§ 615.Revolution in 1848; Mehemet-Ali of Egypt

19th century:
§615. Frustrated revolution satisfied in 1848; Mehemet-Ali of Egypt (1805-1848): I-40.

I-40:
The false waterspout dissimulating folly,
Byzantium shall make a change of laws:
Out of Egypt shall come he who wishes to loosen
The edict changing money and alloy.


(La trombe faulse dissimulant folie
Fera Bisance un changement de loys:
Hystra d'Egypte qui veult que l'on deslie
Edict changeant monnoyes & aloys.)

Keys to the reading:
Trombe (waterspout): This term is used only twice in The Prophecies (cf. Torné-Chavigny, 1861, p.267), and the example in the quatrain I-57 (§361: la trombe tremblera) designates the first French revolution (1791-1793). This meaning of revolution is absolutely valid also here;

La trombe faulse (The false waterspout): the revolution of July in 1830, which entails a Bourbon monarchy of second grade focusing on the oligarchic riches, excluding the crucial interests of the republicans;

folly: the firece revolutional emotion with few result in 1830;

Byzantium: a historical metaphor for Paris. «The word Bisance designates Paris in several quatrains.» (Torné-Chavigny, id., p.253) In fact, Bisance and its derivatives (Bizantin, Bizant, Bisantinois) in The Prophecies have in total 16 uses, whose 9 (II-49, V-25, V-47, V-54, V-70, VI-21, VI-53, VIII-83, X-62) for the Ottoman Empire, 5 (I-40, V-80, V-86, VII-36, IX-30) including I-40 for Paris, and 1(IV-38) for Greece and 1(VIII-51) for Russia;

Byzantium shall make a change of laws: the revolution of February in France in 1848, being inferred from the simultaneity of the quasi-autonomous development of Egypt under a remarkable leader, Mehemet Ali.

The edict changing money and alloy: One of the most vital rights of sovereignty of a state. The lack of it leaves Egypt of Mehemet Ali in vassalage to the Porte.

Summary:
The revolution of July in 1830, which entails a Bourbon monarchy of second grade focusing on the rich bourgeois, excluding the political initiative of the republicans, recurs in February, 1848, rejuvenating its radical emotion with the gain of the second French Republic.

« Having become practically independent of the Ottoman Empire, Egypt begins to modernize herself in the 19th century, under the impulsion of Mehmet Ali and of his successors, and she extends, from 1820 forth, her domination over Sudan, where Islamization grows rapid.» (Duby, 2008, p.276)

Chronology of Egypt under Mehemet Ali:
1805 The Porte appoints Mehemet Ali as viceroy (governor) of Egypt.
1805- '10 Mehemet Ali modernizes his army according to French consultants.
1811 Mehemet Ali massacres Mamelukes, existent rulers of Egypt, at Cairo.
1823- '27 Mehemet Ali aids the Sultan confronting Greece seeking for independence.
1827 Egyptian fleet conducted by Ibrahim Pasha, his son, completely defeated at Navarino by allied powers (France, England and Russia).
1828 Egyptian army retreats from Greece.
1831- '32 Egyptian troops take Syria.
1833 The Porte recognises independence of Egypt with a concession of Syria and Aden.
1839 Turkish army and fleet thoroughly defeated by Mehemet Ali's; Intervention of the powers in favour of Turkey.
1840 Quadruple Alliance formed [1840.7.15] by Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria in support of Turkey. Its diplomatic offers refused by Mehemet Ali expecting French aid to be obtained through warlike policies of Minister Thiers.
1841 France joins Quadruple Alliance.

«Intervention of the powers: As Louis Philippe's disinclination to war was well known, the allied powers, without troubling themselves overmuch about the wild cry of protest in France, the warlike preparations of Minister Thiers, or the demand for the frontier of the Rhine, began hostilities against Mehemet Ali, who had refused his submisson, trusting to France. An Anglo-Austrian fleet sailed for the Syrian coast; Beirut and Acre were taken, and Alexandria was bombarded by the English commodore Napier. Mehemet Ali, after the fall [1840.10.28] of the Thiers ministry, fully realised his mistake and had to be glad even to preserve the hereditary pashalik of Egypt, in return for the evacuation of all Syria, Arabia, and Crete, the restoration of the Turkish fleet, and the payment of a yearly tribute; this favour he owed to England, who wished thereby to make him a friend and to assure for herself the passage through Suez.» (HH, XXIV, p.454)

«The Firman of Investiture [1840.12.10]: The following are the principal rights which the firman granted the viceroy (this title was henceforth used for the governor of Egypt): hereditary dominion over Egypt in the family of Mehemet Ali, subject to the right of investiture and appointment by the Porte of every succeeding viceroy; independence - incomplete and circumscribed - of the internal administration of the country; appointment of all civil officials, and appointment of military officers up to the rank of colonel; conclusion of non-political treaties and conventions with foreign states; and limitation to a definite sum (300,000 pounds sterling) of the tribute to be paid the Porte, substituting the earlier statute, according to which tribute was determined in each instance proportionately to the revenues of the country. The former abuse had necessarily resulted in the domination of Turkish agents, and in vexations of all sorts. In opposition to these concessions, however, stood a mass of restrictions, whereby the Porte sought to protect and strengthen its sovereignty. We have already spoken of the investiture of every new viceroy by the Porte. Other clauses provided for the limitation of the army to eighteen thousand men and of the fleet to a few war-ships; for the levying of taxes in the name of the sultan; and for the conformity of laws, of coinage, even of army uniforms to those in the rest of the empire. These regulations were not always strictly observed, but they could always furnish, and more than once have furnished, the Porte with a convenient pretext for oppressing its Egyptian vassal.» (HH, XXIV, p.454)

«The Last Days of Mehemet Ali: Mehemet Ali had attained much, although by no means all, of what he had made the object of his life and policy. Despite the defeat [1840.11.3 in Syria] he had undergone in the last catastrophe, when he was an old man of seventy-two [born in 1769], he had yet been able to recover himself. But now his strength was exhausted; broken in mind and body by such powerful exertion and excitement, he showed a rapidly increasing debility which developed into mental derangement. In the year 1844 his son was called to take part in the government, and in January, 1848, it became necessary for the Porte to invest Ibrahim Pasha with Egypt in place of his father. Mehemet All, who through his energy and wisdom, through the greatness and strength of his character, through his administrative talents and his dominating will, through his broad vision and his great efforts, had far exceeded all oriental and some European regents of his time, who had freed Egypt from unworthy debasement, and had attracted to it the eyes of the whole political world, who had enabled this old and formerly respected land of culture to work up again in modern times to a position among civilised lands - Mehemet Ali passed his last days in mental imbecility, and died alone, at the age of eighty, on August 2nd, 1849, at his castle Shubra near Cairo. At the time of his death the second successor, Abbas Pasha, had already entered upon his governmental career, as Ibrahim Pasha had died ten months after his appointment.» (HH, XXIV, p.454-455)
_______________________________________________________
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2011. All rights reserved.
関連記事
スポンサーサイト
Profile

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

Latest journals
Category
Link