§ 656. Fall of Sicily and Naples; Kingdom of Italy

19th century:
§656. Fall of Sicily and Naples; Kingdom of Italy (1859-1861): VIII-8.

VIII-8:
Near linterne within closed tuns,
Chivasso shall use a ruse because of the eagle,
The broken elite himself and his followers enclosed,
In Turin an abduction; a bride taken away.


(Pres de linterne dans de tonnes fermes,
Chivaz fera pour l’aigle la menee,
L’esleu cassé luy ses gens enfermez,
Dedans Turin rapt espouse emmenee.)

Keys to the reading:
The construction, being dislocated, is to be remade as follows: “Chivasso shall use a ruse near linterne, The broken elite himself and his followers enclosed within closed tuns”.

linterne: = Linterne or Literne, Lat. Liternum, on the south border of the lake Lago di Pátria in Campagna (GeoCenter, Euro Atlas Italy, p.70, Pa103);

Near linterne: In the kingdom of Naples;

Chivasso: Represnts the kingdom of Sardinia as one of her cities;

The eagle: The emperor Napoleon III (as is Napoleon I in §413,III-37);

The elite: King Francis II of Naples, “elite” being “a constitutional king” (cf. §352,IX-20; §366,VIII-87);

An abduction, a bride taken away: A figure of expressing a marriage of covenience.

Summary:
Chivasso shall use a ruse Near linterne: « Garibaldi drives the Bourbons from Sicily: With the Peace of Zurich and the “annexation” that followed closed the first act in the drama of Italy's freedom. The way had been paved thereto by the conviction that had gained ground among the cultivated classes since 1848 that only by a union of the whole country under the constitutional monarchy of Sardinia could any stable and permanent national position be obtained. To accomplish this end all the revolutionary and nationalist forces made common cause, and chose as their scene of action the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, which had lately passed into the hands of Francis II, the inexperienced son of Ferdinand II. The French and Russian ambassadors had in vain endeavoured, after the Peace of Villafranca, to bring about an alliance between Naples and Piedmont, thinking thus to frustrate all the efforts of the revolutionists; but the policy of tradition, which persisted in placing trust in Austria, prevailed even with the new king. By his refusal to espouse the cause of Italian unity Francis II precipitated the fall of the Bourbon dynasty and the dissolution of the Neapolitan-SiciIian kingdom. The project of attacking a kingdom that had at its command a well-organised military force of 150,000 men was indeed a bold one; but tyranny had prepared the ground for the operations of the secret societies, and the indifference with which the warning of the French and Russian ambassadors were received, together with the dismissal of the Swiss mercenaries, robbed the throne of its strongest and most trustworthy support at the precise moment when Garibaldi and his associates had planned to strike a decisive blow.

On the 6th of May Garibaldi set sail with 1,062 volunteers from Genoa without suffering any hinderance from the Sardinian authorities, and on the 11th of May landed at Marsala, on the west coast of Sicily. To the protest of the king of Naples and of the German courts against the impunity allowed a band of “sea-robbers,” Turin made reply that since the expedition was a private enterprise undertaken by Garibalai and his associates, the Piedmontese authorities had no right to interfere. Before Garibaldi’s departure, however, Cavour had written to Persano: “We must support the revolution, but it must have all the appearance, in the eyes of Europe, a volunteer enterprise.” After Garibaldi had disembarked with his immediate followers he withdrew to the mountains and gathered about him, near Salemi, the scattered fragments of his volunteer corps. On the 14th of May, when the number of men had increased to 4,000 he issued a proclamatin in which, in the name of Victcor Emmanuel, king of Italy, he declared himself dictator over the realm of Sicily.

After several successful encounters Garibaldi pressed towards the capital by way of Misilmeri, keeping his confederates informed of his movements by means of watch-fire at night. On the 27th of May he stood before Palermo and immediately gave the signal for attack. In a few hours the city, whose population had risen with one accord to support the invaders, had nearly passed into the hands of Garibaldi, when General Lanza, who had been despatched to the island by the young king with an important force, caused the city to be so heavily bombarded by the citadel and ships of war in the harbour, that the next day more than half of it lay in ruins. By the intermediary of the English admiral a truce was arranged which ended with the withdrawal of the Neapolitan troops and ships, and the delivering over the city to the revolutionists. Almost incalculable were the effects of these events in Palermo. By them the monarchy was shaken to its base and the name of Garibaldi carried into every corner of the world. At the court of Naples confidence was totally destroyed. In vain the king sought to prop his tottering throne by restoring the constitution of 1848 [the broken elite].

Six weeks after the victory at Palermo the “dictator” Garibaldi set sail for Messina without having fulfilled the expectations of Turin that he would announce the annexation of Sicily to Sardinia. In three days he took the fortress of Milazzo, and shortly after the commander of Messina effected a truce by the terms of which the city, with the exception of the citadel, was to be evacuated by the Neapolitan troops. Europe learned with astonishment of the first rapid successes of the great agitator, but his exploits on the mainland were to excite still greater wonder. His further progress through the southern part of the peninsula was one long triumph; nowhere was resolute opposition offered him. On the 5th of Sepember he arrived at Eboli, not far from Salerno. The very name of Garibaldi exercised a potent spell over the people; to them he appeared as the instrument of God on earth, the discharger of a providential mission. On the 6th of September Francis II left Naples and withdrew, with the 40,000 men who still remained to him, to the fortresses of Gaeta and Capua. The day following Garibaldi made his formal entrance into Naples in the midst of the acclamations of the people. He established a provisory government, but still deferred sending news of annexation to Piedmont. The leaders of the radical parties had filled the popular demi-god with distrust against the policy of Cavour and it was not until he was joined by Pallavicino, the martyr of Spielberg, that he again made common cause with the unionists. The foreign powers preserved a strictly neutral attitude throughout, and Napoleon's efforts to effect the united intervention of France and England failed before the determined resistance of Palmerston and Russell. While these events were in progress the excitement of the Italian people reached fever-heat. The fall of the Bourbon dynasty in Naples, which was now seen to be imminent, would make the union of the Apennine peninsula under the sceptre of Victor Emmanuel almost an accomplished fact. The boast of Garibaldi that from the Quirinal itself, its national capital, he would announce the birth of the United Italian kingdom, found an echo in the hearts of the people who made it apparent in every way that they would be satisfied with no less a victory.» (HH, IX, p.607-609)

Because of the eagle: « But the papal government at Rome opposed threats of excommunication to effort of the French emperor towards reform, and a cry of horror arose from the devout all over Europe at the danger to which religion would be exposed should there be any further encroachments upon the temporal power of the pope. There were thus but two ways left open to Napoleon; either to allow the Italian revolution to have free play, in which case Garibaldi would without doubt make an end of the temporal supremacy of the pope and select Rome as the capital of the Italian kingdom, or to permit an alliance between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel whereby a natural limit would be placed to the revolution, and the danger that Mazzini and the “Action” party might gain the upper hand would be removed. Napoleon chose the latter course. There is little doubt of his having sent word to the king that the latter might add Umbria and the Marches to his realm, and send his forces to occupy Naples provided he would leave Rome to the occupation of the French.» (HH, IX, p.609)

Chivasso shall use a ruse because of the eagle Near linterne: « However this may be, in the early days of September two divisions of the Sardinian army, under the minister of war Fanti and General Cialdini, drew near the border of the papal states. The entrance of the Piedmontese troops was the signal for a general uprising of the people. In Pesaro, Montefeltre, Sinigaglia, and Urbino provisory governments were established, and deputations were sent to Turin. The Sardinian field-marshal laid before General Lamoricière and the papal court the demand that the people should be allowed to follow their will in all the papal states; this being rejected with indignation General Fanti advanced into Umbria, while Cialdini proceeded to the occupation of the Marches. On both sides great bravery was shown, but the papal troops were finally defeated and put to rout. Lamoricière fled with only a handful of followers, to Ancona which was obliged to surrender, after having been besieged by Cialdini on the land side and by the Sardinian admiral Persano from the sea. A few days later Victor Emmanuel arrived in Ancona and assumed command in person of all his forces. The intention of the king in taking over the command of the army had been to effect, in conjunction with Garibaldi, the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. The attempt on the part of the volunteers to press forward as far as Capua had been balked by their defeat at Cajazzo. Although the open and straightforward revolutionist leader had little liking for Cavour, the man of devious ways and unidealistic views, he felt himself drawn by many common qualities towards the king in whom he beheld the “liberator” of Italy. Thus it was not difficult for his friend Pallavicino to induce him to adopt for his watchword, “ One undivided Italy under the sceptre of the house of Savoy.” When Victor Emmanuel took up his position at the head of the united troops in Sessia, Garibaldi laid at his feet the dictatorship of Naples, and transferred to him the mission of making Italy free and giving her a place among the nations of the earth. “ I am ready to obey you. Sire,” he said; then, after riding into Naples at the side of the king and commending his followers to the monarch's favour and protection, he retired to a small property he possessed on the lonely island of Capri, refusing all honours and rewards. This was the greatest moment in the agitated life of the Italian patriot, the one in which he achieved the conquest of himself. From now on, the war operations assumed a more definite character. After the capture of Capua by the Piedmontese and Garibaldians, King Francis, with the remnant of his best troops, was driven into the fort in Gaeta [within closed tuns], while Victor Emmanuel, after a visit to Palermo, took possession of the double kingdom of Sicily and disbanded the Garibaldian troops, dismissing some of them to their homes and taking others into the Sardinian army. Gaeta had not become the last bulwark of the kingdom of Naples and the Bourbon dynasty. The valorous defence of the seaport town, during which the unfortunate young queen Maria of Bavaria, displayed remarkable heroism, was afterward to constitute the one praiseworthy period in the short regency of Francis II. The appeals for help of the beleaguered Bourbon king to the different powers of Europe failing to bring about any armed intervention, and his manifestos addressed to the Sicilian people resulting in no uprisings in his favour, lack of food and ammunition finally compelled the king to capitulate. On the 13th of February, 1861, he embarked on a French ship for Rome where he resided for the next ten years, constantly supported by the hope that his partisans in Naples would bring about a counter-revolution which would reinstate him on the throne. The following month the citadel of Messina also surrendered to General Cialdini. With this event the kingdom of both Sicilies came to an end, and the supremacy of the Bourbons was forever destroyed in the beautiful peninsula. On the 18th of February, King Victor Emmanuel assembled in Turin about his throne representatives from all those states which acknowleged his rule, and with their joyful acquiescence adopted for himself and his legitimate descendants the title of “ king of Italy.”(Law of March 17th 1861.) The protests of the dethroned princes as well as of the pope and the emperor of Austria were received as so many empty words.

In this manner the impossible had been accomplished; the various states of Italy with the exception of Austrian Venice in the northwest and the papal city of Rome with its surroundings, had been united into a single kingdom. Cavour's statecraft, Victor Emmanuel’s firmness and decision, Garibaldi's patriot devotion, the political tact shown by the educated classes, had all contributed to bring about the wonderful result; and now that it had been brought about, equally powerful factors would be needed to make permanent the newly acquired possessions of freedom and unity. A safe and satisfactory solution of the “ Roman question “ could be attained only by gradually accustoming the Catholic world to the idea of the separation of the spiritual power from the temporal. According to Cavour’s idea the papacy should be relieved from all obligations of worldly rule that it might the better achieve the full glory of its special mission — the spiritual guidance of Catholic Christendom. “ A free church is a free state,” was the watchword of the question as understood by Cavour; but an offer which he made to the pope embodying those conditions was indignantly refused; it would be indeed a work of time to reconcile the Catholic world to the idea of a church without territorial possessions.» (HH, IX, p.609-611)

The broken elite himself and his followers enclosed within closed tuns: « L’ami de la Religion (February 25, 1861) The casemate where the unfortunate Francis II and his courageous spouse dwelled was composed of a series of vaults like the cells of a convent. It was situated on the line of defences, on the marine side. All being in amphitheatre, immense beams were placed upon all the openings in order to parry the burst of projectiles.» (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.124)

In Turin an abduction; a bride taken away: « [January 21, 1859] It was further proposed that the bond between the two reigning houses should be made still firmer by the betrothal of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte with Clotilde, the daughter of Victor Emmanuel. According to Bulle, Cavour had higher plans for Clotilde's marriage, but yielded for diplomacy's sake.» (HH, IX, p.603)

Discussion:
J.-Ch. de Fontbrune (1999, p.39) paraphrases this quatrain as follows: “When peoples were enclosed in the fortifications near Linternum (Naples), after Chivasso, the Eagle shall made his intrigue (coup d’Etat of Brumaire 18). The elite of the Chuch (Pius VI) shall be destituted, taken away and brought to Turin and his followers (cardinals) imprisoned.” But this interpretation does not match the construction and the terms of the quatrain. First, it is not the Eagle, but Chivasso that shall make its intrigue for the eagle, and this intrigue does not seem to take place in France, but in Italy. Moreover, there is no mention of “After Chivasso”, nor of the “peoples enclosed in the fortifications” in the poem, because he preferred to identify the term “ses gens enfermez (his peoples enclosed)” as “the cardinals (of Pius VI) imprisoned”. In fact, the cardinals are not to be mentioned historically and in Nostradamus, too, as “ses gens (his peoples, the peoples of a Pope)”. Finally, he neglects the term “fermes (closed)” of “de tonnes fermes (closed tuns)”, which does not mean “enfermez (imprisoned)”, but “shut, closed (window, gate)” (Dubois), just as “immense beams were placed upon all the openings in order to parry the burst of projectiles.» (Torné-Chavigny, id.)”. And only one critique of the interpretation of this qautrain by R. Pévost (1999, p.237) is sufficient to destroy all its validity, because his pretention of the event “the kidnapping of Doña Maria in Gaeta by Barberousse” does not match the text: “In Turin an abduction; a bride taken away”, which is perfectly fitting to our analysis, Turin having the royal court of Sardinia, the residence of Princess Clotilde.
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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2012. All rights reserved.
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Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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