§847 The Rise and Fall of Mussolini; Republic of Salo (1922-1943): VIII-66.

VIII-66 (§847):

When the scripture D. M. shall be found,
And the antique cave with a lamp discovered,
The Law, the King and Prince Ulpian tried,
The Army, the Country and the Duke shall be under shade.

(Quant l'escriture D.M. trouvée,
Et cave antique à lampe descouverte,
Loy, roy & prince Ulpian esprouvée,
Pavillon royne & duc soubz la couverte.)

NOTES: There are two preceding interpretations fully suggestive: « The initials D.M. apparently refer to the motto Deus in Me as applied to St. Peter. Prince Ulpian was Domitius Ulpianus, who held appointments under Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and Elagabalus, who banished him. After the assassination of Elagabalus, Ulpian became pretorian prefect under Emperor Alexander Severus, in 222 A.D. The severity he displayed toward the Pretorian Guards resulted in his assassination by them in 228. Commentators believe that Nostradamus has taken Ulpian as a prototype for Mussolini.» (Boswell, 1941, p.279); « When everywhere D. (Duce) M. (Mussolini) lies written on the walls and the Fascism believes to have found the bones of the ancient Romans, then the monarchy in Italy endures a severe trial, the flag of the King soon after that of the Duce shall be vanished.» (Centurio, 1953, p.183).

: = Quand as in the quatrains V-46, V-59, V-67, V-83, VI-19, VI-21, VI-31 and VI-32.

L'escriture D.M. ( the scripture D. M.): « In general, the epitaphs of the Romans began with these two letters [D. M.], deposited as an abbreviation for “Deo Maximo”, to the Supreme God, namely to Jupiter; or sometimes for “Diis Manibus”, to the Gods of the dead in the underground world. But let’s observe yet the ingenuity of Nostradamus. He evokes here these initials in order to allude to a D. M. of our times: il Duce Mussolini! The word DUC (Duke, Duce) is clearly given in the last line as in the quatrain[s] IX-80[, IX-96 and X-64].» (Ionescu, 1976, p.538).

When the scripture D. M. shall be found, And the antique cave with a lamp discovered, The Law, the King: When Benito Mussolini shall come into power inspired by « the dream of the glory of the ancient Rome » (Ionescu, id., p.539) in oblivion for a long time, the wills of the Duce shall become laws: « The Dictator 13 JUNE 1924 – 10 JUNE 1940 In the summer of 1923 Mussolini had drafted a Bill, afterwards known as the Acerbo Electoral Law, by which Italy was to be divided into fifteen constituencies, each elector being asked to vote for the party of his choice. The party which secured relatively the largest number of votes, provided it was at least a quarter of the total votes cast, was to be granted two-thirds of the seats in the Chamber, the remaining third being given to the other parties on a proportional basis… In April the following year the elections were held and 65.25 per cent of he votes, were cast in favour of him. Mussolini, immensely encouraged by his success, considered a return to normal political conditions and even some form of collaboration with the Socialists. On 7 June, after the newly elected Chamber had given the Government a vote of confidence of 361 to 107, Mussolini indicated that he was prepared to include two Socialists in his Cabinet. Three days later a Socialist deputy, Giacomo Matteotti, a rich – Mussolini called him ‘a millionaire’ – landowner from Rovigo, disappeared from Rome. He was one of Fascism’s mostspoken critics and was believed to be about to publish documents exposing the activities of its most irresponsible and ruthless henchmen. On 13 June his body was discovered buried in a shallow grave twenty kilometres outside the city… Amendola’s paper Il Mondo, published at the end of December a document which ended Italy’s six months of uneasy opposition to the Fascists. It was a statement by Cesare Rossi, the former head of the Fascist Press Office who had been arrested after the murder, accusing Mussolini of being implicated in the plot. Accepting the advice of Roberto Farinacci, a former railway clerk who had become a lawyer and one of Fascism’s most intransigent leaders, and of various former squadristi who had come from all over Italy to bolster up his apparently flagging confidence, he announced in the Chamber, five days after Rossi’s allegations had been published, that he had stayed his hand against his perfidious opponents only to calm his more impetuous followers. But now the time for action had come. ‘I declare here in front of this assembly,’ he said, ‘and in front of the Italian people that I and I alone assume the political, moral, and historic responsibility for everything that has happened. If misquoted words are enough to hang a man, then out with the noose and the gallows! If Fascism has been castor oil and club and not a proud passion of the best Italian youth, the blame is on me. If Fascism has been a criminal plot, if violence has resulted from a certain historic, political, and moral atmosphere, the responsibility is mine, because I have deliberately created this atmosphere… Italy wants peace and quiet, work and calm. I will give these things with love if possible and with force if necessary.’ The date was 3 January 1925. It was one of the fundamental dates in the history of Fascism. Thereafter there was no further thought of compromise, no turning back. Within five years Mussolini was able, with the help of Roberto Farinacci, the newly appointed Secretary of the Party, to achieve his declared object – the ‘complete Fascistization’ of Italy. Opposition parties were dissolved, and free elections came to an end. The Chamber of Deputies became little more than a means of clothing Fascist decrees with an aura of national approval; the Senate was filled with senatori prepared to wear black shirts when required and chant Fascist slogans; the Grand Council of Fascism, formed by Mussolini who became its president with full powers to decide its agenda and its membership, was grafted on to the Constitution as a check on any independence which might be displayed by individual members of the Cabinet… the Party was now taken to be synonymous with the State. As all union officials in the twenty-two different categories of trades and professions were eventually appointed by the Party, the Corporative System became in time a convenient mask for dictatorship.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.64-68).

Prince Ulpian: « Ulpian was a famous Roman jurisconsult of the third century. He had the title of ‘prætorian prefect’ under Emperor Alexander Severus. His authority was so great that his opinions became the laws of the Romans.» (Ionescu, id., p.539); « Berytus, “the Latin island in the sea of Oriental Hellenism”; there, in the Colonia Julia Augusta Felix, where the colonists were Roman legionaries, grew up the famous school of jurisprudence, where Ulpian, the great jurist of Syrian descent, may have had his training.» (HH, VI, p.4); « SEVERUS , 193-211 A.D. Severus now remained in Italy for a space of four years, actively engaged in the administration of justice, the regulation of the finances, and the correction of all kinds of abuses. He conferred the important post of prætorian prefect on Papinian, the most renowned of jurisconsults; and as it was now a part of this officer’s duty to try civil causes, Papinian appointed as his assessors Paulus and Ulpian--names nearly as distinguished as his own.» (id., p.389); « ALEXANDER SEVERUS, 222-235 A.D. Both the senate and the army joyfully concurred in the elevation of Alexander Severus; and the former body, lest any competitor should appear, hastened to confer on him all the imperial titles and powers. On account of his youth and his extremely amiable disposition he was entirely directed by his grandmother and mother, but Mæsa dying soon after his accession, the sole direction of her son fell to Mamæa. Nevertheless in her guidance of public affairs she exhibited a spirit of wisdom, justice, and moderation such as had not appeared in any preceding empress. Her enemies laid to her charge the love of power and the love of money, and blamed her son for deferring too much to her; but their accusations are vague, and no act of cruelty caused by avarice stains the annals of this reign. The first care of Mamæa was to form a wise and upright council for her son. Sixteen of the most respectable of the senate, with the learned Ulpian, the prætorian prefect, at their head, composed this council, and nothing was ever done without their consent and approbation….» (id., p.400).

The Law, the King and Prince Ulpian tried
: The dictator Mussolini shall be like the Roman Ulpian tried, namely deposed by the King of Italy in July 1943 and then lifted by Hitler to preside over the Republic of Salo next September: « Ulpianus, Domitius, c.170-228. One of the members of the Council of Emperor (L.S.) Severus (193/211). President of the Council of Emperor Caracalla (211/17). Expelled by Emperor Heliogabalus (218/22) and then called back in 222 by Emperor Alexander Severus (222/35).» (Iwanami’s biographical dictionary, p.235); « We have already observed that a portion of the civil jurisdiction had fallen to the prætorian prefects. This imposed a necessity that one of them should be a civilian, and Mamæa had therefore caused this dignity to be conferred on Ulpian. From the love of law and order which distinguished this prefect, he naturally sought to bring back discipline in the prætorian camp; the consequence was that repeated attempts were made on his life, and the emperor more than once found it necessary to cast his purple over him to save him from the fury of the soldiers. At length (228) they fell on him in the night; he escaped from them to the palace, but they pursued and slaughtered him in the presence of the emperor and his mother.» (HH, VI, p.401). Ionescu tried to parallel Mussolini’s death with that of Ulpian (Ionescu, id., p.539), but the word “esprouver (to try)” does not mean in the context “to assassinate” but only “ to depose” as to their office, and the death of Mussolini was in fact a capital penalty by the Resistance contrary to the assassination of Ulpian;
« FALL OF MUSSOLINI July 25 [1943]. The session of the Grand Council opens on 24 July 1943, at 17:00 in Palazzo Venezia. It will last until 02:40 in the morning and sometimes become dramatically intense… The vote gives 19 votes in favour of the order of the day of Grandi, 7 cons and one abstention. Mussolini does not react. He does not think that the King, who shows him his confidence for so long a time, could abandon him. Therefore, the vote of the Grand Council, an organ devoid of representation, does not have a great importance. On the next day, 25 July 1943, Mussolini rejects the suggestion from some faithful demanding of him making arrest the 19 persons who have adopted the order of the day of Grandi. At 17:00, he visits the King. The King, comforted with the vote of the Grand Council that serves his purpose, announces to the Duce that he destitutes him of the power and replaces him by Marshal Badoglio. On his coming out, Victor-Emmanuel makes arrest Mussolini who leaves himself to be brought through a back door into an ambulance.» (Kaspi, 1980, p.366-367).  

: = An army by metonymy; « PAVILLON, Tente militaire (a military tent) » (Petit Robert).

(Reine, Queen): = The country (Republic of Salo), a country being linguistically feminine and there having been no Queen in the republic. In fact, of 9 usages of the word Royne/royne, 6 refer to a Queen (I-86, VII-16, VIII-23, IX-77, X-17 and X-19) and 3 to a country or a government (III-89, IV-38 and VIII-66).

Soubz la couverte: = Under the shade; « couverte, s.f., couverture, tout ce qui sert à couvrir; faire la couverte d’une chose, la couvrir; à la couverte, sous l’ombrage (under the shade), à l’abri (sheltered, under cover).» (Godefroy). This expresson cannot have a meaning of « sous la couche de terre (under the cover of soil) » as Ionescu pretends to interpret so (Ionescu, id., p.539).

The Army, the Country and the Duke shall be under shade
: « 1943 September 23. Foundation of Italian Social Republic or Republic of Salo. After his liberation and his meeting with Hitler, Mussolini proclaims Italian Social Republic and settles in Salo, on the border of Lake Garda. On 15 November 1943, opens in Verona the first congress of the Republican Fascist Party. As regards the Duce, grown old, ill, emaciated, sharing his leisure between his family and his mistress Claretta Petacci, overburdening his surroundings with interminable monologues, he seems devoid of will and like broken by the trials (brisé par les épreuves) of the beginning of 1943. Hitler makes him supervised by a German aide-de-camp and guarded by the SS. With his strong protectors, Mussolini shows himself docile [the Duke under shade]. When he protests against the too flagrant abuses of the occupant, heavy requisitions, drawing of manpower, keeping of the prisoners in Germany, he does not obtain any accommodation [the Country under shade]… » (Kaspi, 1980, p.378-379); « … and Renano Ricci, who was appointed to command the Militia, into which, despite his determined efforts, he was never able to enlist more than a few worthwhile men… German soldiers followed him in lorries when he went out in his car and German agents listened in to his telephone calls, which had to be made through a German Army exchange. General Woff, the Ambassador Rahn, the doctor Zachariae, and Colonel Dollmann, who had received personally from Himmler orders never to go far from Mussolini’s side, were all regular visitors. ‘Wolff and Dollmann are my jailers,’ he grumbled, and whenever he looked from his window he saw a German helmet. ‘They are always there,’ he said, ‘like the spots of the leopard.’ To his Italian visitors he was always grumbling like this; but he did not do so to Hitler. Once he wrote to him to complain of the high-handed conduct of German troops, of their arrogant occupation of north-eastern Italy [The Army under shade], which amounted almost to annexation, and of the attitude of the German Government, which seemed to regard his own as completely servile.» (Hibbert, 1965, p.275-279).
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.


Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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