FC2ブログ

§843 The collapse of the German Reich (1943-1945): II-16.

II-16 (§843):

Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Syracuse,
New tyrants, lightnings celestial fires:
The force of London, Ghent, Brussels, and Susa,
Great hecatomb, triumph, to hold festivals.

(Naples, Palerme, Secille, Syracuses,
Nouveaux tyrans, fulgures feuz celestes:
Force de Londres, Gand, Brucelles, & Suses
Grand hecatombe, triumphe, faire festes.)

NOTES: « II-16: The Second World War and its aerial bombardments (lightnings celestial fires).» (Hutin, 1972, p.142).

Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Syracuse, New tyrants: « The Allied landings on Sicily and the Italian mainland, August 1943. Italy had a new tyrant in the shape of Germany after the fall of Mussolini a month earlier.» (Halley, 1999, p.165).

Lightnings celestial fires: = Firing, shellfire and bombing. « = bombings: After tyrannical German soldiers have taken over cities of Italy (such as now [in 1944]) there will be fierce aerial warfare.» (Lamont, 1944, p.273).

Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Syracuse, New tyrants, lightnings celestial fires: « Sicily and Italy, 1943-4 The Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 was followed by landings in mainland Italy in September: These knocked Italy out of the war; but the German Army’s continued stubborn defence meant that there would be no rapid Allied victory. Although many of the accompanying airborne troops landed in the sea and drowned because of poor pilot training and bad weather, the initial Allied landings in the south and south-east of Sicily were a success. The large Italian forces put up little resistance and many surrendered readily - however, the German troops were a different matter. They used the rugged terrain expertly in a series of delaying actions, while the Allied commanders quarrelled over how to conduct the campaign. Finally the Germans withdrew across the Straits of Messina in mid-August virtually unmolested by the superior Allied air and naval forces. Mussolini had been deposed as head of the Italian government in July and the new regime began secret peace talks with the Allies. On 3 September Eighth Army crossed from Sicily to the toe of Italy and on the 8th the Italian surrender was announced. The Germans were ready, however, and had moved reinforcements into the country to take over. On the 9th the main Allied landings, by General Mark Clark’s US Fifth Army, went in around Salerno, just south of Naples, and were nearly thrown back into the sea during the first few days. For the rest of the year the Germans fell back slowly from one well-defended river line to the next. Eighth Army pushed up the east side of Italy and Fifth Army to the west. By the turn of the year the Allied advance had reached the German’s Gustav Line, whose most famous bastion was centred on Monte Cassino, still well to the south of Rome. In an attempt to break the stalemate the Allied forces made an amphibious landing at Anzio, behind the German lines, on 22 January 1944. The troops there, timidly led, soon found themselves effectively besieged in their beachhead. Repeated attacks on the Gustav Line over the following months also failed. During May 1944 the Allies at last mounted a properly co-ordinated attack all along the Italian front, and this time they captured Cassino and broke the Gustav Line. By then, however, Montgomery and many veteran troops had left to prepare for D-Day and Italy had slipped down the Allied priority list. Rome fell on 4 June, but by autumn 1944 the Germans were again making a stand, this time on the Gothic Line just north of Florence.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.134-135).

The force of London, Ghent, Brussels: Namely, the Allied forces coming from England across the Channel through Normandy shall liberate Belgium: « In the event, when the break-out came at Avranches, on July 31 [1944], only a few scattered German battalions lay in the ninety-mile-wide corridor between that point and the Loire. So American spearheads could have driven eastward unopposed. But the Allied High Command threw away the best chance of exploiting this great opportunity by sticking to the outdated preinvasion programme, in which a westward move to capture the Brittany ports was to be the next step. It is evident that the German forces would have had ample time to pull back to the Seine, and form a strong defensive barrier-line there, except for Hitler’s stubbornly stupid orders that there should be ‘no withdrawal’. It was his folly that restored the Allies’ lost opportunities and enabled them to liberate France that autumn. The war could easily have been ended in September 1944. The bulk of the German forces in the West had been thrown into the Normandy battle, and kept there by Hitler’s ‘no withdrawal’ orders until they collapsed-and a large part were trapped. The fragments were incapable of further resistance for the time being, and their retreat-largely on foot-was soon outstripped by the British and American mechanized columns. When the Allies approached the German border at the beginning of September, after a sweeping drive from Normandy, there was no organized resistance to stop them driving on-into the heart of Germany. On September 3 one spearhead of the British Second Army, the Guard Armoured Division, swept into Brussels- after a seventy-five-mile drive through Belgium from its morning starting point in northern France. Next day the 11th Armoured Division, which had raced level with it, drove on to Antwerp and captured the vast docks undamaged before the surprised German base units there had a chance to carry out any demolitions. That same day the spearheads of the American First Army captured Namur, on the Meuse.» (Hart, 1971, p.557-558).

The force of London, … and Susa: Namely the Allied forces starting from England shall liberate northern Italy occupied by the Nazis: « [On 9 September 1943] the anti-fascist parties formed the Committee of National Liberation (CNL) in order to resist the German forces and to reconstruct Italy. It is formed in principal cities. Moreover, against the German military occupation and the Fascism began the civilian Resistance, a part of which charged itself with armed fighting as partisans. The Resistance, on 25 April [1945], liberated by itself many cities of the north through the concerted uprising. Mussolini was trying to flee into Switzerland, but perceived and arrested by the partisans on the Lake of Como. The CNL of the northern Italy with their own authority of justice, sentenced Mussolini to death and fired him with another Fascist leaders on the 28th.» (
Kitahara et al., 2008, p.505-508); « Fifth Army’s long thrust straight north from the Apennines to Lake Garda and thence across the top of the valley to the east and west had first split the German armies in Italy in two and then slammed in their faces the door of retreat to the Alps. During that same period three other nearly separate drives were in progress: on the east the British Eighth Army chased the Germans north along the Adriatic coast; on the west the 92d Division pursued along the Ligurian coast to Genoa; and south of the Po the Brazilian 1st Division and for a while the 34th Division rounded up enemy forces caught in the Apennines. The latter project was completed successfully by the 29th [April 1945], and on the next two days the Brazilian 1st Division fanned out to Alessandria and Cremona...» (Starr, 1986, p.436).

Great hecatomb: « Battle of the Bulge Hitler aimed to repeat the triumph of 1940 in an attack through the Ardennes region to cut the Allied armies in two. Instead German’s last reserves were defeated in a series of desperate winter battles. By the late autumn of 1944 the German Army had recovered some of its strength after the disasters of both the summer in Normandy and the Eastern front. However, the American armies were pushing forward slowly in eastern France and Belgium, while the British had finally succeeded in clearing the Scheldt estuary, so that the great port facilities of Antwerp could at long last begin to alleviate the Allied supply problems. Hitler decided to use the assembling German reserve force in the west. The German attacked on 16 December and achieved complete surprise. They quickly broke through the Allied line all along the attack front, while small groups of special forces penetrated deeper into Allied territory, spreading confusion and panic. A few Allied reinforcements were quickly sent to the area and they, and the survivors of the original front-line force, established themselves especially around the towns of St-Vith and Bastogne. They were both important road junctions, particularly vital for movement in an area of steep and densely wooded hillsides. By the 19th the top Allied commanders were taking the situation in hand. Field Marshal Montgomery was put in charge of the Anglo-American forces north of the German advance, and General Omar Bradley of the US forces to the south. Part of Patton’s US Third Army changed front with astonishing speed and began attacking north to relieve Bastogne and reduce the bulge the Germans had now driven into the Allied line. Up to this point bad weather had kept Allied air support to a minimum, but on the 22nd it cleared. The German supply system was already stretched; now both it and the front-line forces came under continuous attack… After an epic defence, Bastogne was relieved by Patton’s advance on 26 December. Major attacks from the north of the bulge began on 3 January, and it had largely been recovered by the middle of the month. The Germans lost about 100,000 men and most of the tanks used in the operation. Allied losses were similar in number but theirs could be replaced. Germany’s could not.» (Sommerville, 2008, p.188-189).

Triumph, to hold festivals
: « On 2 May [1945] hostilities in Italy ceased in accordance with terms of unconditional surrender signed by representatives of General Vietinghoff, Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Southwest, at Caserta on 29 April… Victory parades were held by the partisans…» (Starr, id., p.438-440).
_______________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
関連記事
スポンサーサイト



Profile

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

Latest journals
Category
Link