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§861 350 years of the British Empire by colonization (1600-1947): X-100.

X-100 (§861):

The grand empire by England shall be,
The All-River of more than 300 years.
She shall dispatch grand troops by sea and land,
The Lusitans shall not be content with it.

(Le grand empire sera par Angleterre,
Le pempotam des ans plus de trois cens.
Grandes coppies passer par mer & terre,
Les Lusitains n'en seront pas contens.)

NOTES: Le grand empire sera par Angleterre, Le pempotam des ans plus de trois cens: The construction will be as follows: Le grand empire par Angleterre sera le pempotam des ans plus de trois cens = The grand empire by England shall be the All-River of more than 300 years.

The grand empire by England: = « the British Empire. Another name for England which has obtained territories abroad since the 16th century. Her territories in her prime attained one quarter of the globe.» (EH, VIII, p.1163); Her colonies (not always at a time): the West Indies, North America, Guyana, Ireland, India and its surroundings, the Southern, North-Eastern and South-Western Africa, Yemen, Australia, New Zealand, Malay, Borneo, New Guinea, the Falkland Islands and St. Helena (cf. EH, VIII, p.1163, Chart: Principal territories of the British Empire in 1775 and 1914); « British Empire. The colonies, protectorates, and territories brought under British sovereignty from as early as the sixteenth century. In the late nineteenth century, some in Britain still harboured dreams of expanding the Empire, such as Rhodes [Cecil John] and Milner [Alfred], who wanted to create a unified Cape-to-Cairo dominion in Africa. However, the South African (Boer) War (1899-1902) damaged Britain’s confidence in its Empire. In many areas, control had never advanced beyond indirect rule… » (Palmowski, p.88-89).

Pempotam: A neologism of Nostradamus consisting of the Greek πᾶν (pān, all; N of pān becoming M before P, and PAN and PEM are identical in pronunciation in French) and
ποταμός (potamos, river; POTAM is an apocope of POTAMOS), representing the British colonies all over the globe because of the existing rivers there. Though the Greek POTAMOS can signify also a SEA (cf. Bailly, s.v.; Leoni, 1982, p.442-443), a river always connotes the land where it runs, but a sea doesn’t. And naturally, this neologism also implies « la suprématie des mers (supremacy of the seas) » (Fontbrune, 1939, p.257) or « le roi des mers (the king of the seas) » (Le Pelletier, I, p.162), through which England obtains many river-flowing lands abroad. This double meaning fits in very nicely with the third line: « She shall dispatch grand troops by sea and land ».

Most of our predecessors simply follow Le Pelletier who says that the word Pempotam is composed of the Greek πᾶν and the Latin potens = tout-puissant (omnipotent) (Le Pelletier, id.). But the text of Nostradamus has another example of the word Pempotam meaning the Great Britain* and at the same time another word PEMPOTANS (§699, VIII-97), which may exclude Le Pelletier’s easy translation of PEMPOTAM into PANPOTENS.

* ... approchera de maison ce que paravant estoit & est grande cité comprenant le Pempotam la mesopotamie de l'Europe a quarante cinq, & autres de quaranteung, quarantedeux, & trentesept, & dans iceluy temps & en icelles contrees la puissance infernale mettra à l’encontre de l’eglise de Jesus Christ la puissance des adversaires de sa loy, qui sera le second antechrist, lequel persecutera icelle eglise & son vray vicaire par moyen de la puissance des Roys temporelz, (… what before was and is a grand city including the Pempotam and the Mesoptamia of Europe** [France’s centre Paris’ heart the island of Cité is between the two ramifications of the Seine] approaches a house in the years 37-45 [i.e., the political and military shrinking of the Great Britain and the Republic of France suffering from the Blitzkrieg of the Nazi Germany in the years immediately preceding the WWII and of the WWII], and in this time and in these districts the infernal power shall oppose against the Church of Jesus Christ the power of its law’s adversaries, who shall be a second Antichrist*****, who shall persecute this Church and its true Vicar by means of the power of the temporal Kings, (№3,
Adresse à Henri II, p.18).

** Cf.
§273, VIII-70; §474, VII-22 and §820, III-99; Another usage of Nostradamus: « la cité libre, constituee & assize dans une autre exigue mezopotamie (the free city, constituted and situated in another tiny Mesopotamia)» (№3, Adresse à Henri II, p.12).

And, though the word PEMPOTANS (VIII-97) may be considered to be composed of pan + potent as Le Pelletier will pretend so, its component POTANS alludes in reality to POTENCE (potency) = BÉQUILLE (crutch, stand) = GIBET (scaffold) (Bloch & Wartburg, s.v. POTENCE). In fact, the quatrain VIII-97 has a theme of Paris Commune in 1871 (cf. Vignois, 1910, p.329), resulting in the instant firing of almost all the Communards (17,000 only in Paris) (« tous au gibet » “all to the scaffold” = Pempotans ) (cf. Seignobos, 1921b, p. 313).

The start of “more than 300 years”: = 1600; « Elisabeth, on the throne in 1558, reigned in 1588, when the Invincible Armada of Philip II, king of Spain, was destroyed by Drake, Vice-Admiral of England. It is from this epoch that dates the maritime preponderance of England.» (Le Pelletier, id., p.161-162). This interpretation of Le Pelletier most popular among the Nostradamus researchers is evidently based upon that of the term “pempotam” as “the supremacy of the seas”, but its original and true meaning is as it were a “global colonization”, whose real inception by England was in 1600, when the English East India Company was established with patent; « English Colonization Activities. Henry VII [1485-1509], having denied his aid to Columbus’ project, gave the patent to the Italian Cabot, father [1450-1498] and son [1477-1557], to make them explore the North-West passage [in 1497, 98], instigated by the discovery of Columbus. They discovered Nova Scotia and Labrador of the North America. Then, in the first half of the 16th century explorations by the North-East passage arrived in Russia to trade, but could not find the way to Asia. In the times of Elizabeth I, the English were accustomed to raid Spanish and Portuguese merchant fleets to plunder their cargoes. Hawkins [1532-1595] and Drake [c.1540-1596] represented these adventurous pirate-merchants, who founded the basis of the English marine preponderance. And in the later years of the Elizabethan reign, the English spread over every part of the world, Drake into the Pacific, Gilbert [Humphrey: 1539-1584] into the Northern Atlantic, some chasing Negroes in Africa and others travelling from the Russian steppes till Asia, trading with Turks and Greeks, working in this way up to the foundation of the East India Company and the North American colonies.» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, 1984, p.274).

« THE DISASTERS OF SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT While the queen and her adventurers were dazzled by the glittering prospects of mines of gold in the frozen regions of the remote north, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, with a sounder judgment and a better knowledge, watched the progress of the fisheries, and formed healthy plans for colonisation. It was not difficult for Gilbert to obtain a liberal patent (June 11th, 1578), formed according to the tenor of a previous precedent, and to be of perpetual efficacy, if a plantation should be established within six years. To the people who might belong to his colony, the rights of Englishmen were promised; to Gilbert, the possession for himself or his assigns of the soil which he might discover, and the sole jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, of the territory within two hundred leagues of his settlement, with supreme executive and legislative authority. Thus the attempts at colonisation, in which Cabot and Frobisher had failed, were renewed under a patent that conferred every immunity on the leader of the enterprise, and abandoned the colonists themselves to the mercy of an absolute proprietary. Under this patent, Gilbert began to collect a company of volunteer adventurers, contributing largely from his own fortune to the preparation. Jarrings and divisions ensued, before the voyage was begun; many abandoned what they had inconsiderately undertaken; the general and a few of his assured friends among them his step-brother, Walter Raleigh [in command of the Falcon] put to sea in 1579; one of his ships was lost; and misfortune compelled the remainder to return. The vagueness of the accounts of this expedition is ascribed to a conflict with a Spanish fleet, of which the issue was unfavourable to the little squadron of emigrants. Gilbert attempted to keep his patent alive by making grants of lands. None of his assigns succeeded in establishing a colony; and he was himself too much impoverished to renew his efforts. But the pupil of Coligny was possessed of an active genius, which delighted in hazardous adventure. To prosecute discoveries in the New World, lay the foundation of states, and acquire immense domains, appeared to the daring enterprise of Raleigh as easy designs, which would not interfere with the pursuit of favour and the career of glory in England. Before the limit of the charter had expired, Gilbert, assisted by his brother, equipped a new squadron. The fleet embarked under happy omens; the commander, on the eve of his departure, received from Elizabeth a golden anchor guided by a lady, a token of the queen's regard; a man of letters from Hungary accompanied the expedition; and some part of the United States would have then been colonised, had not the unhappy projector of the design been overwhelmed by a succession of disasters. Two days after leaving Plymouth (June 13th), the largest ship in the fleet, which had been furnished by Raleigh, who himself remained in England, deserted, under a pretence of infectious disease, and returned into harbour. Gilbert was incensed, but not intimidated. He sailed for Newfoundland; and, entering St. Johns, he summoned the Spaniards and Portuguese, and other strangers, to witness the feudal ceremonies by which he took possession of the country for his sovereign. A pillar, on which the arms of England were infixed, was raised as a monument; and lands were granted to the fishermen in fee, on condition of the payment of a quit-rent. The "mineral-man" of the expedition, an honest and religious Saxon, was especially diligent; it was generally agreed that " the mountains made a show of mineral substance”; as there were so many foreign vessels in the vicinity, the precious ore was carried on board the larger ship with such mystery that the dull Portuguese and Spaniards suspected nothing of the matter. The colony being thus apparently established, Sir Humphrey Gilbert embarked in his small frigate, the Squirrel, which was, in fact, a miserable bark of ten tons; and, taking with him two other ships, proceeded on a voyage of discovery to the southward. One of these vessels, the Delight, was soon after wrecked among the shoals near Sable Island; and of above one hundred men on board, only twelve escaped. Among those who perished were the historian and the mineralogist of the expedition; a circumstance which preyed upon the mind of Sir Humphrey, whose ardent temper fondly cherished the hope of fame and of inestimable riches. He now determined to return to England; but as his little frigate, as she is called, appeared wholly unfit to proceed on such a voyage, he was entreated not to venture in her, but to take his passage in the Golden Hinde. To these solicitations the gallant knight replied, " I will not forsake my little company going homeward, with whom I have passed so many storms and perils." When the two vessels had passed the Azores, Sir Humphrey's frigate was observed to be nearly overwhelmed by a great sea; she recovered, however, the stroke of the waves, and immediately afterwards the general was observed by those in the Hinde, sitting abaft with a book in his hand, and calling out, "Courage, my lads! we are as near heaven by sea as by land!" The same night this little bark, and all within her, were swallowed up in the sea, and never more heard of. Such was the unfortunate end of the brave Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who may be regarded as the father of western colonization, and who was one of the chief ornaments of the most chivalrous age of English history.» (HH, XXII, p.496-497).

« English Colonization Activities to East India. The activities toward Asia were submitted mainly to the East India Company established in 1600. It sent its first merchant fleet to Asia in 1601. But the trades with East Asia had been already nearly monopolized by the Portuguese and the Dutch, whom the English rivalled. In the end they featured the trades with the mainland of India, and gradually obtained their bases in the Western India (Surat), Persia (Hormuz) and the area about the Red Sea, and later in Madras (1640), Bombay (1661) and Calcutta (1686).» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, 1984, p.274).

« English Colonization Activities in North America. The activities in North America were performed by the enterprising companies with Royal patent, and in the beginning of the 17th century colonies were established in Newfoundland, Virginia (1607) and the Islands of Bermuda (1612). In particular many Puritans and Catholics immigrated into North America, fleeing from the Anglican coercion under the Stuarts in quest of freedom of faith. Above all, a group of Puritans called Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower landed on Plymouth in 1620 and established the colony of New England, and in 1630 a number of Puritans immigrated and built the colony of Massachusetts.» (Maekawa and Horikoshi, id.).

Of these first English colonizing enterprises and colonizations, the establishment of the East India Company in 1600 shall be the most remarkable opening of the English global colonization because the vast colonies of North America had become independent already in the second half of the 18th century, whereas the East India Company was succeeded by the British Crown itself through the India Act of 1858 after the Indian Mutiny (1857-8) and the independence of India (“known as the ‘Jewel in the Crown’ of the British Empire at the beginning of the twentieth century” [Palmowski, p.313]) in 1947 is considered to mark the real end of the British Empire. The time span 1600-1947 fits in just with the prediction of Nostradamus: more than 300 years of the pempotam, the concept of the term ‘pempotam (= all-rivers = all the lands = the global colonization)’ being different from that of the ‘world hegemony’, with which shall deal the quatrains X-98 (§862) and II-78 (§877).

The end of “more than 300 years”: = 1937-1945. This epoch is discovered in the paragraph above cited telling the shrinking of the Pempotam: « ... approchera de maison ce que paravant estoit & est grande cité comprenant le Pempotam la mesopotamie de l'Europe a quarante cinq, & autres de quaranteung, quarantedeux, & trentesept, & dans iceluy temps & en icelles contrees…, (… what before was and is a grand city including the Pempotam and the Mesoptamia of Europe approaches a house in 45, others of 41, 42, and 37, and in this time and in these districts,..) » (№3,
Adresse à Henri II, p.18), where the numbers 45, 41, 42 and 37 with a preposition « a » (à) [at, in] or « de » [of] « a quarante cinq, & autres de quaranteung, quarantedeux, & trentesept, » are considered to be designating the years because the next expression is clearly given as “in this time (dans iceluy temps)”. And these years are evidently 1937-1945, the context describing the WWII.

And by the expression « a grand city … approaches a house » is meant precisely the British Empire reduced to her own HOMELAND in losing almost all the colonies after the WWII.  This Decolonization, whose typical and greatest event is the independence of India in 1947, is the theme of the related quatrains (II-60, V-11 and X-99 [§874-§876]), whereas the quatrain X-98 (§862) treats the French hegemony and colonialism.


The Lusitans
: = The colonialists in general, the Portuguese having been the first of them; « VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION. Christopher Columbus’s voyage across the Atlantic in 1492 sparked an unprecedented opening-up of the world – first by the Portuguese and Spanish – then by the Dutch, English, and French. By 1700, European explorers and colonizers had established themselves globally.» (DKHistory, p.172); « … and the voyages of exploration soon became tidal waves of colonization, reaching most part of the globe… » (Parker, 2010, p.216).

The Lusitans shall not be content with it
: The colonialists are avaricious in general; « European explorers were motivated by glory, Christian zeal, and – above all – gold, spices, and slaves. The goal was the East, source of legendary riches. “I and my companions suffer from a disease of the heart which can be cured only by gold.” (Hernán Cortés, Spanish explorer, on his quest to defeat the Aztecs, 1519).» (DKHistory, id.).

Discussion:
V. Ionescu considers the line 4 as the beginning and the line 3 as the end of the British hegemony (Ionescu, 1987, p.73). But, the digital exhibition of the term of ‘global colonization’ (‘more than 300 years’) generously granted even with the proper name of ‘the grand empire by England’ by the Prophet needs, we think, no more additional information about its two boundaries, which is to be researched by the interpretative readers. Above all, his attribution of the phrase “Grandes coppies passer par mer & terre” to the USA entails a difficulty because the army of the UK was not defeated immediately by that of the USA (its factual event is probably the fall of Singapore in February 1942***, preceded by the sinking of Admiral Phillips’ Force Z including the Prince of Wales and the Repulse****). From the viewpoint of the theme (the British world colonization) of the quatrain, the line 3 tells its effective means (military strength), and the line 4 its real motive (colonization).

***
« Singapore, fall of (World War II) (8-15 Feb. 1942) The largest British army and naval base in Asia and Australia with around 80,000 British, Australian, and Indian troops under A. E. Percival in 1941, Singapore was equipped with strong coastal defences. However, no fortifications had been built against attack from its Malayan hinterland, which was also under British control. After swiftly overrunning Malaya, Japanese forces under General Yamashita massed opposite the island of Singapore at the beginning of February 1942. During the night of 7/8 February armoured landing craft crossed the Strait of Johore, followed by many swimming Japanese troops, surprising the garrison of Australian troops opposite. The defenders blew up the single causeway connecting Singapore with its hinterland and retreated. The causeway was quickly repaired by the Japanese who, supported by the superiority of their air force, moved on to the island. On 15 February, Percival surrendered. The fall of Singapore, long perceived as an invincible fortress of the British Empire, symbolized more than any other event the real weakness of Britain’s pretensions to defend and control her vast Empire. This provided an important stimulus to colonial independence movements after World war II, and foreshadowed the process of decolonization after 1945.» (Palmowski, p.619); « the Tridental taken (prins le Tridental) » (§805, V-62).

**** Cf. « Vessels sunk (Nefz parfondrées) » (§805, V-62); « A camp … gnats (Camp … cousins) » (§863, V-85).

***** Antichrist: « ANTÉCHRIST or rather ANTICHRIST. According to the Epistles of John, the Christians of the end of the 1st century did not wait for the return of the Christ before the arrival of an Anti-Christ [ἀντίχριστος], namely, following the Greek etymology, of a false replacement of the Christ. On the other hand, the second Epistle to the Thessalonians precedes Advent of the Christ by that of a “Man of lawlessness, Son of destruction” who shall be the instrument of Satan to provoke a general apostasy, ruin the religions and proclaim himself God (2Th 2, 3-9)... The Antichrist and the Man of lawlessness are not but a single figure upon which the posterior centuries have projected their successive fears.» (Monloubou, p.39-40); Un si faulx antechrist (§796, X-66): = « An Antechrist so deceitful and so unfaithful – Hitler.» (Ionescu, 1976, p.545); « Concerning our times, the Prophet considers three Antechrists: Stalin (quatrains VI-49 [§882], X-1 [§884] and X-65 [§883]), Hitler (X-66 [§796]) and Mao Tse-Tung (VIII-77 [§900]). These dictators have in common some distinctive traits: 1. They imposed a totalitarian regime with a great cruelty. 2. The number of their victims amounts to tens of millions (by wars, executions and prisons). 3. They made “cultural revolutions” in opposing the religion and the tradition of their country. 4. They provoked the hatred and the conflict among races and social classes. 5. They erected themselves as superhuman entities and encouraged the cult of their personality.» (Ionescu, 1987, p.451-452). There appears in the Dedication to Henry II (№3, pp.3-23; №10, pp.153-173) five examples of the word Antechrist/antechrist, whose two of the paragraphs 44-46 (following Le Pelletier’s paragraphing) refer to Stalin because the passage includes the name ‘Atila [Attila]’ and the event of ‘October Revolution’, another two of the paragraphs 93-95 to Hitler because the region of Europe and the supposed years 37-45 [WWII] are told there, and the remaining one of the paragraph 107-109 also to Hitler, there being exposed the Roman occupation by ‘the antechrist, the infernal prince’ in the hottest battle in the Christian countries probably after Mussolini’s fall.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2019. All rights reserved.
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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 218 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§948).

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