§662 - §666.

19th century: §662 - §666.

 

§662. Count of Cavour, Italian unionist, born in a French dominion (1810-1861): VIII-33.

 

VIII-33:
The great of Verona and Vincenza shall be born,

Who shall bear an unworthy surname:

Who will take vengeance on Venice,

Himself taken away a man of vigilance and miracle.   

 

(Le grand naistra de Veronne & Vincence,

Qui portera un surnom bien indigne

Qui à Venise vouldra faire vengeance,

Luy mesme prins homme du guet & signe.)

 

Notes:

Vincence: = Vincenza = Vicenza. Now, the orthographic anomaly Vincence could suggest the Latin vincere (vaincre, to conquer) and at the same time « the N added to Vicenza could reinforce the identification with Napoleon...» (Guinard, 2011, p.62).

 

The great of Verona and Vincenza shall be born: The Count of Cavour Camillo Benso shall be born in Turin in French Empire, and he shall give birth to the kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel unifying the kingdom of Sardinia with other Italian states, such as Tuscany, Naples, the papal states and Venetia containing Verona and Vicenza which shall be also under Napoleonic reign when he shall be born. In fact, Cavour was born in 1810 in the French Empire, and Verona and Vicenza was then in the kingdom of Italy founded in 1805 and governed by Napoleon himself. Cf. §661, I-6: The two of

 

Bresse: The two representatives of Risorgimento, Cavour (1810-1861) and Garibaldi (1807-1882), both having been born in a region [symbolized by Bresse (Ain) (French since 1601)] of the French Empire (1804-1815) under Napoleon Bonaparte: the former in Turin (French since 1802), the latter in Nice (French since 1793);

 

Who shall bear an unworthy surname: Camillo Benso shall not be worthy of his title the count of Cavour, for his hometown (Cavour) and his home country (Piedmont) shall have been incorporated in France under Napoleon Bonaparte since 1802;

 

Who will take vengeance on Venice: Cf. §660, VIII-31: Inside Venice he [the prince of Pesquiere = Francis Joseph] shall lose his proud glory And be put to trouble by a more joyful Celin: « After the brilliant affair of Montebello, which defeated an attempted surprise on the part of the Austrians, the Franco-Piedmontese army concentrated round Alessandria; then by a bold and skilful movement turned the right of the Austrians, who had already passed the Ticino, and compelled them to recross that river. Caught between the army corps of General MacMahon and the guard at Magenta, the Austrians lost 7,000 killed or wounded and 8,000 prisoners (June 4th [1859]).

Two days later the French regiments entered Milan. The enemy, astounded at so rude a shock, abandoned his first line of defence, where, however, he had long been accumulating powerful means of action and resistance. He retired on the Adda, after vainly making a momentary stand at the already famous town of Marignano and on the Mincio, behind the illustrious plains of Castiglione and between the two fortresses of Peschiera and Mantua; then he took up his position, backed by the great city of Verona as an impregnable base. The emperor of Austria, with a new general and considerable reinforcements, had arrived there to await the French army. The Austrians had long studied this battlefield; there were 160,000 of them ranged on the heights with their centre at the village and tower of Solferino, and ready to descend on the French in the plain. Napoleon III had scarcely 140,000 men available, and was obliged to fight on a line extending over five leagues. Whilst the right wing was struggling against the enemy in the plain in order to prevent itself from being turned, and King Victor Emmanuel with his Piedmontese was bravely resisting on the left, the centre delivered a vigorous attack, and after a heroic struggle successively carried Mount Fenile, the mount of the cypresses, and finally the village of Solferino.

The enemy's line was broken; his reserves, before they could come into action, were attained by the balls from the new rifled cannon of the French. All fled in frightful confusion; but a fearful storm, accompanied by hail and torrents of rain, stopped the victors and permitted the Austrians to recross the Mincio; they left twenty-five thousand men put out of action. In the evening the emperor Napoleon took up his headquarters in the very room which Francis Joseph had occupied in the morning (June 24th). Twice a conqueror, the emperor suddenly offered peace to his enemy. Italy was freed, although a portion of Italian territory, namely Venetia, still remained in the hands of Austria.» (HH, XIII, p.136);

 

Himself taken away: « The death of Cavour. Such being the condition of affairs the seditious utterances of a band of agitators calling themselves "Italians of the Italians" caused Cavour no little trouble and annoyance. Garibaldi himself, who had passed the greater part of his life in arms against monarchical power, and who in bis idealism and self-sacrificing love of freedom and country was incapable of seeing existing conditions exactly as they were, was not a stranger to some of these new revolutionary movements. On the 20th of April, 1861, he appeared in the Turin parliament to condemn the action taken in disbandtng his army of volunteers, and to protest against the treatment accorded some of his former comrades-at-arms. He was finally pacified and induced to return to his lonely island life by the persuasive representations of Cavour.

Shortly afterward, June 6th, 1861, occurred the death of Count Cavour, the greatest statesman the world had seen since Cardinal Richelieu. He was but fifty-one years of age, and his untimely end was undoubtedly brought about by overwork and the feverish anxiety in which his later years were passed. “ For twelve years,” he declared, “ I have been a conspirator in the cause of my country's freedom — a most unique conspirator; I have avowed my aim in parliament and in every court of Europe, and now at the last I have for fellow conspirators twenty-five millions of Italians.” His life-work had not quite reached completion, his last idea was little more than the vision of a dream; but he had at last the satisfaction of seeing his own creation, the young kingdom of Italy, advancing on the road to maturity.

The highest praise that can be given to Count Cavour was made by a great statesman whose name was not less celebrated than that of the great minister, Lord Palmerston. "The name of Cavour," he said before the British parliament, " will always live, and will be embalmed in the memory, in the gratitude, and in the admiration of the human race. The story of which he is the ornament is truly wonderful, and the most romantic in the annals of the world. We have seen a people under his direction and authority wake up from the sleep of two centuries."» (HH, IX, p.611-612);

 

A man of vigilance and miracle: = §660,VIII-31: A very cruel & malign one: Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour (1810-1861), malign in Nostradamus being « the chacacter of a man of ruse and fineness, an intelligent» (Petit Robert), i.e., a statesman. « Cavour, the man of devious ways and unidealistic views » (HH, IX, p.610) « Cavour was born in the midst of that stiff aristocraticul society of old Piedmont which has been described so vividly by D'Azeglio in his Ricordi. The Piedmontese nobles had the virtues and the defects of English country squires in the last century. Loyal, truthful, brave, hard-headed, tough in resistance, obstinately prejudiced, they made excellent soldiers, and were devoted servants of the crown.

Moreover, they hid beneath their stolid exterior greater political capacity than the more genial and brilliant inhabitants of southern and central Italy.


Cavour
came of this race and understood it. But he was a man of exceptional quality. He had the genius of statesmanship — a practical sense of what could be done, combined with rare dexterity in doing it, fine diplomatic and parliamentary tact, and noble courage in the hour of need. Without the enthusiasm, amounting to the passion of a new religion, which Mazzini inspired, without Garibaldi’s brilliant achievements, and the idolatry excited by this pure-hearted hero in the breasts of all who fought with him and felt his sacred fire, there is little doubt that Cavour would not have found the creation of United Italy possible.

But if Cavour had not been there to win the confidence, support, and sympathy of Europe, if he had not been recognised by the body of the nation as a man whose work was solid and whose sense was just in all emergencies, Mazzini's efforts would have run to waste in questionable insurrections, and Garibaldi's feats of arms must have added but one chapter more to the history of unproductive patriotism. While, therefore, we recognise the part played by each of these great men in the liberation of their country, and while we willingly ignore their differences and disputes, it is Cavour whom we must honour with the title of the maker of United Italy.» (HH, IX, p.590-591);

 

§663. The comet Tebbutt and the death of Count Cavour (1861.5-6): II-15.

 

II-15: 
Shortly beforehand the monarch massacred ?

Castor Pollux into a vessel, a star with mane.

The public treasury by land and sea voided,

Pisa, Asti, Ferrara, Turin, the intredicted land.   

 

(Un peu devant monarque trucidé ?

Castor Pollux en nef, astre crinite.

L'erain publiq par terre & mer vuidé

Pise, Ast, Ferrare, Turin, terre interdicte.)  

 

Notes:

Shortly beforehand the monarch massacred ?: This, having the unique example of the question mark in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, may be an ellipsis of “ Shortly beforehand was the monarch massacred ? ” and one may have the question about the king of Italy Victor Emmanuel (1820 – 1878) when he observes an ill-fated comet mentioned in the line 2. But, if one considers the Count of Cavour as the monarchical leader of Italian unity, this prophecy comes true because Cavour is to be dead June 6, 1861, just before the appearing of the comet Tebbutt in the European sky on the day of Saint Peter, June 29, 1861;

 

Pisa, Asti, Ferrara, Turin, the intredicted land: This line is to determine the epoch of the quatrain, for the happening of the sort seems to be very rare. When did the pope interdict the land of Pisa [Tuscany], Asti [Sardinia], Ferrara [Roman legation] and Turin [Sardinia]? « At last in March, 1860, the popular vote was obtained which gave Savoy and Nice to France and made Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Roman legations a part of the kingdom of Sardinia. The pope excommunicated all who had taken part or even connived at this despoliation of Rome [March 28,1860]; but the papal bull, once so formidable a weapon, had in the course of time lost most of its early terrors. » (HH, IX, p.607); 

 

Castor Pollux into a vessel: A vessel being able to mean the Roman Church, this sentence may express that the being like the Gemini (Castor and Pollux) invades the papal estate. « The Papacy vs. Unity  We have seen how, before the battle of Solferino, Modena and Parma as well as Tuscany had declared in favour of union with Piedmont. After the Peace of Villafranca the states south of the Po united under Graribaldi in military league which had for object the repulsion of all attacks from without and the hindrance of all attempts at restoration on the part of the particularists and reactionists within. Even Bologna and a great part of the Romagna withdrew from the pontifical state and petitioned Victor Emmanuel to take them under his protection. This request was not refused however hot might be the wrath of the holy father.

Under the leadership of D'Azeglio the necessary steps toward union with Sardinia were taken throughout Romagna, and by New Year of 1860, a specially established ministry deliberated on the affairs of the new-fledged state of middle Italy, to which was given the name of Emilia, from the old Via Æmilia of Rome. Neither the curses of the Vatican nor the wrath of the ultramontanes all over Europe could retard in the least degree the march of events. Although the confederation decided upon at Villafranca and Zurich was never made a fact, owing to the disinclination of Austria and the pope to institute the necessary reform; the neutral attitude maintained by England and France yet materially assisted Italy to realise her dream of national unity.

Towards the end of 1859 a pamphlet published in Paris entitled Pope and Congress first startled the world with the thought that it was time the temporal power of the pope should cease, that his rule ought hereafter to be confined to the precincts of Rome itself. This naturally threw the whole Catholic world in an uproar: and elicited from the pope repeated violent denunciations, yet in the course of time the idea became an accomplished fact. Napoleon had never forgotten that the holy father had refused him consecration at the time of his coronation. The union of the middle Italian states with Sardinia was the forerunner of all those “annexations” which was soon to transform completely the character of the peninsula. Napoleon was willing to permit the expansion of the upper Italian kingdom provided Savoy and the countship of Nice be ceded to France.

From the time of Cavour's resumption of his place in the ministry in January, Napoleon and the crafty minister exerted every art known to diplomacy to bring about the end they had in view.» (HH, IX, p.606-607) According to the meaningful syllables of terms, Ca- of Castor and Pol- of Pollux may concern Cavour and Napoleon respectively. As to another example of Castor & Pollux of the quatrain II-90, cf. Ionescu, 1976, p.643;

 

A star with mane. The public treasury by land and sea voided: « The comet called Saint Peter, because it appeared all of a sudden on the day of the Saint [June 29, 1861], was seen in the constellation of the Gemini; the Piedmontese Parliament voted then a borrowing of 500 millions, the public treasury having been emptied by the armaments of land and sea.» (Vignois, 1910, p.264);

 

Discussion:
Vignois says that the comet Tebbutt (C/1861 J1) was seen in the constellation of Gemini, but this is wrong, for it was first seen in the constellation of Eridanus and then it moved towards the north celestial pole and traced the route to ο of the Great Bear, then to α Draconis, which excludes its passing of the Gemini. « John Tebbutt found his first comet just before his twenty-seventh birthday, and was to prove to make him as a local and international household name. This was the discovery of the Great Comet Tebbutt 1861 II (C/1861 J1) as a small inconspicuous haze in the southern constellation of Eridanus.

Using the small 4.1cm telescope on the evening of 13
th May 1861, he found the nebulous object while sweeping the skies just after sunset for comets – much as amateur astronomers do today.» (James, 2013) « By early July, this great comet had been lost to the southern skies, and rapidly moved towards the north celestial pole. Here the great northern observatories continued observations.» (James,id.);

« Sir J. Herschel observed it in Kent. He says: - “ The comet, which was first noticed here on Saturday night, June 29, by a resident in the village of Hawkhurst, became conspicuously visible on the 30
th, when I first observed it. It then far exceeded in brightness any comet I have before observed, those of 1811 and the recent splendid one of 1858 not excepted. Its total light certainly far surpassed that of any fixed star or planet, except perhaps Venus at its maximum. The tail extended from its then position, about 8 or 10° above the horizon, to within 10 or 12° of the Pole-star, and therefore about 30° in length. Its greatest breadth, which diminished rapidly in receding from the head, might be about 5°... On the 2nd (Tuesday), being now much better situated for observation, and the night being clear, its appearance at midnight was truly magnificent. The tail, considerably diminished in breadth, had shot out to an extravagant length, extending from the place of the head above ο of the Great Bear at least to π and ρ Herculis; that is to say, about 72°, and perhaps somewhat further. It exhibited no bifurcation or lateral offsets, and no curvature like that of the comet of 1858, but appeared rather as a narrow prolongation of the northern side of the broader portion near the comet rather than as a thinning off of the latter along a central axis, thus imparting an unsymmetrical aspect to the whole phenomenon... On the 4th (Thursday) the tail (preserving all the characters already described on the 2nd), passed through α Draconis and τ Herculis, and was traceable, though with difficulty, almost up to α Ophiuchi, giving a total length of 80°.”» (Chambers, 1867, p.288-291) The head of this comet was observed and drawn near Capella, about 15° E of it [about 30° NW of Castor], on June 30 (Chambers, id., p.289, Fig.95).  

 

§664. Revolt of October in Greece (1862.10.23): IX-62.

 

IX-62:
To the great of Keramon agora

Shall be the crossed by force all attached,

The pertinacious opium, and mandragora,

The revolt of October the third estate shall be released.   

 

(Au grand de Cheramon agora

Seront croisez par ranc tous attachez,

Le pertinax Oppi, & mandragora,

Raugon d'Octobre le tiers seront laschez.)  

 

Notes:

Keramon agora: Κεραμών ἀγορά (Keramōn agora), Ceramœum forum, ville de Mysie (a city in Mysia, Asia Minor) (Pillon);

 

The great of Keramon agora: The sovereign that rules Asia Minor containing the city, i.e. the Ottoman sultan;

 

The crossed: The Christians in the Ottoman Empire;

 

Ranc: Violence, force (Violence, force) (Godefroy); 1° Rang (Rank), 2° Violence, force (Violence, force) (Daele);

 

Pertinax: = Pertinace, adj. opiniâtre, obstiné (Stubborn, obstinate) (Godefroy);

 

Oppi, & mandragora: Opium and mandrake;

 

The pertinacious opium, and mandragora: = [The crossed shall be attached to the sultan] also by the pertinacious opium, and mandragora: = [By force and also] by means of their way of living as Christians acknowledged and cherished for a long course of time in the Ottoman Empire;

 

Raugon: From Ῥωγή (Rōgē), déchirure, fente, crevasse (Tear, crack, crevasse) (Bailly). Cf. Vignois, 1910, p.266;

 

Le tiers: « a part of his subjects, or the people» (Vignois, id.);

 

The revolt of October the third estate shall be released: «On March 22nd, 1829, it was decided by the three powers [Russia, France and England] that Greece should form a hereditary monarchy; that it should reach to the bays of Ceuta and Vola on the north, but that it should be tributary to Turkey. On February 3rd, 1830, these measures were altered in order to make Greece wholly independent and free from tribute; its boundaries on the north were considerably limited, and Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was named prince. But the prince, who saw that with such narrow boundaries he would have to begin his rule by recovering from the Porte by force of arms the remaining Greek provinces, declined the proffered crown. To whom was this more acceptable than to Capo d’Istria ? But his days were numbered. On October 9th, 1831, he was murdered on his way to church by George Mauromichales, a member of the Mainote family of patriots towards whom Capo d’Istria had behaved in a high-handed manner. His brother was at once appointed ruler by the senate, but he was obliged to abdicate on April 9th, 1832. The conference of London then chose Prince Otto of Bavaria to be king of Greece.


On January 30th, 1833, King Otto landed in Nauplia. Since he was not yet of age a regency of three persons was appointed; three thousand five hundred Bavarian soldiers were to keep order until a national army was created. On December 25th, 1833, the seat of government was transferred from Nauplia to Athens, which was now little more than a heap of ruins, but it soon received a university, and in a short time became one of the most important ports in the Orient. King Otto, who had assumed the reins of government upon July 1st, 1835, and in the following year had married Princess Amalie of Oldenburg, first had Armansperg, and then von Rudhardt, as his prime minister. After the latter had been dismissed in 1837 in consequence of a conflict with the English ambassador Lyons, who accused him of friendship for Russia, only Greeks were received into the ministry; but the harmony was no greater. On September 15th, 1843, a military revolt compelled the king, who made no objection, to give Greece a representative assembly. But even this could not remove the dissatisfaction of the people, who dreamed of a Byzantine Empire.


There was intense excitement in Greece over the Crimean war. Hatred against the old oppressors was aroused; the narrowness of the northern boundary was more keenly felt; the moment seemed to have come to expand; there was talk even of a renewal of the Byzantine Empire. To dampen these warlike desires the Western powers sent a few ships into the Piræus; French troops landed and compelled the government with their aid to keep revolutionary tendencies in check. Besides a few sorties of plundering Klephts in Thessaly and Epirus, nothing of importance transpired. The lack of energy, however, on the part of King Otto gave great offence to the Hellenic people, and there began to be talk regarding the appointment of a new monarch.


The Peace of Paris, which guaranteed its old boundaries to Turkey, gave great dissatisfaction to Greece. From that time on King Otto was in a difficult position. In February, 1862, a military revolt broke out in Nauplia, which was mildly suppressed by Otto. But while the king with his wife was visiting Morea in October, the cities of Vonitsa, Patræ, and Athens arose against him; a provisory government was established which demanded the abdication of Otto. Upon hearing of this rebellion the royal pair returned to the Piræus on October 23rd, but were not allowed to land; they went back to Salamis and embarked there upon an English ship, which took them to Trieste, whence they went home.

The Greeks then chose Prince Alfred, the second son of the queen of England, to be their king, but the English cabinet declined this honour. On March 30th, 1863, they chose Prince George of Glücksburg, whose father had been destined by the London protocol to be King of Denmark. The young George landed at the Piræus on October 30th. He had made the union of the Ionian Islands with Greece a condition of his acceptance. England acquiesced in this, and the Greek nation regarded it as a favourable augury that the new king brought this inheritance as a dowry, and hoped that he would meet the national desires in regard to Turkey. This hope was confirmed in 1866 when King George openly took sides with the Cretans in their revolt against Turkey and did not hinder the departure of volunteers for Crete.» (HH, XXIV, p.234-236);

 

§665. Napoleon III, Garibaldi and Leopold (1859-1862): V-20.

 

V-20:
Beyond the Alps the grand army shall pass,

Shortly beforehand a roguish monster shall be born:

He shall be prodigious and suddenly turn,

The great of Tuscany in his place in the close proximity.   

 

(Dela les Alpes grand armée passera,

Un peu devant naistra monstre vapin:

Prodigieux & subit tornera,

Le grand Tosquan à son lieu plus propin.)   

 

Notes:

Beyond the Alps the grand army shall pass: « In 1859, under the reign of Napoleon III, a grand army of France shall pass the Alps.» (Le Pelletier, I, p.293-294);

 

A roguish monster: = Garibaldi. Of 13 examples of the term ‘monster’ in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, those 3 qualified by «hideux (hideous)» seem to indicate respectively the prince of Condé (§61, III-41), Henry of Navarre (§142, I-90) and the duke of Mayenne (§228, I-80). Moreover, «monster of Lauragues» (§123, X-5) can represent once more Henry of Navarre, «Lauragues» (the Lauraguais) being limitrophe of the county of Foix, his home country. The other 9 examples of «monster» seem also represent the powers, reigns, parties or persons gifted with a quality of prodigy: the revolutionary government of the Mountaineers (§372, III-34), Napoleon Bonaparte (§471, II-32), Garibaldi (§638,V-88; §665, V-20), The double gouvernement in Rome at the epoch of Italian unification (§637, IX-3), the organization of International (§713, VI-44), the reign of Franco (§781, VI-19), the military government of the Japanese Empire (§869, II-70) and the modern colonialiste powers (§861, X-98). Cf. Le Pelletier, I, p.294, note1;                                         ;

 

He shall be prodigious: « On the 6th of May [1860] Garibaldi set sail with 1,062 volunteers from Genoa without suffering any hinderance from the Sardinian authorities, and on the 11th of May landed at Marsala, on the west coast of Sicily... Six weeks after the victory at Palermo the “dictator” Garibaldi set sail for Messina without having fulfilled the expectations of Turin that he would announce the annexation of Sicily to Sardinia. In three days he took the fortress of Milazzo, and shortly after the commander of Messina effected a truce by the terms of which the city, with the exception of the citadel, was to be evacuated by the Neapolitan troops. Europe learned with astonishment of the first rapid successes of the great agitator, but his exploits on the mainland were to excite still greater wonder. His further progress through the southern part of the peninsula was one long triumph; nowhere was resolute opposition offered him.

On the 5th of Sepember he arrived at Eboli, not far from Salerno. The very name of Garibaldi exercised a potent spell over the people; to them he appeared as the instrument of God on earth, the discharger of a providential mission. On the 6th of September Francis II left Naples and withdrew, with the 40,000 men who still remained to him, to the fortresses of Gaeta and Capua. The day following Garibaldi made his formal entrance into Naples in the midst of the acclamations of the people. He established a provisory government, but still deferred sending news of annexation to Piedmont. The leaders of the radical parties had filled the popular demi-god with distrust against the policy of Cavour and it was not until he was joined by Pallavicino, the martyr of Spielberg, that he again made common cause with the unionists.

The foreign powers preserved a strictly neutral attitude throughout, and Napoleon's efforts to effect the united intervention of France and England failed before the determined resistance of Palmerston and Russell. While these events were in progress the excitement of the Italian people reached fever-heat. The fall of the Bourbon dynasty in Naples, which was now seen to be imminent, would make the union of the Apennine peninsula under the sceptre of Victor Emmanuel almost an accomplished fact. The boast of Garibaldi that from the Quirinal itself, its national capital, he would announce the birth of the United Italian kingdom, found an echo in the hearts of the people who made it apparent in every way that they would be satisfied with no less a victory.» (HH, IX, p.607-609)


« It behoved Cavour's successor, Ricasoli, to follow closely in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor and confine his attention to the interior up-building of the state. He repeated Cavour's attempt to negotiate with Rome for the establishment of a free church in a free state, but the Florentine statesman was looked upon as almost a foreigner by the papal advisers, and France unqualifiedly rejected the intervention he proposed. He resigned his office in March, 1862, whereupon Rattazzi was appointed head of the ministry.

The first official acts of the new minister were to take back into the army Garibaldi's former volunteers, and to proclaim that the parliamentary decree of March 27th, 1861, which designated Rome as the future capital of the kingdom, must be carried out. Garibaldi being summoned from his island to assume the lead in all these undertakings the “ Action ” party were again fired with revolutionary ardour. Not only Rome and Venice were to be conquered, but all the Italian-speaking populations of the Tyrol and the other side of Adria were to be united under the banner of the new kingdom.» (HH, IX, p.612);

 

Torner: = Tourner (to turn), faire tourner (to make turn), contourner (to evade), changer, faire passer d’une manière d’être à une manière d’être opposée (to change, to make pass from a manner of being to its opposite manner of being), retourner (to return) (Daele);

 

And suddenly turn [into the opposite situation]: « Soon the tide of agitation swelled so high that the administration saw itself obliged to take strong measures to protect the country from a general war. Among the most turbulent leaders who were taken prisoners were many friends and followers of Garibaldi. It was a misfortune for Italy that no regular sphere of activity was offered this devoted patriot in the interior administration of his country, where his high and noble qualities might have been utilised without much power of initiative being left to his defective political sense. He determined now to repeat against Rome the course of procedure that had succeeded with Naples two years ago.

He set sail from Genoa and landed at Palermo where a large force of armed volunteers crowded under his banner, thirsting to strike some decisive blow that would shake from Italy the last survival of foreign rule, and to win for the kingdom its natural capital. Inasmuch as a rumour was spreading abroad which might find credence in foreign countries that the administration was secretly shielding the undertaking, and as Napoleon himself had threatened to occupy Naples if the Turin cabinet did not at once take steps to crush the revolutionary movement, the king now issued a proclamation declaring all men traitors to the flag of Italy who overstepped the limits of the law and participated in any unwarrantable act of violence or aggression.

Nevertheless, Garibaldi persisted in his design which was to enter Rome as a conqueror or die within its walls. On the 24th of August he landed at Melito, and passing Reggio whose strong fortifications he did not venture to attack, advanced at once into the Calabrian mountains. Meanwhile, Greneral Cialdini had despatched a division of the main army under Colonel Pallavicini, in pursuit of the volunteers, and at Aspromonte a serious encounter took place. Garibaldi, wounded and taken prisoner, together with many of his followers, was brought back in a government steamer to Barignano, on the Gulf of Spezia, where he endured a long and painful malady.» (HH, IX, p.612-613);

 

The great of Tuscany in his place in the close proximity: « Count Stadion, sent out to reconnoitre with 12,000 men, came upon the French near Montebello May 20th, 1859, and was forced to retreat. The battle of Magenta followed, June 4th, in which the victory fell to the French. The bravery of the Austrians in this engagement, although they suffered from the greatest lack of necessary equipments, excited the admiration even of the enemy. Never did the defects of the Austrian administration become so glaringly apparent as during the campaign in Italy. Lombardy was the prize at stake in this battle of Magenta. Gyulay, incapable of rallying his scattered forces for a new attempt, immediately gave orders for a general retreat.

Milan was evacuated in the next two days so hastily that the movement bore the character of a flight, the fortifications around Pavia and Piacenza were blown up, and the army of occupation was recalled from all its garrisons. On the 8th of June, Napoleon, at the side of Victor Emmanuel, made a triumphal entry into Milan, where he addressed the people in high-sounding speeches, the Austrians, meanwhile, continuing their retreat as far as the Mincio, where they took up a new position in the middle of a quadrangle of fortifications, Peschiera, Verona, Mantua, and Legnago. The misfortunes that had befallen Austria confirmed and strengthened Sardinia in its ideal of Italian unity, and helped to bring about the fall of the lesser Italian sovereignties. In April the archduke Leopold of Tuscany had been forced to leave Florence and place himself under the protection of Austria.» (HH, IX, p.604) Cf. §650,VIII-7: A monarch shall fall low from high, when May begins.

 

Discussion:                                                                                                                                                                                                        Le Pelletier (I, p.293-294) successfully identified the three key persons, Napoleon III, Garibaldi and the archduke of Tuscany, but his interpretation of the lines 3-4 to the effect that Garibaldi made turn the archduke into exile does not fit the historical fact, which says that it is the alliance of the king of Sardinia and the emperor of France that did so (cf. HH, IX, p.603-604).

 

§666. Garibaldi in Aspromonte; September Convention (1862.8-9): VIII-6.

 

VIII-6:                                                                          
Conspicuous lightning-thunder in Lyon

Shining, took Malta, suddenly shall be extinguished,

Sardinia of Maurice shall treat him as deceitful,

Genefve in Londa, a fake betrayal by the cock.   

 

(Clarté fulgure à Lyon apparante

Luysant, print Malte subit sera estainte,

Sardon, Mauris traitera decepvante,

Genefve à Londes à coq trahyson fainte.)  

 

Notes:

Fulgure: s.f. Foudre (thunder), éclair (lightning) (Godefroy);   

 

Clarté fulgure: = Clarté-fulgure (lightning-thunder) = Garibaldi = monstre vapin (roguish monster) (§665,V-20);

 

Apparant(e): = Apparent(e) = Apparent, conspicuous;

 

In Lyon: = In Genoa whence Garibaldi embarked for Sicily, the king of Sardinia having his coat of arms figuring lions, transmitted to the king of unified Italy for the moment (cf. §42,VI-71). « He set sail from Genoa and landed at Palermo where a large force of armed volunteers crowded under his banner, thirsting to strike some decisive blow that would shake from Italy the last survival of foreign rule, and to win for the kingdom its natural capital.» (HH, IX, p.612);

 

Print: = prit (the past tense of prendre, to take), just as prins used as pris (the past participle of prendre) frequently in the Prophecies. Another example in the 16th century: «... le feu se print au bas logis, ...[the fire took place at the lower lodge]» (Paradin, 1573, p.311);   

 

Malte: For Melito [di Porto Salvo] (Torné-Chavigny, 1870, p.116-119). In fact, Μελίτη (Melitē), Malte in Greek, can signify Melito (cf. Bailly);     

 

Suddenly shall be extinguished: « Inasmuch as a rumour was spreading abroad which might find credence in foreign countries that the administration was secretly shielding the undertaking, and as Napoleon himself had threatened to occupy Naples if the Turin cabinet did not at once take steps to crush the revolutionary movement, the king now issued a proclamation declaring all men traitors to the flag of Italy who overstepped the limits of the law and participated in any unwarrantable act of violence or aggression. Nevertheless, Garibaldi persisted in his design which was to enter Rome as a conqueror or die within its walls. On the 24th of August he landed at Melito, and passing Reggio whose strong fortifications he did not venture to attack, advanced at once into the Calabrian mountains. Meanwhile, Greneral Cialdini had despatched a division of the main army under Colonel Pallavicini, in pursuit of the volunteers, and at Aspromonte a serious encounter took place. Garibaldi, wounded and taken prisoner, together with many of his followers, was brought back in a government steamer to Barignano, on the Gulf of Spezia, where he endured a long and painful malady(HH, IX, p.612-613);

 

Sardon: Sardinia, from Gk. Σαρδών, Sardōn, Sardinia (Pillon);

 

Mauris: = De saint morre (§652,VIII-12). Saint morre = saint Maurice, the martyred Christian general under Diocletian (†286A.D.), in whose memory was founded the famous order in Sardinia by Emmanuel-Philibert, duke of Savoy (Feller). ‘Morre’ is put to rhyme to ‘Buffalorre’;

 

Sardinia of Maurice shall treat him as deceitful: « The king now issued a proclamation declaring all men traitors to the flag of Italy who overstepped the limits of the law and participated in any unwarrantable act of violence or aggression.» (HH, IX, p.613);

 

Genefve: An enigma by its unique orthography suggesting Gênes + neuf or neuve (Genoa + new) = a new Genoa, i.e. a new capital of Italy, Florence, that is to substitute for a moment for Rome, the natural capital of Italy, to be again among the cities like Genoa that could not be capital of Sardinia against Turin. In fact, the orthography Genefve is unique against the others like Geneve (IV-9, IV-42, VII-4), Genesve (IX-44) and Genevois(e) (II-64, IV-59) or Genevoys (X-92);

 

Londes: = Londa, 30 km ENE of Florence, symbolizing Florence by metonymy (as a kind of sign signifying the other through their neighborhood). Torné-Chavigny considers Londes (unique in the Prophecies of Nostradamus) as Londres (London) (id.), but all the examples of London are Londres (I-26, II-16, II-51, II-68, IV-46, IV-89, VI-22, IX-49, X-66);

 

By the cock: The preposition à of à coq marking the cause or the agent of an effect (Ibuki);

 

The cock: = The Frenchman, a cock, gallus in Latin, sometimes means a French (un Gaulois, a Gallic);

 

A fake betrayal by the cock: Napoleon III [the cock] seems to have betrayed the Italian eager wish of ‘ Rome the Italian capital’ only to let effect its orderly realization in the near future, for he decided to withdraw the French troops from Rome. « After several fruitless attempts on the part of French diplomats to bring about some kind of an understanding between the pope and Victor Emmanuel, an agreement was entered into by France and Italy, according to which the royal residence was to be transferred from Turin to Florence, and the French troops of occupation were gradually to be withdrawn from Rome. With the pope it was agreed that no hindrance should be placed in the way of the organisation, by the papal authorities, of an army which should be sufficiently large to support the authority of the holy father and to preserve peace in the interior and on the borders, but not large enough to offer resistance to the army of the king.

The provisions of this “ September convention [1862] ” aroused great dissatisfaction in Turin. Let Rome be chosen as the national capital and no outcry would be raised, but why should the Piedmontese be expected to make a sacrifice in favour of Florence ? Sullen displeasure soon gave place to open protestations and street excesses. Instead of trying to put down the disturbance by mild measures the ministry made the mistake of using harsh ones. A great number of rioters were killed or wounded. The distress of the city, which had so long been loyal to himself and his house, pained the king deeply; and dissolving the present ministry he gave the formation of a new one into the hands of General Lamarmora, a Piedmontese by birth. Peace succeeded quickly upon this change, but the city was none the less obliged to undergo its fate. During the following month parliament decreed the transfer of the royal residence, and preparations were at once begun for moving the court and all the paraphernalia of government to the ancient city on the Arno.

On the morning of the 3rd of February, without notice or farewell, Victor Emmanuel left behind him his former capital and proceeded to Florence, where he was henceforth to have his abode. Anger was felt in Rome that France and Italy should have held a convention without seeking tho co-operation of the pope. The latter, to show how few concessions he was willing to make to modern ideas, shortly after astonished the world by publishing an Encyclica and Syllabus in which, in an array of maxims and admonitions, he condemned and cast aside as worthless all the attainments of modern times in the different fields of philosophy, science, and religion. These remarkable expressions of belief, revealing as they did a degree of enlightenment not far exceeding that of the Middle Ages, made plain to the world how hopeless would be any attempt to come to an understanding with the man who could frame them, and how unwilling and morally incapable he was of recognising the rights and necessities of present-day humanity.» (HH, IX, p.613-614)

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© Koji Nihei Daijyo, 2013. All rights reserved.

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Koji Nihei Daijyo

Author:Koji Nihei Daijyo
We have covered 143 quatrains (§588-§730) concerning the World Events in the 19th century after Napoleonic ages [1821-1900] in the Prophecies of Nostradamus, and 219 in the 20th [1901-2000] (§731-§949).

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