§ 638. Roman revolution

19th century:
§638. Roman revolution (1848-1849): V-88.

V-88:
On the hill of sand because of a hideous deluge,
Found a marine monster from the other seas:
Near the place shall be taken a refuge,
The slave of Turin holding Savone.


(Sur le sablon par un hideux deluge,
Des autres mers trouvé monstre marin:
Proche du lieu sera faict un refuge,
Tenant Savone esclave de Turin.)

Keys to the reading:
The hill of sand: Rome, a militarily vulnerable siege of the pope;

A hideous deluge: Italian revolution in 1848 reinforced by French revolution of February with a world-wide influence, excited itself by Sicilian revolt: cf. §623,VIII-81: From Sicily shall come the emotion: « 1848. Italy. - Revolt in Messina (Jan.6), then in Palermo, and soon in all the island. Bombardments of Palermo. The concessions offered by the king (Jan.18,19)» are refused; The Sicilians demand a national parliament in Palermo and consititue a provisory government. The revolution is conducted by the prince of Pantellaria, the marquises of Rudini and of Spedalotto, the major general don Ruggiero Settimo. Revolt in Naples on 27th.- The king promises a constitution on the basis of the French chart on 29th. Amnesty to all the political offenses since 1830 (Feb.1). The constitution promised to the Two-Sicilies is published on 10th.- The king of Sardinia, Charles-Albert, also promises a constitutional law (Feb.8).- In Tuscany, a riot at Livorno (Jan.6). The archduke accords a national representation with two chambers (Feb.11 and 15). Charles-Albert publishes the promised constitution (March 4).» (Dreyss, p. 822-823). « 1848. France. - Ardor of propositions of reform overexcited by the happenings of Italy. Harsh discussions in the chamber of deputies concerning the right of assembly. Organization of a banquet of the 22nd district by 92 members of the opposition scheduled for 22nd (Feb.18). The deputies abandon on 21. Vote of accusation against the ministry, presented by the opposition (Tuesday, 22 Feb.). Beginning of the troubles; the new revolution of the three days.» (Dreyss, p. 820);

A marine monster from the other seas: Garibaldi, one of the two monsters of §637,IX-3, returning from Brazil across the Atlantic;

The slave of Turin: The democratic government of Rome, under the effective rule of the king of Sardinia in Turin;

Savone: The city where had been exiled Pius VII by Napoleon Bonaparte, a historical metaphor for Rome, whence Pius IX has been exiled to Gaeta;

Summary:
On the hill of sand because of a hideous deluge, Found a marine monster from the other seas: Near the place shall be taken a refuge: « In the papal states, the enthusiasm for the pope declined when he did not satisfy the exaggerated demands quickly and completely enough and when he earnestly rejected the desired declaration of war against Austria as incompatible with his position and religious dignity... What was the position, then, of the Roman troops and volunteers under the able general Durand which the liberal government had sent to join the army of fighters for independence across the Po? They were looked upon as rebels until Pius himself placed them under the protection of Charles Albert.

«The celebrated allocution in a consistory of cardinals, with the determined declaration that he would not wage war with Austria, was generally interpreted as the beginning of a reactionary change. The allocution was the first backward step from the flag of national uprisal. Pius IX, therefore, soon became as much an object of hatred and enmity on the part of the patriots as he had before been their idol. In vain did he nominate the liberal champion Mamiani as president of the ministry, a position which as yet only clericals had held, and the historian Farini as under secretary of state; the feeling that the head of the church had been faithless to the national cause alienated the hearts of the Roman people more and more. Thereupon the unrestrained populace, led by the democratically inclined Charles Lucien Bonaparte, surrounded the Quirinal and forced the pope, through threats, to name a radical ministry, in which the advocate Galletti and the old democrat Sterbini had the greatest influence, next to Mamiani who had been recalled. From that time law and order disappeared from the holy city. The chamber of deputies was without power, and became so weakened by the withdrawal of many members that it was scarcely competent to form legal resolutions; the democratic popular club, together with the rude mob of Trastevere, controlled matters. Many cardinals withdrew; Pius IX was guarded like a prisoner.

« Enraged at these acts and threatened as to his safety, the pope finally fled to Gaeta, in disguise, aided by the Bavarian ambassador Count Spaur. Here he formed a new ministry and entered a protest against all proceedings in Rome. This move procured at first the most complete victory for the republican party in the Tiberian city. A new constitutional assembly was summoned, which in its first sitting deprived the papacy of its worldly authority, established the Roman republic, and resolved to work for the union of Italy under a democratic-republican form of rule. A threat of excommunication from the pope was met with scorn by the popular union. A provisory government under the direction of three men undertook the administration of the free state, while the constitutional assembly laid hands on the church lands in order to form small farms out of them for the poor, and Garibaldi organised a considerable militia out of insurrectionary volunteers and democrats. Garibaldi of Nice (born July 4th, 1807) was a bold insurrectionary leader who had wandered about in America and elsewhere as a political refugee for a long time, and who, on his return to his native country, had taken an active part in the struggle of the Piedmontese and Lombards against Austria. The unfortunate outcome of the renewed war in upper Italy, which had brought a large number of refugees to Rome, and the arrival of Mazzini, who for so long had been the active head of the "young Italy" party and the soul of the democratic propaganda, increased the revolutionary excitement in Rome. The union of revolutionary forces determined the powers protecting the papal states, whose help the pope had summoned, to common action and armed intervention.» (HH, IX, p.595-597) See §627,III-17.

The slave of Turin holding Savone: « Only two powers, a spiritual and a worldly, the Jesuits and the Austrians, seemed to stand in the way of attaining Italian unity. Consequently the glowing hatred of the Italians directed itself against both. The Austrian soldier lived in the cities of the Lombardie-Venetian kingdom as in the land of an enemy. Tumults and insulting demonstrations resulted in sanguinary scenes, so that the Austrian government finally declared martial law in Lombardy in order to be able to put down the excitement and rebellion by force. The February revolution of 1848 in Paris, incited those states in which military and revolutionary revolts were already under way to new efforts, and brought the fermentation to an outbreak in other states where the excitement had not yet ripened into action. In Italy the ideas of independence and national unity which had so long appeared in literature came to the surface and aroused the revolutionary spirits. When Charles Albert, King of Sardinia and Piedmont, without an actual declaration of war, sent his army into Milanese territory and drew his sword against Austria, the whole peninsula was seized by the warlike movement. Not only were the Italian governments carried away by the force of public opinion to send troops and to preserve a constitutional attitude; armed troops of volunteers also marched into the field so that the whole land of the Apennines was under arms against Austria. Soon a double trend of opinion became perceptible; whereas Mazzini and his associates urged a popular war and republican institutions, the more moderate sought to establish national independence under the cross of Savoy, in conjunction with the constitutional king Charles Albert. The latter tendency prevailed after some wavering; in Milan and Venice the union with Piedmont was resolved upon. The princes of Parma and Modena who had allied themselves with Austria had to leave their states; even the grand duke of Tuscany, although giving way to the national and independent impulses, had to surrender his land to democrats and republicans for a short time. The pope also agreed to a constitution and appointed a lay ministry with advanced views; nevertheless the government and the body of popular representatives were to concern themselves only with the worldly and political matters of the papal state.» (HH, IX, p.593-594)
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Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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