Nolle (§89, VIII-38) which represents Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. Nolle is analogous to pole (II-49, III-57, VIII-81) or polle (VI-5, VI-21) which traces from the Greek
πόλις (polis, city) or πόλεις (poleis, cities) or πόλος (polos, pole, circle). Cf. pollitique: = political (VI-5) and Antipolles: = Antipodes (X-87).

Fire, warfare, unhappy people, Naples
: « Thus threatened from east and west, the German forces all along the [Brit.] 10 Corps started a withdrawal, and the tempo of our advance speeded up. On the 29th [September 1943] the bridge at Scafati was seized intact, although it had been prepared for demolition. By this action we secured the only bridge over the Sarno not destroyed by the Germans. Even so the many vehicles of the armored division were impeded by a bottleneck until three more bridges were thrown across the Sarno; then the British armor was ready for the dramatic plunge on Naples. At nightfall on 30 September troops of 10 Corps were surrounding Mt. Vesuvius. Naples was within our grasp, and at 0930, 1 October, armored patrols of the King’s Dragoon Guards entered the city. Naples had paid a very heavy price. Allied air raids had destroyed most of the harbor installations, and the damage was augmented by German destruction. In an attempt to deny dock and harbor facilities to Fifth Army the enemy scuttled ships at the piers and sunk others in the harbor; the pipelines had been ripped up and the unloading machinery systematically destroyed. Between Allied bombings and German demolitions the docks and storehouses along the waterfront of Naples were left a mass of ruins, crumbled stones, and fire-twisted steel. In addition the Germans had done their utmost to wreck all public utilities, including electricity, transportation, and water. A normal port capacity of 8000 tons daily had been cut to 10 percent, but by the clearing away of debris and the use of expedients such as DUKWs to unload the Liberty ships, 35000 tons daily were coming in at the port only twelve days after its capture. On 14 October unloading of American supplies was stopped at the Salerno beaches and was transferred to Naples; at this time 10 Corps was unloading at Naples, Torre Annunziata, Castellammare, and Salerno.» (Starr, 1986, p.35-36).

I deplore Capua Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « The capture of Naples gave us a much-needed port, but mere possession of the city itself did not constitute a fulfillment of the Fifth Army objective. The airfields at Capodichino and Pomigliano were not yet in Allied hands, and the enemy must be driven well away from Naples harbor. Troops of Fifth Army, accordingly, did not pause with the capture of the city. Though the usual delaying tactics of the Germans were in evidence along the entire front, Fifth Army drove to the Volturno River in the next five days. Advance elements of 10 corps reached the river on 5 October at Cancello-ed-Arnone, and on the following day the 56 Division occupied the town of Capua. On the right VI Corps had slower going in the mountains, but by 6 October the 3rrdd Division had pushed through Cancello and Maddaloni into the mountains above Caserta… » (Starr, id., p.36-37).

I deplore SienaFire, warfare, unhappy people: « Undoubtedly the most severe fighting anywhere in the Fifth Army zone during the advance to Highway 68 had been that on the 25 mile French front during 21-26 June [1944]. On the 20th the 3rd Algerian and 2d Moroccan Divisions had been stopped south of the Orcia River, where the Germans had a naturally strong position extending on east into the Eighth Army zone beyond Lake Trasimeno. The enemy had dug pits for his machine guns and riflemen and backed them with a larger concentration of artillery than he had used thus far north of Rome. The center of this line along the Orcia was the strongest, for on the east the river line gave way to hills and on the west the upper Ombrone River Valley formed a by-pass running toward Siena. The Orcia itself was easily fordable. The enemy garrison, however, was formidable, with part of the 20th GAF [German Air Force] Field Division, all of the 4th Parachute Division, and all of the 356th Grenadier Division from west to east; elements of the 26th Panzer and 29th Panzer Grenadier Divisions were also present. Although the total number of infantry in positions near the river did not appear to be large, crossfire from well sited automatic weapons raked the stream. After very little advance on the 22d the FEC [French Expeditionary Corps] put its emphasis on outflanking the line from the west. While the troops below the Orcia kept up their pressure, the Guillaume Group [the 1st Group of Tabors (battalion of Moroccan tribesmen) and the 1st Moroccan Infantry under General Guillaume], reinforced by the light armor of the 4th Moroccan Spahis, pushed north along the west side of the Ombrone, fording the river on the 24th and keeping pace with the 1st Armored Division on its left. The advance of IV Corps and the Guillaume Group began to unhinge the enemy line, and at noon on the 25th the 8th Moroccan Infantry succeeded in crossing the Orcia just west of Highway 2. Later in the day the 3rd Algerian Division to the left also crossed the stream against lighter opposition than previously. By the 26th the FEC was completely over the river; in the five days 22-26 June its casualties had amounted to 972 killed, wounded, and missing. To the right Eighth Army had also broken the section of the line before it, likewise after considerable casualties and fierce fighting. Throughout the 27th the enemy continued to resist stubbornly before the French, but in the night he began a hasty withdrawal, leaving behind delaying parties and demolitions to slow our advance on Siena. By 2 July we were close to the town, which the enemy promptly evacuated; at 0630, 3 July, Siena was in the hands of French troops. The advance continued despite further reliefs in the FEC for movement to Naples. All units of the 3rd Algerian Division had left by the 4th, being replaced by the 4th Mountain Division under General Sevez; the Pursuit Corps was also disbanded, and General Juin took over direct supervision of the remaining operations. At Poggibonsi and Colle di Val d’Elsa, on Highway 68 southwest of Poggibonsi, enemy opposition stiffened once again, but by the morning of the 7th the latter town was taken by the 4th Mountain Division. By evening all of Highway 68 was behind the forward elements of the FEC. Fifth Army was now everywhere up to or past the highway. On the left the 34th Division was already engaged in heavy battling on the approaches to Leghorn. Reliefs were planned to increase our strength on the right of IV Corps. To the east the French were ready to exploit the fall of Colle di Val d’Elsa, which had cleared Highway 68. The past two weeks had seen stiffening enemy resistance, resulting in the hardest fighting since the fall of Rome.» (Starr, id., p.285-286).

I deplore Pisa Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « Now the 34th Division was ready to pivot to the left and take Leghorn. The 135th infantry had been pushing slowly northwest over hilly country toward the port; on the 18th [July 1944] the 363d Regimental Combat Team returned to the 34th Division as Task Force Williamson under Brig. Gen. Raymond Williamson to execute a double thrust at Leghorn with the 135th Infantry. The latter continued its attack toward the southeastern part of the city while the 363d Infantry came in from the east, reaching the outskirts before midnight. At 0200, 19 July, the 3d Battalion, 135th Infantry, entered Leghorn after a brief skirmish with an enemy rear guard outside the city. The 2d battalion and the 1st and 2d Battalions, 363d Infantry, arrived a little more than two hours later. There was little fighting in the city, but it was found to be heavily mined and booby-trapped; almost all the port facilities were destroyed, and the harbor was partially blocked by sunken ships. In compliance with a corps order to advance the line completely to the Arno the 34th Division, now under Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, moved forward again on the 22d. The engineers had thrown bridges over the numerous canals north of Leghorn, and the troops reached the Arno without trouble. While the 442d and 168th Infantry came up on the right, the 363d Infantry entered Pisa at 1330, 23 July. The enemy had destroyed all bridges over the Arno and was content to hold the north bank. The rest of IV Corps was by this time already on the river. The 91st Division immediately to the right of the 34th Division had met stubborn German resistance in the first few days of its advance up the Era River valley, by 0800, 18 July, the advance guard of the 361st Infantry had reached Pontedera on the Arno. The division had closed up to the river by the 23rd. The other division in the line, the 88th under General Sloan, had taken over from the left elements of the 1st Armored Division on the 8th and likewise met considerable opposition in the first few days. To obviate attacking the high-lying town of Volterra our artillery and chemical mortars smoked it, and the division encircled it on the 8th, thus forcing the enemy to withdraw. At Laiatico, a small hilltop town eight miles northwest of Volterra, the Germans elected to make a stand before the 351st Infantry on the 11th, but in a second attack we took the town by a double envelopment which netted approximately 400 prisoners. Enemy resistance then slackened , and the division reached the high ground overlooking the Arno on the 18th. Since the FEC was somewhat behind IV Corps, task Force Ramey patrolled the east flank of the corps after 9 July, at first only with armor and then with some additional infantry from the 88th Division. The enemy had apparently expected the 1st Armored Division to continue the advance in this zone and had mined and booby-trapped almost every trail, but by methodical sweeping the force had gained the Arno by the 23d.» (Starr, id., p.290-291).

I deplore Modena Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « 1-14 April 1945. Everywhere on the level plain, which is highly cultivated and crisscrossed by ditches, there are roads, paved or graveled. From our lines north Highway 65 and 64 ran into Bologna, where the former ends; Highway 64 continues on to Ferrara, a short distance south of the Po. The main north-south road across the valley in the Army zone was highway 12, which originates at Pisa in the Arno Valley, crosses the mountains, and strikes Highway 9 at Modena. From Modena this highway continues almost due north across the Po at Ostiglia to the cities of Verona, Trent, and Bolzano, into the Brenner Pass, and eventually on to Austria. On the main front the emphasis had by now been shifted from Highway 65 to Highway 64 so as to work around the strong enemy defenses south of Bologna. Both II and IV Corps would attack abreast, the chief effort initially astride Highway 64 until the valley of Setta Creek had been cleared and the road junction of Praduro, 15 miles north of Vergato, had been gained. At this time the bulk of the troops would be concentrated west of the highway, ready to break out into the Po Valley between the Reno and Panaro. A minor effort would be made down Highway 65, but positions along this route were expected to fall relatively easily after the dominating high ground west of the road had been taken. The Americans to the west would be pointed roughly at Modena; the South Africans to the east would drive to encircle Bologna and gain contact with Eighth Army at Bondeno. It was also assumed that considerable time would elapse between the capture of Bologna on the one hand and the actual crossing of the Po on the other. Once the city was reached Highway 9 was to be developed as the main supply route for IV Corps, moving to the northwest, and Highway 12 for II Corps elements advancing north from Modena and Bologna toward Verona. Areas north and northwest of Bologna were tentatively chosen as future dump sites. Long study of photographs and maps of the Po resulted in the decision that the best possible crossing sites in the projected Army zone of attack were along a 20-mile stretch of the river extending from Ostiglia on Highway 12 west to Borgoforte, where the highway connecting Mantua and Reggio crossed the Po. Within this section of the river likely sites for assault crossings, ferries, and bridges were selected, and the engineers made careful plans for throwing floating and permanent bridges over the stream. Special emphasis in this planning was laid on the area between San Benedetto Po and Borgoforte, where the marshy ricefields about Ostiglia could be avoided; but a subsequent crossing at this latter site would be necessary to open up Highway 12 to Verona.» (Starr, id., p.390-393); 

« On 21 April [1945] Fifth Army launched the pursuit to the Po with II and IV Corps abreast, each in the strength of one armored division and two infantry divisions. Since Combat Command A [of the 1st Armored Division] had come up to Guastalla and Luzzaro on the west of the 10th Mountain Division during the morning of the 23d, IV Corps now held all its stretch of the Po and even had one division over the stream. The left bank of this penetration was protected until the 23d by Combat Command B [of the 1st Armored Division], battling up Highway 9 and blocking the roads from the mountains as it progressed. The Germans haggled over Panaro crossings east of Modena on the 22d and again on the next day at the Secchia west of that city, where Combat Command B, driving nearly due west south of the highway, was stopped. Modena itself was largely by-passed and left to the partisans to clear. The 34th division came up from Bologna and relieved the armor on Highway 9 on the 24th. Still farther to the left the Brazilian 1st Division emerged into the plain late on the 23d at Marano and Vignola and moved northwest along the foothills south of Highway 9. An interesting action was soon to develop in this area as the main forces of the Army continued their push north to Verona. On 21 April, as Bologna was being cleared, II Corps struck north for the Po. The pattern of resistance before II Corps bore some resemblance to that before IV Corps to the west. Units toward the Army center ran into less difficulty than those moving up on the right. The Panaro River constituted an obstacle which was more strongly defended around Finale on the eastern boundary than it was in the direction of Camposanto. The 1st and 4th Parachute Divisions suffered heavy losses but successfully covered Tenth Army’s flank in the retreat across the Po; the junction of Fifth and Eighth Armies near Bondeno was effected too late for maximum success.»
(Starr, id., p.419-424).

Nisse: = Nisse (X-87) = Nice (III-14, III-82, V-64, VII-30, IX-26).

I deplore NiceThe top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: Nice as a French territory occupied by Italy, then by Germany in WWII (cf. §821, I-71): « November 11, 1942 The [Italian] invasion of the French free zone. On 8 November [1942] at 22:45, the staff ordered General Vercellino to prepare for “the West Exigency”. The next day, the staff invited the Commander of the 4th Army to utilize all available automobile means in order to transport the greatest number of units possible; Vercellino replied that the deductions having been made, the possibilities of intervention should be limited to the basin of Modane and the county of Nice… On 10 November at 22:55 the staff ordered Vercellino to execute the West Exigency the next day… About 15 o’clock [November 11], the first soldiers of the 4th Army penetrated Nice, following the Promenade des Anglais with infantrymen, batteries of the horse artillery and motorized units in progressing toward the mouth of the Var, Cagnes-sur-Mer and Cannes.» (Panicacci, 2010, p.103-106); « The retaliations against the cities and the persons. Since 27 November 1942, the Commander of the 4th Army has anticipated the apprehension of the individuals caught in the act of defeatist propaganda, sabotage or cornering of arms. Another directive of December 4 invites the commanders of the large units, in case of attempt, to take hostages chosen among the obviously anti-Italian personalities: three hostages for an attempt without damage, five in case of material damages, ten in case of injured military, twenty for a soldier killed and forty for an officer killed.» (Panicacci, id., p.220-221); « July 7, 1944. In Nice, hanging of the two members of the Francs-Tireurs and Partisans, Torrin and Grassi, exposition of their corpses hooked up to the two street-lamps [The top being blood and blade], following the attempt having costed a German his life.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.425); « 19 August–11 September, 1944. After the success of the Allied landing in Provence, the Germans give orders of general retreat on 19 August 1944. The 1st French Army of General Lattre de Tassigny undertakes the mission of taking Toulon and Marseilles. These cities fall on 27 and on 28 August 1944 respectively. Montpellier is free on 29. Cities uprise of themselves in order to make the Allies come to help them and to prevent the Germans from effecting destructions. Cannes and Antibes are thus liberated on 24 August, Nice on 28 [Fire, warfare, unhappy people].» (Kaspi, id., p.444).

Monnego: = Monech (II-4, III-10, IV-37, IV-91, VI-62, VIII-4, X-23) = Monaco = Monégasque, its adjective being monégasque. « Monaco. Principality, western Europe. The small state, an enclave in southeastern France, has a name that is popularly derived from Greek Monoikos, “solitary.” This was a byname of the god Hercules, and the name is said to refer to a statue of Hercules Monoecus that stood here in the 7th or 6th century B.C. However, the name is more likely to be of Ligurian origin, from monegu, “rock,” a word reflected in the national adjective Monegasque.» (Room, p.239-240).

I deplore MonacoFire, warfare, unhappy people: « The WWII liberation of Monaco Although the Principality of Monaco remained neutral state during World War II, this does not mean that it was not involved. With Monaco being fiercely contested by both Germany and Italy, it came down to Louis II, the reigning Prince at the time, to try and keep his country safe. Louis II was the son of Prince Albert I and his first wife Lady Mary Hamilton. When his parents divorced, Louis moved to Germany with his mother, growing up at the court of the Grand Duke of Baden. Therefore he was fluent in German and well connected to the German Aristocracy. Little did he know how important these connections would become when war broke out less than 20 years after he succeeded his father in 1922. When the Germans occupied France in May 1940, they were careful to leave Monaco alone as they wanted Monaco to remain a centre for German international banking and commerce, something they first started building towards in 1933. Therefore when Mussolini and his troops declared war on France a month later and marched troops into Monaco, they were forced to retreat by the Germans. After the brief Italian invasion, Louis declared his support for the Vichy regime under Marshall Petain, an old colleague from when Louis was in the French army. He was put under extreme pressure by the Germans to register all Jews, a pressure to which he finally conceded when he passed a law to this effect on 3rd July 1941. Several German and Austrian Jews that had fled to Monaco were handed over to the Nazi regime. Although often seen as a collaboration, Louis II was left with little choice when caught between the two superpowers of Italy and Germany. In November 1942 Italian troops reoccupied Monaco until the fall of Mussolini, when German troops drove them out and occupied Monaco themselves. The Germans occupied for just under a year, between 8th September 1943 and 3rd September 1944. Although their main goal was to apprehend Jewish people, the local police service made it very difficult by risking their lives to warn people when a Gestapo visit was about to take place. Prince Rainier III succeeded the throne in May 1944 after his mother renounced her succession rights, a few months before German occupation ended in 3rd September that year. This day is now celebrated as Liberation Day despite the fact that the Allied troops only officially liberated Monaco on 6th September. After Monaco’s liberation, Prince Rainier III joined the French army and took part in the liberation of Alsace, receiving the American Bronze Star Medal for his actions.» (Riviera Insider, 2016, Sat, 09/03/2016 - 07:00); « The requisitions of immovables. Hotels, castles, villas, immovables were requisitioned to install the staffs there or lodge there officers from the banks of Lake Leman till those of the Mediterranean. It was the case…, in Principality of Monaco, for the Grand Hotel and the Hotel des Princes… The stadium and the SNCF [National Society of French Railway] Station of Monaco accommodated the units of the 4th Army.» (Panicacci, 2010, p.170-172).

I deplore Savona
Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « Hermann Wygoda was born in Offenbach, on November 18, 1906, the eldest of Maier and Chana Wygoda’s two sons. He and his younger brother, Leon, were raised in the traditions of Judaism. Chana saw to it that her sons acquired her native Polish language, and the summers that the boys spent in her hometown of Kossow with her blacksmith father, Samuel, ensured their fluency in both Polish and German. After Maier was killed in World War I, Chana was left to raise her boys alone. Eventually the family moved to Kossow, where Chana took work as a professional matchmaker and Leon made a living in cabinetmaking. Hermann obtained an engineering degree from Warsaw Polytechnic Institute, served as a lieutenant in the Polish Army, and worked as a civil engineer specializing in the construction of bridges. He moved to Berlin, the most vital city for the European intelligentsia of the 1930s, where he worked in industry until 1929. Hermann then returned to Poland, a country in which three million Jews would soon be annihilated. He married a woman whose name is now unknown, and in 1934, before separating, they had a son Samuel. While Hermann remained in Warsaw, his young son went to live in Kossow with Chana and Leon. Hermann’s memoirs begin on September 1, 1939, when the Nazis invaded Poland. With this first day of bombing and terror, World War II began. En route to Poland, trains carrying German soldiers bore the slogan “We’re going to Poland to beat up the Jews.” Unlike many Jews who were forced into hiding, Hermann moved with relative ease through the early years of the war by successfully masking his Jewish identity and posing as an ethnic German. His physical appearance, fluency in German, and bold nature saved his life several times on any given day. His travels during the war took him from Poland to Estonia, Finland, and Germany, before he escaped from an Italian prison and headed into the mountains of Northern Italy. From a solitary life in a cave, he became “Enrico,” the leader of a large partisan division fighting against the Nazis and the Fascists; he did this despite his nationality and religion, which differed from those of the hundreds of men and women under his Command… [Introduction by Deborah Klezmer] » (Wygoda, 1998, p.xvii-xviii).

« I was again in Berlin, and Leon and I began plotting our future course of action. We are reasonably sure that sooner or later we would be in danger of being unmasked and would end up before a firing squad or worse. The longer we stayed in Berlin, the greater the probability of discovery. We decided that we should be prepared to leave at a moments’s notice if the opportunity presented itself. I tried to take advantage of my position with the [Jonas Ferret and] company as much as I could… Leon and I had it in our minds to leave Berlin in the near future. Daily the situation in Berlin became more confusing. After an exhaustive debate, we finally narrowed our choice to two countries: Italy and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia appealed to us because of the partisan activity there, as well as the ease with which we could have adapted ourselves linguistically. Italy was attractive because of the latest happenings in that country; they had just thrown out Mussolini in a revolution and were trying to cut their hands of friendship with Nazi Germany. In such an atmosphere, we reasoned, we could eventually reach the Allied forces with the help of the local population. We decided on Italy. I knew from my activity in Berlin that a firm by the name of Lorentz and Company, with headquarters in Danzig, had recently sent some men to Italy in the general area of Genoa. The following day I went to my friends the beaurocrats in Grunewald and found out the exact location of the Lorentz company in Italy. The company field office was in the province of Savona. On December 15, 1943, I filled out the documents and the necessary travel orders. The destination: Lorentz and Company, Savona, Italy… We finally boarded the train for Italy. The trip through Austria was uneventful, except that whenever we stopped at a station, there was always a waiting train loaded with Italian prisoners of war. That was the first time Leon and I had ever seen any Italian military men… I awoke suddenly to Leon’s announcement that we were in Italy. I opened the window and read in large letters “Tarvisio,” the name of the station.» (Wygoda, id., p.83-88).

« We arrived in Milan early in the morning of December 20, 1943, and reported to the Lorentz company agent. It was a routine matter, and we were promptly processed for further travel to our final destination-the city of Savona. By afternoon we’d reached Genoa, but for administrative reasons we had to stop in Varazze and stay there overnight. At the main company office in Varazze, we were added to a roster and told to report to a man named Fichtner in Savona, where the engineering offices of the Lorentz company were located. The next morning we were taken by car to Savona, where we were promptly introduced to Fichtner, a civil engineer who managed the office. He was visibly elated to see us, particularly since he had expected no help from any quarter. He assigned us rooms in the military compound on Corso-Rici, the location of both the company offices and OT [Organization Todt] headquarters. Fichtner was in the organizational phase of a project he was to complete for the German military authorities. He outlined to us his assignment: to build a system of fortifications extending from Savona to Varazze. Fichtner consented to my request that I move out of the military compound and locate myself in an albergo, or inn in the town of Celle-Ligure, which was the center of my activity. After a couple of weeks, I managed to have Leon join me there. My next job was to prepare the preliminary groundwork for a defensive wall along the beach as well as defensive bunkers in the hills facing the Mediterranean coast. In the meantime, they extended my sector somewhat more south of Varazze. Still, the work thus far was preliminary, since the Lorentz company as yet had neither the materials nor the workers necessary for the job… The work proceeded feverishly day and night while we played hide-and-seek games with the American fliers. They made a habit of coming over from Corsica at least seven times a day on their bombing runs to the Savona port area, which the Nazis used to supply troops in the south by way of motor barges travelling at night. Sometimes the Americans dropped a bomb on our job.» (Wygoda, id., p.93-96).

« A few weeks later [about the middle of March, 1944] I was approached near the farm by two armed men who introduced themselves as members of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (Committee of National Liberation). It was the first time I had ever heard that name, but I understood its meaning. They wanted me to follow them to a certain place to meet a representative of the CLN, so I went with them to meet that mysterious person. After a short march we entered a house where I met a rather distinguished older gentleman. He introduced himself as Simon and his companion as Leone. Those were the only names they gave me. They claimed to be well-informed about me and wanted to know whether I would be interested in assuming command of a group of partisans who were already organized and active. Simon said they were all local men and almost all were formerly in the military, including a few who were former officers… I was to become known as “Enrico.”» (Wygoda, id., p.108-109).

« The document reads, “Committee for National Liberation Voluntary Liberation Corps. 2d Ligurian Zone Headquarters. Savona 17 May 1945. We certify that the Volunteer Enrico Vigoda joined the Voluntary Liberation Corps of the Committee for National Liberation in May 1944. Afterward he was given the command of the 20th Garibaldi Brigade, which was later named the 2d Brigade, located in the mountain area of the Savona province (Monte Sette Pani). He was then commander of the 4th Assault Brigade Daniele Manin, and in February 1945 he was appointed commander of the Garibaldi Assault Division “Gin Bevilacqua,” a command that he held until 25 April 1945. During this time he participated in all war actions against the Nazi fascists, resisted the enemy, and bravely withstood the rigid winter season, always behaving as a good partisan.”» (Wygoda, id.,
between pp.110-111 Document issued by the Committee of National Liberation certifying the author’s role in the Italian partisan movement).

I deplore Genoa
The top being blood and blade as gifts, Fire, warfare, unhappy people: « JUNE 11 [1940] Air War – 36 Whiteleys (1 lost) bomb Turin and Genoa (night June 11-12) after refuelling stop in Channel Islands.» (Argyle, 1980, p.33); « FEBRUARY 9 [1941] Sea War: Med. – Bombardment of Genoa: HMS Renown, Malaya and Sheffield fire 300 t. of shells, inflicting heavy damage on merchant shipping and the city, with many casualties. Italian Fleet and shore batteries taken by surprise and further confused by thick mist and mis-identification of Vichy French convoy.» (Argyle, id., p.33); « OCTOBER 22 [1942] Air War: Europe – RAF launches series of DEASTATING RAIDS ON THE TURIN-MILAN-GENOA ‘TRIANGLE’ (Italian equivalent of the Ruhr) with night attack by 100 Lancasters on Genoa. 6 heavy night raids on Genoa and 7 on Turin by year’s end. Both industrial production and civilian morale affected.» (Argyle, id., p.109); « OCTOBER 23 [1942] Home Front: Italy – King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena visit Genoa – still burning from previous night’s bombing.» (Argyle, id., p.110); « APRIL 24 [1945] Italy – La Spezia naval base captured by 5th Army. Germans abandon Genoa, scuttling 40 warships and many merchant ships in harbour.» (Argyle, id., p.184).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.


Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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