§ 637.Roman revolution; Garibaldi's flight

19th century:
§637. Roman revolution; Garibaldi's flight;(1848-1849): IX-3.

At Magnavacca and Ravenna a grand trouble,
Those carried in fifteen [vessels] enclosed against the south of Fornace.
In Rome shall appear two monsters with double head,
Bloodshed, firing, mass revolt, the most importants for the sake of pacification.

(La magna vaqua à Ravenne grand trouble,
Conduictz par quinze enserrés à Fornase,
A Romme naistre deux monstres à teste double
Sang, feu, deluge, les plus grans à l'espase:)

Keys to the reading:
La magna vaqua à Ravenne grand trouble: = à La magna vaqua [et] Ravenne grand trouble;

La magna vaqua: = Magnavacca by the mouth of the Po, near Mesoli [Mesola] where Garibaldi landed (cf. §636,IX-54) (cf. GeoCenter, Euro Atlas Italy, p.39). «Magnavacca is the name of a valley and tiny port (renamed Porto di Garibaldi) between Ravenna and Ferrara, and also, according to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the name of a former canal in the same area.» (Leoni, 1961(1982), p.380);

Ravenna: Cf. Ravenna that shall murder the lady (§636,IX-54);

Fifteen: A round number for 13 barges carrying the Garibaldians;

Fornase: For Fornace (in Torento). The S for C indicates the south (le sud) of Fornace, the mouth of the Po.

Two monsters with double head: Mazzini and Garibaldi, the two republican leaders, of one and the same opinion;

Espase: = Espasement, s.m. pacification, règlement d'une querelle, d'une affaire (Godefroy).

In Rome shall appear two monsters with double head, Bloodshed, firing, mass revolt: « Revolt against the pope; Rome a Republic.
The celebrated allocution in a consistory of cardinals, with the determined declaration that he would not wage war with Austria, was generally interpreted as the beginning of a reactionary change. The allocution was the first backward step from the flag of national uprisal. Pius IX, therefore, soon became as much an object of hatred and enmity on the part of the patriots as he had before been their idol. The reactionary coup d'état in Naples was regarded as the direct result of the allocution, and influenced the popular passions more and more against spiritual rule. The clever Italian Rossi of Carrara, who had once taught law in Geneva, and had then occupied an influential position in Paris with Louis Philippe and Guizot, and had executed important diplomatic missions, was called by Pius IX to form a constitutional ministry, in order more tightly to seize the reins of government which threatened to slip out of the weak hands of the princes of the church. But, by his energetic measures against the increasing anarchy, Rossi so drew upon himself the hatred of the Roman democrats that at the opening of the chambers he was murdered on the steps of the senate on the very spot upon which Cæsar once fell. Thereupon the unrestrained populace, led by the democratically inclined Charles Lucien Bonaparte, surrounded the Quirinal and forced the pope, through threats, to name a radical ministry, in which the advocate Galletti and the old democrat Sterbini had the greatest influence, next to Mamiani who had been recalled. The pope finally fled to Gaeta, aided by the Bavarian ambassador Count Spaur. Here he formed a new ministry and entered a protest against all proceedings in Rome. This move procured at first the most complete victory for the republican party in the Tiberian city. A new constitutional assembly was summoned, which in its first sitting deprived the papacy of its worldly authority, established the Roman republic. A provisory government under the direction of three men undertook the administration of the free state, while the constitutional assembly laid hands on the church lands in order to form small farms out of them for the poor, and Garibaldi [one of two monsters, a part of double head] organised a considerable militia out of insurrectionary volunteers and democrats. The unfortunate outcome of the renewed war in upper Italy, which had brought a large number of refugees to Rome, and the arrival of Mazzini [one of two monsters, a part of double head], who for so long had been the active head of the "young Italy" party and the soul of the democratic propaganda, increased the revolutionary excitement in Rome.» (HH, IX, p.595-597)

The most importants for the sake of pacification: « While the Austrians [one of the most importants] after severe battles took possession of Bologna and Ancona, the Neapolitans [one of the most importants] from the south entered Roman territory, and a French army under General Oudinot [one of the most importants] landed in Civita Vecchia and surrounded Rome, which was in a state of intense excitement. It was in vain that the French declared they came as friends; the democrats rejected the proffered hand of peace and propitiation, and prepared an obstinate opposition to the attacking enemy. The first assault of the French failed, May 2nd, 1849. Oudinot, with severe losses, had to retreat to the sea and await reinforcements... Oudinot now began a new attack; after weeks of sanguinary fighting (July 3rd), the barricades were at once cleared, the provisory government dissolved, and a foreign military rule established. Pope Pius remained for a long time in his voluntary exile, and persevered in his anger towards the ungrateful city. Not until April, 1850, did he return. Quiet was preserved in Rome by a French garrison.» (HH, IX, p.597-598)

Those carried in fifteen [vessels] enclosed against the south of Fornace: « Flight of Garibaldi: Garibaldi who held the Villa Savorelli was obliged to abandon it on the evening of the 27th [June, 1849]; escape across the Apennines to the Republic of San Marino. On reaching the port of Cesenatico, thanks to some fishermen, who braved the anger of the Austrians by lending them thirteen boats, they were able to embark for Venice. Sails were now spread, and on the following morning four of the craft which contained Garibaldi and his immediate followers reached the mouth of the Po; in one was the General, Anita, Ciceruacchio the orator of Roman fame, his two sons, Ugo Bassi, and another. Anita, who had suffered fearfully during the voyage, was borne ashore in a dying state in the arms of her husband. The occupants of the remaining nine barges had not been so fortunate; the Austrians had discovered them by the light of a full moon, and had rained bullets and grape shot upon them, until they were forced to surrender.» (Bent, 1882, p.75-83)

At Magnavacca and Ravenna a grand trouble: « The shore where the four boats had just put in was swarming with the enemy's scouts sent to trace the fugitives. Anita was lying a little way off the shore concealed in a cornfield, her head resting on her husband's knee, whilst Leggiero, an inhabitant of La Maddalena, and a comrade of the General in South America, was their only companion; he kept guard for them, so as to give notice if he saw any white-coaled Austrians lurking near; Garibaldi, stricken with grief, watched the gradual ebbing away of that life whose every hope and joy had been so strongly bound up in his own. After landing at Mesoli [near Magnavacca], Garibaldi, his wife, Ugo Bassi and Ciceruacchio wandered about for some time when Ugo Bassi exclaimed, ' I have red pantaloons on (a pair which he had received from a soldier, his own having been worn out), and I may betray you, I will go a little way and change them.' After this Ugo Basssi was seen by the Austrians and captured; Ciceruacchio also and the nine others were not long undiscovered. The Austrians lost no time in condemning the nine to death immediately, reserving the two more conspicuous heroes for their fate in Bologna. Meanwhile we have left Anita dying in the cornfield, trembling in her agonies to think of the fate that might await her husband if captured. Later on in the day, when the Austrians had gone, some peasants, struck by the piteous sight of Garibaldi bearing his sinking wife in his arms, yielded to his entreaties to fetch medical aid from Ravenna; they brought a cart on which the dying woman was placed, and, conducted over rough byroads in this rickety conveyance, obliged to hide in rocks, and forests, for the Austrians were in pursuit. Garibaldi now carried Anita to the nearest cottage, where a bed was hastily prepared, and no sooner had she been placed thereon, than she expired leaning on Garibaldi's arm. Garibaldi and his friend Leggiero reached Ravenna in safety, where they lay concealed for some days in the house of a friend, and learning that it would be useless to proceed to Venice, now in the last gasp of her struggle, he wrote to a friend in Florence to inquire if there was any chance of a revolution in that city, friend sent word how best he could travel into Tuscany, pointing out the spots by the way where he would be likely to obtain food and a night's shelter from trusted adherents to the cause» (Bent, id., p.83-86)

J.Ch. de Fontbrune (1980, p.236f.) found for the first time the theme of this quatrain, but with failures in detail: 1° his interpretation of Fornase as "FER(me) de ZAN(ett)" is too paraphrastic without full meaning; 2° "à teste double (with double head)" cannot be translated, as he will, into "à cause d'un pouvoir double (because of a double power)"; 3° l'espase is not l'espace (space) he explained without much pertinence as "pour des problèmes d'espace (for the problems of space)".
© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2012. All rights reserved.

Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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